Nicholas Pairolero

Senior Research Economist

Nicholas A. Pairolero is a Senior Research Economist at the United States Patent and Trademark Office. His research interests include the economics of innovation, intellectual property, and applied microeconomics. Nick holds a B.B.A. in Economics and Mathematics from the University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, an M.A. in Economics from Indiana University Bloomington, and a Ph.D. in Economics from Indiana University Bloomington.


Selected publications

Using Intellectual Property Data to Measure Cross-border Knowledge Flows (with J. Dubbert, A. Giczy and A. Toole), Trade in Knowledge: Intellectual Property, Trade and Development in a Transformed Global Economy, 2022. Available at

Identifying Artificial Intelligence (AI) Invention: A Novel AI Patent Dataset (with A. Giczy and A. Toole), The Journal of Technology Transfer, 47(2), 2021. Available at

Examination incentives, learning, and patent office outcomes: The use of examiner’s amendments at the USPTO (with C. deGrazia and M. Teodorescu). Research Policy, 50(10), 2021. Available at:

Inventing AI: Tracing the Diffusion of Artificial Intelligence with US Patents (with A. Toole, A. Giczy, J. Forman, C. Pulliam, M. Such, K. Chaki, D. Orange, A. Thomas Homescu, J. Frumkin, YY. Chen, V. Gonzales, C. Hannon, S. Melnick, E. Nilsson, and B. Rifkin), USPTO IP Data Highlights, No. 5, 2020. Available at

The Promise of Machine Learning for Patent Landscaping (with A. Toole, J. Forman, and A. Giczy), Santa Clara High Tech. LJ, 36, p.433., 2020. Available at

Adjusting to Alice: USPTO Patent Examination Outcomes after Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank International (with A. Toole), USPTO IP Data Highlights, No. 3, 2020. Available at

Embracing Invention Similarity for the Measurement of Vertically Overlapping Claims (with C. deGrazia and J. Frumkin), Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 2019. Available at