Nicholas Pairolero


Nicholas A. Pairolero is an Economist at the United States Patent and Trademark Office. His research interests include the economics of innovation, intellectual property, and applied microeconomics. Nick holds a B.B.A. in Economics and Mathematics from the University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, an M.A. in Economics from Indiana University Bloomington, and a Ph.D. in Economics from Indiana University Bloomington.


Selected publications

Examination incentives, learning, and patent office outcomes: The use of examiner’s amendments at the USPTO (with C. deGrazia and M. Teodorescu). Research Policy, 50(10), 2021. Available at:

Inventing AI: Tracing the Diffusion of Artificial Intelligence with US Patents (with A. Toole, A. Giczy, J. Forman, C. Pulliam, M. Such, K. Chaki, D. Orange, A. Thomas Homescu, J. Frumkin, YY. Chen, V. Gonzales, C. Hannon, S. Melnick, E. Nilsson, and B. Rifkin), USPTO IP Data Highlights, No. 5, 2020. Available at

The Promise of Machine Learning for Patent Landscaping (with A. Toole, J. Forman, and A. Giczy), Santa Clara High Tech. LJ, 36, p.433., 2020. Available at

Adjusting to Alice: USPTO Patent Examination Outcomes after Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank International (with A. Toole), USPTO IP Data Highlights, No. 3, 2020. Available at

Shorter Patent Pendency Without Sacrificing Quality: The Use of Examiner’s Amendments at the USPTO (with C. deGrazia and M. Teodorescu), Academy of Management Proceedings, vol 2019, no 1, August 2019. Available at 

Embracing Invention Similarity for the Measurement of Vertically Overlapping Claims (with C. deGrazia and J. Frumkin), Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 2019. Available at

Using Intellectual Property Data to Measure Cross-border Knowledge Flows (with J. Dubbert, A. Giczy and A. Toole), USPTO Economic Working Paper Series No. 2019-02, 2019. Available at