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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 452]   CLASS 452,BUTCHERING
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This class is limited to processes and apparatus for killing or dressing animals or fish for food or pelts and includes processes and apparatus for working with meat and not otherwise provided for, such as making and processing sausages, shirring sausage casings, cleaning intestines and tenderizing meat.

(1) Note. The illustrations provided herein are strictly exemplary of a type of subject matter which may be found in the subclasses and should not be construed as further limiting the written definitions.

SECTION II - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

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30Cutlery,   appropriate subclasses for hand manipulated cutting tools adapted for use in butchering but capable of, and disclosed for a more general use.
53Package Making,   appropriate subclasses for the packaging of meat or fish and subclass 517 in particular for the packaging of meat or fish involving reshaping the product by cutting.
83Cutting,   appropriate subclasses, for a slicing or cutting means of general utility which may include meat cutting. If the cutting device "recognizes" the article being cut as a meat product it is classified here (Class 452). If, on the other hand, there is no special adaptation of the machine for handling a particular piece of meat (i.e., it could be used to slice any object) it is classified in Class 83. Thus, for example, a mere meat slicing machine such as is commonly used to slice lunch meat would be classified in Class 83. However, cutting devices such as splitters which are designed to move along the backbone of a carcass, or cutting devices designed to cut through bone, are classified in Class 452.
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 324+ for apparatus for cooking meat products, subclass 342 for probes for internally testing meat for bruises, subclasses 419+ for skewers for meat products, and subclasses 485+ for apparatus for chemically treating meat products with an additive, particularly, subclass 494 for larding pins.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   appropriate subclasses for meat comminutors.
249Static Molds,   appropriate subclasses for static apparatus for molding ground meat products.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for dynamic apparatus for molding ground meat products (e.g., briquetters).
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   appropriate subclasses for processes of chemically treating meat, mixing diverse meat products, heat treating meat, and molding comminuted meat, or meat products, per se.

SECTION III - GLOSSARY

CARCASS

Includes the dead body of either a land or marine animal.

DRESSING

Includes the preparation of animals (land or marine) for eatable consumption.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 1]    1CRUSTACEAN (E.G., SHRIMP, CRAB, LOBSTER, CRAYFISH):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Process or apparatus for dressing marine animals which have an exoskeleton.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 2]    2Shrimp processing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter particularly adapted for the dressing of small slender bodied marine decapod crustaceans of the suborder Natantia.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 3]    3Deveining:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter for removing the viscera known as the sand vein which is located under the shell and along the dorsal portion of a shrimp.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 4]    4Beheader:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter for severing the head from the body of a shrimp.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 5]    5Peeler:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter for removing the exoskeleton (i.e., outer shell) of shrimp.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 6]    6Hand tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Apparatus which are hand held and hand manipulated.

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2+,for shrimp processing hand tools.

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30Cutlery,   subclass 120.1 for hand manipulated shell openers (e.g., nut shell openers).
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 7]    7Vibratory meat removal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter relating to the separation of meat from shell by subjecting the crustacean to a rapid reciprocating movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 8]    8Meat removal by pressure differential:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter relating to the separation of meat from shell by creating a difference between fluid force acting on the shell and fluid forces acting on the meat.

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15,for devices which use a pressure differential to force open the shell of a mollusk.
116,for devices which use a pressure differential to eviscerate.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 9]    9Squeezing meat out:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter relating to the separation of meat from shell by applying an external force to the shell to forcibly expel the meat therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 10]    10Meat removal by centrifugal force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter relating to the separation of meat from shell by constraining the crustacean to move curvilinearly and using the apparent force on the crustacean that is directed away from the center of curvature or axis of rotation to separate the meat from the shell.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 11]    11Claw lock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Apparatus which are used to disable the pincers of crustaceans.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 12]    12MOLLUSK (E.G., OYSTER, CLAM, SQUID, MUSSEL, OCTOPUS, SNAIL, SLUG, SCALLOP):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus for dressing marine animals of the phylum Mollusca which are invertebrates characterized by a soft unsegmented body enclosed in most instances partly or wholly in a calcareous shell of one or more pieces and having gills, a foot, and a mantle.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 13]    13Bivalve opener:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter for forcing apart or causing to part the thick shell portions of a clam, oyster, scallop, or other hard-shelled mollusk.

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29Metal Working,   especially subclass 268 for disassembly of parts by a spreading tool.
81Tools,   particularly subclasses 300+ for tool jaw(s) positioned by relatively movable plural handles (e.g., pliers) and subclass 487 for other tools having a work clamping jaw.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 14]    14With heat treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Subject matter in which the bivalve is subjected to an elevated temperature to aid in the opening of the shell.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 15]    15By pressure differential:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Subject matter in which the bivalve is subjected to a difference in fluid pressure between the exterior and the interior of the shell to aid in the opening of the shell.

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8,for devices which use a pressure differential to separate the meat from the shell of a crustacean.
116,for devices which use a pressure differential to eviscerate.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 16]    16Support and wedge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Apparatus including a surface which underlies, sustains, or holds the bivalve and a cutting or tapered tool which forces the shell halves apart.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 17]    17Hand tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Apparatus matter including an implement supported and manipulated by the hand of an operator for forcing or otherwise parting the shells of a bivalve.

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30Cutlery,   subclass 120.1 for hand manipulated shell openers (e.g., nut shell openers).
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 18]    18Eviscerating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter wherein the internal organs (i.e., viscera) of the body are separated from the remainder of the mollusk.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses are the loci for scallop eviscerators.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 19]    19Pinching rollers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter in which viscera is separated from the remainder of the mollusk by oppositely rotating elements which grip the viscera to remove it.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 20]    20By fluid pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter wherein the viscera is extracted from the mollusk by applying a vacuum, or an air or liquid stream against either the viscera or the edible material.

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8,for pressure differential type separation of the meat from the shell in a crustacean.
15,for a pressure differential type bivalve opener.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 21]    21SHIRRING OF CASING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus in which a flexible tubular container of either natural or artificial material, used to encase ground foodstuffs, is gathered into pleats about a core or mandrel.

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53Package Making,   appropriate subclasses for the packaging of shirred casing.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 118.1 for non-edible sausage casings, per se, including shirred casings, with more than nominal wall structure.
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   appropriate subclasses for inedible casing making by bonding plural layers, and particularly subclass 203 for joining of a one piece blank along a seam to form a tube.
206Special Receptacle or Package,   cross-reference art collection 802 for a collection of shirred sausage casing articles.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   for methods of molding an inedible casing.
383Flexible Bags,   subclass 120 for pleated bags.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 131.1+ for extrusion shaping apparatus for sausage casings.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   subclasses 132+ , particularly, subclass 135 for the combination of a sausage with an inedible casing, and subclasses 138+ for edible sausage casings, per se. Class 426 provides for sausage casings, and their method of manufacture when combined with an edible perfecting feature (e.g., smoke flavoring the casing)
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 34.8 for non-edible sausage casings with nominal wall structure.
493Manufacturing Container or Tube From Paper; or Other Manufacturing From a Sheet or Web,   subclasses 186+ for a method or apparatus for end-dressing sausage casings.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 22]    22Combined with sausage stuffing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.  Subject matter which additionally includes the filling of the food casing with a comminuted meat product.

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30+,for sausage making methods and apparatus, per se, which may include an already shirred casing.

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53Package Making,   subclass 576 for forming a package on a hollow mandrel and subsequently stuffing that package.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 23]    23Multiple shirring devices operating simultaneously:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.  Subject matter which includes the shirring of plural food casings at the same time.
(1) Note. Most of the devices in this subclass include a timing mechanism which coordinates operation of the multiple shirring devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 24]    24Shirring head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.  Subject matter in which particular significance is attributed to that portion of the apparatus which directly contacts the casing to form the pleats or causes the casing to be pleated in a specific manner.

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112Sewing,   subclass 132 for the ruffling or pleating of fabric.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 25]    25Moves about axis parallel to shirring mandrel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.  Subject matter wherein the flexible casing moves and is pleated along an elongated rod or tube and the device which performs the pleating operation has at least one nonlinear component of motion which is in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the mandrel.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 26]    26Combined with twisting of casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.  Subject matter including a means which causes the casing to rotate about the axis of the mandrel during or subsequent to the shirring operation so that the shirrs form a helical pattern along the casing.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 27]    27Fluid lubrication of casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.  Subject matter which includes applying a liquid or gas to the casing to reduce frictional forces which would otherwise inhibit the shirring operation.
(1) Note. Included in this and indented subclasses is the application of a liquid lubricant to the casing or the introduction of pressurized air inside the casing to reduce friction between the mandrel and the casing.
(2) Note. Fluid treating of a casing other than for the sole purpose of lubrication is beyond the scope of this subclass.

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426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   for processes of applying coating materials to an edible casing perfecting the flavoring thereof (e.g., smoke flavoring)
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 230+ for processes of applying a coating to nonedible sausage casings for purposes other than mere lubrication.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 28]    28Inflation pressure control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Subject matter wherein the lubricating fluid is a gas injected between the casing and the mandrel to expand the casing about the mandrel, the device further including a sensing means which regulates the amount of injected gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 29]    29Severing into discrete lengths:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.  Subject matter which includes, either before or after the shirring operation, a means to divide the casing into individual segments.

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83Cutting,   subclasses 178+ for a cutting means of general utility adapted to be used on the inside of hollow work.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 30]    30SAUSAGE MAKING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus used in the production of meat products consisting of a comminuted meat encased in a flexible wrapper.

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21,for a method or apparatus including shirring a sausage casing.
186,for stick-like supports for linked sausages used during smoke flavoring processes.

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53Package Making,   appropriate subclasses for the packaging of meat products such as sausages and hot dogs and subclasses 255+ for inserting and guiding material into a container.
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclass 441 for apparatus for molding skinless sausage. Class 99, provides for sausage making apparatus which includes an edible perfecting operation, e.g., cooking, canning, smoking the casing, mixing with a diverse edible, etc.
100Presses,   appropriate subclasses for presses not elsewhere provided for, and especially subclass 1 for binder applying methods and apparatus not otherwise provided for.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 461+ for extrusion devices which produce sausages or sausage-shaped articles.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   subclass 105 for sausages, per se. Class 426 provides for methods of sausage stuffing, linking, delinking, encasing or casing removal when combined with an edible perfecting operation, e.g., cooking, canning, smoking the casing, mixing with a diverse edible, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 31]    31Automatic control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter including means to sense a condition or change of condition with respect to either the sausage being produced or to the apparatus used in the production of sausage, which and as a result of this sensing (and without external intervention) brings about an alteration in the operation or control of the device.
(1) Note. The alteration may include stopping or starting of all or part of the mechanism so as to correct, avoid damage from, or mitigate the effects of the sensed condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 32]    32Casing handling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter relating to the moving or orienting of sausage casing material preparatory to or in conjunction with the stuffing operation.

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22,for the shirring of a casing combined with a sausage stuffing operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 33]    33Insertion on nozzle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 32.  Subject matter relating to the loading or unloading of sausage casing material onto or off of a discharge spout from which fluid stuffing is expelled into the casing.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are devices which load a casing onto a holder. The holder may later be used as a stuffing horn or may be disposed of after inserting the casing onto the horn.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 34]    34Indexing onto stuffing horn:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter wherein a casing loader has plural casing holders which are moved between plural stations, one casing being loaded onto a holder at one station while another casing is unloaded onto the stuffing machine at another station.

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23,for multiple shirring devices which operate simultaneously

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53Package Making,   subclasses 545+ for the making of a tubular package by progressively seaming a web.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 35]    35Stuffing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter relating to the filling of a flexible casing with comminuted meat.

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53Package Making,   subclasses 545+ for apparatus for forming packages by confining the contents within a progressively seamed cover formed from a continuous web or webs and subclasses 567, and 575-577 for the stuffing of large whole meat portions (i.e., hams, shoulders, etc.) into a casing.
141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   appropriate subclasses for filling receivers with fluent material which is not a ground meat product, particularly subclasses 313+ .
222Dispensing,   appropriate subclasses for portion dispensers of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 36]    36Multiple head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Subject matter wherein plural stuffing nozzles operate concurrently.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 37]    37Sausage sizing and shaping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Subject matter relating to the control or regulation of the diameter, length, or external form of sausage.

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31,for sensor controlled sausage stuffers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 38]    38Sizing ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter wherein elements located on a discharge spout from which fluid stuffing is expelled into the casing and which are located internally of the sausage casing control or regulate the diameter of sausage.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 39]    39Casing insert (e.g., flat ended sausage)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter wherein disk-shaped members are inserted into the sausage casing to control the size and shape of the sausage.

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493Manufacturing Container or Tube From Paper; or Other Manufacturing From a Sheet or Web,   appropriate subclasses, for the combination of a casing and insert which does not claim the stuffing operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 40]    40Pump type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Subject matter wherein the stuffing is forced into the casing by a mechanically driven device.

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100Presses,   subclasses 179+ for concurrent pressing and conveying presses of the type in which a plunger forces material through a tube, not elsewhere provided for.
417Pumps,   subclasses 481+ for oscillating type pumps, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 41]    41Rotary piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter wherein the stuffing is forced into the casing by a device which makes complete revolutions.

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415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for a unidirectional rotating member caused to move by an external force to increase the energy in a fluid by transfer of kinetic energy from the member to the fluid.
417Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for rotary expansible chamber pumps including (1) a motor to drive the pump, (2) operated by an art device, (3) claimed in combination with another type pump or (4) provided with valving other than in-line valving or valving operating merely to perfect the operation of the pump.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   appropriate subclasses for rotary expansible chamber pumps excluded from Class 417.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 42]    42Reciprocating piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter wherein the stuffing is forced into the casing by a piston which reciprocates back and forth in a straight line.

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92Expansible Chamber Devices,   appropriate subclasses for pump subcombinations in which the working member has a reciprocating motion.
100Presses,   subclasses 179+ for concurrent pressing and conveying presses of the type in which a plunger forces material through a tube, not elsewhere provided for.
417Pumps,   subclasses 437+ for expansible chamber pumps which include (1) drive means, (2) valving for the pumped fluid, or (3) a diverse pump.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 43]    43Fluid motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter wherein a gas or liquid operated motor causes reciprocation of the piston.

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100Presses,   subclasses 269.01+ for reciprocating platen presses not elsewhere provided for, in which the actuation of the platen is by fluid pressure.
417Pumps,   subclasses 375+ for fluid motor driven pumps.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 44]    44Screw:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter wherein a rotating helix forces material into a sausage casing.

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100Presses,   subclasses 145+ for concurrent pressing and conveying presses of the helix compressor type not otherwise provided for.
198Conveyors: Power Driven,   subclasses 657+ for screw type conveyors.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 45]    45Nozzle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Subject matter wherein particular significance is attributed to a discharge spout from which a fluid stuffing is expelled into the casing.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 46]    46Linking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter relating to the segmenting of sausage into a chain.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 47]    47By twisting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter wherein the sausage links are formed by rotating the casing to form a constriction preventing the movement of sausage stuffing through the constriction.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 48]    48By applying constricting member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter wherein the sausage links are formed by the closing off of the sausage casing at specific intervals by a tie, band, or clip.

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24Buckles, Buttons, Clasps, etc.,   subclass 30.5 for bag clips, per se.
289Knots and Knot Tying,   subclass 18.1 for knot tying machines which may be used in a sausage linking operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 49]    49Delinking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter relating to the separation of a chain of sausage into individual links.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 50]    50Peeling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter relating to the removal of the sausage casing from formed sausages.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 51]    51Sausage link handling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter relating to the transportation or orienting of sausage, either individually or in linked form.

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186,for smoke sticks, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 52]    52SLAUGHTERING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to the killing of animals in preparation for (1) consumption as food or (2) the use of animal hides for clothing.

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43Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying,   appropriate subclasses for the killing of animals for purposes other than (1) and (2) as noted above.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 53]    53Conveying live animals to slaughtering apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter including a means to automatically move or guide living animals to the slaughtering location.

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177+,for conveyors peculiar to butchering which convey animals that have been already slaughtered.

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119Animal Husbandry,   subclasses 400+ for livestock carrying vehicle, subclasses 843+ for a live animal conveyor, gangway, or chute and subclasses 840+ for stock sorting.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 54]    54Restraint or immobilizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter including a means to hold up, prop, or steady the animal so as to inhibit movement thereof during the slaughtering operation.

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187+,for supports or shackles used to suspend animals which may be still alive, and are used to restrain the legs.

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119Animal Husbandry,   subclasses 712+ for animal restraining devices of general utility not restricted for use in a slaughtering operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 55]    55Knocking pen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter wherein the restraint or immobilizer comprises a structure which closely surrounds the entire animal, preventing that animal from movement during slaughtering.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 56]    56Fall directing device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter which will control the direction or orientation of the collapse of the animal after it loses consciousness.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 57]    57Stunning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter including devices which render unconscious an animal to be slaughtered.

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42Firearms,   subclass 1.12 for explosively actuated stunning devices. These devices ordinary include a piston which is explosively propelled to strike the skull of cattle to render the same unconscious.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 58]    58Electric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Subject matter wherein the stunning is accomplished through the delivery of an electric shock to the animal.

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607Surgery: Light, Thermal, and Electrical Application,   subclasses 1+ for electrical applications to the human body.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 59]    59Trough or tank:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Subject matter wherein the animal to be slaughtered is at least partially immersed in a liquid electrical conductor during the time the electric shock is delivered.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 60]    60Hand held stunner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Subject matter wherein the stunning device is adapted to be carried and manipulated by a hand of a human operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 61]    61Spring loaded:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Subject matter wherein a mechanically driven stunner is driven by a resilient or elastic member.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 62]    62Pneumatic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Subject matter wherein a mechanically driven stunner is driven by a compressed gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 63]    63Throat slitting or severing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter wherein the animal is slaughtered by cutting the throat to cause the animal to bleed to death, suffocate, or cut off vital nerve functions.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 64]    64Beheading:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Subject matter wherein the animal is slaughtered by severing the head of the animal from the rest of the body.
(1) Note. This subclass is limited to beheaders which kill the animal as a result of the beheading. For devices which behead the animal after it is already dead, see search notes below.

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166+,for extremity removers including devices which remove the head of an already slaughtered animal.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 65]    65Sticking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter wherein the animal to be slaughtered is killed by inserting a pointed device into a vital organ.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 66]    66Anesthetizing or gassing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter wherein the animal is either rendered unconscious or killed by inhalation of a gaseous material.

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128Surgery,   subclasses 200.24+ for respiratory devices used in surgery.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 67]    67Bleeding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter wherein blood is drained from an animal.
(1) Note. Bleeding is usually carried out on a stunned animal and is the actual cause of death.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 68]    68Suction assisted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein the draining of blood is hastened by the application of below ambient air pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 69]    69Trocar and cannula:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein a surgical instrument consisting of a sharp stylet enclosed in a tube is inserted through the containing wall of a body cavity, thereby permitting blood to drain off through the tube.

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604Surgery,   subclasses 264+ for trocars and cannulas used in surgery.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 70]    70Tongue protector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter wherein a device is inserted into the mouth of an animal to prevent the tongue from being bitten or swallowed during the slaughtering operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 71]    71EPIDERMAL OUTGROWTH REMOVER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to the extraction of hair from animals, feathers from fowl, or scales from fish in the preparation of these animals for human consumption.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclasses 94.16+ for generic depilitating processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 72]    72Wax-type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.  Subject matter wherein the animal is coated with a resinous material which is allowed to harden and is thereafter peeled from the animal the epidermal outgrowth adhering to the hardened material and being removed along with it.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   appropriate subclasses for wax compositions, per se.
118Coating Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for coating apparatus, per se.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   subclass 4 for processes and apparatus for cleaning by use of a solidifiable composition.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 73]    73Singeing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.  Subject matter wherein the epidermal outgrowth is removed by burning.

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110Furnaces,   appropriate subclasses for furnaces, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 74]    74Scalding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.  Subject matter wherein the epidermal outgrowth is loosened from the skin by subjecting the carcass to a hot liquid or steam.

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118Coating Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for coating apparatus, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 75]    75With simultaneous scraping or defeathering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Subject matter including mechanical removal of the epidermal outgrowth at the same time that the carcass is subject to the scalding treatment.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 76]    76Spray type scalding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.  Subject matter wherein the hot liquid or steam is administered to the carcass as a jet of fine liquid particles.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 77]    77Spray type scalder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Subject matter wherein the hot liquid or steam is administered to the carcass as a jet of fine liquid particles.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 78]    78Tanks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Subject matter wherein the scalding is administered by immersing the carcass in a bath of hot liquid.

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126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclasses 345+ for cauldrons.
137Fluid Handling,   particularly subclasses 255+ , 386+, 571+, 581, and 590+ for tanks combined with other fluid handling structure.
220Receptacles,   for tank structure not otherwise provided for, and see the notes thereto for the location of other tank structure.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclass 144 for a valve mounted on a tank.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 79]    79Means for raising or lowering animals into or out of scalding tank (e.g., hoists):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter including an elevator mechanism for loading or unloading carcasses into the scalding tank.

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178,for elevating conveyors not specifically used with scalding tanks.

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187Elevator, Industrial Lift Truck, or Stationary Lift for Vehicle,   appropriate subclasses for elevators of general utility, not solely restricted by disclosure to the handling of animal carcasses.
212Traversing Hoists,   appropriate subclasses for traversing hoists of general utility which raise, lower and move a load laterally.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 264+ for a subcombination hoisting device.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 80]    80Conveyed through scalding tank:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter wherein the carcass is transported from one end of a tank to the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 81]    81By fluid material impingement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.  Subject matter wherein the epidermal outgrowth is removed by spraying the animal carcass with a jet of air or liquid of sufficient velocity to remove the outgrowth by direct impact.
(1) Note. The air or liquid may have solids entrained therein to aid in the abrasive removal of the outgrowth.

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173,for devices which wash debris from animal carcasses. If the outgrowth is attached to the skin prior to the fluid treatment classification is proper in this subclass (81). Subclass 173 takes the removal of debris which merely lie on the surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 82]    82Gripping type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.  Subject matter wherein the epidermal outgrowth is removed by grasping the outgrowth and pulling it from the carcass.

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69Leather Manufactures,   subclass 26 for machines for plucking the coarse or water hairs from furs.
294Handling: Hand and Hoistline Implements,   subclass 99.2 for tweezers and tongs of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 83]    83And further including rotary type remover:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Subject matter which, in addition to the gripping type remover also includes a device which moves about an axis and contacts the carcass to remove the outgrowth by an abrading type action.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 84]    84At least one surface rotates and moves cyclically towards and away from the other gripping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Subject matter wherein a gripping couple is formed, at least one member of the couple moves about an axis and moves into and out of contact with the other member at least once during its rotational cycle to accomplish the grasping and pulling operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 85]    85Pinched between roller nip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Subject matter wherein the gripping couple consists of a pair of rollers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 86]    86Power driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.  Subject matter wherein the outgrowth remover is operated by mechanical, fluid, or electric motive means.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 87]    87Beater (i.e., flexible end):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein the outgrowth remover is flexible and resiliently contacts the carcass to remove the outgrowth by a striking action.
(1) Note. Subject matter in this and indented subclasses is usually restricted to the plucking of feathers from fowl.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 88]    88Rotary:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein the outgrowth contacting portion of the beater moves in an orbital path about an axis.

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94+,for power driven rotary hog scrapers.
99+,for power driven rotary fish scalers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 89]    89Carcass conveyed past beater:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein carcasses are continuously transported by powered means along a path which intersects the path of the rotary beater.

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95,for conveyors suspending hog carcasses passing through a scraping apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 90]    90Axis of rotation parallel to work path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter wherein the axis about which the beater rotates is oriented in the same direction as the conveying path.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 91]    91Axis of rotation perpendicular to work path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter wherein the axis about which the beater rotates is oriented in a direction which is at a right angle to the conveying path.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 92]    92Batch type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein a single carcass or a discrete group of carcasses is introduced into the outgrowth remover, operated on by the outgrowth remover, and then removed from the outgrowth remover whereupon this cycle may be repeated.
(1) Note. A batch type operation is distinguished from a continuous operation by a noncontinuous flow of work pieces through the apparatus.

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96,for batch type rotary hog scrapers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 93]    93Beater element structure or mounting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein particular significance is attributed either to the shape, composition, or arrangement of parts used to make up the beater or to the attachment of beater elements to a rotary driving member.

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97,for hog scraper structure or mounting on a rotary drive member.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 94]    94Rotary scraper (i.e., rigid end):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein the outgrowth remover moves in an orbital path about an axis and has a generally inflexible, linear, sharpened edge portion which rubs along the carcass to remove the outgrowth by an abrading action.
(1) Note. Subject matter in this and indented subclasses is usually related to the scraping of hair from hogs.

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89+,for power driven rotary beaters for removing feathers from fowl.
99+,for power driven rotary fish scalers.
104,for hand held hog scrapers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 95]    95Carcass conveyed past scraper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter wherein carcasses are continuously transported by powered means along a path which intersects the path of the rotary scraper.

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89+,for conveyors suspending fowl passing through a defeathering apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 96]    96Batch (e.g., cradle):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter wherein a single carcass or a discrete group of carcasses is introduced into the outgrowth remover, operated on by the outgrowth remover, and then removed from the outgrowth remover whereupon this cycle may be repeated.
(1) Note. A batch type operation is distinguished from a continuous operation by a noncontinuous flow of work pieces through the apparatus.

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92,for batch type powered rotary beaters used for fowl defeathering.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 97]    97Scraper element structure or mounting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter wherein particular significance is attributed to either the shape, composition, or arrangement of parts used to make up the scraper or to the attachment of the scraper to a rotary driving member.

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93,for beater element structure or mounting on a rotary drive member used in fowl defeathering.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 98]    98Scaler (i.e., serrated or toothed end):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein the end of the outgrowth remover is a generally rigid member having a jagged edge which catches or snags on the scales of fish to remove them.

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105,for hand held fish scalers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 99]    99Rotary:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter wherein the outgrowth contacting portion of the scaler moves in an orbital path about an axis.

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88+,for power driven rotary beaters for removing feathers from fowl.
94+,for power driven rotary hog scrapers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 100]    100Driven behind boat:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Subject matter wherein the outgrowth remover is drawn through water behind a watercraft and is powered by the motion of that watercraft.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 101]    101Hand held:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Subject matter wherein the scaling device is adapted to be carried and manipulated by the hand of a human operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 102]    102Hand tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.  Subject matter wherein the epidermal outgrowth remover is adapted to be carried and manipulated by the hand of a human operator.

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101,for a hand held, power driven, rotary fish scaler.

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30Cutlery,   subclasses 169+ for hand held scrapers of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 103]    103Diverse tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter wherein the device also has a utility different from epidermal outgrowth removal.

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7Compound Tools,   for compound tools having utility in other than the butchering art.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 104]    104Scraper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter wherein the hand tool includes a generally inflexible, linear, sharpened edge portion which rubs along the carcass to remove the outgrowth by an abrading action.
(1) Note. Subject matter in this subclass is usually restricted to the scraping of hair from hogs.

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94+,for power driven rotary hog scrapers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 105]    105Scaler:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter wherein the end of the hand tool is a generally rigid member having a jagged edge which catches or snags on the scales of fish to thereby remove them.

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98+,for power driven fish scalers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 106]    106VISCERA PROCESSING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Process or apparatus relating to the internal organs of a carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 107]    107Eviscerating including means to remove external portion of animal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter which separates an internal organ along with a noninternal part of the animal as a unit from the remainder of the carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 108]    108Removal of head with viscera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 107.  Subject matter wherein the external portion removed is the head.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 109]    109Removal of vent with viscera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 107.  Subject matter wherein the external portion removed is the anal excretory opening.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 110]    110Roe or ova:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter relating specifically to the female reproductive cell of the animal.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 111]    111Gizzard:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter relating specifically to the enlargement of the alimentary canal which comprises the second stomach of fowl.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 112]    112Harvesting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein the gizzard is separated from the fowl or is isolated from the remaining viscera.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 113]    113Opener:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein an access opening to the interior of the gizzard is created.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 114]    114With cleaning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Subject matter and further including a step or means to remove loose material found within the interior of the gizzard.

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111,for devices to remove the interior lining of the gizzard (e.g., gizzard skinners).
123,for the washing of other viscera.
173,for devices which wash the exterior surface of carcasses.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 3.1 for the general washing of food products when not limited to use in butchering. If the washer is specifically disclosed for cleansing a particular type of animal, (e.g. fish), for washing an entire animal carcass, or for washing specific carcass parts or organs, then the device is not considered to be of general utility and will be found in this class (452).
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   appropriate subclasses for the removal of undesirable materials from solids through contact with liquids.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 115]    115Oil gland remover:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter relating specifically to the extraction of the organ located near the anus of fowl that secretes oil for grooming of the feathers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 116]    116Pressure differential type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein viscera is removed from the carcass by creating a difference in a fluid force acting between the carcass and the viscera.

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8,for devices which use a pressure differential to separate the meat from the shell of a crustacean.
15,for devices which use a pressure differential to force open the shell of a mollusk.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 117]    117Gripper or hook type eviscerator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein viscera is removed by being (1) grasped or (2) impaled and subsequently pulled from the carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 118]    118Spoon type eviscerator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein viscera is removed from the carcass by being scooped therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 119]    119Rotary scrubber type eviscerator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein viscera is removed by frictional contact with the periphery of a member which revolves about an axis.

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173,for surface scrubbers used in butchering

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 3.1 for the general washing of food products when not limited to use in butchering.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 120]    120Venting or opening preparatory to eviscerating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter which provides access to the interior visceral cavity of a carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 121]    121Of fish:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Subject matter wherein the carcass is that of a cold blooded aquatic vertebrate.

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1+,for the evisceration of crustaceans.
18+,for the evisceration of mollusks.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 122]    122By tubular rotary cutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Subject matter wherein the access opening is created by a cylindrical tool which revolves about an axis and which makes an incision of circular shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 123]    123Viscera cleaner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter relating to the surface washing of visceral organs.

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114,for gizzard cleaners.
173,for devices which wash surface debris from animal carcasses.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 3.1 for the general washing of food products when not limited to use in butchering. If the washer is specifically disclosed for cleansing a particular type of animal (e.g., fish), for washing an entire animal carcass, or for washing specific carcass parts or organs, then the device is not considered to be of general utility and will be found in this class (452).
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   appropriate subclasses for the removal of undesirable materials from solids through contact with liquids.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 124]    124Giblet inserter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter relating to the reinsertion of the cleaned viscera of fowl back into the visceral cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 125]    125SKINNING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus relating to the removal of the membranous tissue forming the external covering of a carcass or carcass section.

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111,for subject matter which removes the interior lining of gizzards (gizzard skinners).

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8Bleaching and Dyeing: Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclass 94.1 for processes of treating hides with chemicals or fluids.
30Cutlery,   appropriate subclasses for hand manipulated cutting implements which may or may not have guards and are adapted for use in skinning animals, but are capable of a more general use.
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 584+ for miscellaneous food skinning means. If the sole disclosure is to the skinning of a carcass or carcass part, placement is in this class (Class 452).
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 126]    126Temperature modification perfects skinning operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the carcass is purposely heated or cooled thereby facilitating the removal of skin therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 127]    127Peeling by movement of workpiece past cutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass section is conveyed past a knife positioned in the path of movement to separate the skin from the flesh.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 128]    128Gripper or hook type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the skin is removed by being (1) grasped or (2) impaled and subsequently pulled from the carcass.

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99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclass 587 for apparatus which grips the skin of food, other than a carcass or carcass part, for removal thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 129]    129Drum skinner type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Subject matter wherein the skin is pulled from the carcass by wrapping the skin around a cylinder which progressively peels it from the carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 130]    130Skin pinching roller type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Subject matter wherein the skin is grasped between the nip formed between the outer peripheries of at least two rotating members.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 131]    131Fluid pressure type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the skin is separated from the carcass by injecting a liquid or gaseous medium therebetween.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 132]    132Skinning implement (e.g., hand tool):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein a skinning apparatus is adapted to be carried and manipulated by a human operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 133]    133Power type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 132.  Subject matter wherein the skinning implement is operated by mechanical, fluid, or electric motive power means.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 134]    134DEFATTER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus relating to the removal of the soft solid or semisolid organic compounds comprising the glyceride ester of fatty acids from a carcass or carcass part.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 135]    135DEBONING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus relating to the separation or segregation of flesh from the skeleton of a carcass or carcass part.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 136]    136Plow type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein the flesh is scraped or shaved from the bone.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 137]    137Hand-held tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Subject matter wherein the deboning apparatus is adapted to be carried and manipulated by the hand of a human operator.

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30Cutlery,   for hand held knives of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 138]    138Pressure type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein force is applied over an area of the carcass or carcass part to squeeze the flesh from the bone.

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100Presses,   appropriate subclasses for presses of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 139]    139Beater or abrader type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein the flesh is removed from the bone by rubbing it off or wearing it away by friction.

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86+,for epidermal outgrowth removers which operate on the principle of abrasion.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 140]    140Fluid impingement type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein the flesh is removed from the bone by contact with a high velocity jet of liquid or gaseous particles.

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81,for epidermal outgrowth removers which operate on the principle of fluid impingement.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 141]    141TENDERIZERS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus for rendering meat more easily chewed by either (1) electrical stimulation or (2) tearing, crushing, slitting or piercing of muscle tissue.

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30Cutlery,   appropriate subclasses for hand manipulated tools, adapted for tendering meat but disclosed as being of a more general utility.
100Presses,   appropriate subclasses for presses of general utility.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   subclasses 198.1+ , for cooperating comminuting surfaces which function in a manner similar to mechanical meat tenderizers.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   appropriate subclasses for the tenderization of meat through the use of chemicals.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 142]    142Coacting rolls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the meat is passed between the nip formed between the outer peripheries of at least two rotating members.

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100Presses,   subclasses 155+ for concurrent pressing and conveying presses of the roller type which have a more general utility than that of tenderizing meat.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 143]    143Roll and plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the meat is passed between the outer periphery of a rotating member and a coacting flat surface.

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100Presses,   subclass 156 for concurrent conveying and pressing presses of the roller type in which the roller coacts with a nonrotary press element, and subclass 210 for roll and platen presses which have a more general utility that of tenderizing meat.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   subclasses 221+ , particularly subclass 227 for comminuting rollers which function in a manner similar to mechanical meat tenderizers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 144]    144Coacting toothed plates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein plates provided with projections mash the meat therebetween.

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100Presses,   subclasses 214+ for reciprocating platen presses of a more general utility that of tenderizing meat.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   subclasses 262+ , for reciprocating comminuting surfaces which function in a manner similar to mechanical meat tenderizers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 145]    145Hand roll:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the meat is contacted by the periphery of a rotating member adapted to be carried and manipulated by the hand of a human operator.

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30Cutlery,   subclass 319 for a hand manipulated roller with cutting blades attached thereto which is of general utility and note the search notes appended thereunder.
172Earth Working,   subclasses 349+ for a hand propelled rolling earth working tool and subclasses 540+ for a rolling earth working tool with projecting teeth.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   subclasses 221+ , for comminuting rollers which function in a manner similar to mechanical meat tenderizers.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 146]    146Hand manipulated pounder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the tenderizing device is adapted to strike a blow to the meat and is carried and manipulated by the hand of a human operator.

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241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   subclasses 168+ for a hand supported comminutor.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 147]    147With chopper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Subject matter which additionally includes a device which scores the meat (i.e., makes an incision but does not cut all the way through).

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148,for scoring meat cutters, per se, used for purposes other than the tenderizing of meat.

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241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   subclass 101.4 for a comminutor combined with a means to shape or section.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 148]    148SCORING CUTTERS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which makes an incision in a carcass or carcass part but does not cut all the way through.

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141+,for tenderizers which score meat.

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83Cutting,   subclasses 879+ for scoring cutter of general utility
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 149]    149CARCASS SUBDIVISION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus relating to the separation of whole carcass sections from each other.

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30Cutlery,   appropriate subclasses and particularly subclass 308 for hand manipulated cutting tools adapted for use in butchering but capable of, and disclosed for a more general use.
83Cutting,   appropriate subclasses for cutters of general utility or a cutter which does not "recognize" the object being cut as a piece of meat (see the line notes under the class definition of this class for a further explanation of the line between Class 83 and Class 452).
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 537+ for devices which subdivide food, other than meat, into plural products.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 150]    150Automatic control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter including means to sense a condition or change of condition with respect to either the carcass being subdivided or to the apparatus used to subdivide the carcass, which and as a result of this sensing (and without external manual intervention) brings about an alteration in the operation or control of the device.
(1) Note. The alteration may include stopping or starting of all or part of the mechanism so as to correct, avoid damage from or mitigate the effects of the sensed condition.

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83Cutting,   subclasses 72+ for automatic control of cutting machines which have a general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 151]    151Of cutters in series:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Subject matter wherein plural carcass subdividing devices are located along a processing line, at least one of which is automatically controlled.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 152]    152Of splitting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Subject matter wherein the carcass subdividing device divides the carcass or carcass portion in half approximately along the centerline of its longest dimension.

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160+,for carcass splitters lacking automatic control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 153]    153Carcass oriented relative to cutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass portion is moved so as to be aligned or positioned with respect to the subdividing device.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 154]    154Of extremity cutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Subject matter wherein the subdividing device operates to separate a limb or external appendage from the body of the carcass.
(1) Note. "Extremities" are exemplified by the head, neck, tail, leg, foot, fins (on a fish), and wings and drumsticks (on a fowl).

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160,for extremity removers which lack automatic control.

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99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 635+ for devices which remove extremities from food products other than meat.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 155]    155Of subdivision into portions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Subject matter wherein the device operates to subdivide the main body (torso) of the carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 156]    156Movement of cutter controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter wherein the motion of the subdividing device is controlled by a sensed condition of the carcass or carcass portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 157]    157By sensed dimensions of carcass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 156.  Subject matter wherein the sensed condition is the size or shape of the carcass or carcass portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 158]    158By sensed color variation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 156.  Subject matter wherein the sensed condition is the wavelength, luminance, or purity of light reflected by the carcass or carcass portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 159]    159By manually placed markings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 158.  Subject matter wherein the sensed condition results from the detection of a line or other sign or symbol placed on the carcass or carcass portion by a human.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 160]    160Cutting longitudinally through body or body portion (i.e., splitters):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter wherein the carcass subdividing device divides the carcass or carcass portion in half approximately along the centerline of its longest dimension.

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152+,for carcass splitters having automatic control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 161]    161Fish filleting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the carcass is that of a cold blooded aquatic vertebrate, the splitting device cutting along one or either side of the backbone through the ribs to separate the flanks.
(1) Note. Fish filleting as defined herein does not produce totally boneless pieces of fish since the tiny rib or pin bones are included in the fillets. "Ribbing" devices which remove these bones to produce a truly boneless fish fillet will be found elsewhere in this class. See the search note below.

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135+,for boneless fish fillets.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 162]    162Coacting rotary disc cutters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Subject matter wherein the splitting device includes a pair of thin circular members with sharp or irregular edges which rotate and contact the fish simultaneously, on either side of the backbone, to separate the flanks from the backbone.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 163]    163Means repositioning carcass relative to cutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass part is adjustably moved to oriented or aligned it relative to the splitting device.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 164]    164Portable cutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the splitting device is capable of being easily carried or moved from one location to another.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 165]    165While internally supported on a mandrel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter wherein the weight of the carcass or carcass portion is borne from below with the aid of a spindle or axle which extends into the visceral cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 166]    166Extremity remover:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter wherein the subdividing device operates to separate a limb or external appendage from the body of the carcass.
(1) Note. "Extremities" are exemplified by the head, neck, tail, leg, foot, fins (on a fish), and wings and drumsticks (on a fowl).

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154,for automatically controlled extremity removers.

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99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 635+ for devices which remove extremities from food products other than meat.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 167]    167Carcass suspended during removing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass part is supported by being hung while the extremity is separated therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 168]    168Neck puller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.  Subject matter where the extremity which connects the head to body is ripped, torn, or snapped from the body of the carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 169]    169Wing remover:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter wherein the appendage separated is the modified forelimb of a bird.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 170]    170Carcass conveyed to cutter in horizontal position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass part is delivered to the extremity remover oriented so that it lies in the same plane as the horizon.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 171]    171Loin remover:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter wherein the carcass subdividing means cuts out the part of the side and back of the carcass which lies between the ribs and the pelvis.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 172]    172SINEW REMOVER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus for cutting out tendons from a carcass or carcass part.
(1) Note. This subclass is primarily concerned with the removal of tendons from fowl.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 173]    173WASHER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus for cleansing the carcass or carcass portion of blood and other loose debris.

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81,for the removal of attached epidermal outgrowths by fluid pressure.
114,for the washing of gizzards.
120,for eviscerating using a rotary scrubber.
123,for the washing of other viscera.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 3.1 for the general washing of food products when not limited to use in butchering. If the washer is specifically disclosed for cleansing a particular type of animal, (e.g., fish), for washing an entire animal carcass, or for washing specific carcass parts or organs, then the device is not considered to be of general utility and will be found in this class (452).
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   appropriate subclasses for the removal of undesirable materials from solids through contact with liquids.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 174]    174MODELLING (E.G., SHAPING):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus for improving the appearance or shape of a carcass or carcass portion in preparation for marketing.
(1) Note. This subclass includes devices for shaping whole meat portions and devices for folding wings, and securing drumsticks, etc., on fowl.

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197,for carcass spreaders which allow easy access to the interior of a carcass.

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53Package Making,   appropriate subclasses for devices which include the wrapping or packaging of meat products.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 175]    175Bacon stretcher:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 174.  Subject matter which squares or flattens a pork belly carcass section.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 176]    176Visceral cavity closure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 174.  Subject matter wherein an incision made to allow access to the internal organs is shut so as to preclude visual contact with the internal portions of the carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 177]    177CONVEYOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus for moving a carcass or carcass portion over a predetermined path.

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53,for the conveying of animals while they are still alive in preparation for slaughtering.

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119Animal Husbandry,   subclasses 400+ for livestock carrying vehicle, subclasses 843+ for a live animal conveyor, gangway, or chute and subclasses 840+ for stock sorting.
198Conveyors: Power-Driven,   appropriate subclasses for power driven conveyors in general. If the conveyor is unique to butchering then classification is in this and indented subclasses. If the conveyor is of a more general utility then classification is in Class 198.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 178]    178Elevating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass portion is either (1) lifted off of an underlying supporting surface or (2) raised to a position further away from an underlying supporting surface.

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51,for sausage link handlers
79,for conveyors specifically adapted to raise and lower carcasses into and out of a scalding tank.

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119Animal Husbandry,   subclasses 725+ for a body sling, subclass 728 for a device for suspending an animal and subclasses 843+ for an elevator not restricted for use in a slaughtering operation.
187Elevator, Industrial Lift Truck, or Stationary Lift for Vehicle,   appropriate subclasses for elevators of general utility, not solely restricted by disclosure to the handling of animal carcasses.
212Traversing Hoists,   appropriate subclasses for traversing hoists of general utility which elevate and move a load.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 264+ for a subcombination hoisting device.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 179]    179Orienting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject matter wherein the attitude of the carcass or carcass part is adjusted or verified on the conveying system in a given direction with respect to the direction of movement of the conveyor.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 180]    180Registering (i.e., aligning):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass part is particularly positioned transversely on the conveying system with respect to the direction of movement of the conveyor.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 181]    181Metering (e.g., from bulk supply):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject matter wherein carcass or carcass portions are fed to the conveyor system a certain rate to assure generally uniform spacing thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 182]    182Transfer from one conveyor to another:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass parts are moved from a first conveyor system to a second conveyor system.

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104Railways,   subclass 97 for apparatus for bodily shifting a trolley from one track and placing it on another.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 183]    183Loading or unloading:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject matter wherein particularly significance is attributed to the placing of a carcass or carcass portion onto or its removal from a conveyor.

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178,for conveyors which vertically lift a carcass or carcass part with respect to an underlying supporting surface which may include loading or unloading.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 184]    184Sorting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass portions are classified and grouped according to some physical characteristic thereof.

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119Animal Husbandry,   subclasses 840+ for stock sorting.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 185]    185SUPPORT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Method or apparatus relating to the sustainment of meat products against gravity, during butchering operations.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

119Animal Husbandry,   subclass 728 for suspending a live animal.
211Supports: Racks,   appropriate subclasses, for plural supporting means disclosed for meat where the rack is of general utility and does not include means relating the rack to butchering, as, for example, by means for shaping, marking, or by means for preventing detrimental effects during processing.
248Supports,   appropriate subclasses for supports of general utility. Supports wherein the sole disclosure relates to butchering are properly classified here and in indented subclasses.
269Work Holders,   appropriate subclasses for work holders of disclosed as being of general utility. If the sole disclosure is to butchering classification is proper in these and indented subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 186]    186Smoke stick:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter relating to the support of link sausage during smoking operations.

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51+,for a sausage making method and apparatus combined with link handling.

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99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 467+ for smoking apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 187]    187Carcass or portion suspended (i.e., hanger):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass portion extends underneath the support and is hung therefrom.

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79+,for means for lowering carcasses into or out of a scalding tank which often includes suspension means.
95,for suspended hog scrapers.
167+,for extremity removers which operate on a suspended carcass.
177+,for butchering conveyors with means for suspending a load.

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24Buckles, Buttons, Clasps, etc.,   subclass 369 for hooks, per se.
119Animal Husbandry,   subclass 728 for animal suspending devices of general utility not restricted for use in a slaughtering operation.
198Conveyors: Power-Driven,   subclasses 678.1+ for power driven conveyors of general utility with means for suspending a load in general.
211Supports: Racks,   subclasses 113+ for suspended racks.
248Supports,   subclasses 317+ for suspended supports of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 188]    188Fowl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or portion thereof suspended is that of a bird.

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89+,for fowl defeathering apparatus which usually includes suspension means for fowl.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 189]    189Gambrel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter wherein the suspending apparatus includes a framework designed to suspend a whole carcass by hooking or grasping and spreading either the front or rear legs thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 190]    190Grappling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 189.  Subject matter where the legs of the carcass are grasped.

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294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 86.4+ for grapples of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 191]    191Weight of suspended carcass spreads carcass engaging means apart:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 189.  Subject matter wherein the gambrel includes a mechanism that converts at least part of the gravitational force exerted on the carcass to a lateral force tending to separate the attached legs of the carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 192]    192Foldable to facilitate transport:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 189.  Subject matter wherein the gambrel is capable of being reduced in size when not in use so as to make it more easily portable.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 193]    193Bacon hanger:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter wherein the support is adapted to suspend a pork belly.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

175,for a device which shapes or flattens a pork belly.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 194]    194Underlying support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter wherein the carcass or carcass part is supported from underneath.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 195]    195With clamp (clipboard type):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 194.  Subject matter including a grasping device which securely positions the carcass or carcass part to the underlying support.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

81Tools,   for plier-like grasping tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 196]    196With prong (e.g., impaling means):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 194.  Subject matter including a pointed device which protrudes into and thereby securely positions the carcass or carcass part to the underlying support.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

269Work Holders,   subclass 53 for work holders using an impaling means.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 197]    197Carcass spreader:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter for holding open a slit carcass or carcass portion.
(1) Note. This subclass contains apparatus which facilitates easy access to the interior of a carcass and should not be confused with subclasses that shape a carcass or carcass part merely for a more pleasing appearance. See the search note below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

174+,for apparatus which shapes a carcass or carcass part for appearance purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 452 subclass 198]    198MISCELLANEOUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter not otherwise provided for.
  

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