Cooperative Patent Classification


CPC Definition - Subclass C04B

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Last Updated Version: 2018.08
LIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE {(roofing granules E04D 7/005)}; CERAMICS (devitrified glass-ceramics C03C 10/00); REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
Definition statement

This place covers:

Chemical aspects of the processing of lime, magnesia or dolomite and of molten slag.

Compositional aspects of:

  • inorganic binders, such as hydraulic cements ;
  • mortars, concrete and artificial stone, e.g. the choice of fillers or active ingredients therefore;
  • shaped ceramic products, e.g. clay-wares, refractories , non-oxides.

Physico-chemical aspects of methods for obtaining mortars, concrete, artificial stones or ceramics , e.g. for delaying the setting time of mortar compositions.

Treatment including defibrillating of materials such as fillers , agglomerated or waste materials, or refuse to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone.

Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware, and the preparation thereof.

Methods and apparatus for:

  • burning or slaking lime;
  • obtaining mineral binders, e.g. Portland cement or hemihydrate plaster;
  • the expansion of mineral fillers , such as clay, perlite or vermiculite.

After- treatment of artificial stones, mortars, concrete and ceramics , e.g. coating or impregnation of green concrete after primary shaping.

Non-mechanical treatment of natural stone.

Processing powders of inorganic compounds in preparation to the manufacturing of ceramic products .

The joining of burned ceramics with other articles by heating.

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References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Granulating apparatus

Mechanical features relating to the working of mortars, concrete, stone, clay-wares or ceramics , e.g. mixing or shaping ceramic compositions, boring natural stone

Chemical preparation of powders of inorganic compounds

Devitrified glass-ceramics

Compositions containing free metal bonded to carbides, diamond, oxides, borides, nitrides, silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, such as oxynitrides or sulfides, other than as macroscopic reinforcing agents

Building elements or constructions; Finishing work on buildings

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials for prostheses or for coating prostheses

Chemical or biological purification of waste gases

Layered products

Treating inorganic non-fibrous materials to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties

Adhesives

Cementing or plastering compositions for boreholes or wells

Alloys based on refractory metals

Shaft or vertical furnaces in general

Hydraulic hardening materials , e.g. concretes, ceramics or refractories for protection against radiation, i.e. shielding

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, for the parts C04B 2/00-C04B 32/00, C04B 38/00, C04B 40/00, C04B 41/00 the CIS indexing system is used. For details, see below

Combination set (C-sets)

1. Introduction

1.1 This manual relates to the rules to be applied when classifying documents using C-sets in the "cement part" of subclass C04B. With the "cement part" we mean the whole of the subclass, with the exception of the range C04B 33/00 - C04B 37/00.

However, symbols of the range C04B 33/00 - C04B 35/00 can be used as Indexing Codes (when the classification is in C04B 38/00 or C04B 41/00).

1.2 C-sets are used in three major areas:

- C04B 2/00 - C04B 32/00 and C04B 40/00: Compositions of cement/concrete mixtures or of artificial stone like materials

- C04B 38/00: porous materials

- C04B 41/00: after treatment.

1.3 Symbols that are used in the present C-set system are chosen from:

- C04B 2/00 - C04B 41/00 (with the exception of C04B 37/00):

these are symbols which can be used as classification as well as symbols in the combination sets (C-set),

these are symbols used as additional information (CCA) or within the C-set (see below).

1.4 The principles of Combination sets are based on the possibilities offered by the IPC (until IPC7) for using classification symbols also as (linked) Indexing Codes.

The C-sets are present in EPODOC:

/CCI : CPC classification symbol

/CCA: Additional information

/CLC: the combination sets (C-sets) of symbols linked to the classification (CCI) or to the additional information (CCA)

The first symbol of a C-set is referred to as the "base class". Symbols in the C-set are separated by a comma (,).

The base group can be an CCI or CCA group

2. C-sets in the range C04B 2/00 - C04B 32/00 and C04B 40/00

2.1 This part of C04B relates to cement-, mortar-, concrete- and artificial stone compositions or their constituents or ingredients.

As a general rule such compositions (further referred to as "mixtures") contain three types of ingredients:

- one or more binders (organic or inorganic)

- fillers (inactive ingredients)

- active ingredients, e.g. accelerators.

[Exception: main group C04B 30/00 relates to compositions not containing binders].

2.2 Overview of main groups:

- C04B 2/00 - C04B 12/00 : relate to inorganic binders as such

- C04B 14/00 - C04B 20/00 : relate to fillers

- C04B 22/00 - C04B 24/00 : relate to active ingredients

- C04B 26/00 - C04B 32/00 : relate to the mixtures

- C04B 40/00 : relates to characteristics / preparation of the mixtures

2.3 Classification rules:

2.3.1 When an invention relates to an individual ingredient, classification is made in the range C04B 2/00 - C04B 12/00 if this ingredient is a binder, in the range C04B 14/00 - C04B 20/00 if the ingredient is a filler and in the range C04B 22/00 - C04B 24/00 if it is an active ingredient.

2.3.2 When an invention relates to a mixture, classification is made in the range C04B 26/00 - C04B 32/00, according to the binder used while applying the last place rule (LPR). So if a combination of an organic and an inorganic binder is present, classification is made in C04B 28/00, not in C04B 26/00. If a combination of two inorganic binders is present, classification is done in C04B 28/00 according to the LPR for one of the binders, the others are added as symbols in the C-set and are chosen from C04B 7/00-C04B 12/00 groups. If one of the ingredients is (suspected to be) new or unusual, or special details describing this ingredient are given, classification is also made for this ingredient.

2.3.3 When the invention merely relates to the preparation or characteristics of the mixture, classification is made in C04B 40/00. If the mixture as such or one of its ingredients is considered to be new or unusual, classification is made for these aspects too. For obtaining porous materials see point 3. below.

2.3.4 When the invention relates to an active additive which is a mixture on its own, e.g. the combination of two specific polymers and a specific inorganic salt, classification is made in C04B 40/0039. If the use of one of the ingredients as such is new to the field, classification for this ingredient as such is made also.

2.4 C-set rules:

2.4.1 Primary goal of the combination set is to identify the individual constituents of the mixtures, using the classification symbols for these ingredients as part of a C-set, linked to the classification symbol which already identifies (one of) the binder(s).

Example 1:

A mixture containing a mixed binder of aluminium cement, Portland cement and a polymeric co-binder, next to diatomaceous earth and an inorganic sulfate will be classified - according to the LPR - in C04B 28/06, the other ingredients being identified by the appropriate symbols in the C-set:

An organic co-binder next to an inorganic binder is indexed as an active organic ingredient (main group C04B 24/00).

Because in this example, all ingredients as such are known in the field, no further classification is made.

2.4.2 When for one of the ingredients alternatives are mentioned, separate C-sets are made.

Example 2:

If in the example 1, an inorganic chloride was mentioned as an alternative to the sulfate, the indexing would look like:

(Putting C04B 22/12 and C04B 22/142 in the same set would mean they are both present in the same mixture).

2.4.3 When classification is made for individual (active) ingredients, their function or in some cases their characteristics can be identified using the C04B 2103/00 series.

Example 3:

A new organic sulfonated plasticizer:

When for a mixture, many alternatives for the same ingredient with a specific function are mentioned, instead of making a set for each alternative, only one C-set with the C04B symbol in the C-set for the function can be made. If one of the alternatives is preferred in the document a second set with the symbol for that alternative can be made too.

Example 4:

In a concrete mixture, a superplasticizer is added. This superplasticizer can be chosen from many alternatives, for each of which a C04B 24/00 entry exist. However a lignosulfonate is preferred.

2.4.4 In a similar way, characteristics or uses of the mixtures are identified with symbols of the C04B 2111/00 series. These symbols are always used as additional information.(CCA)

Example 5:

The composition of example 1 is used for sound insulation:

In addition to the above sets CCA: C04B 2111/52

2.4.5 When information is given about the preparation or characteristics of

the mixtures - this information not being the "main" information - additional symbols of main group C04B 40/00 can be added in the C-set.

Example 6:

The mixture of example 1 is hardened using microwaves:

The mixture of example 1 is of the deferred action type:

2.4.6 When the process of making is the main invention a CCI in C04B 40/00 can be given. As a general rule, when classifying in C04B 40/00, symbols in the C-set are used to identify the kind of mixture, not to identify the individual ingredients. If it is important to identify these ingredients, further classification is made as mixture and the ingredients are identified by symbols linked to the classification symbol of the mixture in the C-set.

Example 7:

If only common ingredients are used:

If also the composition of the mixture is of interest:

2.4.7 A special case within main group C04B 40/00 are the pre-mixtures of ingredients.

Here the same principle as for point 2.4.1 is applied, i.e. the classification symbols identifying the ingredients are linked to C04B 40/0039 (CCI) and a symbol from the range C04B 26/00 - C04B 32/00 is added to the C-set to indicate for which kind of mixture the pre-mixture is intended to be used.

Example 8:

2.4.8 In the range for inorganic binders as such (C04B 2/00 - C04B 12/00) symbols can also be used in a C-set to identify aspects for which a classification symbol exists, but which aspects as such are not important enough to be classified.

Example 9:

Example 10:

2.4.9 For agglomerated materials (= artificial aggregates or fillers), which are classified in C04B 18/021 and subgroups, the starting materials other than the binder can be identified with further symbols in the C-set.

Example 11:

Making artificial gravel from a mixture of cement and mining refuse:

2.4.10 Main group C04B 20/00 is a general group for fillers. When classification is made in this group, very often the specific filler involved is identified by adding the specific filler symbol in the C-set..

Example 12:

Expanding perlite in a rotary kiln:

Example 13:

Coating alumina with metal:

2.4.10a Groups C04B 20/123 and C04B 20/126 are used in the C-set only in combination with C04B 20/12 to indicate:

-in the case of C04B 20/123 that a coating is an alternative to the previous indicated coating

Example 14:

-in the case of C04B 20/126 that the coating layer is the same as a previous coating layer

Example 15:

3.Classifying in main group C04B 38/00.

3.1 This part of C04B relates to porous or lightweight cement-, mortar-, concrete-and artificial stone compositions and porous or lightweight ceramics.

More generally we could say that C04B 38/00 relates to inorganic foamed materials or bodies, with the exception of foamed metal.

Subdivision of C04B 38/00 is largely based on the methods used for obtaining the porosity or the reduction in weight, e.g. by adding lightweight filler (C04B 38/08), by adding a gas forming agent (C04B 38/02) or by burning out a burnable additive (C04B 38/06).

3.2 Classification and C-set rules:

3.2.1 Officially in main group C04B 38/00, there is no LPR. Nonetheless when porosity is obtained by a combination of methods, as a general rule, classification is made in the last appropriate place. The second method, not identified by classification (CCI), is identified by a C04B 38/00 symbol in the C-set. If of interest, documents can be even classified twice (see further point 3.2.3)

3.2.2 The central idea for classification/indexing in C04B 38/00 is:

- classification according to the method (see 3.2.1) and

- Indicating the nature of the material that is made porous or lightweight.

For identifying the nature of the material, symbols can be chosen from C04B 26/00 - C04B 35/00. In very exceptional cases also C04B 14/00 symbols can be used.

Example 16:

Obtaining a porous silicon carbide body by dissolving out a soluble salt.

Example 17:

Obtaining porous porcelain by burning out a monolithic PUR sponge impregnated with clay slip:

HOWEVER there is a fundamental difference in approach when classifying "cement type" mixtures and "ceramic type" materials or bodies: see points 3.2.6 and 3.2.7 below!

3.2.3 When a combination of methods is used, the method that is not identified by the classification is given a C04B 38/00 symbol in the C-set.

Example 18:

To the material of example 14 there is also added a gas forming agent:

3.2.4 In the same way other aspects of interest can be identified by giving further C04B 38/00 symbols.

Example 19:

The material of example 18 is characterised by the dimensions of the nanosized pores and the overall % of porosity:

3.2.5 When classifying in main group C04B 38/00, in the same way as for the indexing of mixtures as described in point 2 above, symbols of the series C04B 2111/00 can be used to indicate properties are uses, e.g. sound insulation.

Example 20:

The material of example 17 is used for electronic applications:

3.2.6 Porous or lightweight ceramics are always classified in C04B 38/00 according to rules 3.2.1 to 3.2.5

3.2.7 Porous or lightweight cement-, concrete-, artificial stone- and like mixtures:

3.2.7a These type of mixtures are classified as such mixtures, so in the range C04B 26/00 - C04B 32/00, according to the rules of point 2 above. The appropriate C04B 38/00 symbols are added in the C-set.

Example 21:

Reinforced portland cement based concrete containing also carbon fibres and made porous by adding Al particles (Al will react with Ca(OH)2 liberated during cement hardening and thus produce H2 gas):

Example 22:

Foaming gypsum by adding specific sulfonated foaming agent:

3.2.7b When one or more of the other symbols give sufficient "C04B 38/00 information", no further C04B 38/00 symbols are given.

Example 23:

Expanded clay containing concrete will NOT receive symbol C04B 38/08, because C04B 14/12 already gives sufficient information:

3.2.7c So as a general rule these kind of mixtures are not classified in main group C04B 38/00. Classification is made in this main group only when the invention relates to the process of obtaining the porosity or the reduction of weight. When the composition as such is still interesting in such a case, further classification is made for the mixture.

Example 24:

The characteristic feature of the invention of example 21 is the way in which the Al particles are handled in the context of obtaining the gas concrete:

3.2.8 While in general the LPR is applied in main group C04B 38/00, exception is made for obtaining porous or lightweight ceramic particles C04B 38/009. As a general rule, this group takes precedence over the other C04B 38/00 groups.

Example 25:

Obtaining porous alumina particles by burning out polymeric core:

4. Classifying in main group C04B 41/00

4.1 This part of C04B relates to the after-treatment of materials covered by C04B,

i.e. after-treatment of cement-, mortar-, concrete- and artificial stone products as well as ceramic materials AND natural stone. Hereinafter the treated materials are referred to as "substrates".

While other kinds of after-treatment are not excluded, C04B 41/00 relates to after-treatment of substrate, mainly to :

- coating or impregnation of the substrates: C04B 41/45 and subgroups

- removing material from the substrates: C04B 41/53 and subgroups.

In main group C04B 41/00, no distinction is made between coating or impregnation. Therefore the terms coating, impregnation and layer are considered equivalent.

4.2 Classification and C-set rules:

4.2.1 As a general rule subdivision of main group C04B 41/00 is based on aspects relating to the method of after-treatment, such as the selection of the method for applying the coating material on the substrate, e.g. by CVD (C04B 41/4531) or the selection of the coating or impregnation material with which the substrate is treated, e.g. coating with carbon (C04B 41/5001).

When using C-set, only the range C04B 41/00 - C04B 41/5392 is used . Documents classified in the range C04B 41/60 - C04B 41/91 always get also a class in C04B 41/00 - C04B 41/5392, which may be combined with one or more C-sets.

4.2.2 To identify the substrate that is after-treated, the class C04B 41/009 is given and C-sets are created using complementary symbols chosen from:

- C04B 14/02 - C04B 14/36 when natural stone is treated

- C04B 26/00 - C04B 32/005 when artificial stone, e.g. concrete is treated

- C04B 33/00 - C04B 35/83 when ceramics are treated

- C04B 38/00 - C04B 38/106 when porous materials are treated

- C04B 14/38 - C04B 14/48 when ceramic fibres are treated, i.e. only when classifying in C04B 41/4584.

When the substrate is further defined e.g. a wood fiber/particle board, which in itself is information that does not require classification in the substrate class itself e.g. C04B 28/02 , then the C04B 41/009 set will be:

If a class in C04B 28/00 is also required because the mixture per se is interesting and is part of the invention information, then the C04B 41/009 set will comprise only the C04B 28/02 symbol

Example 26:

Impregnating a natural marble stone with polyester:

Example 27:

Concrete based on aluminium cement is treated with waterglass (Na-silicate):

Example 28:

A silicon nitride body is glazed:

Example 29:

Coating alumina fibres with aluminium:

So for classification, C04B 41/4584 takes precedence over other C04B 41/00 groups when ceramic particles or fibres are treated!

Multiple coating of particulate or fibrous material is usually also classified in C04B 41/52 so that it is possible to attribute C-sets for each coating layer (see point 4.2.5 below).

4.2.3 In main group C04B 41/00, the LPR applies. As most subgroups relate to specific methods of applying coatings are subgroups of C04B 41/4505, while the groups identifying the nature of the coating material are further down in the scheme, this LPR in general results in a classification according to the material applied. One or more symbols identifying aspects of the method used are added in the C-set.

Example 30:

The process of example 26 is carried out under vacuum and increased temperature:

However, when the invention relates to the process proper, classification is made in the process group and a further symbol is used in the C-set for identifying the applied material on the substrate. If more ample information has to be given about the nature of the coating, classification is also made for this aspect in combination with a further C-set.

Example 31:

The process of example 26 is carried out under an atmosphere of very specific composition, this composition being the essential feature of the invention:

Example 32:

In the example 31, the polyester can be mixed with other polymers:

Exception on the LPR: for classification, C04B 41/4584 takes precedence over other groups of C04B 41/00 when treatment of ceramic fibres or particles is concerned (see example 29).

4.2.4 When alternatives are to be identified, the same procedure is applied as for concrete and like mixtures, i.e. two or more C-sets of symbols are made. There might be alternatives both for the process and the material applied to the substrate.

Example 33:

The treatment of example 27 can be carried out either under vacuum or under inert atmosphere:

4.2.5 Multiple coating or impregnation.

When the same substrate is coated with two or more layers, classification is made in C04B 41/52. If one of the layers as such might be new in the field, classification for this layer as such is made too.

For each layer a separate C-set is made, each starting with C04B 41/52, the first set relating to the first layer, the second set relating to the second layer etc.

Example 34:

A clay ware body is first coated with an engobe and then with a glaze:

Example 35:

The engobe used in example 34 looks new to the field:

Exception: when the different coatings result in layers of the same composition, classification is made according to the nature of that layer and C04B 41/52 is added to the C-set !

Example 36:

A boron carbide body is coated with two or more layers, which might slightly differ in composition, but which all result in a carbon coating:

As for single layer coatings, additional C04B 41/00 codes can be added to the C-set to identify other interesting aspects of the respective coatings.

4.2.6 When, in the case of multiple coating, alternatives are mentioned, the following procedure is followed.

If, e.g. for layer 2 an alternative is to be identified, the third C-set will represent this alternative layer, with at the end the symbol C04B 41/522. [This symbol is not to be used for classification.] So in this case, a possible third layer will be identified by the fourth C-set, because the third one refers to an alternative of the second layer (represented by the second set).

Example 37:

In the example 34, a porcelain layer can be used as an alternative to the engobe layer:

-When a coating layer is the same as a previous coating layer, a similar procedure as above is followed, adding the symbol C04B 41/524 at the end of the layer that is identical to a previously identified layer

Example 38

4.2.7 For the sake of classification/C-sets in C04B, treatment of "green" concrete or ceramics, i.e. concrete that has not hardened yet, resp. ceramic products that are not fired yet, is considered to be covered by C04B 41/00. Such documents will receive C04B 41/4578 as an extra symbol in the C-set. Only in exceptional cases, classification can be made in this group.

Example 39:

The substrate of example 25 is treated before hardening of the concrete:

4.2.8 Group C04B 41/53 relates to the removal of part of the materials of the treated article. A coating process including a step like polishing, roughening or etching is however not classified in C04B 41/53 or a subgroup (what could be expected applying the last place rule), but is classified applying the general rules for coatings above and adding C04B 41/53 or a subgroup to the C-set. If however the removal is the essential step of the invention, classification in C04B 41/53 is (also) made.

4.2.9 In the same way as when classifying/C-sets in the other parts of C04B, mentioned above, symbols of the series C04B 2111/00 can be used to identify uses or characteristics of the products obtained.

Example 40:

The material of example 36 is used for electronic applications:

/Indexing Code: C04B 2111/00844

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Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Active ingredients

Ingredients having an effect on the mortar-, concrete- or artificial stone composition during processing or on the characteristics of the final product, e.g. as set accelerator, as dispersant or as gas generating agent. Other examples are processing aids or property improvers, e.g. grinding aids, used after the cement burning process or in the absence of such a burning process.

Cement

The binder proper, i.e. excluding any additional ingredient or additive added to the finished binder as such, with the exception of mixtures of binders.

Clinker

The unground sintered product leaving the cement kiln. In patent literature this term might be used literally, i.e. to indicate the unground sintered product leaving the cement kiln, or it might be used to indicate the ground cement without any additive, i.e. not interground with additives such as gypsum.

Ceramics

Inorganic, non metallic products obtained by a process involving a shaping step and a sintering or comparable heat treatment step, with the exclusion of cements , cermets and glasses, glazes, vitreous enamels and devitrified glass ceramics.

Fillers

Inactive ingredients, include pigments, aggregates and fibrous reinforcing materials.

Fine ceramics

Ceramics having a polycrystalline fine-grained microstructure, e.g. of dimensions below 100 micrometer.

Hydraulic binder

For the purpose of classification and search in this subclass, the terms " cement " and " hydraulic binder " are considered to be equivalent, even if in literature, an hydraulic binder might be defined as a mixture of cement and one or more inorganic additives.

Mortar- , concrete- and artificial stone compositions

They are considered as a single group of materials, are mixtures of one or more binders with fillers or other ingredients. In the context of such compositions, the terms " cement " and "binder" are considered equivalent.

Resin mortar or resin concrete

Mortar or concrete containing resin as a binder instead of cement , i.e. excluding any inorganic binder and containing a considerable amount of inorganic filler compared with the amount of the organic binder.

Refractories

Ceramics or mortars withstanding high temperatures of at least about 1500 degrees C. For classification and search in this subclass no substantial distinction is made between the terms " refractories " and " ceramics ".

Porous materials

Materials which are deliberately made porous, e.g. by adding gas-forming, foaming, burnable or lightweight additives to the composition they are made of.

Lime, magnesia or dolomite (hydraulic lime cements C04B 7/34)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Lime binders as such; Preparation thereof;

C-set is used only incidentally in this class. If so, symbols are chosen from other C04B 2/00 groups and C04B. A C04B 2/00 symbol in a C-set set having a C04B 28/00 CPC class indicates the presence of a second binder.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydraulic lime cements

Mixtures containing lime as a binder

Lime {(obtaining Ca(OH)2 otherwise than by simple slaking of quick lime C01F 11/02)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Obtaining Ca(OH)2 otherwise than by simple slaking of quick lime

Slaking {(simultaneous dehydrating of gypsum and slaking of lime C04B 11/022)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Slaking, with water including air slaking, filtering after slaking

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Devices for filtering after slaking

Simultaneous dehydrating of gypsum and slaking of lime

Warming up food and the like, e. g. by slaking lime

Hydration of MgO

Chemical heat sources

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices and method

documents are classified in C04B 2/08 and receive a C-set C04B 2/08; C04B 2/04

{Slaking of impure quick lime, e.g. contained in fly ash}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydrating cement clinker

Quenching coke

Devices therefor
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices for slaking lime, e.g. devices for preparing milk of lime or for purifying slaked lime e.g. by filtering

in shaft or vertical furnaces (shaft or vertical furnaces in general F27B 1/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Shaft or vertical furnaces in general

Treatment of {metallurgical} slag (manufacture of slag wool C03B; in, or for, the production of metals C21B, C22B); Artificial stone from molten {metallurgical} slag (mechanical aspects B28B 1/54 {other cast stone C04B 32/005})
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanical aspects

Manufacture of slag wool

Other cast stone

Treatment of slag in, or for the production of metals

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Metallurgical slag

Slag from metallurgy processes

Hydraulic cements (calcium sulfate cements C04B 11/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cements as such and their manufacturing methods.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Porsal cement

Special rules of classification

CIS is used only incidentally in this class. If so, index codes are chosen from other C04B 7/00 groups and C04B. A C04B 7/00 index code in a CIS set having a C04B 28/00 EC class indicates the presence of a second binder.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Hydraulic cement

- like cements setting under the influence of water and - cements hardening in the air and under water

Portland cement
Definition statement

This place covers:

Portland cement (PC),

i.e. hydraulic cement produced by firing limestone or chalk and clay (or other silica, alumina, iron bearing materials) so that Ca-silicate sand aluminates are formed. Average composition: 45% C3S, 25%C2S, rest C3A, C4AF;

i.e. average oxide composition: SiO2 17-24, Al2O3 3-7, Fe2O3 1-5, CaO60-65, MgO 1-5, alkali 1, SO3 1-3;

i.e. average water : cement ratio is 0.4 - 0.6;

i.e. during hydration Ca(OH)2 is formed, given thus an alkaline reaction;

i.e. PC clinker mostly coground with gypsum to retard setting;

e.g. WHITE PC: low proportion of iron oxide by the choice of raw materials or by firing in reducing flame;

e.g. MEDUSA CEMENT = white PC ;

e.g. LOW HEAT CEMENT : high % of C2S and C4AF, low % of C3S and C3A;

e.g. MASONRY CEMENT for more plastic mortar, often produced by grinding more finely than ordinary PC , a mixture of PC and limestone (or colloidal clay, diatomaceous earth);

e.g. RAPID HARDENING PC = ground finer than PC, slightly altered, setting time similar but strength developed more rapidly;

e.g. SULPHATE RESISTANT PC = high % of C3S and C2S, low % of C3A and C4AF. Should not contain C3A to avoid formation of ettringite (="cement bacillus")

using raw materials containing gypsum {, i.e. processes of the Mueller-Kuehne type}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Portland cement using raw materials containing gypsum, e.g. using CaSO4 instead of chalk or limestone as raw material in the combined production of cement and H2SO4 (actually production of SO2)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ca-aluminosulfate cements

using alkaline raw materials (C04B 7/60 takes precedence)
Special rules of classification

C04B 7/60 takes precedence

Natural pozzuolanes; Natural pozzuolana cements; {Artificial pozzuolanes or artificial pozzuolana cements other than those obtained from waste or combustion residues, e.g. burned clay; Treating inorganic materials to improve their pozzuolanic characteristics} (cements containing slag C04B 7/14)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Slag cements

Cements based on fly ash

Cements based on combustion residues, e.g. from coal

Pozzuolans as fillers

Compositions based on (fly) ash, without addition of lime (producing) compound

Lime-pozzuolana based compositions

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Artificial pozzuolana cements

C04B 7/24 and subgroups

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Pozzuolana

a material that, ground and mixed with lime and water, produces at ordinary temperatures compounds with hydraulic properties;

Pozzuolana cement

obtained by grinding together a pozzuolana with cement clinker or (hydraulic) lime;

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • " Natural pozzuolanas "," Santorini earth "," Trass "," Volcanic ash "and " Diatomaceous earth "
Cements containing slag (slags from waste incineration C04B 7/28)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cements comprising slags as raw material, e.g. cements having low heat of hydration, cements with higher glass content (improved hydraulic characteristics)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mâchefer (= slag from coal combustion)

Slags from combustion of coal, or waste incineration

Silicates added as active ingredients before/during the burning process

Metallurgical slag
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement containing metallurgical slag,

Examples of metallurgical slag :

blast furnace slag .;

STEELMAKING SLAGS.

L.D. slags, (as such not suited as hydraulic cement because of high content of CaO and MgO (lime and magnesia are sprayed on the bath during the oxygen injection for decarburizing and refining the steel)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Treatment of slag

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Scorie

metallurgical byproduct based on silicates

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Laitier = scorie de haut fourneau = blast furnace slag

Laitier d'aciéries = steelmaking slags

LD slags = scorie d'aciéries

Mixtures thereof with other inorganic cementitious materials or other activators
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement containing metallurgical slag with other inorganic cementitious materials or other activators,

e.g. basic slags + PC clinker or anhydrite;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ingredients added to the slag in the molten state

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

METAAL CEMENTEN = basic slags + PC clinker or anhydrite;

{with alkali metal containing activators, e.g. sodium hydroxide or waterglass}
Special rules of classification

when the alkali activated slag results in a polymeric - Davidovits type - cement, additional classification in C04B 12/005 should be given

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

waterglass

Sodium silicate

with calcium oxide containing activators {(C04B 7/1535 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement containing metallurgical slag mixed with calcium oxide containing activators,

e.g. SLAG CEMENT = "cold process slag cement" = obtained by cogrinding granulated B.F. slag

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

BF slag = ciment de laitier

slakkencementen (BE) = ciment de laitier à la chaux (FR)

Portland cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement containing metallurgical slag mixed with Portland cements,

e.g. PORTLAND BLAST FURNACE CEMENT (GB) = cogrinding 65% B.F. slag +PC clinker (no gypsum);

e.g. PORTLAND BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT (US) = 25-65% granulated B.F.slag;

e.g. CIMENTS DE HAUT-FOURNEAU (BE) = 30-70% granulated B.F. slag;

e.g. CIMENTS PERMETALLIQUES (BE) = more than 70% B.F. slag;

e.g. CIMENTS PORTLAND DE FER (FR) = 25-35% B.F. slag;

e.g. CIMENTS METALLURGIQUES MIXTES (FR) = 45-55% B.F. slag;

e.g. CIMENTS DE HAUT-FOURNEAU (FR) = 65-75% B.F. slag;

e.g. CIMENTS DE LAITIER AU CLINKER (FR) = more than 80% B.F. slag;

e.g. EISENPORTLANDZEMENT (DE) = less than (35 or) 40% B.F. slag;

e.g. HOCHOFENZEMENT (DE) = 36 (or 41) -85% B.F. slag;

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Portland cements = ciments de haut-fourneau = ciment permétallique,= ciments Portland de fer = ciments métallurgiques mixtes = ciments de laitier au clinker = eisenportalndzement = hochofenzement

with calcium sulfate containing activators {(C04B 7/1535 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement containing metallurgical slagmixed with calcium sulfate containing activators,

e.g. SUPERSULPHATED CEMENT = granulated B.F. slag + CaSO4 + small % PC or lime

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cement containing metallurgical slag mixed with alkali metal containing activators

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Supersulphated cement = ciment métallurgique sursulfaté = ciment sursulfaté = sulfathüttenzement

Cements from oil shales, residues or waste other than slag
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement using as raw materials oil shales, residues or waste resulting from different processes, e.g. combustion waste, demolition waste, household, not being slag

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waste as additive to the raw material

Waste as fillers for concrete compositions

{Mixtures thereof with activators or composition-correcting additives, e.g. mixtures of fly ash and alkali activators}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cements produced from oil shales, residues or wastes mixed with activators or composition-correcting additives

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

when the alkali activated waste results in a polymeric - Davidovits type - cement, additional classification in C04B 12/005 should be given

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Activator

Material used to enhance the hydraulic activity of (waste) raw materials

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Composition correcting additives = activators

from raw materials containing flue dust {, i.e. fly ash (C04B 7/243 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydraulic cements from oil shales, residues or wastes other than slag mixed with activators or composition-correcting additives

from combustion residues, {e.g. ashes or slags from waste incineration} ({C04B 7/243} , C04B 7/26 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cements produced from combustion residues,

e.g. artificial pozzuollans other than slags or fly ashes.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydraulic cements from oil shales, residues or waste other than slag mixed with activators or composition-correcting additives

Hydraulic cements from raw materials containing flue dust

Concrete compositions containing artificial pozzuollans

from oil shale; from oil shale residues {; from lignite processing, e.g. using certain lignite fractions}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cements produced from oils shale, from oil shale residues, from lignite processing,

e.g. simultaneous production of cement and combustion gas from coal

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Schistes houillers = bitumineus kalksteen

Aluminous cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic aluminous cements, obtained by melting (or sintering) a mixture of bauxite and chalk; cooling; grinding.

Composed of :3CaO.Al2O3 (tricalcium dialuminate), CaO.2Al2O3 (calciumtetraaluminate), CaO.Al2O3 (calcium metaaluminate).

Comp.: CaO 37.7 ,Al2O3 38.5 , Fe2O3 12.7 , FeO 3.9 , SiO2 5.3 , SO3 0.1 .

Hydration: -->mostly 3CaO.Al2O.6H2O + Al(OH)3 formed;

i.e. characteristics: less aggressive to the skin than PC,

* very rapid strength development (24h = 28 days for PC)

*setting time = similar to PC

* sulphate/seewater resistant

* colour =black ,

* to be used to -10 C

used for castable refractories;

e.g. high alumina cement;

e.g. 11CaO.7Al2O3.CaX2

{Calcium aluminosulfate cements, e.g. cements hydrating into ettringite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic calcium aluminosulfate cements

e.g. 4CaO.3Al2O3.SO3;

Hydraulic lime cements; Roman cements {; natural cements}
Definition statement

This place covers:

i.e. HYDRAULIC LIME : obtained from limestone containing clay, burnt at 1000 - 1200 C ..>; beta-C2S, C2AS, C4AF .

WATERKALK. The more hydraulic the closer to cement;

i.e. ROMAN CEMENT = ROCK CEMENT = obtained by calcining a natural mixture of clay and limestone;

i.e. NATURAL CEMENT = idem (below sintering);

e.g. SELENITIC CEMENT = lime + 5 - 10% plaster of lime;

e.g. HYDRAULIC HYDRATED LIME = hydrated dry cement. Product obtained by calcining limestone containing silica and alumina to a temper. short of incipient fusion --->; sufficient free CaO formed to permit hydration and leaving unhydrated suffic. calc. silicate;

e.g. HIGH CALCIUM HYDRAULIC HYDRATED LIME = hydraulic hydrated lime containing <= 5% MgO;

e.g. HIGH MAGNESIUM HYDRAULIC HYDRATED LIME = hydraulic hydrated lime containing >= 5% MgO;

{Condition or time responsive control in hydraulic cement manufacturing processes (controlling or regulating in general G05; F27B 7/42 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Controlling, monitoring hydraulic cement manufacturing processes,, e.g.. automation

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangement of controlling, monitoring rotary-drum furnaces

Controlling or regulating in general

{Avoiding environmental pollution during cement-manufacturing}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacture of hydraulic cements preventing environmental pollution during the process e.g. desulfuration

Active ingredients added before, or during, the burning process (after the burning process C04B 22/00, C04B 24/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacture of hydraulic cements by treating raw materials with active ingredients added before or during the burning processes e.g. additives for obtaining white cement

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Blended cements with slags

Adding ingredients after the burning process

{Acids or salts thereof}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacture of hydraulic cements by treating raw materials with acids or salts added before or during the burning processes e.g. vanadates

Heat treatment, e.g. precalcining, burning, melting; Cooling {(aspects only relating to the installation F27B)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Automatisation aspects

Desulfuration

Aspects only relating to the installation

Furnaces, kilns, ovens and details thereof

{Preheating without addition of fuel}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacture of hydraulic cement by preheating without addition of fuel during the preheating step, for example by using exhaust gases, e.g. RSP = reinforced suspension preheater

{Preheating with addition of fuel, e.g. calcining}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacture of hydraulic cement by preheating with addition of fuel , e.g. with addition of fuel in the calcining step, besides the addition of fuel in the kiln itself

{Treatment or selection of the fuel therefor, e.g. use of hazardous waste as secondary fuel (fuels in general C10L); Use of particular energy sources, e.g. waste hot gases from other processes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Treatment or selection of the fuel for the burning during the manufacture of hydraulic cement e.g. fuel for burning other raw material; waste hot gases

e.g. heavy fuel oil (S-content >1%)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Refuse consuming furnaces

{in shaft or vertical kilns}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

For lime

Shaft or vertical kilns in general

in fluidised beds {, e.g. spouted beds}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Calcination in fluidised beds

electric
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric burning or melting during the manufacture of hydraulic cement

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Non-electric melting

Clinker treatment (C04B 7/47 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cooling during the manufacture of the hydraulic cement

Hydrating
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clinker hydration during manufacture of hydraulic cement, i.e. in principle for the hydration of the lime content of the clinker;

e.g. hydrating ground clinker

Grinding {; After-treatment of ground cement}
Definition statement

This place covers:

grinding and cooling : CIS indexed as (C04B 7/52; C04B 7/47)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydrating ground clinker

Still contains grinding aids

Grinding aids

are classified as active ingredients, e.g. in C04B 24/00, and receive C04B 2103/52 as an Indexing Code

Grinding aids in general

{After-treatment of ground cement (C04B 7/368 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Obtaining spherical cement particles in the manufacture of hydraulic cement

{obtaining cements characterised by fineness, e.g. by multi-modal particle size distribution}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cements characterised by fineness obtained by the clinker grinding e.g. "microcement": particles with diameter smaller than 15 micrometer

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Unground clinker

Methods for eliminating alkali metals or compounds thereof {, e.g. from the raw materials or during the burning process; methods for eliminating other harmful components (avoiding environmental pollution C04B 7/364)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Avoiding environmental pollution

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For aspects relating to cement kiln dust

Magnesium cements or similar cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cements are based on magnesium, e.g. Mg oxychloride, Mg oxysulfate; Preparation thereof;

Special rules of classification

CIS is used only incidentally in this class. If so, index codes are chosen from other C04B 9/00 groups and C04B. A C04B 9/00 index code in a CIS set having a C04B 28/00 EC class indicates the presence of a second binder.

Manufacture, e.g. preparing the batches (preheating, burning, calcining or cooling lime stone, magnesite or dolomite C04B 2/10)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Process of manufacturing magnesium cements or similar cements, e.g. burning, calcining

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Preheating, burning, calcining or cooling lime stone, magnesite or dolomite

Calcium sulfate cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Calcium sulfate cements,

e.g. Natural forms of CaSO4.2H2O: SELENITE, MARIAGLAS, TERRA ALBA,SATINITE, ALABASTER;

e.g. MORMOR CEMENT = Ca-sulphate;

e.g. MACK´S CEMENT = plaster of Paris + K2SO4 or Na2SO4;

e.g. LANDPLASTER = CaSO4.2H2O ;

e.g. aging of calcined gypsum

Special rules of classification

CIS is used only incidentally in this class. If so, index codes are chosen from other C04B 11/00 groups and C04B.

{Methods and apparatus for} dehydrating gypsum {(for other purposes than cement manufacture C01F 11/466)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and apparatus for dehydrating gypsum,

e.g. PLASTER = mostly alpha + beta.

e.g. regeneration of gypsum molds: (classification being //( C04B 11/02; C04B 11/262) or other way around)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Drying alpha-hemihydrate

Calcining in general

For other purposes than cement manufacture

for the wet process, e.g. dehydrating in solution or under saturated vapour conditions, {i.e. to obtain alpha-hemihydrate (C04B 11/0281 - C04B 11/0288 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

e.g. drying of alpha-gypsum;

e.g. quick setting alpha-plaster + K2CO3;

Relationships with other classification places

used for making moulds for the ceramic industry.

Moulds are classified in B29C in combination with B29K index scheme

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Attention

Take precedence

Special rules of classification

The presence of C04B 11/032 in a c-set indicates that alpha-hemihydrate form is used

for the dry process, e.g. dehydrating in a fluidised bed or in a rotary kiln {, i.e. to obtain beta-hemihydrate (C04B 11/0281 - C04B 11/0288 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices for the dry process of dehydrating gypsum

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

C04B 11/0281 - C04B 11/0288 take precedence

Special rules of classification

The presence of C04B 11/036 in a c-set indicates that beta-hemihydrate form is used

Cements not provided for in groups C04B 7/00 - C04B 11/00
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkali metal silicates per se and their preparation

Ammonium silicates per se and their preparation

Phosphate cements (in, or for, the manufacture of ceramics C04B 33/00, C04B 35/00)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

In or for the manufacturing of ceramics

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone (expanding or defibrillating materials C04B 20/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Inorganic materials used ad fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, and their treatment to enhance their filling properties e.g. inorganic pigments other than oxides;

C04B 14/00 and subgroups are used as substrate codes for coatings of natural stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Oxide pigments

C04B 14/30 and subgroups

Expanding or defibrillating materials

{Carbon}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carbon used as fillers for mortar, concrete or artificial stone, elemental carbon, e.g. COKE, KOKS (=90%C), LIGNITE, COCKES, "TEERKOKS";

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"MINERAL NOIR" = shale (70% SiO2, 30%C) = coal black = " NOIRMINER" = "NOIR D´ IVOIRE"

Silica-rich materials; Silicates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Silica-rich materials, silicates used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. "LOESS";

e.g. GREYWACKE, GRAYWACKE = conglomerate rock (round pebbles + sand, cemented together.)

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Clay

{Magnesium silicates, e.g. talc, sepiolite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Magnesium silicates used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SEPIOLITE; ASBESTINE

{Alkali-metal containing silicates, e.g. petalite (waterglass C04B 12/04)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alkali-metal containing silicates, Al-alkali metal silicates used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. PETALITE Li2O.Al2O3.8SiO2;

e.g. SPODUMENE LiO2.Al2O3.4SiO2;

e.g. EUCRYPTITE LiO2.Al2O3.2SiO2;

e.g. NEPHELINE SYENITE;

e.g. MAGADIITE

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waterglass

Quartz; Sand
Definition statement

This place covers:

Quartz, sand used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SILICA (SiO2) is polymorphic i.e. capable of existing in two or more crystal forms. Main forms of crystalline silica : QUARTZ,TRIDYMITE, CRISTOBALITE.

e.g. vitreous silica, amorphous silica;

e.g. precipitated silica; pyrogenic silica;

e.g. SILT = fine sand;

e.g. CHERT; FLINT; MOLDING SAND;

{Microsilica, e.g. colloïdal silica (preparing microsilica slurries or suspensions C04B 18/148)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

microsilica used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. colloidal silica 0.001-0.2 microns

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

C04B 18/146, C04B 12/04 take precedence

Preparing microsilica slurries or suspensions

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Microsilica

Silica having micro- or nanosize particles

{Silica aerogel}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Silica aerogel used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. silica aerogel being obtained by forming a SiO2 gel impregnated with a solvent, and evaporating the solvent under hypercritical conditions

{Specific natural sands, e.g. sea -, beach -, dune - or desert sand}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Specific natural sands used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. BARKHAN SAND, BARHAN SAND

Diatomaceous earth
Definition statement

This place covers:

Diatomaceous earth used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. hydrated amorphous silica, skeletons of Diatomacea which are related to brown algae

e.g. INFUSORIAL EARTH;

e.g. TRIPOLITE;

e.g. FOSSIL FLOUR,, MOUNTAIN FLOUR;

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

FOSSIL FLOUR= FARINE FOSSILE= MOUNTAIN FLOUR

KIESELGUHR, KIESELMEHL

"DIATOMEEN PELITE";

"MOLERERDE"

BERGHMEHL

Clay {(sepiolite C04B 14/042; grog C04B 18/025)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clay used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. Al silicates;

e.g. BALL CLAY;;FULLERS EARTH;;

e.g. MARL;

e.g. PORCELANITE

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sepiolite

C04B 14/042, some older document are in C04B 14/10

Chamotte, fireclay, fired clay, grog

C04B 18/025 (older documents have a C-set C04B 14/10; C04B 18/023)

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

BALL CLAY= GLAISE = FULLERS EARTH= LEEM;

MERGEL" = "MARNE" = MARL

OCRE

{Bentonite, e.g. montmorillonite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Bentonite, e.g. montmorillonite used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. HECTORITE, synthetic hectorite;

e.g. BLEACHING EARTH, "BLEICHERDE" = Al-Mg-Silikate

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waste bleaching earth

{Kaolin}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Kaolin used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

Kaolin is not sintered

e.g. METAKAOLIN, KAOLINITE;

e.g. SMECTITE [9212];

{Shale, slate (colliery shale C04B 18/125)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Shale, slate used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Shale residues, colliery shale

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

SHALE = SLATE = "SCHISTE" = "SCHIEFER" = "LEISTEEN" (harde klei) =ARDOISE

Expanded clay
Definition statement

This place covers:

Expanded clay used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. porous clay; expanded shale;

Minerals of vulcanic origin {(granite C04B 14/048)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mineral of volcanic origin used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. natural pozzuolanes (pozzolana, puzzolan) other than diatomaceous earth;

e.g. IGNEOUS ROCK

e.g. ANDESITE, RHYOLITE, PORFIER;

e.g. OBSIDIAN = vulcanic glass with little or no crystal water;

e.g. TRASS = TUFF = unconsolidated vulcanic ashes;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Granite

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

TUF

porous rock formed from cemented volcanic ashes or from calcareous deposits in lakes or springs

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

IGNEOUS ROCK = "ERGUSSGESTEIN " = "ROCHE EFFUCIVE

UITVLOEIINGS GESTEENTE" = "GESTOLDE LAVA"

"PECHSTEIN" = acidic vulcanic glass;

porous, e.g. pumice
Definition statement

This place covers:

Porous minerals of volcanic origin used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. PUMICE = porous volcanic rock;

e.g. LIPARITE =(Ca pegmatite) e.g. SHIRAZU, SHIRASU = volcanic ash;

e.g. PUMIZITE = volcanic glass

e.g. SCORIA, CINDER

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PUMICE = "PIERRE PONCE " = "PUIMSTEEN" = "BIMS"(12mm)

FLUGSAND = like bims but finer (7-10mm);

Perlite
Definition statement

This place covers:

Perlite being mineral of volcanic origin used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone e.g. volcanic glass

{expanded}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Expanded perlite (mineral of volcanic origin) used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. expanded by evaporation of crystal water

Mica; Vermiculite {(mechanical splitting B28D)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mica, vermulite used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. "GLIMMER", KAl3Si3O10(OH)2;

e.g. BIOTITE = dark or magnesia mica (rich in Mg and Fe);

e.g. MUSCOVITE = (Na,K)2O.3Al2O3.6SiO2.2H2O;

e.g. TRACHYLIPARITE;

e.g. sericite

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Punching of mica

Mechanical splitting

Mica treatment

Pulp or paper comprising mica or vermiculite

{Vermiculite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vermiculite used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. = hydrated biotite mica (OH)2(Mg Fe)3(SiAlFe)4O10.4H2O;

{expanded}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Delamination of mica

Chemical delamination

{Mica or vermiculite modified by cation-exchange; chemically exfoliated vermiculate}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ion exchanged silicates

{delaminated mica or vermiculite platelets}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanical delamination

Glass {; Devitrified glass}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any type of glass used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. recuperated, waste glass;

e.g. frits, email

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Vitreous SiO2

porous, e.g. foamed glass
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lightweight materials

Carbonates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carbonates used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. MAGNESITE, DOLOMITE, "DOLOMIE"

of calcium
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carbonates of calcium used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. TRIPOLI;

e.g. SHELLS, CORAL, MOTHER OF PEARLS,

e.g. CHALK,

e.g. ICELAND SPAR = pure crystalline calcite (CaCO3)

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"ARDUIN" = blue stone

Chalk = "NEUBERGER KREIDE", "KIESELKREIDE

Oxides other than silica {(ferrites C04B 14/363)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxides other than silica used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. simple oxides;

e.g. oxides used as pigments;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ferrites

Oxides as active ingredients

Special rules of classification

used as CIS codes for refractory filler in concrete

{Alumina}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alumina used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. Al(OH)3;

e.g. BAUXITE;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Gelatinous Al(OH)3

{Zirconium oxide (zircon C04B 14/046)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zircon

{Iron oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Iron oxide used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. CAPUT MORTUUM = ENGLISH RED = Fe2O3

Inorganic materials not provided for in groups {C04B 14/022 and} C04B 14/04 - C04B 14/34
Definition statement

This place covers:

Inorganic materials not classified in groups C04B 14/022, C04B 14/04 - C04B 14/34 used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. mineral salt (NaCl);

e.g. LITHOPONE = BaSO4 + ZnS (=pigment);

e.g. SPINEL = MgAl2O4

{Soil, e.g. laterite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Soil used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. mud, sapronel, laterite

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Harbour/river sludge

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

mud, sapronel, = "Faulschlamm

Fibrous materials; Whiskers
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fibres in general

{Carbon (carbon nanotubes C04B 14/026)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Carbon nanotubes

Fabrication of carbon fibres

Asbestos
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

- treating asbestos fibres see D06M 7/005, D02G 3/20;

- coating of asbestos in general see C03C 25/00;

- coating of asbestos CIS example C04B 20/10, C04B 14/40;

- disposal of asbestos see B09B 3/0066;

- asbestos from old buildings CIS example ( C04B 14/40, C04B 18/16)

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

CHRYSOTILE (serpentine family)

3MgO.2SiO2.2H2O

CROCIDOLITE (amphibole family)

BLUE ASBESTOS3Na2O.6FeO.2Fe2O3.16SiO2.H2O

AMOSITE (amphibole family)

2Ca.5MgO.8SiO2.H2O

TREMOLITE

amphibole family

ANTHOPHYLLITE

(Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2

ASBESTINE

fibrous variety of talc +tremolite

Glass
Definition statement

This place covers:

Glass fibers, glass whiskers used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Composition of (alkali-resistant) glass fibres

Coating glass fibres used for cement reinforcement

Glass fibres for resin matrix

Treatment for enhancing alkali resistance {(composition of alkali resistant glass fibres C03C 13/00; coating of glass fibres C03C 25/10)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Composition of alkali resistant glass fibres

Coating of glass fibres

Rock wool {; Ceramic or silicate fibres (C04B 14/40, C04B 14/42 take precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Take precedence

Ceramic fibres as such

{Oxides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxides , hydroxides of rock wool used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

TiO2

{Titanates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Titanates, TiO2 of rock wool used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

Cellulosic materials (cellulosic waste materials, e.g. sawdust, rice husks, C04B 18/24)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cellulosic fibres

Cellulosic waste materials, e.g. sawdust, rice husks

Macromolecular compounds (C04B 16/02 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Macromolecular organic compounds used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone e.g. glass-clear thermoplastic MBS resin (methacrylate-butadiene-styrene) for packaging , medical applications

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cellulosic materials as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

fibrous
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fibrous organic macromolecular compounds used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. regenerated cellulose fibers;

e.g. textile waste,

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

textile waste="Textilschnitzel"

{Fibrilles, e.g. fibrillated films}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fibrilles used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. polyalkanes;

e.g. stretched films,

e.g. "pulp" aramid fibers = very short , highly fibrillated with very fine fibrils or subfibers attached to core fibre

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fibrillated films in general

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

stretched films= films "etirés"

{Polyamides; Polyaramides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fibrilles of polyamaide, of polyaramides used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone e.g. aromatic polyetheramide fibers;

e.g. ARAMID fibers = poly (p-phenylene terephtalamide)

e.g. NYLON = aliphatic polyamide

porous, e.g. expanded polystyrene beads {or microballoons}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Porous organic macromolecular compounds used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. PS, EPS;

e.g. expanded PS

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Working up macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials

Treatment for enhancing the mixability with the mortar {(coating C04B 20/10)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Takes precedence

characterised by the shape (fibrous macromolecular compounds C04B 16/06; porous macromolecular compounds C04B 16/08 ){, e.g. perforated strips}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organic materials used as fillers for mortar, concrete or artificial stone characterised by their shape

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fibrous macromolecular compounds

Porous macromolecular compounds

Only characterised by the form

Use of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone (use of waste materials for the manufacture of cement C04B 7/24); Treatment of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse, specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Use of waste materials for the manufacture of cement

Granulating materials in general

Making microcapsules or microballoons

Agglomerated materials {, e.g. artificial aggregates}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Conditioning silica fume

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Temporary compacting of cement

Temporary compacting of gypsum

Making unhardened granules, mixing these granules, molding and hardening

C04B 40/0028 ( C04B 18/02 has been used as CIS code in this meaning)

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Artificial aggregates/synthetic aggregates

aggregates which are not "natural" in the way that crushed rocks or sands and gravels are. It implies human-made materials, whether by-products of some other industry or deliberately manufactured

{agglomerated by a mineral binder, e.g. cement}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Takes precedence

Waste from building industry

Special rules of classification

For agglomerated materials (=artificial aggregates or fillers) which are classified in C04B 18/021 or other equivalent subgroups of C04B 18/00, the starting materials other than the binder can be identified in the C-set with Indexing Codes. Codes are chosen form C04B 14/00, C04B 16/00, C04B 18/00 and less often from C04B 22/00 or C04B 24/00.

{agglomerated by an organic binder}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Still to be cleaned

Takes precedence;

Special rules of classification

See rules under C04B 18/021

{Fired or melted materials (C04B 20/06 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Agglomerated materials wherein a melting or firing step takes place during the agglomeration.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Porous fired material

C04B 18/027 ( + C-set code C04B 18/023)

Expanding clay, perlite, vermiculite or like granular materials used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Expanded clay

Pelletizing fly ash

Porous or hollow ceramic granular material

Special rules of classification

See rules under C04B 18/021

{Grog}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Grog used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. crushed refactory materials added to ceramic mixes to reduce lamination in clays and shrinkage on drying,

e.g. crushed pottery, firekrick, quartz quartzite, burned ware, saggers;

e.g. CHAMOTTE, FIRED CLAY, FIRECLAY as filler for concrete

Special rules of classification

Before [9105] documents were classified in C04B 14/10 and received C04B 20/04 index code in the C-set

{Melted materials (C04B 14/22 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Agglomerated materials wherein a melting step takes place during the agglomeration

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Glass, devitrified glass used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

{Lightweight materials (C04B 14/12 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Low density or porous agglomerated material used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

C04B 14/12 takes precedence

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Expanded clay

Porous glass

Expanding clay, vermiculite, perlite

Porous or hollow ceramic granular material

Special rules of classification

for crushed porous concrete aggregate ("Gasbetonbruch Zuschlag") , one set of codes with C04B 18/027 or C04B 38/00 and an alternative with C04B 18/16

Waste materials; Refuse {(C04B 14/405 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials, refuse, e.g. from industrial or other processes that are not covered by the subgroups

e.g. Si-Stoff;

e.g. mixtures of wastes

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waste added during the cement production i.e. in the kiln raw materials

Waste glass

Waste asbestos

Making harmful chemical agents harmless

A62D 3/00 and subgroups

Disposal of asbestos

Solidification of liquid or solid radioactive waste

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Solidification of sludges

{Waste from the purification of bauxite, e.g. red mud}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste from the purification of bauxite used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

treatment of waste from aluminium production

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Red mud, red sludge

solid waste product of the Bayer process, composed of a mixture of solid and metallic oxide-bearing impurities (high content of oxidised iron)

{Dry materials}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Dry waste materials used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

Wet waste materials that is dried before use as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

{Dredged harbour or river sludge (other slurries or sludges C04B 18/0418)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Other slurries or sludges

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Soil

Waste materials in general

{Synthetic gypsum, e.g. phosphogypsum (gypsum from smoke purification C04B 18/064)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Synthetic gypsum form waste material used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Gypsum from smoke purification

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Synthetic gypsum, flue-gas desulfurisation gypsum

byproduct of coal-fired power plants (coal burned with flue gas desulfurisation)

{Bleaching earth}
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Bleaching earth

(waste) bleaching earth is used as absorbent material for cleaning/bleaching of mineral, natural oils, fats and waxes. After the use it becomes "fat" bleaching earth. The fats/oils are removed as much as possible by boiling with soda and salt giving a low fat ("mager") bleaching earth

{Other specific industrial waste materials not provided for elsewhere in C04B 18/00}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Other specific industrial waste materials not provided in the other subgroups of C04B 18/00 used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. PYRITE CINDER Fe2O3;

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

kiesabbraende

Combustion residues, e.g. purification products of smoke, fumes or exhaust gases
Definition statement

This place covers:

Combustion residues used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. bottom ash;

e.g. coal ash, cinders

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Collecting residues from parts of furnace plants

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"SCHMELZKAMMERASCHE", "KESSELASCHE

{Ashes from fluidised bed furnaces}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ashes from fluidised bed furnaces used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. AFBC ashes = atmospheric fluidised bed combustion ashes

Special rules of classification

fly ashes from fluidised bed furnaces take two alternative sets of codes one with C04B 18/061 and one with C04B 18/08

{Residues from coal gasification}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Residues from coal gasification used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. residues from the partial oxidation of coal

Flue dust {, i.e. fly ash}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Flue dust, fly ash used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

flu

e.g. PFA = Pulverised Fuel Ash;

e.g. EFA = ElectroFilter Ash ("elektrofilter Abzug");

e.g. HVFA = High Volume Fly Ash ";

e.g. Class F fly ash: pozzolanic,usually from bituminous coal, low Ca, glass part is reactive with cement;

e.g. Class C fly ash: pozzolanic and cementitious, normally from lignite or sub. bituminous coal;

e.g. Class N fly ash;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Slaking of lime in the presence of fly ash

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Flue dust

by-product of the burning of pulverised coal

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

" ElectroFilter Ash = elektrofilter AbzugHigh Volume Fly Ash= cendres volantes

"Steinkohlefilterasche

{from brown coal or lignite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Flue dust from brown coal or lignite used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Lignite fly ash = Braunkohlefilterasche"

{Cenospheres}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cenospheres used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. = floating fraction of PFA = hollow spheres (20-200micron) of aluminosilicate glass;

e.g. ARMOSPHERES, FILLITE, EXTENDOSPHERES

{Pelletizing}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Pelletizing fuel dust used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

Melting fuel dust to form aggregate;

e.g. sintered PFA

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For LYTAG

Agglomerated fired materials

Expanding clay, vermiculite, perlite and the like

Burned {or pyrolised} refuse
Definition statement

This place covers:

Burned or pyrolised refuse used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. MSW = municipal solid waste;

e.g. slags from waste incineration;

e.g. burned paper processing waste

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Burned refuse in cement manufacturing

Incineration of waste

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Clinker = machefer

{Burned rice husks or other burned vegetable material}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Burned rice husks or other burned vegetable material used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. expanded rice hull ash, reburned rice hull ash

{Burned or pyrolised sludges}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Burned or pyrolised sludges used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SSA = SEWAGE SLUDGE ASH / SLAG

{Gaseous combustion products or dusts collected from waste incineration, e.g. sludge resulting from the purification of gaseous combustion products of waste incineration}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Gaseous combustion products or dusts collected from waste incineration used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. AQCS =Air quality combustion system = fly ash + desulfurisation products

from quarries, mining or the like
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials form quarries, mining or the like used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Tailings = BERGE", "BERGEMATERIAL", "GRUBENBERGE", "WASCHBERGE

from metallurgical processes (treatment of slag C04B 5/00; for manufacture of cement C04B 7/14)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials from metallurgical processes used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. nephelin slurry" (=from Al-production)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Treatment of slag

For manufacture of cement

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Nephelin slurry = NEPHELIN SCHLAMM

{Slags}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Slags from metallurgical processes used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. blast furnace slag;

e.g. cupola slag, "

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

cupola slag = KUPOLOFENSCHLACKE

{Silica fume}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Filter dust from silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloy production;

(non-thixotropic)

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Thixotropic silica fume e.g. CAR-BO-SIL

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "MICROSILICA", "ferrosilicon dust", "silica flue dust" and "amorphous silica"
{other than silica fume or slag}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials from metallurgical processes other than silica fume or slag used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. EAFD, electric arc furnace dust

from building or ceramic industry {(separating plants for waste concrete slurry B03B 9/063)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials from building or ceramic industry used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. reclaiming cement slurry;

e.g. broken ceramic tiles

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Separating of concrete slurry as refuse

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials agglomerated by a mineral binder

Lightweight materials

Special rules of classification

foamed concrete as aggregate : two sets of codes , one with C04B 18/16 and one with C04B 18/027

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"CASSONS" = broken ceramic tiles

{Cement kiln dust; Lime kiln dust}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cement kiln dust, lime kiln dust used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Any other dust resulting from cement production

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Recuperation of cement kiln dust during cement fabrication

organic (C04B 18/10 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organic waste materials used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. HAIR, FEATHERS, LEATHER;

e.g. MANURE, MEST;

e.g. wool fibers

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

. MANURE= LISIER= GUELLE,= MEST

from macromolecular compounds {(recycled expanded polystyrene C04B 16/08)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Recycled expanded polystyrene

Recovery from working up of polymers

Vegetable refuse, e.g. rice husks, maize-ear refuse; Cellulosic materials, e.g. paper {, cork}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vegetable refuse, cellulosic materials used as fillers for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. CORK, SISAL, PEAT, KAPOK;

e.g. VEGETABLE IVORY = CORAJO = TAGUA;

e.g. COMPOST;

e.g. expanded cellulosic material i.e. puffed rice, popcorn is classified in this group and received the C-set containing C04B 20/06

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Processing, machining of boards fabricated from pressed wood fibers

B29J5/00

Regenerated cellulose fibers

C04B 16/06 ( C04B 18/24 still to be cleaned)

"Spaanplaten"

{Paper, e.g. waste paper; Paper pulp}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Paper products used as fillers for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. pulp from bark;

e.g. waste paper

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Still contains older documents

Wood pulp

{Waste from paper processing or recycling paper, e.g. de-inking sludge (burned paper processing waste C04B 18/10)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waste paper itself

{Cork; Bark}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cork, bark used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

wood and bark are not synonymous, wood used as filler being classified in C04B 18/26

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanical working of cork

{from specific plants, e.g. hemp fibres}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Peat, algae

Wood, e.g. sawdust, wood shavings
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wood used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. BAMBOO;

e.g. ARBOLITE = wood chips/waste cement boards;

e.g. FIBROLITE = wood wool cement boards

Mineralising; Compositions therefor
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mineralising vegetable refuse, compositions therefor used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

With organic materials

C04B 20/1018, older documents still present in C04B 18/28.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Mineralising

Treatment with a mineral substance

Mixed waste; Waste of undefined composition, (C04B 18/10 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Takes precedence

{Materials specified by a shape not covered by C04B 20/0016 - C04B 20/0056, e.g. nanotubes}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Reinforcing elements for concrete

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Nanotechnology for materials or surface science; Manufacture or treatment of nanostructures

{Hollow or porous granular materials}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lightweight agglomerated material,

Hollow or porous ceramic granular material

Special rules of classification

hollow or porous particles of specific composition are classified according to the composition and receive C04B 20/002 as CIS code;

{Fibrous materials}
Definition statement

This place covers:

e.g. mixtures of different fibres; when the specific fibre type is not so important

e.g. FIBRE = relatively short;

e.g. FILAMENT = (quasi-)endless;

e.g. YARN = united assembly of fibres (e.g. by spinning);

e.g. THREAD = assembly of yarns or filaments

{Mixtures of fibres of different physical characteristics, e.g. different lengths}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mixtures of fibres of different physical characteristics used as materials for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. by twisting

{characterised by the grain distribution}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Materials used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone according to more than one of groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 and characterised by the grain distribution

e.g. fine aggregate < 5mm, coarse aggregate > 5mm,

mortar: no coarse aggregate,

concrete: >50% coarse aggregate;

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Granulometry 0/3

material less than or equal to 3mm

Treatment
Definition statement

This place covers:

Treatment of materials used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 specially adapted to enhance their filling properties

e.g. removing dust from particles;

e.g. getting round particles (e.g. scrap glass)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

cation exchange of vermiculite

Temporary compaction/granulation

Heat treatment
Definition statement

This place covers:

Heat treatment of materials according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. drying

{by grate sintering}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Expanding clay, perlite, vermiculite or like granular materials by grate sintering to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. Blast roasting=Dwight-Lloyd process

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grate sintering of ores or scrap F27B 21/06

Endless-strand sintering apparatus

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Saugzugsinteranlage = Dwight-Lloyd

{in fluidised beds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Expanding clay, perlite, vermiculite or like granular materials in fluidised beds to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Wirbelschicht = fluidised beds

{Selection of ingredients added before or during the thermal treatment, e.g. expansion promoting agents or particle-coating materials}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

- expanded clay- see also C04B 18/027

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Expanded aggregates

Defibrillating asbestos {(defibrillating other fibres C04B 20/026)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Defibrillating asbestos to enhance its filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. dispersing, flocculating asbestos;

e.g. separating asbestos from bearing material, ores

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

"opening" fibres in general

Carding machines

Defibrillating other fibres

Coating or impregnating {(roofing granules E04D 7/005)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mineralising wood

Coating glass fibres, asbestos or other mineral fibres

Roofing granules

Special rules of classification

if a mixture is used for the coating: last place rule applies , add C04B 20/10+ codes for other ingredients in the C-set

{with organic materials (pigments or dyes C04B 20/1096)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Coating with pigments or dyes

{Macromolecular compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coating or impregnating with macromolecular compounds materials according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. polymer + pigment

{Organo-metallic compounds; Organo-silicon compounds, e.g. bentone}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coating or impregnating with organo-metallic compounds, organo-silicon compounds, materials according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. with BENTONE

{Silicates, e.g. glass}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coating or impregnating with silicates, materials according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. SAND, SILICA FUME, GLASS

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waterglass

{with pigments or dyes (C04B 20/1059 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Coating with pigments or precursors thereof , materials according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Multiple coating or impregnating
Special rules of classification

Groups C04B 20/123 and C04B 20/126 are used for indexing purposes only in C04B 20/12 to indicate:

-in the case of C04B 20/123 that a coating is an alternative to the previous indexed coating; example:

-in the case of C04B 20/126 that the coating layer is the same as a previous coating layer; example:

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators {, shrinkage compensating agents}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. HYDRAZINE, NH2NH2;

e.g. SILICATES;

e.g. HYDROALUMITE 3CaO.Al2O3.CaX2.nH2O, X = (NO3, NO2, OH, CH3COO, CO3,SO4)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alkali metal silicates

zeolites

C04B 14/047 (older documents still in C04B 22/00)

Special rules of classification

Inorganic active ingredients as components of a cementitious mixture are indexed in the CIS database using entries from C04B 22/00. Classification in C04B 22/00 and subgroups is made when these ingredients are (or suspected to be) new or unusual or special details describing this ingredient are given.

{Waste inorganic materials}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Nitre cake

Special rules of classification

used as code to indicate that another C04B 22/00 ingredient is a wasteproduct

{Boron compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Boron compounds, e.g. fluoro-boron compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

organic boron compounds

{Water}
Definition statement

This place covers:

e.g. magnetised water

e.g. ionized water

e.g. alkali-ion water

Special rules of classification

This class is given as an index in a C-set or as a class only when very particular aspects of the mixing water are given

{containing dissolved additives or active agents, i.e. aqueous solutions used as gauging water (C04B 22/0026 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Salt water used as active ingredient for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

{Aluminates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aluminates used as active ingredient for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Calcium sulphoaluminates,

Cement or like inorganic materials added as expanding or shrinkage compensating ingredients in mortars or concrete compositions

Elements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Elements used as active ingredient for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. Si;

e.g. O3

Metals, e.g. aluminium used as blowing agent
Definition statement

This place covers:

Metals used as active ingredient for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Oxides, Hydroxides (C04B 22/0013 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

oxides, hydrocides used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. gelatinous Al(OH)3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

SiO2

Al2O3, Al(OH)3

Takes precedence

CO2

{of the alkali or alkaline-earth metals}
Definition statement

This place covers:

oxides, hydroxides of the alkali or alkaline-earth metals used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. NH4OH;

e.g. NATRON LYE = AQUEOUS SOLUTION of NaOH;

e.g. HYDROXYLAMINE = NH2OH;

e.g. (POTASH) LYE= aqueous solution of KOH;

e.g. NaOH with Soda impurities;

e.g. KOH

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"LESSIVE DE SOUDE" = " NATRONLOOG" = NATRON LYE = AQUEOUS SOLUTION of NaOH;

(POTASH) LYE = "LAUGE" = aqueous solution of KOH

"SODASTEIN" = "SEIFENSTEIN" = NaOH with Soda impurities;

"POTASCHE" = "POTASSE" = KOH

{Peroxides, e.g. hydrogen peroxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Peroxides used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. H2O2

Acids or salts thereof {(C04B 22/0013 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acids or salts of inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. MOLYBDATES;

e.g. PERMANGANATES

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Boron compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

containing carbon in the anion
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acids or salts of inorganic materials containing carbon in the anion, used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SALMIAC = (NH4)2CO3

e.g. SODA = SODA ASH = Na2CO3;

e.g. K4(Fe((CN)6).3H2O yellow, K3(Fe(CN)6) red;

e.g. CYANATES, KCN;

e.g. also CO2

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

SALMIAC = (NH4)2CO3 = "GEISTERSALTZ" = "HIRSCHHORNSALZ";

SODA = SODA ASH = "SOUDE"

"BLUTLAUGENSALZ" = K4(Fe((CN)6).3H2O yellow, K3(Fe(CN)6) red;

containing halogen in the anion
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acids or salts of inorganic materials containing halogen in the anion used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. BLEACHING POWDER = CaCl(OCl).CaO.H2O;

e.g. Hg chloride;

e.g. MURIATIC ACID = HCl

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

BLEACHING POWDER = "CHLORKALK"

"SUBLIM CORROSIF" = Hg chloride

{Chlorides of ammonium or of the alkali or alkaline earth metals, e.g. calcium chloride}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Chlorides of ammonium or of alkali or alkaline earth metals used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. NH4Cl = muriate of ammonia

{Fluorine compounds, e.g. silico-fluorine compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fluorine compounds of inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SILICOFLUORIDES;

e.g. FLUOROSILICATES

containing sulfur in the anion, e.g. sulfides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acids or salts thereof of inorganic materials containing sulfur in the anion used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SULFAMIMIC ACID = NH2SO3H;

e.g. Na-THIOSULFATE = Na2S2O3 x 5 H2O;

e.g. Ca-THIOCYANATE

{Sulfates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sulfates of inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. EPSOM SALT = MgSO4;

e.g. KFe(SO4)2 x 12H2O;

e.g. mixtures or alternatives of sulfates (covered by several C04B 22/142 subgroups)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Jarosite

Bisulfates, hydroxysulfates, e. g. KHSO4,

Alums

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"BITTERSALZ" = EPSOM SALT

"EISENALAUNE" = Doppelsalze des Eisen(III)-sulfats nach Art derAlaune, e.g. "KALIUMEISENALAUN" (KFe(SO4)2 x 12H2O);

{Alkali-metal sulfates; Ammonium sulfate}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alkali-metal sulfates, ammonium sulfate of inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. GLAUBERITE

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Other ´alums´, i.e. other than Al-alums

Alums or alunite, calcined or not

{Aluminium-sulfate}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aluminium-sulfate of inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. (calcined) ALUNITE;

e.g. ALUMS

containing phosphorus in the anion, e.g. phosphates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acids or salts thereof of inorganic materials containing phosphorous in the anion,

e.g. MICROCOSMIC SALT = Na(NH4)HPO4.4H2O

Use of organic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. plasticisers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. LIGROIN (benzine);

e.g. RUTIN;

e.g. WHITE SPIRIT = mainly heptane, octane;

e.g. impure NAPHTALENE e.g. esters of inorganic acids, ethylene carbonate;

e.g. PERFUME;

e.g. YEAST

e.g. norbornene and its derivatives (e.g. as modifiers for sulfur cements)

e.g. (di) cyclopentadiene (e.g. as modifiers for sulfur cements)

Special rules of classification

Organic active ingredients as components of a cementitious mixture are indexed in the C-set of the CIS database using entries from C04B 24/00. Classification in C04B 24/00 and subgroups is done when these ingredients are (or suspected to be) new or unusual or special details describing such an ingredient are given.

{Waste organic materials}
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Vinasse

residual liquid from the distillation of liquid alcohol;

Fusel oil

mixture of alcohols, fatty acids and esters obtained during distillation of fermentation alcohol

{Phosphorus-containing compounds}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorus containing polymers

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PHOSPHONOCARBOXYLIC ACID

H2O3P-R-COOH

PHOSPHONIC ACID

RPO3H2

PHOSPHINIC ACID

R2PO2H

PHOSPHORIC ESTER

(HO)2PO-OR

PHYTIC ACID = PHYTINIC ACID = meso-inositol hexaphosphoric acid

C6H6(OPO(OH2))6

{Halogen-containing compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

all halogenated compounds except chlorosilanes

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Pesticides

Halogenated polymers of the type corresponding to groups C04B 24/28- C04B 24/383

receive two classes, one in C04B 24/005 and one in the polymer group

Halogen containing polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon to carbon unsaturated bonds

Chlorosilanes

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

PERFLUOR compounds

CnF2n-1 (all H exchanged for F)

PENTA CHLORO PHENOLATE = PENTA CHLORO PHENATE

C6Cl5ONa

{Aldehydes, ketones}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aldehydes, ketones used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. GLYOXAL OHCCHO;

e.g. FURFURAL;

e.g. FORMALIN (40% aq. sln of formaldehyde);

e.g. ACETYL ACETONE CH3COCH2COCH3;

e.g. DIOXAN

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Paraformaldehyde

Alcohols; Phenols; Ethers
Definition statement

This place covers:

All Alcohols, phenols, ethers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. ALCOHOL;

e.g. PHENOL;

e.g. POLYHYDRIC ALCOHOLS i.e. DIOLS: GLYCOL, TRIOLS: GLYCEROL =GLYCERINE = 1,2,3-PROPANETRIOL, ETHYLENE GLYCOL (HOCH2CH2OH),TRIMETHYLENE GLYCOL = 1,3-PROPANEDIOL (HO(CH2)3OH);

e.g. "KRESOL" CRESOL = CH3C6H4OH, o-, m-, p-;

e.g. ETHYLALCOHOL = SPIRITUS;

e.g. SORBIT = SORBITOL C6H14O6 (6 OH groups), SORBITAN =MONOANHYDROSORBIT C6H4O(OH)4;

e.g. FUCUSOL = FUCOSOL = furfurol + methylfurfurol;

e.g. 2,3-DIHYDROXY-1,4-DIOXAN = glyoxal trimer;

e.g. CATECHOL = 1,2-C6H4(OH)2;

e.g. RESORCINOL = 1,3-C6H4(OH)2;

e.g. HYDROQUINONE = 1,4-C6H4(OH)2;

e.g. PHLOROGLUCINOL = 1,3,5-C6H3(OH)3;

e.g. PYROGALLOL = 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene;

e.g. NAPHTHOL;

e.g. PENTAERYTHRITOL;

e.g. ALKOXIDE = ALCOOLATE i.e. Al(OC2H5)3;

e.g. EUGENOL;

e.g. TERPINEOL, TERPINENOL

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PHENOL = "CARBOLSAEURE"

RESORCINOL = "RESORZIN"

{Ethers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ethers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. ETHER R-O-R´;

e.g. DIETHYLENE GLYCOL HOCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH;

e.g. TRIOXYMETHYLENE = TRIOXANE (CH2O)3 = PARAFORMALDEHYDE;

e.g. epoxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Glycidylether: appears as terminal group of epoxy resin structures

{Fatty alcohols}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All fatty alcohols used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. ethoxylated fatty alcohols

Carboxylic acids; Salts, anhydrides or esters thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carboxylic acids, Salts, anhydrides thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS R-COOH (carboxy-, -oic acid);

e.g. CARBOXYLIC ACID SALTS R-COOM (M carboxylate, -oate);

e.g. ANHYDRIDES;

e.g. GLYOXYLIC ACID HOOCHO;

e.g. BENZOIC ACID, BENZOATES;

e.g. AGATHIC ACID;

e.g. NAPHTHENIC ACID, NAPHTHENATES;

e.g. RESIN ACID, RESINATES e.g. complex mixture of monocarboxylic acids derived from pine tree extrudate, tree stumps, or tall oil manufacturing. Major components : ABIETIC ACID (=SYLVIC ACID)and PIMARIC ACID;

e.g. KETOCARBOXYLIC ACIDS HO2CCH2CH2COCOOH= a-ketoglutaric acid;

e.g. COAL ACIDS;

e.g. ERYTHORBIC ACID, ERYTHORBATES;

e.g. RESIN SOAPS, SAPONIFIED RESINS

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

ROSIN = mainly resin acids

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"HARZSEIFEN"=RESIN SOAPS, SAPONIFIED RESINS

{Esters, e.g. lactones}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Esters of carboxylic acids used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. organic carbonates e.g. ETHYLENE CARBONATE;

e.g. ESTERS R-COOR´ (R-carboxylate, R- oxycarbonyl, R-oate);

e.g. GLYCERIDES = glycerine esters;

e.g. ACETINS = acetates (ethanoates) of glycerol, MONOACETIN,DIACETIN,TRIACETIN;

e.g. ETHYLENE GLYCOL DIACETATE = ethylidene diacetate = acetaldehydediacetate H3CCO-O-C2H4-O-OCCH3;

e.g. LACTONES = cyclic esters;

e.g. CAPROLACTONE

containing hydroxy groups
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carboxylic acids, salts, anhydrides containing hydroxy groups, used as active ingredients for mortars, concreter or artificial stone

e.g. OXYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS;

e.g. LACTIC ACID CH3-CH(OH)-COOH;

e.g. CREAM OF TARTAR = potassium hydrogen tartrate C4H5O6K;

e.g. Na a- and b- GLUCOHEPTONATE;

e.g. CITRIC ACID;

e.g. GLUCONIC ACID;

e.g. GALLIC ACID;

e.g. ALDONIC ACID;

e.g. SACCHARIC ACID = TETRAHYDROXYADIPIC ACID;

e.g. CRESYLIC ACID;

e.g. FLUORESCEIN = RESORCINOLPHTHALEIN = URANINE (Na salt) =DIOXYLFLUORANE C20H12O5;

e.g. BILE ACID (cholic acid)

Fats; Fatty oils; Ester type waxes; Higher fatty acids, i.e. having at least seven carbon atoms in an unbroken chain bound to a carboxyl group; Oxidised oils or fats
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fats, fatty oils, ester type waxes, oxidised oils or fats used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. FATS = esters of long chain fatty acids and glycerol;

e.g. FATTY OILS = idem e.g. SOJA OIL, OLIVE OIL,RICINUS OIL = CASTOROIL,LINSEED OIL, PALM OIL;

e.g. ESTER TYPE WAXES = "CIRE" = monoesters of long chain unbranched fatty acids and alcohols e.g. MONTAN WAX, CHIN-SAP WAX, SPERMACETI WAX=WALRAT;

e.g. LIPIDES = esters of long chain carboxylic acids e.g. FATS;

e.g. RAPESEED OIL (COLZA OIL);

e.g. CHINA WOOD OIL;

e.g. ETHOXYLATED FATTY ACID

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"RUEBOEL" = RAPESEED OIL ("REPSOEL", "RAPSOEOL","RUEBSENOEL", "RUEBOEL", COLZA OIL);

e.g. "HOLZOEL" = "TUNGOEL" = CHINA WOOD OIL

{Higher fatty acids}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Higher fatty acids, i.e. having at least seven carbon atoms in an unbroken chain bound to a carboxyl group used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SOAPS = salts of higher fatty acids;

e.g. UNSATURATED HIGHER FATTY ACIDS : PALMITOLEIC, OLEIC, RICINOLEIC,LIONLEIC, LINOLENIC, ELEOSTEARIC;

e.g. SATURATED HIGHER FATTY ACIDS: CAPROIC, CAPRYLIC, CAPRIC, LAURIC,MYRISTIC, PALMITIC, STEARIC, ARACHIDIC, BEHEMIC, LIGNOCERIC, CEROTIC;

e.g. OLEIN;

e.g. OLEIC ACID

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Rosin (= mainly resin acids)

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

OLEIC ACID = "ÖLSAÜRE" = "OLIENSAÜRE" = "OCTADECENSAÜRE"= "ACIDUMOLEINICUM"

Carbohydrates or derivatives thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carbohydrates or derivatives thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. historically Cx(H2O)y = polyhydroxylated compounds;

e.g. OLIGOSACCHARIDES : DISACCHARIDES, TRISACCHARIDES, TETRASACCHARIDES;

e.g. MOLASSE, MELASSE, SUCROSE;

e.g. MANNITOL= MANNITE;

e.g. WHEY (lactose is the most important ingredient after water);

e.g. SKIMMED MILK;

e.g. SAPONIN = plant glycosides, forming soapy lathers on shaking with water;

e.g. GLYCOSIDES (GLUCOSIDES) , hydrolyse into sugars and other organic substances;

e.g. LEVULOSE = d-FRUCTOSE= FRUIT SUGAR, DIABETIN, LEVOGLUCOSE,SUCROLEVULOSE;

e.g. ALDOSE, KETOSE

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

MANNITOL= MANNITE= "MANNAZUCKER";

MANNITOL= MANNITE;

e.g. WHEY = "MOLKE" = "WEI" = "BOTERMELK"

Nitrogen containing compounds {organic derivatives of hydrazine (hydrazine C04B 22/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Nitrogen containing compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. PENAZOLINE e.g. CA93:136836, CA92:63547, CA93:172622, CA90:141458;

e.g. CHLOROPHYLL;

e.g. AMINE OXIDE R1-R2-R3-N=O

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydrazine

{Amines, polyamines}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Amines, polyamines used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. and derivatives e.g. salts;

e.g. TM UROTROPINE = HEXAMETHYLENE TETRAMINE;

e.g. ANILINE C6H5-NH2 = PHENYLAMINE = AMINOBENZENE;

e.g. FATTY AMINES

{Hydroxy amines}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydroxy amines and derivatives, e.g. salts used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone;

e.g. NH2 + OH;

e.g. ETHANOLAMINES: MONOETHANOLAMINE, DIETHANOLAMINE, TRIETHANOLAMINE;

e.g. ADRENALINE

{Amino-carboxylic acids}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Amino-carboxylic acids and derivatives used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. NH2 + COOH;

e.g. NITRILOTRIACETIC ACID N(CH2COOH)3;

e.g. GLUTAMIC ACID = a-AMINOGLUTARIC ACID = 2-AMINOPENTANEDIOIC ACID =amino acid derived from hydrolysis of vegetable protein;

e.g. GLYCINE = AMINOACETIC ACID H2N-CH2-COOH;

e.g. EDTA = ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID

e.g. betaine

{Amides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Amides, acid amides and derivatives used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. e.g. RCONH2, (RCO)2NH, (RCO)3N;

e.g. FATTY AMIDES e.g. COCOAMIDE

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Carbamide = urea

Isocyanuric acid

Lactams = cyclic amides, caprolactam

Glycylglycine = diglycine = dipeptide H2N-CH2-CO-NH-CH2-COOH

{Compounds containing one or more carbon-to-nitrogen double or triple bonds, e.g. imines}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compounds containing one or more carbon-to nitrogen double or triple bonds and derivatives used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. CYANATES R-N=C=O;

e.g. CYANAMIDE NH2CN;

e.g. DICYANDIAMIDE H2N-CNH-NH-CN;

e.g. NITRILES RCN;

e.g. IMINES R-CH=NH

{Urea}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Urea and derivatives used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. = CARBAMIDE NH2-CO-NH2;

e.g. THIOUREA = THIOCARBAMIDE NH2-SC-NH2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

N,N-dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea

{Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All heterocyclic nitrogen compounds , even if they fall under one of the categories covered by the previous subgroups used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. LACTAMS = cyclic amides , CAPROLACTAM;

e.g. CYANURATES, ISOCYANURIC ACID;

e.g. HYDANTOIN = GLYCOLYLUREA = GLYCOLUSIL;

e.g. IMIDAZOLE

e.g. DINITROPENTAMETHYLENE TETRAMINE

Peptides; Proteins; Derivatives thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

PEPTIDES (much smaller number of amino units per molecule than proteins); ENZYMES;

PROTEINS (polymers of a-amino acids) and derivatives thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. GELATIN, COLLAGEN, KERATIN;

e.g. CASEIN,

e.g. BLOOD, HEMOGLOBINE;

e.g. GLUTEN;

e.g. ZEIN = corn protein

e.g. BLACK GRAM = polysaccharide-protein

e.g. PROTALBINIC ACID, LYSALBINIC ACID;

e.g. soluble proteins: ALBUMINS, GLOBULINS, GLUTELINS, HISTONES,PROTAMINES;

e.g. GLYCYLGLYCINE = dipeptide

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

CASEIN,=COLLE D´OS

"KOELNER LEIM

Sulfur-containing compounds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sulfur-containing compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SULfONIC COMPOUNDS = -SO3H, sulfonated;

e.g. SULFURIC COMPOUNDS = -OSO3H, sulfated;

e.g. BUNTE SALTS = water soluble organic thiosulphate compounds;

e.g. TURKEY RED OIL = SULFORICINATE;

e.g. ISOPROPYL THIOCYANATE (CH3)2CHSCN

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sulfonated polystyrene

Sulfonated ketone resins

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

TURKEY RED OIL = SULFORICINATE = "TURKISCH ROTÖL"

Lignin sulfonic acid or derivatives thereof, e.g. sulfite lye
Definition statement

This place covers:

Lignin sulfonic acid or derivatives thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. LIGNIN SULFONIC ACID = substituted phenylpropane R-CH(SO3H)-CH(OH)-R

e.g. modified lignosulfonate

Sulfonated aromatic compounds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sulfonated aromatic compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. SULFANOL;

e.g. FOKS = fuel oil cracking sulfonated = salt of sulfonated andoxidised product resulting from the reaction of SO3 with fuel oils from steam cracking of oil products

Condensation {or polymerisation} products thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

Condensation or polymerisation products thereof of sulfonated aromatic compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Condensation or polymerisation products containing aromatic nucleus;

e.g. sulphonated polystyrene;

e.g. sulphonated amino-s-triazine

{Sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde condensation products}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde condensation products used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. sulphonated melamine resins;

e.g. triazine-HCHO condensation product

Macromolecular compounds (C04B 24/14 takes precedence; macromolecular compounds comprising sulfonate or sulfate groups C04B 24/16)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Macromolecular compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. LIGNIN;

e.g. HUMIC ACID;

e.g. LIGNATE

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Peptides, proteins, derivatives thereof

Sulfur-containing compounds

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

petroleum resins

C04B 24/26 ( C04B 24/24 still to be cleaned)

obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds {(C04B 24/243 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. PETROLEUM RESIN (C4/C6 alkene fraction, C8/C10 aromatic fraction or dicyclopentadiene fraction);

e.g. VERSATATES;

e.g. LATEX RESIN;

e.g. COUMARONE RESIN = CUMAR RESIN or GUM = PARACOUMARONE RESIN =BENZOFURAN = synthetic rein from coal tar destillates;

e.g. DIALLYL POLYMERS

Relationships with other classification places

Resins as such equivalent to those are classified in C08F

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorous-containing polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

{Polyalkenes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyalkenes obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. POLYTERPENES i.e. NATURAL RUBBER

{Coumarone polymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coumarone polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. INDENE-CUMARONE RESIN

{Polyvinylalcohols; Polyvinylacetates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyvinylalcohols, polyvinylacetates obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. ETHYLENE VINYLACETATE;

e.g. VINYLLAURATE-VINYLACETATE;

e.g. POLYVINYL PROPIONATE

{Polyacrylates; Polymethacrylates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyacrylates, polymethyacrylates obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. COPOLYMERS of POLY(METH)ACRYLATES with other VINYL MONOMERS (e.g. styrene, vinylacetate);

e.g. mixture of acrylic monomers

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

copolymers having three different monomers

{Nitrogen containing polymers, e.g. polyacrylamides, polyacrylonitriles}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Nitrogen containing polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. ACRYLNITRIL-STYROL COPOLYMER;

e.g. ACRYLNITRIL-BUTADIENE COPOLYMER;

e.g. Polyvinylamide

{of ethylenically unsaturated dicarboxylic acid polymers, e.g. maleic anhydride copolymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds of ethylenically unsaturated dicarboxylic acid polymers and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. STYROL-MALEIC ACID COPOLYMER;

e.g. VINYLACETATE-MALEIC ACID COPOLYMER;

e.g. ISOBUTYLENE-MALEIC ACID COPOLYMER;

e.g. POLYALKYLENE SUCCENIC ANHYDRIDE;

e.g. VINYL ACETATE-DIBUTYL MALEATE COPOLYMER

{Polystyrenes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polystyrenes compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. STYRENE-BUTADIENE;

e.g. STYRENE-BUTADIENE-PVA

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Styrene-acryl copolymers

Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers

Special rules of classification

C04B 24/2641 takes precedence.

{Halogen containing polymers, e.g. PVC}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Halogen containing polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. PTFE (RN 9002-84-0);

e.g. CHLOROPRENE

{Copolymers containing at least three different monomers}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polyacrylates

Special rules of classification

C04B 24/2682 takes precedence

obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds {(C04B 24/243 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHTALATE;

e.g. POLYIMIDES; POLYESTER IMIDE; POLYAMIDIMINE;

e.g. POLYTHIOCARBONATE;

e.g. POLYSULFONES; POLYSULPHONAMIDE;

e.g. POLYTHIOETHER;

e.g. POLYSULPHIDE;

e.g.. ETHOXYLINE RESIN;

e.g. FURAN RESIN (deriv. from furfuryl alcohol);

e.g. POLYALKYLENE POLYAMINES;

e.g. POLYAMINES; POLYESTERAMIDES

e.g. POLYETHYLENE IMINE (CH2CH2NH)x

Relationships with other classification places

resins as such equivalent to those classified in C08G

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorous-containing polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

{Polyepoxides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyepoxides compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. a-EPICHLORHYDRINE-1 CHLORO 2,3 EPOXY PROPANE

{Polyesters}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyesters compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. ALKYD resins;

e.g. polylactic acid, polylactide

{Phenol-formaldehyde condensation polymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The use for instance of phenol resin as binder, novolac resin, resol resin.

Phenol-formaldehyde resins, as a group, are formed by a step-growth polymerization reaction that can be either acid- or base-catalysed. Since formaldehyde exists predominantly in solution as a dynamic equilibrium of methylene glycol oligomers, the concentration of the reactive form of formaldehyde depends on temperature and pH.

Phenol is reactive towards formaldehyde at the ortho and para sites (sites 2, 4 and 6) allowing up to 3 units of formaldehyde to attach to the ring. The initial reaction in all cases involves the formation of a hydroxymethyl phenol:

HOC6H5 + CH2O → HOC6H4CH2OH

Novolacs (originally Novolak, the name given by Leo Baekeland), are phenol-formaldehyde resins made where the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol of less than one. The polymerization is brought to completion using acid-catalysis. The phenol units are mainly linked by methylene groups

Base-catalysed phenol-formaldehyde resins are made with a formaldehyde to phenol ratio of greater than one (usually around 1.5). These resins are called resols. Phenol, formaldehyde, water and catalyst are mixed in the desired amount, depending on the resin to be formed, and are then heated

media31.png

Phenol - the simplest of the phenols

media32.png

Formaldehyde

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Using phenol resin for joining ceramic with ceramic

Using phenol resin for joining ceramic with metal

Using phenol resin for joining ceramic with glass

The use of phenol-formaldehyde condensation products in coatings of ceramic substrates

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones added as active ingredient to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone: phenol-formaldehyde condensation polymers

Binders for refractory mould or core materials based on resins or rosins obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds: condensation polymers of aldehydes and ketones: with phenols

{Melamine-formaldehyde condensation polymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Melamine resin or melamine formaldehyde (also shortened to melamine) is a hard, thermosetting plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization.

media33.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The use of condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones in coatings of ceramic substrates: melamine-formaldehyde condensation products

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones added as active ingredient to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone: melamine-formaldehyde condensation polymers

{Urea-formaldehyde condensation polymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Urea-formaldehyde, also known as urea-methanal, named so for its common synthesis pathway and overall structure, [1] is a non-transparent thermosetting resin or plastic, made from urea and formaldehyde heated in the presence of a mild base such as ammonia or pyridine

media34.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The use of condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones in coatings of ceramic substrates: urea-formaldehyde condensation products

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones added as active ingredient to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone: urea-formaldehyde condensation polymers

Polyethers, e.g. alkylphenol polyglycolether
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyethers compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

also polyethylene glycol esters

e.g. POLYETHYLENE OXIDE;

e.g. POLYETHYLENEPOLYAMINE, POLYETHYLENE IMINE;

e.g. POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL,

e.g. POLYACETAL GLYCOL;

e.g. ALKYLPHENOLPOLYGLYCOL ETHER;

e.g. PARAFORMALDEHYDE;

e.g. ALKYLAMINO POLY(OXYMETHYLENE)GLYCOL

Natural resins, e.g. rosin {(C04B 24/243 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Natural resin used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. natural (animal, vegetable) waxes: CANDELLILA WAX, CARNAUBA WAX,KANNUTILLA WAX;

e.g. TURPENTINE OIL (PINENES);

e.g. COLOPHONIUM = COLOPHANE;

e.g. CREOSOTE;

e.g. ROSIN is obtained from various species of pine = ABIETIC ACID;

e.g. SHELLAC

e.g. LACQUER = shellac dissolved in alcohol, coloured with saffron or dragon´s blood;

e.g. EUCALIPTUS OIL; TALL OIL;

e.g. GUTTA-PERCHA;

e.g. v g tale;

e.g. VINSOL

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorous-containing polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

Polysaccharides

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

CREOSOTE ="HOLZTEER"

SHELLAC = "SCHELLACK" = "SCHOLLENLACK" = "BLATTLACK" = "GUMMILACK"= "LACCA IN TABULIS";

"MUCILAGE";

"GOUDRON"

Bituminous materials, e.g. tar, pitch {(C04B 24/243 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Bituminous materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. ASPHALT, ASPHALTITE;

e.g. KEROSINE, PARAFFIN;

e.g. "PARAFFIN OIL, VASELINE OIL;

e.g. CARBOLINEUM;

e.g. PETROLATUM;

e.g. mineral, paraffin waxes

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorous-containing polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ASPHALT= "KOOLTEER"= ASPHALTITE;

PARAFINE= PARAFFIN OIL

"CERESIN" = "ZERESIN" = "HART PARAFIN" = "GEREINIGTES ERDWACHS" ="CERA MINERALIS ALBA";

"BRAI de HOUILLE"

Polysaccharides or derivatives thereof {(C04B 24/243 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polysaccharides or derivatives thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. ARABIC GUM, GUM ACACIA;

e.g. GALACTO-MANNAN, GUAR GUM, GLUCO-MANNAN;

e.g. AGAR AGAR;

e.g. TANNIN = TANNIC ACID;

e.g. GUM GHATTI, LOCUST BEAN GUM = CAROB BEAN GUM;

e.g. CAROB FRUIT;

e.g. INULIN ;

e.g. WELAN GUM

e.g. FRENCH CEMENT = gum arabic + powdered starch;

e.g. ALGINATES, GLYCOGEN, PECTINE; CHITOSAN; DEXTRAN

e.g. XANTHOMANOS GUM = XANTHAN GUM;

e.g. SCLEROGLUCAN, CURDLAN, PULLULAN;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorous-containing polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

Polyethers

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"JOHANNESBROOD" = CAROB FRUIT

INULIN = "POLYVRUCHTENSUIKER"

{Cellulose or derivatives thereof}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cellulose or derivatives thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. CELLULOSE; CARBOXY METHYL CELLULOSE CMC;

e.g. HYDROXY ETHYL CELLULOSE HEC;

e.g. METHYL HYDROXY ETHYL CELLULOSE MHEC;

e.g. DEXTRIN = starch derivative;

e.g. HEMICELLULOSE = KARAYA GUM = PENTASANE = GALACTON-GELOSE;

e.g. regenerated cellulose;

e.g. cellulose ethers;

e.g. VISCOSE; TRAGANTH

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used

STAERKE"; DEXTRIN = starch derivative

{Organo-inorganic complexes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any organo-inorganic complexes used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. metal carbonyls

Organo-silicon compounds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organo-silicon compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. POLYSILANES -Si-Si-Si-Si-;

e.g. SILICONES -Si-O-Si-O-Si-

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing only organic binders {, e.g. polymer or resin concrete (mechanical aspects of moulding polymer or resin concrete B29C 67/242)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organic or polymeric concretes or mortars i.e. compositions bearing an organic or polymeric binder.

This group covers organic or polymeric concrete compositions comprising at least 50% inorganic filler.

e.g. organic (e.g. polymer) P or B compounds as binder;

e.g. waterproof lacquer, benzol, acetone, aluminium powder and camphor e.g. LIGNIN derivatives;

e.g. MONTAN WAX

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

A combination of an organic and inorganic binder

Polymer modified concrete (PMC) or polymer concrete (PC) or polymer mortar (PM )

Mechanical aspects, moulding polymer or resin concrete

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oil well cements containing organic binders

are classified in C04B 26/00 according to the composition and receive also a C09K 8/44 class

Organic or polymeric compositions with filler content less than 50%

Polyester compositions

Bituminous compositions

Grouting with organic compounds

E02D20/02

Special rules of classification

Classification is made according to the binder used, applying last place rule (LPR). Fillers and active ingredients are classified using the C-set symbols chosen from C04B 14/00, C04B 18/00, C04B 22/00 or C04B 24/00. If one of these ingredients is (or suspected to be) new or unusual or special details describing this ingredient are given, classification is also made for this ingredient.

When a list of possible organic binders is given, classification is made to the more general entry e.g. C04B 26/04 or C04B 26/10 or even C04B 26/02. If specific examples are given of one binder out of a list, a second more specific class relating to the exemplified binder is given.

{Oil-based binders, e.g. containing linseed oil}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing oil-based binders

e.g. DRYING OILS, linseed oil

Macromolecular compounds
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Attention P compounds

Lignin derivatives

Montan wax

Petroleum resins

{Proteins or derivatives thereof}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing proteins or derivatives thereof

e.g. MILK

obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds

e.g. PETROLEUM RESINS

{Polyalkenes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds being polyalkylenes

e.g. polybutadiene

Acrylates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds being acrylates

e.g. thermoplastic polymethylmethacrylate type polymer

obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grouting with organic components

{Phenol-formaldehyde condensation polymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing phenol-formaldehyde condensation polymers

e.g. CRESOL -FORMALDEHYDE

Polyepoxides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing polyepoxides

e.g. POLYETHYLENE OXIDE

Polyurethanes
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing polyurethanes

e.g. castor oil, polymerises with isocyanates

Polyesters; Polycarbonates
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

polyester compositions

C08L 67/00 + F (inorganic filler); C08L 67/02 (saturated); C08L 67/06 (unsaturated)

Natural resins, e.g. rosin
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing natural resins as organic binders

e.g. ARAUCARIA RESIN

Bituminous materials, e.g. tar, pitch {(C08L 95/00 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing bituminous materials as organic binders

e.g. PARAFFIN;

e.g. tar + asphalt + sulphur

Relationships with other classification places

Construction of, or surfaces for roads E01C

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of bituminous materials

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used

"HOLZZEMENT" = tar + asphalt + sulphur

{Cellulose or derivatives thereof, e.g. starch (C04B 26/24 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing cellulose or derivatives thereof as organic binders

e.g. "ZELLIN"

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing cellulosic waste liquor as organic binder

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used

"ZELLIN"

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder

e.g. (water soluble) fluorosilicate as binder

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dental cements

Surgical cements

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oil well cements containing inorganic binders

According to the composition and receive also

Special rules of classification

Classification is made according to the binder used, applying last place rule (LPR). Fillers and active ingredients are classified using the C-set symbols chosen from C04B 14/00, C04B 16/00, C04B 18/00, C04B 22/00 or C04B 24/00. If one of these ingredients is (or suspected to be) new or unusual or special details describing this ingredient are given, classification is also made for this ingredient.

When more than one inorganic binders are used, classification is made in C04B 28/00 according to LPR and the second or third binder are indicated with entries chosen from C04B 7/00 or C04B 11/00 (or if one of these binders can be seen as an active ingredient e.g. lime, from C04B 22/00).

{containing unburned clay (polymer binder - clay mixtures used in well cementing C09K 8/44)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing unburned clay as inorganic binders

e.g. clay + NAOH mixtures as binder;

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polymer binder - clay mixtures used in well cementing

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

TORCHIS" = COB = DAUB

clay + straw

{containing gelatineous or gel forming binders, e.g. gelatineous Al(OH)3, sol-gel binders}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing gelatineous or gel forming binders

e.g. Al(OH)3;

e.g. Al2(OH)xXy

{containing mineral polymers, e.g. geopolymers of the Davidovits type}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing mineral polymers as inorganic binders

e.g. TECTOALUMINOSILICATE;

e.g. POLY(SIALATE) (-Si-O-Al-O-) (PS);

e.g. POLY(SIALATE-SILOXO) (-Si-O-Al-O-Si-O-) (PSS);

e.g. POLY(SIALATE-DISILOXO) (-SI-O-Al-O-Si-O-Si-O-) (PSDS)

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkali-activated cements

{Ash cements, e.g. fly ash cements (fly ash as filler C04B 18/08); Cements based on incineration residues, e.g. alkali-activated slags from waste incineration (alkali-activated combustion residues as such C04B 7/243; mixtures of the lime-pozzuolane type C04B 28/18); Kiln dust cements}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alkali-activated combustion residues

Fly ash as filler

Mixtures of the lime-pozzuolane type

Special rules of classification

when the alkali activated waste results in a polymeric - Davidovits type - cement, additional classification in C04B 28/006 should be given

Portland cements
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Portland cement

Hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing clinkers consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates, usually containing one or more of the forms of calcium sulfate as an inter ground addition

Aluminous cements (monolithic refractories or refractory mortars C04B 35/66)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars

{Calcium aluminosulfate cements, e.g. cements hydrating into ettringite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing calcium aluminosulfate cements as inorganic binders

e.g. aluminous cement + portland cement + gypsum;

Slag cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing slag cements as inorganic binders

e.g. slag + water --> hydraulic reaction with formation of GEHLENITE or ETTRINGITE according to the base present

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Water glass as activator

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"Laitiers granules

Lime cements or magnesium oxide cements
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lime paints / varnishes

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "slaked lime", "calcium hydroxide" and "hydrated lime"
{Magnesium oxide or magnesium carbonate cements}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, based on magnesium oxide or magnesium carbonate binders

Hydraulic lime
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Hydraulic lime

a lime mainly consisting of calcium silicates, calcium aluminates and calcium hydroxide. Produced by burning argilaceous limestones

containing calcium sulfate cements {(gypsum-paper plates E04C)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dentistry preparations based on gypsum

Gypsum bandages

Gypsum-paper boards

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

VERGOLDER-GUSSMASSE

gypsum + chalk + glue

{containing dihydrated gypsum before the final hardening step, e.g. forming a dihydrated gypsum product followed by a de- and rehydration step}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing dehydrated gypsum before the final hardening step, blocks of natural gypsum as inorganic binders

containing mixtures of the silica-lime type
Special rules of classification

- the "silica" used has to be indicated (possible entries C04B 14/06+, C04B 18/08 etc. ) but the lime is not classified separately, as it is considered inherent to the composition.

Rules of classification:

{containing formed Ca-silicates before the final hardening step}
Special rules of classification

see rules in C04B 28/18

{the Ca-silicates being present in the starting mixture}
Special rules of classification

See rules in C04B 28/18

containing alkyl, ammonium or metal silicates; containing silica sols {(reaction mixtures resulting in mineral polymers C04B 28/006; polymeric reaction products of alkali metal silicates with isocyanates C08G 18/3895)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Colloidal silica as filler

(water soluble) fluorosilicates as binder

Reaction mixtures resulting in mineral polymers

Fibres + colloidal silica

Polymeric reaction products of alkali metal silicates with isocyanates

Silicates of the alkali metals
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Reaction mixtures resulting in mineral polymers

Foundry moulds based on alkali metal silicates

Alkali metal silicates as such

Paints based on alkali metal silicates

Adhesives based on alkali metal silicates

For soil stabilisation

Use of waterglass in road making

containing organic polyacids, e.g. polycarboxylate cements {, i.e. ionomeric systems}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dental cements

Surgical ionomer cements

containing magnesium cements {or similar cements} (magnesium oxide cements C04B 28/10)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Magnesium oxide cements

Magnesium oxychloride cements, e.g. Sorel cement
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dental cements

containing cold phosphate binders
Relationships with other classification places

Preparations for dental purposes

Surgical cements

Materials for prostheses

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Coating of metals in general

Special rules of classification

- since 1/4/92 classification is done according to the note following C04B 28/34;

- ammonium compounds are considered to be alkali metal compounds;

- phosphate compositions for coating metallic surfaces (for passivating purposes) are classified in C04B 28/34 and subgroups and receive C04B 2111/00525 as symbol

- starting mixture of oxide + phosphate C04B 28/34;

- starting mixture of acid + oxide C04B 28/342;

- starting mixture containing phosphate only C04B 28/344;

- starting mixture of acid + phosphate C04B 28/346;

- starting mixture of acid + oxide + phosphate C04B 28/348

Compositions for artificial stone, not containing binders
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Insulation for cavity walls

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Artificial stone, i.e. cast stone

Synthetic stone compounds

containing fibrous materials
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • in principle as defined in the title- no binder;
  • but also e.g. fibers held together with a minor amount of binder can receive C04B 30/02 as additional class (in which case the binder is indexed from C04B 7/00 if inorganic, or C04B 24/00 if organic);
  • also fibers held together by minor amounts of e.g. refractory oxides- these oxides are then indexed as filler from C04B 14/00
{Artificial stone obtained by melting at least part of the composition, e.g. metal (C04B 28/36 and C03C take precedence; cast stone from molten slag C04B 5/00; artificial stone obtained by melting the polymeric ingredient of the composition C04B 26/00)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cast stone from molten slag

Artificial stone obtained by melting the polymeric ingredient of the composition

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing sulphur, sulphides or selenium, as inorganic binder

Glass compositions containing a non-glass component

with reinforcements {(contains no documents; reinforcing elements E04C 5/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

This group is only used as symbol in the C-set to indicate the presence of reinforcements (in the sense of E04C 5/00). The group itself does not contain any documents

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cathodic protection of reinforced concrete

Reinforcing elements for concrete

Clay-wares (monolithic refractories or refractory mortars C04B 35/66; porous products C04B 38/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ceramic products based on clay materials, the processing of clay materials preparatory to the making of clay products, the following shaping methods for clay materials: slip-casting (C04B 33/28) and dry-pressing (C04B 33/20).

Relationships with other classification places

working by grinding or polishing B24

Processes for the shaping of clay materials, except for slip-casting (C04B 33/28) and dry-pressing (C04B 33/20) B28B

Preparing clay; producing mixtures containing clay B28C

Working stone or stone-like materials, e.g. brick, concrete or glass , not provided for elsewhere; machines, devices, tools therefore B28D

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Granular clay used as filler in cement, concrete or artificial stone

Heat treating clay to expand it for use as filler in cement, concrete or artificial stone

Clay used as active ingredient in cement, concrete or artificial stone

Unburned clays used as filler in cement, concrete or artificial stone

Ceramic materials based on silicates other than clays

Creating porosity in a ceramic, cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone by using expanding clay

Coating or impregnating a ceramic substrate with clay

Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products

C04B 2235/00 and subgroups

Aspects relating to ceramic laminates or to joining of ceramic articles with other articles by heating

C04B 2237/00 and subgroups

Clays used in catalysts

Clays used in molecular sieves

Clay used as binding agent in refractory moulds

Clay moulds for slip-casting metals

Devitrified glass-ceramics

C03C 10/00 and subgroups

Use of clays as compounding ingredient for polymers

Treatment of clay materials to enhance pigmenting or filling properties for non-clay and non-ceramic products (usually for polymer products)

Interference pigments characterized by the core material, the core consisting of glass or silicate material like mica or clays, e.g. kaolin

Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings with an outer layer of ceramics or clay

Rigid pipes of glass or ceramics, e.g. clay, clay tile, porcelain

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars

Joining of a ceramic or clay layer to another layer

C04B 37/00 and subclasses

Porous ceramic products

C04B 38/00 and subclasses

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Silica as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Silicates other than clay as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. water glass (Na2SiO3)

C04B 2235/3427 and subgroups

Clays as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bentonites/smectites such as montmorillonite, kaolines such as halloysite, illite, talc, sepiolite and attapulgite, vermiculite

Clays added to foodstuffs

Clay used in cosmetics

Clay used in medicines

Clays used for solid sorbents or as filter aid

Catalysts comprising clays or other mineral silicates

Proportioning the ingredients for mixing clay or cement with other substances

Resin-bonded materials containing containing mineral aggregates, e.g. sand, clay or the like

Laminated products composed mainly of ceramics, e.g. clay ceramics

Using clay fillers in resin laminates

Clay used as pigment in printing ink

Clay used in the coating of printing paper

Modelling clay for creating decorative effects

Making or composition of clay compounds (powders)

Preparation of acyclic or carbocyclic hydrocarbons, using clay catalysts

Clay used in aqueous well drilling compositions

C09K 8/04 and subclasses

Chemical nature of materials in mouldable or extrudable form for sealing or packing joints or covers, clays

C09K 2200/0252 and subgroups

Clay used in lubricant compositions

Clays used in detergent compositions

Clay used as carrier in detergent compositions

Clay used in pulp compositions

Clay pigments used for coating paper

Clays used in foundations, excavations, embankments, underground or underwater structure

E02D 2300/0037 and subgroups

Machines for obtaining or the removal of materials in open-pit mines, for quarrying stone, sand, gravel, or clay

Rigid pipes, of glass or ceramics, e.g. clay, clay tile, porcelain

Apparatus for preheating charges or arrangements for preheating charges: drying of green clay prior to baking

Target discs characterised by their material, structure or surface, e.g. clay pigeon targets characterised by their material

Clay-pigeon targets; clay-disc targets

F41J 9/16 and subclasses

Treating radioactively contaminated material by fixation in stable solid media in an inorganic matrix, e.g. clays, zeolites

Special rules of classification

The indexing scheme C04B 2235/00-C04B 2235/9692 is used in C04B 33/00, with the exception of a few symbols that overlap with classes in C04B 33/00. The following symbols are not used in C04B 33/00:

C04B 2235/349: clay additives

C04B 2235/5472: ceramic or refractory mixtures of materials with different sizes

C04B 2235/6027: slip-casting of ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 2235/604: pressing at non-sintering temperatures of ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 2235/606: drying of green ceramic or refractory bodies

C04B 2235/9661: colouring of ceramic or refractory materials

If the phase composition of the sintered clay material is specified, C04B 35/14, C04B 35/16 or one of its subgroups might be given to indicate the main phase of the sintered clay product.

The processing classes C04B 35/624-C04B 35/62695 are also used in the clay field, just as powder and fiber coating classes from C04B 35/628. The inorganic binder classes C04B 35/6306-C04B 35/6316 and the organic binder classes C04B 35/6325-C04B 35/638 are also used in the clay field.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Clay

Clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. Silts, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays, but there is some overlap in both particle size and other physical properties, and there are many naturally occurring deposits which include silts and also clay. The distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline. Geologists and soil scientists usually consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm (clays being finer than silts), sedimentologists often use 4-5 μm, and colloid chemists use 1 μm. Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils' Atterberg Limits. ISO 14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 μm and silts larger. Clay minerals are hydrous aluminum phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations. Clays have structures similar to the micas and therefore form flat hexagonal sheets Clays are commonly referred to as 1:1 or 2:1. Clays are fundamentally built of tetrahedral sheets and octahedral sheets, as described in the structure section below. A 1:1 clay would consist of one tetrahedral sheet and one octahedral sheet, and examples would be kaolinite and serpentine. A 2:1 clay consists of an octahedral sheet sandwiched between two tetrahedral sheets, and examples are illite, smectite, attapulgite, and chlorite (although chlorite has an external octahedral sheet often referred to as "brucite"). Clay minerals include the following groups:Kaolin group which includes the minerals kaolinite, dickite, halloysite, and nacrite (polymorphs of Al2Si2O5(OH)4). Some sources include the kaolinite-serpentine group due to structural similarities. Smectite group which includes dioctahedral smectites such as montmorillonite and nontronite and trioctahedral smectites for example saponite. Illite group which includes the clay-micas. Illite is the only common mineral. Chlorite group includes a wide variety of similar minerals with considerable chemical variation. Other 2:1 clay types exist such as sepiolite or attapulgite, clays with long water channels internal to their structure. Clay mineral group Halloysite – Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Kaolinite – Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Illite – (K,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10[(OH)2,(H2 O)] Montmorillonite – (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2·nH2 O Vermiculite – (MgFe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2·4H2 O Talc – Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Palygorskite – (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)·4(H2 O) Pyrophyllite – Al2Si4O10(OH)2

clay means any clay or ceramic material

Preparing or treating the raw materials individually or as batches
Definition statement

This place covers:

The powders are treated either as a powder or in shaped form

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fillers added to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone: expanding clay, perlite, vermiculite or like granular materials

C04B 20/06 and subgroups

Apparatus or methods for mixing clay with other substances

B28C 3/00 and subgroups

Controlling the operation of apparatus for producing mixtures of clay, ceramic or cement with other substances; supplying or proportioning the ingredients for mixing clay or cement with other substances; discharging the mixture

B28C 7/00 and subgroups

{Mixtures of materials with different sizes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The document mentions that the inorganic starting materials deliberately have different mesh sizes, such as a fraction of < 400 mesh, a fraction of 200-400 mesh and a fraction > 200 mesh, or the document mentions different particle sizes, e.g. two fractions, one with sizes below and one with size above 0,1 mm. A certain constituent is added with two different particle sizes, by adding for instance kaolin with a size of 1 micron and kaolin with a size of 10 micron. A powder is added that contains one fraction, but this fraction has a bimodal particle size distribution.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clay mixtures in which the organic additives have different size fractions

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fillers added to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone: characterised by the grain distribution: fillers with bimodal grain size distribution

Ceramic or refractory mixtures of materials with different sizes

Separation of particles of different sizes through sedimentation

B01D 21/00 and subgroups

Inorganic particles per se with a bimodal particle size distribution

Special rules of classification

This class is not complete. The years 1981-2005 are missing. Some documents with clay-mixtures of materials with different sizes might have the symbol C04B 2235/5472.

Clay; Kaolin
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mixtures contain clay or kaolin additives

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with clay/kaolin

C04B 41/5037 and subgroups

Clays as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bentonites/smectites such as montmorillonite, kaolines such as halloysite, illite, talc, sepiolite and attapulgite, vermiculite

Rendering lime harmless
Definition statement

This place covers:

The lime in or for the clay material is reacted to form calcium alumino-silicate phases

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Calcium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. lime

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Lime

calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide

Preventing efflorescence
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any method that prevents the efflorescence (or salting out) of salts present in the clay mixture or present in the starting materials to be used for forming a clay mixture

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Metal salts chosen for the nature of the anions as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. phosphides, hydrides, acetylacetonate, hydroxides, or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/44 and subgroups

Products characterised by the absence or the low content of specific components, e.g. alkali metal free alumina ceramics

C04B 2235/72 and subgroups

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Efflorescence

the loss of water (or a solvent) of crystallization from a hydrated or solvated salt to the atmosphere on exposure to air.

Eliminating iron or lime
Definition statement

This place covers:

Removing lime or iron salts from the clay mixture

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Calcium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. lime

Iron oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. hematite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4)

C04B 2235/3272 and subgroup

Products characterised by the absence or the low content of specific components, e.g. alkali metal free alumina ceramics

C04B 2235/72 and subgroups

Separation of particles of different sizes through sedimentation

B01D 21/00 and subgroups

Compounding ingredients (C04B 33/36, C04B 35/71 take precedence {; pigments for ceramics C09C 1/0009})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Preparing mixtures for making clay materials, e.g. adding waste glass to a clay mixture.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Reinforced clay wares

Reinforced ceramics

C04B 35/71 and subgroups

Apparatus or methods for producing or N:processing clay suspensions, e.g. slip

B28C 1/02 and subgroups

Apparatus or methods for processing clay-containing substances in non-fluid condition

B28C 1/10 and subgroups

Supplying or proportioning the ingredients

B28C 7/04 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Glass starting materials for making ceramics, e.g. silica glass

C04B 2235/36 and subgroup

Pigments for ceramics

Special rules of classification

If waste glass is used, the symbol C04B 2235/36 is added as well.

{Organic additives}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All organic additives added to form the product

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Organic additives added to ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 35/632 and subclasses

Organic additives that are added to the clay material to create porosity after a heat treatment

C04B 38/06 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkoxides as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. methoxide, tert-butoxide

Organic acids as starting material for making ceramics, e.g., EDTA, citrate, acetate, oxalate

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. carbonising phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Organic fibers used as starting material for making ceramics

Special rules of classification

If a certain polymer is specified as additive, one of the subclasses of C04B 35/634 can be given, to indicate the specific polymer. C04B 35/6325, C04B 35/636, C04B 35/6365 and C04B 35/638 can be used as well. A certain amount of documents of clay mixtures with organic additives might have received C04B 35/632 or one of the subclasses, such as one of the polymer additive classes (C04B 35/634 and subclasses) without having received the class C04B 33/1305. If the organic additive is a binder, C04B 33/1315 is given as well.

{Inorganic additives}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All inorganic additives added to form the product

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Inorganic additives to ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 35/6303 and subclasses

Inorganic additives that are added to the clay material to create porosity after a heat treatment

C04B 38/06 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides, as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/32 and subgroups

Non-metal oxides, mixed non-metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides, as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/34 and subgroups

Glass starting materials for making ceramics, e.g. silica glass

C04B 2235/36 and subgroup

Non-oxides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/38 and subgroups

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

Non metallic elements as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. sulphur, phosphor, selenium or tellurium

C04B 2235/42 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If a certain inorganic is specified as additive, C04B 35/6306 or one of its subclasses, or C04B 35/6316 can, if appropriate be given. A certain amount of documents of clay mixtures with inorganic additives might have received C04B 35/6303 or one of the subclasses without having received the class C04B 33/131. The class has not been used in the years 1983-2005. If the inorganic additive is a binder, C04B 33/1315 is given as well. If none of the subclasses of C04B 35/6303 is appropriate, symbol from the range C04B 2235/32-C04B 2235/549 can be given.

{Non-ceramic binders}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Binders for clay mixtures that are neither clay materials themselves nor ceramic materials as classified in C04B 35/01-C04B 35/597.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Binders for ceramic products

Binders for refractory moulds

B22C 1/16 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

The binder is normally also classified in either C04B 33/1305 or C04B 33/131. If the binder is one of the materials classified in C04B 35/6306 (and subclasses), C04B 35/6316, C04B 35/634 (and subclasses) or C04B 35/636 (and subclasses), the respective additive class from C04B 35/00 is given as well. If none of the subclasses of C04B 35/6303 or C04B 35/632 is appropriate, symbol from the range C04B 2235/32-C04B 2235/549 can be given.

Waste materials; Refuse; {Residues} (C04B 33/16 takes precedence; {waste glass C04B 33/13})
Definition statement

This place covers:

The use of waste materials to make clay objects, not covered by any of the subclasses, such as silica fume, except for waste glass.

Relationships with other classification places

Disposal of solid waste B09B

Removing ash, clinker, or slag from combustion chamber F21J

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The addition of waste glass to clay materials

Adding lean materials, e.g. grog quartz

The addition of waste materials to ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 35/62204 and subgroups

Waste materials that are added to the clay material to create porosity after a heat treatment

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cements containing slag

C04B 7/14 and subgroups

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 18/04 and subgroups

Use of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, or treatment of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse, specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: waste material from metallurgical processes being silica fume

C04B 18/146 and subgroups

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators: waste inorganic materials

Coating or impregnating of mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics with waste materials

Phosphates or phosphites (calcium phosphates C04B 2235/3212) as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. orthophosphate (PO43-), pyrophosphate (P2O74-), hypophosphite (H2PO2-), or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

Manufacture of articles from scrap or waste metal particles

Active carbon from waste materials, e.g. tyres, spent sulphite pulp liquor

Preparation of alkali metal aluminates; aluminium oxide or hydroxide there from by treating aluminous minerals or waste-like raw materials with alkali hydroxide,

Melting in furnaces of glass-forming waste materials

Use of waste materials, e.g. slags as ingredients generally applicable to manufacture of glasses, glazes, or vitreous enamels

Devitrified glass ceramics containing waste materials, e.g. slags

Foundations for pavings characterised by material or composition used, e.g. waste or recycled material

Special rules of classification

If more than one type of waste is used as additive for making one and the same clay object, all types of wastes are indicated with the appropriate class. Also when only small amounts are added, e.g. less than 5 wt% of the respective waste material, it is still being classified.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Devitrified glass ceramics

glass ceramics having a crystalline phase dispersed in a glassy phase and constituting at least 50% by weight of the total composition

{Waste slurries, e.g. harbour sludge, industrial muds (slurries of specific well-defined waste streams, e.g. phosphate muds, other than red mud, C04B 33/132)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The use of waste slurries such as unburned sewage sludge for making clay objects

Relationships with other classification places

Treatment of water, waste water, sewage, or sludge C02F

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Slurries of specific well-defined waste streams, e.g. phosphate muds, other than red mud

The use of burned sewage sludge for making clay objects

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: wet materials, e.g. slurries

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: dredged harbour or river sludge

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators: waste slurries or solutions used as gauging water

Use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients in polymers: waste materials, e.g. treated or untreated sewage sludge

Incineration of waste adapted for burning two or more kinds, e.g. liquid and solid, of waste being fed through separate inlets

Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste for sludges or waste products from water treatment installations

{Red mud}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The use of unburned red mud for making clay objects

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. waste from the purification of bauxite, e.g. red mud

Titanium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rutile or anatase

C04B 2235/3232 and subgroups

Iron oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. hematite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4)

C04B 2235/3272 and subgroup

Preparation of alkali metal aluminates; aluminium oxide or hydroxide there from by treating aluminous minerals or waste-like raw materials with alkali hydroxide: separation of the insoluble residue, e.g. red mud

C01F 7/0646 and subgroup

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Red mud

Is a solid waste product of the Bayer process, the principal industrial means of refining bauxite in order to provide alumina as raw material for the electrolysis of aluminium by the Hall–Héroult process. A typical plant produces one to two times as much red mud as alumina. This ratio is dependent on the type of bauxite used in the refining process. Red mud is composed of a mixture of solid and metallic oxide-bearing impurities, and presents one of the aluminium industry's most important disposal problems. The red colour is caused by the oxidised iron present, which can make up to 60% of the mass of the red mud. In addition to iron, the other dominant particles include silica, unleached residual aluminium, and titanium oxide.

{Recycled material, e.g. tile dust, stone waste, spent refractory material}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Residues from sawing stones or ceramics, left refractory material, etc. is used for making a clay product

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hydraulic cements from waste building materials, e.g. waste asbestos-cement products, demolition waste

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: waste from quarries, mining or the like

C04B 18/12 and subgroup

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: waste from building or ceramic industry

C04B 18/16 and subgroup

Grain-sized magnesia-based refractories

C04B 35/043 and subgroups

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories

C04B 35/101 and subgroups

Grain-sized titania-based refractories

Grain-sized zirconia-based refractories

Grain-sized silicon carbide-based refractories

C04B 35/565 and subgroups, and C04B45/66

Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars

Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; grain structures thereof

B22C 1/00 and subgroups

{Hazardous waste other than combustion residues (dredging sludge C04B 33/1321)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For instance waste containing halogens.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Treating radioactively contaminated material; decontamination arrangements therefore; treating liquids by fixation in an inorganic matrix, e.g. clays, zeolite

Treating radioactively contaminated material; decontamination arrangements therefore; treating solids by fixation in an inorganic matrix

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Waste asbestos fibers added as filler to concrete, cement, mortar or artificial stone

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: hazardous waste

Dredging sludge waste used for making clay wares

Halide containing anions as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. chlorate (ClO3-), bromide (Br-), iodate (IO3-), chlorite (ClO2-), or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances

A62D 3/00 and subgroups

Treating radioactively contaminated material; decontamination arrangements therefore

G21F 9/00 and subgroups

{containing heavy metals}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste containing metals or metal salts such as V, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, Hg, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, etc. being used as additive for making clay products.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: hazardous waste contaminated by heavy metals

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

Vanadium oxides, vanadates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. magnesium vanadate (Mg2V2O7).

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

Niobium or tantalum oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Nb2O5 or Ta2O5

C04B 2235/3251 and subgroup

Molybdenum oxides, molybdates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. cadmium molybdate (CdMoO4)

Tungsten oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. scheelite (CaWO4)

C04B 2235/3258 and subgroup

Manganese or rhenium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. MnO

C04B 2235/3262 and subgroups

Cobalt oxides, cobaltites or cobaltates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc cobaltite (ZnCo2O4) or bismuth cobaltate (BiCoO3)

C04B 2235/3275 and subgroup

Nickel oxides, nickelates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. NiO

Copper oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. CuO or Cu2O

C04B 2235/3281 and subgroup

Zinc oxides, zincates, cadmium oxides, cadmiates, mercury oxides, mercurates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. ZnO

Gallium oxides, gallates, indium oxides, indates, thallium oxides, thallates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4)

Germanium oxides, N:antimonite or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. copper N:antimonite (CuGeO3)

Noble metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. IrO2, PdO, RhO2

C04B 2235/3289 and subgroup

Tin oxides, stannates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g., indium tin oxide (ITO)

Antimony oxides, antimonates, antimonites or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, indium antimonite (InSbO4)

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc bismuthate (Zn(BiO3)2)

{without additional clay}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alumino-silicate products made by sintering waste materials, without adding any clay material.

Special rules of classification

Normally a document that is classified in this class will also receive one of the other waste classes from C04B 33/00, to indicate the type of waste material.

Combustion residues, e.g. fly ash, incineration waste {(silica fume C04B 33/132)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The residues of the combustion of all wastes not covered by one of the subgroups, e.g. residues of the combustion of hazardous waste, refuse

Relationships with other classification places

Removal or treatment of combustion products or combustion residues F23J

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fly ash used in cement

Silica fume added as ingredient for clay mixtures

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hydraulic cements from combustion residues, e.g. ashes or slags from waste incineration

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: combustion residues, e.g. purification products of smoke, fumes or exhaust gases

C04B 18/06 and subgroups

Hydraulic ash cements, e.g. fly ash cements, cements based on incineration residues, kiln dust cements

Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware, by burning-out added substances: waste material; refuse other than vegetable refuse

Chemical or biological purification of waste gases

{Fuel ashes, e.g. fly ash}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All fuel ashes, usually coal ashes from the burning of coal, which results in a light fraction, the fly ash or flue dust and the heavy fraction the (coal) bottom ash.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ashes, such as fly ashes, from the burning of household waste, municipal waste, industrial waste, general garbage and sewage sludge

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Slaking of impure quick lime, e.g. contained in fly ash

Hydraulic cements with activators or composition-correcting additives, e.g. mixtures of fly ash and alkali activators

Hydraulic cements from raw materials containing flue dust, i.e. fly ash

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: residues from coal gasification

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: combustion residues: flue dust, i.e. fly ash

C04B 18/08 and subgroups

Ash cements, e.g. fly ash cements

Preparation of alkali metal aluminates; aluminium oxide or hydroxide there from by treating aluminous minerals from waste-like raw materials, e.g. fly ash, Bayer calcination dust with alkali hydroxide,

Working up raw materials other than ores, e.g. scrap, to produce non-ferrous metals and compounds thereof: working-up flue dust

Devices for conducting smoke or fumes, e.g. flues

F23J 11/00 and subgroups

Fittings for chimneys or flues

F23J 13/00 and subgroups

Arrangement of devices for treating smoke or fumes

F23J 15/00 and subgroups

{Incineration residues}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The residues from the incineration of household waste, municipal waste, industrial waste, general garbage

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

All ashes from fuel burning, such as fly ash or bottom ash from coal combustion

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cements containing slags from waste incineration

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: combustion residues: burned or pyrolised refuse

C04B 18/10 and subgroups

Incineration of waste, incinerator constructions; details, accessories or control therefore

F23G 5/00 and subgroups

Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals

F23G 7/00 and subgroups

Treating radioactively contaminated material; decontamination arrangements therefore; treating liquids by incineration; by calcination, e.g. desiccation

Treating radioactively contaminated material; decontamination arrangements therefore; treating solids by incineration

{Sewage sludge ash or slag}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sewage sludge that has been burned/incinerated is used as additive for making clay objects

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sewage sludge that not has been burned/incinerated is used as additive for making clay objects

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: combustion residues: burned or pyrolised sludges

Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals for sludges or waste products from water treatment installations

from metallurgical processes, e.g. slag, furnace dust, galvanic waste
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials resulting from metallurgical processes that are used for making clay products.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Use of silica fume from metallurgical processes for making clay materials

Combusted metallurgical waste products used for making clay products

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Treatment of metallurgical slag. Artificial stone from molten metallurgical slag

C04B 5/00 and subgroups

Hydraulic cements containing metallurgical slag

C04B 7/147 and subgroups

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: waste from metallurgical processes

C04B 18/14 and subgroup

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulphates: slag cements

C04B 28/08 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating e.g. injection in masonry, partial coating of green or fired ceramics with masses bonded by inorganic slag cements

Manufacture of articles from scrap or waste metal particles

Shaping clay or other ceramic compositions, slag or mixtures containing cementitious material e.g. plaster: specially adapted for producing articles from molten material, e.g. slag

Manufacture or treatment of flakes, fibres, or filaments from softened glass, minerals, or slags

C03B 37/00 and subgroups

Ingredients generally applicable to manufacture of glasses, glazes, or vitreous enamels: use of waste materials, e.g. slags

Devitrified glass ceramics containing waste materials, e.g. slags

General features in the manufacture of pig-iron: recovery of by-products, e.g. slag

C21B 3/04 and subgroups

Making pig-iron in the blast furnace: making slag of special composition

Manufacture of carbon-steel: processes yielding slags of special composition

Working up raw materials other than ores, e.g. scrap, to produce non-ferrous metals and compounds thereof: working-up slag

Equipment for removing or retaining slag

F27D 3/1545 and subgroup

Devices or methods for removing incrustations, e.g. slag, metal deposits, dust; Devices or methods for preventing the adherence of slag

F27D 25/00 and subgroup

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Devitrified glass ceramics

glass ceramics having a crystalline phase dispersed in a glassy phase and constituting at least 50% by weight of the total composition

Slag

A partially vitreous by-product of smelting ore to separate the metal fraction from the unwanted fraction. It can usually be considered to be a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. However, slags can contain metal sulfides (see also matte) and metal atoms in the elemental form.

Colouring matters
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clays products of which the colour is specified or to which a colouring additive is added.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The colouring of glazes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Iron oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. hematite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4)

C04B 2235/3272 and subgroup

Colouring of ceramics or refractories

Pigments for ceramics

C09C 1/0009 and subgroup

Pigments exhibiting interference colours

C09C 1/0015, C09C 2200/00 and subgroups

Pigments consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

Composite particulate pigments or fillers, i.e. containing at least two solid phases, except those consisting of coated particles of one compound

C09C 1/0081 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: metallic pigments or fillers

C09C 1/62 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

The colouring additives that are added, e.g. iron oxide or cobalt oxide, are normally classified with a symbol from the C04B 2235/00-scheme.

Lean materials, e.g. grog, quartz
Definition statement

This place covers:

The addition of lean materials such as grog, quartz, alumina to the clay mixture.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Materials consisting mainly out of grog/chamotte

Ceramic silica based materials

Ceramic silicate based materials

C04B 35/16 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: granular materials: quartz; sand

C04B 14/06 and subgroups

Use of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, treatment of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse, specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: grog

Silicon oxide, silicic acids, or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silica sol, fused silica, silica fume, cristobalite, quartz or flint, e.g. silicic acid H2Si2O5

Special rules of classification

The lean materials that are added, e.g. quartz or alumina, are normally classified with a symbol from the C04B 2235/00-scheme.

If the phase composition of the sintered clay material is specified, C04B 35/16 or one of its subgroup might be given to indicate the main phase of the sintered clay product.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Grog

Also known as firesand and chamotte, is a ceramic raw material. It has high percentage of silica and alumina. It can be produced by firing selected fire clays to high temperature before grinding and screening to specific particle sizes. It can also be produced from pitchers. The particle size distribution is generally coarser in size than the other raw materials used to prepare clay bodies. It tends to be porous and have low density. It is available as a powder, mortar, or in the form of fire bricks. Grog is composed of: 40% minimum alumina (Al2O3), 30% minimum silica (SiO2), 4% maximum Iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), and 2% maximum of calcium oxide (CaO) and magnesium oxide (MgO) combined.[1]

Lean materials

materials having a high percentage in silica and/or alumina, containing little alkali metal oxides, alkaline earth metal oxides, iron oxides, etc.

for liquefying the batches
Definition statement

This place covers:

Making slurries of clay materials. Adding additives to facilitate the formation and/or stability of clay material slurries

Special rules of classification

The additives used to liquefy the batches are indicated with the classes C04B 33/1305, C04B 33/131 and C04B 33/1315, the classes C04B 35/6306-C04B 35/6316, C04B 35/6325 and C04B 35/63404-C04B 35/638. Symbols from the range C04B 2235/00 and subgroups can be used as well.

for dry-pressing (C04B 33/13 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

The preparation of the powder to improve the pressing properties and methods of dry-pressing the powder.

Relationships with other classification places

Mechanical aspects of pressing clay materials B28B

Presses in general B30B

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compounding ingredients of clay mixtures

C04B 33/13 and subgroups

Dry-pressing clay at sintering temperatures

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressing at sintering temperatures of ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 35/645 and subgroup

Pressing at non-sintering temperatures of ceramic or refractory mixtures

Making metallic articles by compacting

B22F 3/02 and subgroups

Mechanical aspects of hot-pressing ceramic materials

Press moulds and press-ram assemblies for shaping clay or other ceramic compositions

Grog products
Definition statement

This place covers:

Materials consisting mainly out of grog/chamotte

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clay products or clay compositions to which grog/chamotte is added as a minority additive

Special rules of classification

If the phase composition of the sintered clay material is specified, C04B 35/14, C04B 35/16 or one of its subgroups might be given to indicate the main phase of the sintered product.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Grog

Also known as firesand and chamotte, is a ceramic raw material. It has high percentage of silica and alumina. It can be produced by firing selected fire clays to high temperature before grinding and screening to specific particle sizes. It can also be produced from pitchers. The particle size distribution is generally coarser in size than the other raw materials used to prepare clay bodies. It tends to be porous and have low density. It is available as a powder, mortar, or in the form of fire bricks. Grog is composed of: 40% minimum alumina (Al2O3), 30% minimum silica (SiO2), 4% maximum Iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), and 2% maximum of calcium oxide (CaO) and magnesium oxide (MgO) combined.[1]

Manufacture of porcelain or white ware
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions that lead to porcelain, e.g. containing high amount of china clay, are being used

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating of green or fired ceramics with porcelain

Porcelain or ceramic teeth

Porcelain materials for prosthesis

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of porcelain

Special rules of classification

If the phase composition of the sintered clay material is specified, C04B 35/14, C04B 35/16 or one of its subgroups might be given to indicate the main phase of the sintered clay product.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Porcelain

ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 °C (2,192 °F) and 1,400 °C (2,552 °F). The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arise mainly from the formation of glass and the mineral mullite within the fired body at these high temperatures

of porcelain for electrical insulation
Definition statement

This place covers:

Porcelain used in the electric industry

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Abrasives

Selection of ferrites for their magnetic properties

Slip casting (mechanical features B28B 1/26)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Slip casting of clay/porcelain mixtures

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanical features of slip-casting clay materials

B28B 1/26 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Slip casting of ceramic or refractory mixtures

Semi-permeable inorganic membranes for separation processes made by slurry techniques, e.g. die or slip-casting

Slip casting metallic articles

Making clay or ceramic tubular articles by slip casting and moulds therefore

Slip casting plastics

Drying methods
Definition statement

This place covers:

Drying methods for clay-based powder slurries or clay-based green bodies

Relationships with other classification places

Drying solid materials or objects by removing liquid therefrom F26B

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanical aspects of drying clay objects

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drying ceramic or refractory powder mixtures

Processes, in general, for influencing or modifying the properties of mortars, concrete or artificial stone compositions: Selection of the hardening environment

C04B 40/02 and subgroups

Removal of physically bonded water from cement or ceramics, e.g. drying of hardened concrete

Drying of green ceramic or refractory bodies

Processing clay- or ceramic containing substances in non-fluid condition by heating, drying

Surface treatment of glass not in the form of fibres or filaments: drying; dehydroxylation]

Burning methods
Definition statement

This place covers:

All specific burning and sintering methods used for shaped clay materials, e.g. using a specific heating or cooling rate, a specific furnace, a specific atmosphere

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Heat treatments of clay powders

C04B 35/62645 and subgroups

Superficial sintering of clay objects with the goal of creating a porous object

C04B 38/0038 and subgroup

Mechanical aspects of sintering clay objects

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Heat treatment, e.g. precalcining, burning, melting; cooling of hydraulic cements

C04B 7/43 and subgroups

Burning or sintering processes of ceramic or refractory products

Processes, in general, for influencing or modifying the properties of mortars, concrete or artificial stone compositions: making use of a rise in temperature, e.g. caused by an exothermic reaction

Processes, in general, for influencing or modifying the properties of mortars, concrete or artificial stone compositions: heating up to sintering temperatures

After-treatment of mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics: heat treatment

Aspects relating to heat treatment of ceramic bodies such as green ceramics or pre-sintered ceramics, e.g. burning, sintering or melting processes

C04B 2235/65 and subgroups

Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; apparatus specially adapted therefore; Presses and furnaces

B22F 3/00 and subgroups

Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression

B22F 7/00 and subgroups

Sintering glass

C03B 19/06 and subgroups

Shaft or like vertical or substantially vertical furnaces wherein no smelting of the charge occurs, e.g. calcining or sintering furnaces

Special rules of classification

When giving this class, it should be checked if one of the symbols from the range C04B 2235/65-C04B 2235/668 is applicable. If so, this symbol should be given as well.

{involving melting, fusion or softening}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Complete melting of the clay material or at least to a large extent

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Heat treatments such as] calcining; fusing pyrolysis in general

B01J 6/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Artificial stone from molten metallurgical slag

C04B 5/00 and subgroups

Artificial stone obtained by melting at least part of the composition, e.g. metal

Melting of material to make a ceramic powder

Melting of ceramic or refractory material to make a bulk ceramic

C04B 35/653 and subgroup

Porous clay ceramics obtained by generating pores in the ceramic material while in the molten state

Processes, in general, for influencing or modifying the properties of mortars, concrete or artificial stone composition: involving melting of at least part of the composition

Thermally activated mortars, e.g. by melting ingredients

Coating or impregnating "in situ", e.g. impregnating of artificial stone by subsequent melting of a compound added to the artificial stone composition

Coating or impregnating applied from the molten state; thermal spraying, e.g. plasma spraying

C04B 41/4523 and subgroup

Superficial melting of the ceramic substrate before or during the coating or impregnating step

Shaping methods specially adapted for producing clay or ceramic articles from molten material, e.g. slag refractory ceramic materials

Special rules of classification

When giving this class, it should be checked if one of the symbols from the range C04B 2235/65-C04B 2235/668 is applicable. If so, this symbol should be given as well.

{under pressure}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods such as sinterforging, HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), SPS (spark plasma sintering).

Relationships with other classification places

Presses in general B30B

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Pressing and heating of the clay green compact at the same time at temperatures lower than the sintering temperature

Processes using ultra high pressure, e.g. for the formation of diamonds; apparatus therefore, e.g. moulds, dies

B01J 3/06 and subgroups

Mechanical aspects of hot-pressing clay materials

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressure sintering of ceramics and refractories

C04B 35/645 and subgroup

Pressing at non-sintering temperatures of ceramic or refractory mixtures

Using constraining layers before or during sintering of ceramic laminates or ceramic substrates that are joined with other substrates

C04B 2237/56 and subgroups

Both compacting and sintering of metallic articles

Both compacting and sintering of metallic articles by forging

Hot-pressing glass powder

Special rules of classification

When giving this class, it should be checked if one of the symbols from the range C04B 2235/65-C04B 2235/668 is applicable. If so, this symbol should be given as well. If SPS is used, C04B 2235/666 should be given as well.

combined with glazing
Definition statement

This place covers:

Applying a glaze, engobe or enamel before sintering and then sinter.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Method of applying the glaze and/or choice of the substrate for glazing

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with engobes

Mechanical aspects of glazing clay objects

Composition of enamels and glazes

C03C 8/00 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

When giving this class, it should be checked if one of the symbols from the range C04B 2235/65-C04B 2235/668 is applicable. If so, this symbol should be given as well.

Reinforced clay-wares
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clay materials containing macro-additives such as fibers and/or whiskers, that give strength to the compact

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clay materials having additives such as binders, waste material, colouring additives

C04B 33/1315, C04B 33/132 and subgroups, C04B 33/14 (respectively)

Mechanical aspects of shaping clay objects containing fibers

Arrangements specially adapted for the production of shaped ceramic articles with elements wholly or partly embedded in the moulding material; production of reinforced objects

B28B 23/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fibrous materials and whiskers added to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone

C04B 14/38 and subgroups, C04B 20/0048 and subgroups

Compositions for artificial stone, not containing binders, containing fibrous materials

Making ceramic fibers per se

Coating ceramic and carbon fibers

C04B 35/62844 and subgroups

Ceramic material reinforced with fibers

C04B 35/71 and subclasses, e.g. C04B 35/83, C/C composites

Fibers used in ceramic composition

C04B 2235/5208 and subgroups

Fiber or whisker reinforced substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Making metallic fibers per se

The synthesis of glass fibers

C03B 37/01 and subgroups

Glass fibre or filament compositions

C03C 13/00 and subgroups

Glass compositions containing a non-glass component, e.g. compositions containing fibres, filaments, whiskers, platelets, or the like, dispersed in a glass matrix

Making fibers of inorganic material, not being glass, metallic or ceramic, e.g. carbon

Special rules of classification

The classes C04B 35/71-C04B 35/83 are not used in combination with C04B 33/36. The reinforcements are indicated with symbol from the scheme C04B 2235/00-C04B 2235/549, and mainly from the range C04B 2235/5208-C04B 2235/5296 (different types of fiber additives).

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition {(porous ceramic products C04B 38/00; ceramic articles characterised by particular shape, see the relevant classes, e.g. linings for casting ladles, tundishes, cups or the like B22D 41/02; ceramic substrates for microelectronic semi-conductors H01L 23/15)}; Ceramics compositions (containing free metal bonded to carbides, diamond, oxides, borides, nitrides, silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides or sulfides other than as macroscopic reinforcing agents C22C; {shaping of ceramics B28B}); Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products {(chemical preparation of powders of inorganic compounds C01; infiltration of sintered ceramic preforms with molten metal C04B 41/51)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramic compositions or refractories based on oxides or oxide mixtures or solid solutions of two or more oxides; processes for their manufacture.

Ceramic compositions based on rare earth compounds or on compounds of actinides; processes for their manufacture.

Ceramic compositions or refractories based on non-oxides, e.g. on carbon, sulphides, selenides, fluorides, carbides, borides, nitrides or silicides; processes for their manufacture.

Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars, including those whether or not containing clay; processes for their manufacture.

Ceramic products containing macroscopic reinforcing agents, e.g. shaped metallic or non-metallic materials; processes for their manufacture.

Shaped ceramic products or refractories characterised by their composition; processes for manufacturing these shaped ceramic products or refractories:

  • Shaped products obtained by a ceramic-forming technique;
  • Shaped products obtained from polymer precursors;
  • Shaped products obtained by Sol-Gel processing;
  • Shaped products obtained by Rapid Prototyping techniques;
  • Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of the shaped products ;
  • Additives specially adapted for forming the shaped products , e.g. binders;

Processes characterised by the burning or sintering step.

Shaped products obtained by processes involving a melting step.

Relationships with other classification places

Filters, membranes for separation processes B01D

Catalysts B01J

Working by grinding or polishing B24

Mechanical features relating to the working of mortars, concrete, stone, clay-wares or ceramics , e.g. mixing or shaping ceramic compositions, boring natural stone B28B

Chemical preparation of powders of inorganic compounds C01

Chemical composition of glasses, glazes, or vitreous enamels C03C

Treating inorganic non-fibrous materials to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties C09C, C09C

Compositions containing free metal bonded to carbides, diamond, oxides, borides, nitrides, silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, such as oxynitrides or sulphides, other than as macroscopic reinforcing agents C22C

Furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts F27

Basic electric elements H01

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clay-wares

C04B 33/00 and subgroups

Devitrified glass-ceramics

C03C 10/00 and subgroups

Manufacture of carbon fibres

D01F 9/12 and subgroups

Casings, linings, walls, roofs of furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts

F27D 1/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Joining of a ceramic layer to another layer

C04B 37/00 and subgroups

Obtaining porous ceramic products

C04B 38/00 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with ceramic material

C04B 41/5025 and subgroups, C04B 41/87

Infiltration of sintered ceramic preforms with molten metal

Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products

C04B 2235/00 and subgroups

Ceramic interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/04 and subgroups

Ceramic substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/32 and subgroups

Dental prostheses, e.g. porcelain or ceramic teeth

A61C 13/08 and subgroups

Ceramic materials for prostheses or for coating prostheses

A61L 27/10 and subgroup

Ceramic material for prosthesis

Materials for catheters or for coating catheters

A61L 29/00 and subgroups

Materials for other surgical articles

A61L 31/00 and subgroups

Inorganic membranes

B01D 71/02 and subgroups

Articles characterised by particular shape, see the relevant classes, e.g. linings for casting ladles, tundishes, cups or the like

B22D 41/02 and subgroups

Producing shaped articles from the material , e.g. by slip-casting

B28B 1/00 and subgroups

Apparatus or methods for mixing clay or ceramic with other substances

B28C 3/00 and subgroups

Proportioning the ingredients for mixing clay or cement with other substances

B28C 7/00 and subgroups

Layered products essentially comprising ceramics , e.g. refractory products

Printing plates or foils; Materials therefore made entirely of inorganic materials other than natural stone or metals, e.g. ceramics, carbide materials, ferroelectric materials]

Luminescent materials

C09K 11/00 and subgroups

Fireproofing materials

C09K 21/00 and subgroups

Alloys based on carbides, oxides, borides, nitrides or silicides, e.g. cermets

C22C 29/00 and subgroups

Materials for coating by flame or plasma spraying

C23C 4/10 and subgroups

Materials for coating by sputtering, e.g. ceramic targets

C23C 14/06 and subgroups

Single crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure

C30B 29/00 and subgroups

Ceramics; oxides in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/08 and subgroups

Materials for parts of bearings, e.g. sliding-contact bearings

F16C 33/00 and subgroups

Materials for friction linings

F16D 69/02 and subgroups

Materials for pistons, trunk pistons, plungers

F16J 1/01 and subgroups

Materials for piston-rings or seats therefore

F16J 9/26 and subgroups

Materials for rigid pipes, of glass or ceramics, e.g. clay, clay tile, porcelain

F16L 9/10 and subgroups

Materials for protection of pipes or pipe fittings against corrosion or incrustation

F16L 58/00 and subgroups

Shades containing photoluminescent material

Refractors containing photoluminescent material

Reflectors containing photoluminescent material

Elements containing photoluminescent material distinct from or spaced from the light source

Elements with provision for controlling the spectral properties or intensity containing photoluminescent material

Casings, linings, walls of combustion chambers characterised by the shape of the bricks or blocks

F23M 5/02 and subgroups

Arrangement or mounting of linings for fire-boxes, e.g. fire-back

F24B 13/02 and subgroups

Shaft or vertical furnaces in general

F27B 1/00 and subgroups

Measuring steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or a fluent solid material by electric or magnetic pressure-sensitive elements. Transmitting or indicating the displacement of mechanical pressure-sensitive elements, used to measure the steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or fluent solid material by electric or magnetic means using a ceramic diaphragm, e.g. alumina, fused quartz, glass

Ceramics; Glasses; Refractories as protection against x-radiation, gamma radiation, corpuscular radiation or particle bombardment

Materials for conductors or conductive bodies

H01B 1/00 and subgroups

Materials for insulators or insulating or dielectric bodies

H01B 3/00 and subgroups

Superconductive or hyperconductive conductors, cables, or transmission lines

H01B 12/00 and subgroups

Materials for varistor cores

H01C 7/105 and subgroups

Materials for magnets or magnetic bodies

H01F 1/00 and subgroups

Superconducting magnets or coils

H01F 6/00 and subgroups

Materials for fixed capacitors, e.g. ceramic dielectrics

H01G 4/12 and subgroups

Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices characterised by the material , e.g. ceramic substrates

H01L 23/00 and subgroups

Ceramic substrates for microelectronic semi-conductors

Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices characterised by the material , encapsulations, e.g. encapsulating layers, coatings, characterised by the material, Oxides or nitrides or carbides, e.g. ceramics, glass

Materials for superconductive or hyperconductive devices

H01L 39/00 and subgroups

Materials for piezo-electric or electrostrictive elements

H01L 41/00 and subgroups

Materials for inert electrodes with catalytic activity for electrochemical generators, e.g. for fuel cells

H01M 4/86 and subgroups

Fuel cells containing glass or ceramic materials

H01M 8/0215 and subgroups

Materials for solid electrolytes of fuel cells

H01M 8/10 and subgroups

Dielectric resonators of the waveguide type

H01P 7/10 and subgroups

Diaphragms comprising ceramic-like materials, e.g. pure ceramic, glass, boride, nitride, carbide, mica and carbon materials

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

In this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, compositions are classified according to the constituent present in the highest proportion by weight.

In this group, magnesium is considered as an alkaline earth metal.

In this group, a composite is considered as a sintered mixture of different powdered materials, other than sintering aids, the materials being present as separate phases in the sintered product.

In this group, fine ceramics are considered as products having a polycrystalline fine-grained microstructure, e.g. of dimensions below 100 micrometers.

The production of ceramic powder is classified in this group in so far as it relates to the preparation of powder with specific characteristics. If the powder is used for making a sintered ceramic, it is classified in C04B 35/00, e.g. making alumina powder that is used for a sintered alumina ceramic. If the composition of powder is new, the preparation of the powder is classified as well, irrespective of whether a sintered ceramic is made, e.g. the preparation of a barium titanate powder with a new composition that is used as filler in polymers is still classified in C04B 35/00. A new method for making an already known ceramic powder that is not used for making a sintered ceramic is not classified in C04B 35/00, but in C01 or C09, e.g. a new method for making alumina powder that is used for abrasives or as polymer filler is not classified in C0B35.

Any ingredient of a refractory mortar composition containing a hydraulic cement , e.g. aluminous cement , classified in C04B 35/66, which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified according to the Last Place Rule of note (2) after the subclass title of C04B, in groups C04B 7/00 - C04B 24/00. This can for example be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information". For example, such an additional classification in group C04B 24/00 may be given for an organic retarder added to the refractory mortar composition.

The symbols from C04B 2235/00 are usable for all documents classified in C04B 35/00 (as well as for C04B 33/00, C04B 37/00 and B32B 18/00). The symbols from C04B 2235/00 indicate additional information regarding additives used in the starting mixture, methods for making green bodies, aspects relating to the heat treatments that are given, secondary phases present in the final product, physical aspects of the final product and properties of the final product.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Ceramics

Inorganic, non metallic products obtained by a process involving a shaping step and a sintering or comparable heat treatment step, with the exclusion of cements, cermets and glasses, glazes, vitreous enamels and devitrified glass ceramics.

Fine ceramics

Ceramics having a polycrystalline fine-grained microstructure, e.g. of dimensions below 100 micrometer.

Glass-ceramic

having a crystalline phase dispersed in a glassy phase and constituting at least 50% by weight of the total composition

Refractories

Ceramics or mortars withstanding high temperatures of at least about 1500 degrees C. For classification and search in this subclass no substantial distinction is made between the terms "refractories" and "ceramics ".

Carbon-carbon composites

Products consisting of carbon fibres in a carbon matrix are usually referred to as "carbon-carbon composites ".

Porous materials

Materials which are deliberately made porous, e.g. by adding gas- forming, foaming, burnable or lightweight additives to the composition they are made of.

based on oxide ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

All oxide ceramics that are not classified in one of the sub-groups. These are for instance oxides based on gallium, indium, thallium, cobalt, nickel, noble metals, antimony, germanium, e.g. cobaltates, germanates, antimonates.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Oxide ceramics containing a metallic binder

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with oxide ceramic material

Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides, as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/32 and subgroups

Gallium oxides, gallates, indium oxides, indates, thallium oxides, thallates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4)

Germanium oxides, germanates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. copper germanate (CuGeO3)

Noble metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. IrO2, PdO, RhO2

C04B 2235/3289 and subgroup

Antimony oxides, antimonates, antimonites or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, indium antimonate (InSbO4)

Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc bismuthate (Zn(BiO3)2)

Non-metal oxides, mixed non-metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides, as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/34 and subgroups

Boron oxide or borate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/06 and subgroups

Oxide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/34 and subgroups

Materials for prostheses based on metal oxides

A61L 27/10 and subgroups

Oxide ceramic membranes

B01D 71/024 and subgroups

The preparation of gallium, indium or thallium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 15/00 and subgroups

The preparation of antimony compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 30/00 and subgroups

The preparation of cobalt compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 51/00 and subgroups

The preparation of nickel compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 53/00 and subgroups

The preparation of ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, or platinum compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 55/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of antimony

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing germanates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing antimonates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing iron, nickel and cobalt

C09K 11/60 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing gallium, indium or thallium

C09K 11/62 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing germanium, tin or lead

C09K 11/66 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth

C09K 11/74 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth germanates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth germinates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth antimonates; arsenates

Oxide single crystals

C30B 29/16 and subgroups

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting oxides

H01C 7/043 and subgroups

Light-sensitive devices comprising an oxide semiconductor electrode

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being an oxide

Electrodes for accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte, e.g. for lithium-accumulators; Processes of manufacture thereof: based on mixed oxides or hydroxides, or on mixtures of oxides or hydroxides, e.g. LiCoOx

Fuel cells operating at high temperature, e.g. with stabilised ZrO2 electrolyte, Electrode material consisting of oxides

H01M 4/9025, and subgroup

Fuel cells operating at high temperature, e.g. with stabilised ZrO2 electrolyte, the electrolyte consisting of oxides

H01M 8/1246 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

Classification occurs by identifying which phase of the final product is present in the largest amount. This does not necessarily need to be more than 50%, you could also have 40% A, 35% B and 25% C. If there are two or more phases present in the same amount as the largest amount, all phases are classified, thus with 30% A, 30% B, 30% C and 10% D the phases A, B and C are all three classified. For example, a final product containing 50% zirconia and 50% alumina receives the classes C04B 35/119 (alumina reinforced with zirconia) and C04B 35/4885 (zirconia reinforced with alumina).

The alkali metal oxides, alkaline earth metal oxides and rare earth oxides form many different mixed oxides with other metal oxides. If alkali metal oxides, alkaline earth metal oxides and rare earth oxides are present in a mixed oxide with another metal oxide, the other metal oxide is almost always determining the classification.

The symbols from C04B 2235/00 are usable for all documents classified in C04B 35/00 (as well as for C04B 33/00, C04B 37/00 and B32B 18/00). The symbols from C04B 2235/00 indicate additional information regarding additives used in the starting mixture, methods for making green bodies, aspects relating to the heat treatments that are given, secondary phases present in the final product, physical aspects of the final product and properties of the final product.

{containing carbon (C04B 35/103 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxide ceramics containing carbon products, e.g. oxide refractories containing a carbon binder such as pitch, tar, bitumen (materials which are classified in C04B 35/63496), or oxide materials containing graphite, diamond or carbon black additives.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alumina-based refractories containing carbon

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bituminous additives for ceramic materials, e.g. tar, pitch

Carbon as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/422 and subgroups

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. carbonising phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If the carbon additive is tar or pitch, C04B 35/63496 is given as well. The carbonaceous additives are further indicated with the symbols C04B 2235/424 (carbon black), C04B 2235/425 (graphite) and C04B 2235/427 (diamond). In the case polymeric additives from the classes C04B 35/63404 and subgroups, C04B 35/63448 and subgroups and C04B 35/63492 are added to an oxide ceramic mixture and are carbonised, C04B 2235/48 is given, but C04B 35/013 not.

{based on manganites}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on manganese oxide and all manganites and manganates, e.g. perovskites such as lanthanum manganate LaMnO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides containing more of other transition metal oxides, e.g. LaCo0.6Mn0.4O3

C04B 35/01 (for the cobaltate), C04B 2235/3227 (for the La), C04B 2235/3262 (for the Mn), C04B 2235/768 (for the perovskite structure)

Mixed oxides containing more of group 13-15 metal oxides, e.g. BaAl0.6Mn0.4O3

C04B 35/44 (for the aluminate), C04B 2235/3215 (for the Ba), C04B 2235/3262 (for the Mn), C04B 2235/768 (for the perovskite structure)

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with manganates

Manganese or rhenium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. MnO

C04B 2235/3262 and subgroups

The preparation of manganese compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 45/00 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing manganese or rhenium

C09K 11/57 and subgroups

Electrolytic production of manganese oxides

Electrolytic production of electrodes based on manganese dioxide or lead dioxide

Manganite magnets

Diluted non-magnetic ions in a magnetic cation-sublattice, e.g. La1-x(Ba,Sr)xMnO3

Electrodes for fuel cells and batteries composed of or comprising active material of manganese oxides or hydroxides

H01M 4/50 and subgroups

Fuel cells applied on a support operating at high temperature, the electrode being of complexed oxides, optionally doped, of the type M1MeO3, M1 being an alkaline earth metal or a rare earth, Me being a metal, e.g. perovskites, with the anode and the cathode in the form of gas diffusion electrodes

based on magnesium oxide, calcium oxide or oxide mixtures derived from dolomite
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxides based on single oxide phases of MgO or CaO or mixed oxides of MgO and CaO, or mixed oxides of alkaline earth oxides with either alkali metal oxides and/or rare earth oxides, in which the alkaline earth metal oxide forms the largest fraction. Mixed oxides of magnesia/calcia with zirconium oxide, in which the amount of magnesia/calcia is larger than the amount of zirconia, e.g. Mg0.6Zr0.4Ox

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with both alumina and silica, e.g. cordierite

Mixed oxides of MgO with silica without alumina, e.g. forsterite (Mg2SiO4)

Mixed oxides of CaO with silica without alumina, e.g. wollastonite (CaSiO4)

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with chromium oxide, e.g. chromites

Mixed oxides of CaO with alumina, without silica, e.g. calcium aluminate

Mixed oxides of MgO with alumina, without silica, e.g. magnesium aluminate, spinel

Magnesium or calcium based phosphates

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with copper oxide, e.g. cuprates

C04B 35/45 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide, e.g. magnesium bismuthate

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with tin oxide, e.g. magnesium stannate

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with titanium oxides, such as magnesium titanate or calcium titanate

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with zirconium oxide, e.g. magnesium zirconate, containing more Zr than Mg and Ca

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide, e.g. calcium titanate zirconate (CaTi0.5Zr0.5O3)

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide, e.g. magnesium tantalum niobate (MgNb0.5Ta0.5O3)

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Obtaining lime, magnesia or dolomite

C04B 2/00 and subgroups

Alkaline earth oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. BeO

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of alkaline earth metals or magnesium

C09C 1/02 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic alkaline earth metal compounds

based on magnesium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxides based on single oxide phases of MgO, or mixed oxides of MgO with either alkali metal oxides and/or rare earth oxides, in which the MgO forms the largest fraction

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of MgO with both alumina and silica, e.g. cordierite

Mixed oxides of MgO with silica without alumina, e.g. forsterite (Mg2SiO4)

Mixed oxides of MgO with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

Mixed oxides of MgO with chromium oxide, e.g. chromites

Mixed oxides of MgO with alumina, without silica, e.g. magnesium aluminate, spinel

Magnesium based phosphates

Mixed oxides of MgO with copper oxide, e.g. cuprates

C04B 35/45 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide, e.g. magnesium bismuthate

Mixed oxides of MgO with tin oxide, e.g. magnesium stannate

Mixed oxides of MgO with titanium oxides, such as magnesium titanate

Mixed oxides of MgO with zirconium oxide, e.g. magnesium zirconate

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide, e.g. magnesium titanate zirconate (MgTi0.5Zr0.5O3)

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide, e.g. magnesium tantalum niobate (MgNb0.5Ta0.5O3)

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: magnesia

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: magnesia; magnesium hydroxide

Magnesium oxide or magnesium carbonate cements

C04B 28/105, C04B 28/30 and subgroup

Making fibres based on magnesium oxide

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with magnesium oxide

C04B 41/5029, C04B 41/5084 (cementitious)

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Materials for prostheses based on magnesia or magnesium oxide

Catalysts comprising the elements, oxides, or hydroxides of magnesium

Preparation of magnesium compound powders, e.g. magnesium oxide powder

C01F 5/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds containing only magnesium as metal

Refractories from grain sized mixtures
Definition statement

This place covers:

MgO based refractories having large grains, the majority larger than 100 microns

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

MgO ceramics with the majority of the grain smaller than 100 microns

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories

C04B 35/101 and subgroups

Grain-sized titania-based refractories

Grain-sized zirconia-based refractories

Grain-sized silicon carbide-based refractories

C04B 35/565 and subgroups, and C04B45/66

Monolithic refractories and refractory mortars

Using particles larger than 100 microns for making the ceramic

Bimodal, multi-modal or multi-fraction particle size distribution

Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof

B22C 1/00 and subgroups

{containing refractory metal compounds other than chromium oxide or chrome ore}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The majority of the refractory material is MgO, a minority a refractory metal oxide such alumina, zirconia, titania, or a refractory metal non-oxide such as a carbide or boride

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Titanium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rutile or anatase

C04B 2235/3232 and subgroups

Zirconium or hafnium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. HfO2

C04B 2235/3244 and subgroups

Borides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3804 and subgroups

Carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3817 and subgroups

containing chromium oxide or chrome ore
Definition statement

This place covers:

The refractory contains some type of chromium oxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fused magnesia refractories containing chromium oxide or chrome ore

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing chromium oxide or chromium ore

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

{obtained from fused grains}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Both refractories that are used directly after melting, either in particle or bulk form, as well as fused refractory that is sintered before use as refractory

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Complete fusion of the magnesia refractory without subsequent heat treatment

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fusing to make ceramic particles in general

{obtained from prereacted sintered grains ("simultaneous sinter")}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The refractory mixture has been sintered before use

Refractories by fusion casting
Definition statement

This place covers:

The magnesia-based refractory has been melted

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Magnesia-based refractory that has been melted and subsequently sintered

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Clay wares made by methods involving melting, fusion or softening

Alumina-based refractories made by fusion casting

C04B 35/107 and subgroup

Zirconia-based refractories made by fusion casting

Fusing to make ceramic particles in general

Refractories in general made by fusion casting

Heat treatments such as] Calcining; Fusing Pyrolysis in general

B01J 6/00 and subgroups

{containing chromium oxide or chrome ore}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Melted MgO based refractory containing also chromium oxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Magnesia-based refractory containing chromium oxide or chrome ore that has been melted and subsequently sintered

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing chromium oxide or chromium ore

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

Fine ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

MgO-based ceramics having a majority of grains with a size of below 100 microns. Oxides based on single oxide phases of MgO, or mixed oxides of MgO with either alkali metal oxides and/or rare earth oxides, in which the MgO forms the largest fraction.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of MgO with both alumina and silica, e.g. cordierite

Mixed oxides of MgO with silica without alumina, e.g. forsterite (Mg2SiO4)

Mixed oxides of MgO with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

Mixed oxides of MgO with chromium oxide, e.g. chromites

Mixed oxides of MgO with alumina, without silica, e.g. magnesium aluminate, spinel

Magnesium based phosphates

Mixed oxides of MgO with copper oxide, e.g. cuprates

C04B 35/45 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide, e.g. magnesium bismuthate

Mixed oxides of MgO with tin oxide, e.g. magnesium stannate

Mixed oxides of MgO with titanium oxides, such as magnesium titanate

Mixed oxides of MgO with zirconium oxide, e.g. magnesium zirconate

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide, e.g. magnesium titanate zirconate (MgTi0.5Zr0.5O3)

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide, e.g. magnesium tantalum niobate (MgNb0.5Ta0.5O3)

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Using particles of size 1-100 microns for making a ceramic

based on calcium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxides based on single oxide phases of CaO, or mixed oxides of MgO with either alkali metal oxides and/or rare earth oxides, in which the CaO forms the largest fraction. The ceramic can have all grain sizes.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of CaO with both alumina and silica, e.g. cordierite

Mixed oxides of CaO with silica without alumina, e.g. wollastonite (CaSiO4)

Mixed oxides of CaO with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

Mixed oxides of CaO with chromium oxide, e.g. chromites

Mixed oxides of CaO with alumina, without silica, e.g. calcium aluminate

Calcium based phosphates

Mixed oxides of CaO with copper oxide, e.g. cuprates

C04B 35/45 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of CaO with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide, e.g. calcium bismuthate

Mixed oxides of CaO with tin oxide, e.g. calcium stannate

Mixed oxides of CaO with titanium oxides, such as calcium titanate

Mixed oxides of CaO with zirconium oxide, e.g. calcium zirconate

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of CaO with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide, e.g. calcium titanate zirconate (CaTi0.5Zr0.5O3)

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of CaO with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide, e.g. calcium tantalum niobate (CaNb0.5Ta0.5O3)

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hydraulic lime

Eliminating lime or iron from clay mixtures

Calcium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. lime

C04B 2235/3208 and subgroups

Materials for prostheses based on calcia or calcium oxide CaO

The preparation of compounds of calcium, barium and strontium in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01F 11/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: calcium carbonates

C09C 1/021 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: calcium sulphates

based on oxide mixtures derived from dolomite
Definition statement

This place covers:

mixtures of CaO and MgO

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Calcium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. lime

C04B 2235/3208 and subgroups

Dolomite, i.e. mixed calcium magnesium carbonate, or oxides derived from dolomite as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Carbonates (CO32-) as starting material for making ceramics or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Dolomite

(CaMg)(CO3)2

based on beryllium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxide ceramics based on the single oxide phase of BeO.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkaline earth oxides or salts as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Preparation of beryllium compound powders, e.g. beryllium oxide powder

C01F 3/00 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing beryllium compounds

based on aluminium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing as the largest fraction the single oxide Al2O3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with silica

C04B 33/00 (clay ceramics) or C04B 35/18 and subgroups (alumino-silicate ceramics)

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with other metal oxides

C04B 35/44 (aluminates)

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with magnesia

C04B 35/443 (magnesia-alumina spinel)

Alumina containing a metallic binder, e.g. an alumina cermet with Al binder

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: alumina

Making fibres based on aluminium oxide

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with alumina

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Alumina or aluminate interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Alumina or aluminate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Materials for prostheses or coatings of prostheses based on aluminium oxides

Materials for prostheses based on aluminium oxides

A61L 27/105 and subgroups

Alumina-based membranes

Catalysts comprising alumina

Preparation of aluminium compound powders, e.g. aluminium oxide powder

C01F 7/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of aluminium

C09C 1/40 and subgroups

Abrasives

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing aluminium

C09K 11/64 and subgroups

Alumina single crystals

Aluminium oxide in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0869 and subgroup

Materials for vessels of gas- or vapour discharge lamps

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof: forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing aluminium, e.g. Al2O3

Refractories from grain sized mixtures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alumina based refractories having large grains, the majority larger than 100 microns

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grain-sized magnesia-based refractories

C04B 35/043 and subgroups

Grain-sized titania-based refractories

Grain-sized zirconia-based refractories

Grain-sized silicon carbide-based refractories

C04B 35/565 and subgroups, and C04B45/66

Monolithic refractories and refractory mortars

Using particles larger than 100 microns for making the ceramic

Bimodal, multi-modal or multi-fraction particle size distribution

Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof

B22C 1/00 and subgroups

Abrasive particles per se obtained by division of a mass agglomerated by sintering

{containing refractory metal compounds other than those covered by C04B 35/103 - C04B 35/106}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Refractories based on alumina containing other oxide refractories such as magnesia, titania

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing carbon

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing chromium oxide or chromium ore

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on alumina containing zirconia

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Titanium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rutile or anatase

C04B 2235/3232 and subgroups

containing non-oxide refractory materials, e.g. carbon (C04B 35/106 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Shaped alumina-based refractory ceramics or alumina-based refractory mixtures, containing non-oxides such as carbon, pitch, tar, carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides, fluorides, sulphides, any material that would be classified in C04B 35/515-C04B 35/597.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on alumina containing zirconia

Shaped alumina-based refractory ceramics or alumina-based refractory mixtures containing polymers such as polymeric binders

C04B 35/63404 and subgroups, C04B 35/63448 and subgroups and C04B 35/63492 and C04B 35/636 and subgroup

Shaped alumina-based refractory ceramics or alumina-based refractory mixtures containing non-oxide fibers or non-oxide whiskers

C04B 35/803 and C04B 2235/524 and subgroups

Shaped alumina-based refractory ceramics or alumina-based refractory mixtures containing carbon nanotubes

Shaped alumina-based refractory ceramics or alumina-based refractory mixtures containing carbon as an impurity

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide-based ceramics or ceramic mixtures in general containing carbon

Non-oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/515 and subgroups

Ceramic powders coated with non-oxide ceramic materials

C04B 35/62828 and subgroups

Ceramic fibers coated with non-oxide ceramic materials

C04B 35/62857 and subgroups

Non-oxide additives for ceramics

C04B 2235/38 and subgroups

Carbon additives for ceramics

C04B 2235/422 and subgroups

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat-treatment, e.g. phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Fibrous non-oxide additives for ceramics

Carbon nanotube additives for ceramics

Special rules of classification

If the carbon additive is tar or pitch, C04B 35/63496 is given as well. The carbonaceous additives are further indicated with the codes C04B 2235/424 (carbon black), C04B 2235/425 (graphite) and C04B 2235/427 (diamond). Other non-oxide additives, such as silicon carbide or silicon nitride, are indicated with a symbol from C04B 2235/48. In the case polymeric additives from the classes C04B 35/63404 and subgroups, C04B 35/63448 and subgroups and C04B 35/63492 are added to an oxide ceramic mixture and are carbonised, C04B 2235/48 is given, but C04B 35/013 not.

containing chromium oxide or chrome ore
Definition statement

This place covers:

Refractories based on alumina, containing also chromium oxide

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on magnesia containing chromium oxide or chrome ore

C04B 35/047 and subgroups

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

containing zirconium oxide or zircon (ZrSiO4)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Refractories based on alumina, containing also zirconium oxide, possibly also containing silicon oxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alumina refractories containing zirconia, made by melt-casting

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fine alumina ceramics containing zirconia

Zirconium or hafnium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. HfO2

C04B 2235/3244 and subgroups

Zirconates or hafnates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zircon (ZrSiO4)

Refractories by fusion casting
Definition statement

This place covers:

Both refractories that are used directly after melting, either in particle or bulk form, as well as fused refractory that is sintered before use as refractory

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Clay wares made by methods involving melting, fusion or softening

Magnesia-based refractories made by fusion casting

C04B 35/05 and subgroup

Zirconia-based refractories made by fusion casting

Fusing to make ceramic particles in general

Refractories in general made by fusion casting

Heat treatments such as] Calcining; Fusing Pyrolysis in general

B01J 6/00 and subgroups

Abrasive particles per se obtained by division of a mass agglomerated by melting, at least partially, e.g. with a binder

containing zirconium oxide or zircon (ZrSiO4)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Refractories based on alumina, made by melting, containing also zirconium oxide, possibly also containing silicon oxide

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on alumina containing zirconia

Fine alumina ceramics containing zirconia

Zirconates or hafnates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zircon (ZrSiO4)

Fine ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures having as the largest fraction alumina single phase material having an average grain size of below 100 microns

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with silica

C04B 33/00 (clay ceramics) or C04B 35/18 and subgroups (alumino-silicate ceramics)

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with other metal oxides

C04B 35/44 (aluminates)

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with magnesia

C04B 35/443 (magnesia-alumina spinel)

Alumina containing a metallic binder, e.g. an alumina cermet with Al binder

C22C 29/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures having as the largest fraction alumina single phase material having an average grain size of above 100 microns

C04B 35/101 and subgroups

Using particles of size 1-100 microns for making the ceramic

{Minute sintered entities, e.g. sintered abrasive grains or shaped particles such as platelets (abrasives C09K 3/14)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mainly alumina particles that are bonded together into aggregates and used as abrasive

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Bulk alumina objects

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Powdery starting material for making ceramics containing flakes, platelets or plates

Abrasive particles per se obtained by division of a mass agglomerated by sintering

based on beta-aluminium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on alumina(te) phases with the composition MAl11O18 or LnAl12O19

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Other aluminates

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Aluminates other than alumino-silicates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. spinel (MgAl2O4)

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

Preparation of beta-alumina powders

Translucent or transparent products
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sintered alumina ceramics that are translucent or transparent

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramic materials other than alumina that are transparent or translucent

Composites
Definition statement

This place covers:

All sintered alumina ceramics that contain at least one secondary phase, where this secondary phase is neither a grain boundary phase nor a different type of alumina phase. The main phase can be for instance alpha-alumina, the secondary phase an aluminate.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alumina refractories containing a secondary phase

Alumina ceramics containing a mixture of different alumina phases, e.g. alpha-alumina and beta-alumina

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alumina ceramics containing shaped metallic materials, e.g. metallic fibers

C04B 35/74 and subgroup

Alumina ceramics containing ceramic fibers, whiskers or platelets, e.g. an alumina particle matrix containing alumina fibers or alumina platelets

C04B 35/803 and additional symbols (CCA)for the fibers, whiskers, platelets

Ceramics containing one or more secondary phases

C04B 2235/80 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If the secondary phase is a ceramic fiber, whisker, platelet or similarly shaped ceramic particle, both C04B 35/803 and C04B 35/117 are given. The same logic applies to C04B 35/117 and C04B 35/74.

The secondary phases are indicated with codes from C04B 2235/32-C04B 2235/428. The code C04B 2235/80 does not need to be used, since the class itself already indicates that secondary phases are present.

with zirconium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

All sintered alumina ceramics that contain at least one secondary zirconia phase, where this secondary zirconia phase is not a grain boundary phase

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alumina refractories containing a zirconia secondary phase

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zirconia-based ceramics containing an alumina secondary phase

Zirconium or hafnium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. HfO2

C04B 2235/3244 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If the amount of alumina phase is larger than the amount of zirconia phase, C04B 35/119 is given, if the amounts are equal, e.g. C04B40/40, then both C04B 35/119 and C04B 35/4885 are given.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ZTA

Zirconia toughened alumina

ATZ

Alumina toughened zirconia

based on chromium oxide (C04B 35/047 and C04B 35/105 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by a single oxide phase of chromium oxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on magnesia containing chromium oxide or chrome ore

C04B 35/047 and subgroups

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing chromium oxide or chromium ore

Mixed oxides of chromium with alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and rare earth metals

Mixed oxides of chromium with titanium oxide, containing more Cr, e.g. Cr0.6Ti0.4O2

Mixed oxides of chromium with titanium oxide, containing more Ti, e.g. Cr0.4Ti0.6O2

Chromium oxide based material with a metallic binder

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone chromium oxide

Magnesia-based refractories containing chromia

C04B 35/047 and subgroups, C04B 35/051

Alumina-based refractories containing chromia

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with chromium oxide

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

Refractory metal oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Refractory metal oxide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

The preparation of chromium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 37/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of chromium

C09C 1/34 and subgroups

based on silica
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by a crystalline single oxide phase of SiO2, e.g. quartz or cristobalite

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by a mixed oxide phase of SiO2, e.g. silicates such as cordierite, alumino-silicates in general, magnesium silicates such as forsterite, calcium silicates such as wollastonite

C04B 33/00 (clays), C04B 35/16 and subgroups (silicates)

Materials having as largest fraction a form of crystalline SiO2 but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% quartz and 20% glass matrix

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: granular materials: quartz; sand

C04B 14/06 and subgroups

Making fibers based on silica

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with silica

Silica as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Silica or silicate interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Silica or silicate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Materials for prostheses based on silica or silicon oxide

Silica-based membranes

Catalysts comprising silica

Preparation of silica powders, sols, gels, dispersions and their after-treatments

C01B 33/113 and subgroups

Processes specially adapted for the production of quartz or fused silica articles

Pure silica glass, e.g. pure fused quartz

Glass compositions with more than 90% silica by weight, e.g. quartz

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of silicon

C09C 1/28 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing silicon

C09K 11/59 and subgroups

Quartz single crystals

Silica in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate by gas or vapour deposition, the material containing silica

H01L 21/31608 and subgroup

based on silicates other than clay {(zircon C04B 35/48)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All silicates that are not clay (see C04B 33/00 for the definition of clays). A silicate is a compound containing a silicon bearing anion. The great majority of silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included. Silicate compounds, including the minerals, consist of silicate anions whose charge is balanced by various cations. Myriad silicate anions can exist, and each can form compounds with many different cations. Hence this class of compounds is very large. Both minerals and synthetic materials fit in this class. Silicates are mainly a mixed oxide phase of SiO2 with at least one other metal oxide, e.g. transition metal silicates such as iron silicate, or barium silicate, or rare earth silicates.

Relationships with other classification places

Materials having as largest fraction a crystalline silicate phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% silicate and 20% glass matrix C03C

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clay wares

C04B 33/00 and subgroups

Ceramics based on zirconium or hafnium silicates, e.g. zircon (ZrSiO4)

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 14/04 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with silicates

Silica as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Silicates other than clay as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. water glass (Na2SiO3)

C04B 2235/3427 and subgroups

Silica or silicate interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Silica or silicate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Preparation of silicate powders, sols, gels, dispersions and their after-treatments

C01B 33/20 and subgroups, C01B 37/005

Coating compositions, e.g. paints, varnishes or lacquers, based on alkali metal silicates

C09D 1/02 and subgroup

Adhesives based on water-soluble alkali silicate

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing silicates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing iron, nickel and cobalt as silicate

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic halogen silicate compounds

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing germanium, tin or lead silicates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing refractory silicates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing chromium, molybdenum or tungsten silicates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing vanadium silicates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth silicates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth silicates

Single crystals of silicates

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Silicate mineral

Mineralogically, silicate minerals are divided according to structure of their silicate anion into the following groups: Nesosilicates (lone tetrahedron) - [SiO4]4−, e.g. olivine. Sorosilicates (double tetrahedra) - [Si2O7]6−, e.g. epidote, melilite group. Cyclosilicates (rings) - [SinO3n]2n−, e.g. tourmaline group. Inosilicates (single chain) - [SinO3n]2n−, e.g. pyroxene group. Inosilicates(double chain) - [Si4nO11n]6n−, e.g. amphibole group. Phyllosilicates (sheets) - [Si2nO5n]2n−, e.g. micas and clays. Tectosilicates (3D framework) - [AlxSiyO2(x+y)]x−, e.g. quartz, feldspars, zeolites. Note that tectosilicates can only have additional cations if some of the silicon is replaced by a lower-charge cation such as aluminium . Al for Si substitution is common.

rich in aluminium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by a mixed oxide phase of SiO2 with alumina, the alumino-silicates

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Materials made of clay

C04B 33/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making fibres based on silica, rich in aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Alumino-silicates other than clay as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2)

C04B 2235/3463 and subgroups

Catalysts comprising silica and alumina

Catalysts comprising Crystalline aluminosilicate zeolites; Isomorphous compounds thereof

B01J 29/06 and subgroups

Preparation of aluminium containing silicate powders, sols, gels, dispersions and their after-treatments

C01B 33/26 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing aluminium silicates

Mullite {3Al2O3-2SiO2}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by a mullite phase

Relationships with other classification places

Materials having as largest fraction a mullite phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% mullite and 20% glass matrix C03C

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mullite catalysts or catalysts supports

Alkali metal aluminosilicates, e.g. spodumene
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by an alumino-silicate phase containing more alkali metal ions than ions of other type, such as alkaline earth metal ions

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Materials having as largest fraction a spodumene phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% spodumene and 20% glass matrix

C03C 10/0018 and subgroup

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkali oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Na2O, K2O

C04B 2235/3201 and subgroup

Alkali metal alumino-silicates other than clay as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. spodumene (LiAlSi2O6), alkali feldspars such as Albite (NaAlSi3O8) or Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8), micas such as Muscovite (KAl2(AlSi3)O10(OH)2), zeolites such as Natrolite (Na2Al2Si3O10·2H2O)

Alkaline earth aluminosilicates, e.g. cordierite {or anorthite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by an alumino-silicate phase containing more alkaline earth metal ions than ions of other type, such as alkali metal ions

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Materials having as largest fraction a cordierite phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% cordierite and 20% glass matrix

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cordierite honeycombs

C04B 38/0006 and subgroups

Alkaline earth oxides or salts as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Alkaline earth metal alumino-silicates other than clay as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. cordierite ((Mg,Fe)2Al3(Si5AlO18)), beryl (Be3Al2(Si6O18)), micas such as margarite (CaAl2(Al2Si2)O10(OH)2), plagioclase feldspars such as anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8), zeolites such as chabazite (CaAl2Si4O12·6H2O)

Cordierite honeycombs containing a catalyst

Special rules of classification

The cordierite honeycombs are normally classified in C04B 38/0006, but receive classification in C04B 35/195 as well, if specific details regarding the starting materials are given, or if the end-composition of the cordierite is specified, e.g. the presence of a certain secondary phase or the use of certain combinations of starting materials.

rich in magnesium oxide {, e.g. forsterite (C04B 35/195 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All silicate ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing a substantial amount of MgO, thus not containing MgO as an impurity

Relationships with other classification places

Materials having as largest fraction a forsterite phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% forsterite and 20% glass matrix C03C

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Magnesium alumino-silicates

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnesium silicates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. forsterite (Mg2SiO4)

Catalysts comprising silica and magnesia

Preparation of magnesium silicate powders, sols, gels, dispersions and their after-treatments

rich in calcium oxide {, e.g. wollastonite (C04B 35/195 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All silicate ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing a substantial amount of CaO, thus not containing CaO as an impurity

Relationships with other classification places

Materials having as largest fraction a forsterite phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% forsterite and 20% glass matrix C03C

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Calcium alumino-silicates

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: alkaline-earth metal silicates, e.g. wollastonite

Calcium silicate based hydraulic cement

C04B 28/02 and subgroups

Calcium silicates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. wollastonite (CaSiO3)

Preparation of alkaline earth metal silicate powders, sols, gels, dispersions and their after-treatments

Calcium silicates as compounding ingredient for polymers

based on ferrites
Definition statement

This place covers:

All oxidic ferrites, combinations between Fe2O3 and other oxides, such as FeO, ZnO, MnO, BaO, as well as Fe2O3 (hematite) itself

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Metallic ferrite (Fe)

C22C 38/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: ferrites

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with ferrite

Ferrites as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4)

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites

C01G 49/0018 and subgroups

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds containing, besides iron, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of iron

C09C 1/22 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing iron, nickel and cobalt

C09K 11/60 and subgroups

Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefore: the pole pieces being ferrite

Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefore: record carriers characterised by the selection of the material comprising one or more layers of magnetisable material homogeneously mixed with a bonding agent the magnetic material being a ferrite

G11B 5/70678 and subgroups

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of iron oxides or ferrites

Ferrite magnets

Hard magnetic material, e.g. ferrites

Soft magnetic material, e.g. ferrites

, H01F 1/344 and subgroups

Thin magnetic films, e.g. of one-domain structure made of ferrites

H01F 10/20 and subgroups

Details of cathode ray tubes or electron beam tubes Electron beam control outside the vessel by magnetic fields Cores for field producing elements, e.g. ferrite

Loop aerials with a substantially uniform current distribution around the loop and having a directional radiation pattern in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the loop with ferrite rod or like elongated core

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

The effect of many metal oxide additives on the grain growth of ferrites is mentioned

document XP022314655, table 1

Special rules of classification

The sintered ferrite bodies are classified in C04B 35/00 as well as in H01F. Ferrite powders are classified in C01G 49/00, as well as H01F. The synthesis of ferrite powders is also classified in C04B 35/00 if the ferrite composition is a new composition or if the synthesis is preparatory to making a sintered body. More than one subgroup of C04B 35/26 can be attributed due to one ferrite composition.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Ferrite

Chemical compounds consisting of ceramic materials with iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3) as their principal component. Many of them are magnetic materials and they are used to make permanent magnets, ferrite cores for transformers, and in various other applications. Many ferrites are spinels with the formula AB2O4, where A and B represent various metal cations, usually including iron. Some ferrites have hexagonal crystal structure, e.g. barium ferrite BaO:6Fe2O3 or BaFe12O19.

{Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The metal ions can be part both of the main composition as additives to the main composition.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals and one or more of the group comprising alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc and one or more ferrites of the group comprising nickel, copper or cobalt

Other ferrites containing manganese or zinc, e.g. Mn-Zn ferrites

Other ferrites containing nickel, copper or cobalt

Other ferrites containing rare earth metals, e.g. rare earth ferrite garnets

Other ferrites containing alkaline earth metals or lead

Alkali oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Na2O, K2O

C04B 2235/3201 and subgroup

Alkaline earth oxides or salts as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

Manganese or rhenium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. MnO

C04B 2235/3262 and subgroups

Cobalt oxides, cobaltites or cobaltates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc cobaltite (ZnCo2O4) or bismuth cobaltate (BiCoO3)

C04B 2235/3275 and subgroup

Nickel oxides, nickelates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. NiO

Copper oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. CuO or Cu2O

C04B 2235/3281 and subgroup

Zinc oxides, zincates, cadmium oxides, cadmiates, mercury oxides, mercurates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. ZnO

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one alkali metal

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing alkaline earth metal, magnesium or lead

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one rare earth metal, yttrium or scandium

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing zinc

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing manganese

Special rules of classification

If the ferrite contains Mn/Zn/Ni/Cu/Co and rare earth and alkali/alkaline earth/lead both C04B 35/2608 and C04B 35/2641 are attributed. If it also contains both Mn/Zn and Ni/Cu/Co C04B 35/265 is attributed as well. Thus, C04B 35/2608, C04B 35/2641 and C04B 35/265 could be attributed to one and the same ferrite composition. If C04B 35/2608 is attributed for a certain ferrite, C04B 35/2658, C04B 35/2666, C04B 35/2675, C04B 35/2683 and C04B 35/2691 are not attributed for this ferrite composition. These classes could of course be attributed due to other ferrite compositions in the same document.

Since none of the individual metal ions of Mn/Zn/Ni/Cu/Co and rare earth and alkali/alkaline earth/lead necessarily needs to be present, when C04B 35/2608 is given, all metal ions present (except for Fe) need to be classified with symbols from C04B 2235/00.

{containing lithium}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The ferrite containing Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu or Co and also Li

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lithium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Li2O

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one alkali metal

Special rules of classification

Since here the Li-ion necessarily needs to be present, the additional symbol (CCA) for Li (C04B 2235/3203) is not necessary

{containing magnesium}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The ferrite containing Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu or Co and also Mg

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing alkaline earth metal, magnesium or lead

{containing barium, strontium or calcium}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ferrites like barium hexaferrite, doped with Mn/Zn/Ni/Cu/Co.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Calcium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. lime

C04B 2235/3208 and subgroups

Strontium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Barium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing alkaline earth metal, magnesium or lead

Soft magnetic material, e.g. Hexaferrites with decreased hardness or anisotropy, i.e. with increased permeability in the microwave (GHz) range

Thin magnetic films, e.g. of one-domain structure made of hexagonal ferrites

{Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals and one or more ferrites of the group comprising alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The ferrite containing a rare earth like La, Nd, Ce and for instance Li, Na, K, Ba, Sr, Mg, Ca, W

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Other ferrites containing rare earth metals, e.g. rare earth ferrite garnets

Other ferrites containing alkaline earth metals or lead

Alkali oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Na2O, K2O

C04B 2235/3201 and subgroup

Alkaline earth oxides or salts as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one alkali metal

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing alkaline earth metal, magnesium or lead

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one rare earth metal, yttrium or scandium

Special rules of classification

If the ferrite contains Mn/Zn/Ni/Cu/Co and rare earth and alkali/alkaline earth/lead both C04B 35/2608 and C04B 35/2641 are attributed. If it also contains both Mn/Zn and Ni/Cu/Co C04B 35/265 is attributed as well. Thus, C04B 35/2608, C04B 35/2641 and C04B 35/265 could be attributed to one and the same ferrite composition. If C04B 35/2641 is attributed for a certain ferrite, C04B 35/2658, C04B 35/2666, C04B 35/2675, C04B 35/2683 and C04B 35/2691 are not attributed for this ferrite composition. These classes could of course be attributed due to other ferrite compositions in the same document.

{Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese or zinc and one or more ferrites of the group comprising nickel, copper or cobalt}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The ferrite containing Mn or Zn and one of the group Ni, Cu, Co

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Other ferrites containing manganese or zinc, e.g. Mn-Zn ferrites

Other ferrites containing nickel, copper or cobalt

Manganese or rhenium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. MnO

C04B 2235/3262 and subgroups

Cobalt oxides, cobaltites or cobaltates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc cobaltite (ZnCo2O4) or bismuth cobaltate (BiCoO3)

C04B 2235/3275 and subgroup

Nickel oxides, nickelates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. NiO

Copper oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. CuO or Cu2O

C04B 2235/3281 and subgroup

Zinc oxides, zincates, cadmium oxides, cadmiates, mercury oxides, mercurates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. ZnO

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing zinc

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing manganese

Special rules of classification

If the ferrite contains Mn/Zn/Ni/Cu/Co and rare earth and alkali/alkaline earth/lead both C04B 35/2608 and C04B 35/2641 are attributed. If it also contains both Mn/Zn and Ni/Cu/Co C04B 35/265 is attributed as well. Thus, C04B 35/2608, C04B 35/2641 and C04B 35/265 could be attributed to one and the same ferrite composition. If C04B 35/265 is attributed for a certain ferrite, C04B 35/2658, C04B 35/2666, C04B 35/2675, C04B 35/2683 and C04B 35/2691 are not attributed for this ferrite composition. These classes could of course be attributed due to other ferrite compositions in the same document.

{Other ferrites containing manganese or zinc, e.g. Mn-Zn ferrites}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The ferrite contains usually both Mn and Zn, the common Mn-Zn ferrite

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc and one or more ferrites of the group comprising nickel, copper or cobalt

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manganese or rhenium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. MnO

C04B 2235/3262 and subgroups

Zinc oxides, zincates, cadmium oxides, cadmiates, mercury oxides, mercurates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. ZnO

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing zinc

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing manganese

{Other ferrites containing nickel, copper or cobalt}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ferrites containing Ni, Co, Cu, but not Zn or Mn

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc and one or more ferrites of the group comprising nickel, copper or cobalt

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cobalt oxides, cobaltites or cobaltates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc cobaltite (ZnCo2O4) or bismuth cobaltate (BiCoO3)

C04B 2235/3275 and subgroup

Nickel oxides, nickelates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. NiO

Copper oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. CuO or Cu2O

C04B 2235/3281 and subgroup

{Other ferrites containing rare earth metals, e.g. rare earth ferrite garnets}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ferrites containing rare earth metal oxides such as La, Nd, Sm, but not alkaline earth metal oxides, Cu, Co, Zn, Ni, Mn

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals and one or more of the group comprising alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

Garnet type symmetry

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one rare earth metal, yttrium or scandium

{Other ferrites containing alkaline earth metals or lead}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ferrites like barium hexaferrite.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals and one or more of the group comprising alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkaline earth oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. BeO

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing alkaline earth metal, magnesium or lead

{Other ferrites containing alkaline metals}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ferrites containing alkali metal oxides but not rare earth metal oxides or oxides of Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, Zn

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals and one or more of the group comprising alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkali oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Na2O, K2O

C04B 2235/3201 and subgroup

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one alkali metal

based on chromites (C04B 35/047 and C04B 35/105 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Chromites and chromates. All ceramics containing as the largest phase mixed oxides of chromium with alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and rare earth metals, not containing other transition or post-transition metal oxides, or mixed oxides of chromium with other transition or post-transition metal oxides, in which the amount of chromium is larger than of any other transition or post-transition metal oxide, e.g. a mixture with titanium oxide, containing more Cr, e.g. Cr0.6Ti0.4O2.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on magnesia containing chromium oxide or chrome ore

C04B 35/047 and subgroups

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing chromium oxide or chromium ore

Mixed oxides of chromium with other transition or post-transition metal oxides, in which there is at least one other transition or post-transition metal oxide in an amount larger than chromium, e.g. a mixture with titanium oxide, containing more Ti, e.g. Cr0.4Ti0.6O2.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

Chromates or chromites as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. aluminum chromate Al2(CrO4)3 or lanthanum strontium chromite (La1-xSrxCrO3)

Refractory metal oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Refractory metal oxide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Chromite containing catalysts

B01J 23/26, B01J 23/86 and subgroups

The preparation of chromium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides chromium, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

The preparation of chromium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being chromates or bichromates

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: zinc chromate

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: lead chromate

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing chromium, molybdenum or tungsten

C09K 11/68 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth vanadates; Chromates; Molybdates; Tungstates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth vanadates; Chromates; Molybdates; Tungstates

Fuel cells containing Chromium complex oxides

based on aluminates
Definition statement

This place covers:

All mixed oxides in which alumina is mixed with alkali metal oxides, alkaline earth metal oxides or rare earth metal oxides.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on aluminate-silicate

C04B 33/00 and subgroups (clays) or C04B 35/18 and subgroups

Ceramics based on beta-aluminas (MAl11O18 or LnAl12O19)

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators: aluminates

Hydraulic aluminate cements

C04B 28/06 and subgroup, C04B 7/323

Ceramics based on alumina single oxide phase

C04B 35/10 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with aluminate

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Aluminates other than alumino-silicates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. spinel (MgAl2O4)

Alumina or aluminate interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Alumina or aluminate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Aluminate catalysts or catalysts carrier

Preparation of alkali metal aluminates powders

C01F 7/04 and subgroups

Preparation of alkaline earth metal aluminates powders

C01F 7/16 and subgroups

Purification of aluminates

C01F 7/47 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing aluminates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing germanium, tin or lead aluminates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing refractory metal aluminates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing chromium, molybdenum or tungsten aluminates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing vanadium aluminates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth aluminates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth aluminates

Devices characterised by the luminescent material

Thin film transistors having a semiconductor body comprising an oxide semiconductor material, e.g. zinc oxide, copper aluminium oxide, cadmium stannate

Magnesium aluminate spinel
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on magnesium aluminate (MgOAl2O3 or MgAl2O4) having the spinel phase

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics based on magnesia single oxide phase

C04B 35/04 and subgroups

Ceramics based on alumina single oxide phase

C04B 35/10 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with spinels

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Ceramics in general with the spinel symmetry

Catalysts comprising spinels

Special rules of classification

If the class C04B 35/443 is given, C04B 2235/763 does not need to be given.

based on phosphates {, e.g. hydroxyapatite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on inorganic phosphor-oxide compounds

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on metal-phosphor compounds without oxygen, the phosphides

Ceramics having a phosphate binder

C04B 35/6306 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Phosphate cements

C04B 12/02 and subgroups

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: phosphates, e.g. apatite

Making fibres based on phosphates

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with phosphates

Calcium phosphates, e.g. hydroxyapatite additives or secondary phases

Phosphates or phosphites (calcium phosphates C04B 2235/3212) as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. orthophosphate (PO43-), pyrophosphate (P2O74-), hypophosphite (H2PO2-), or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

Materials for prostheses containing a phosphorus-containing compound, e.g. apatite

Phosphate catalysts

B01J 27/18 and subgroups, B01J 29/82 and subgroups

Preparation of phosphates per se, e.g. phosphates powder, not preparative to making a phosphates ceramic

C01B 25/26 and subgroups, C01B 37/002

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing phosphates

C09K 11/0855 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing phosphorus

C09K 11/70 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth phosphates

C09K 11/7464 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth phosphates

C09K 11/7709 and subgroups, C09K 11/7723 and subgroups, C09K 11/7737 and subgroups, C09K 11/7752 and subgroups, C09K 11/7777 and subgroups, C09K 11/7795 and subgroups

Phosphate single crystals

based on copper oxide or solid solutions thereof with other oxides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Precursor materials for ceramic superconductors and high critical-temperature superconductive materials characterised by the ceramic-forming technique or the ceramic composition based on cuprates.

Non superconductive ceramic copper oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides.

Relationships with other classification places

Single-crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure or crystallographic orientation characterised by the material or by the method: C30B

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxide of copper oxide and iron oxide: ferrite

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: copper oxide or solid solutions thereof

Making fibres based on copper oxide

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with copper oxide ceramic material

C04B 41/5074 and subgroup

Copper oxides, cuprates or oxide-forming salts thereof, e.g. CuO or Cu2O as additive for ceramics or as secondary phase

The preparation of copper compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds containing, besides copper, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing copper, silver or gold

C09K 11/58 and subgroups

Ceramic superconductor Rope or cable materials

Superconductive conductors, cables, or transmission lines

H01B 12/00 and subgroups

Superconducting magnets or coils

H01F 6/00 and subgroups

Superconductors characterised by the material, containing copper oxide

H01L 39/126 and subgroup

Processes peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of composite superconductor filaments comprising copper oxide

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

HTS or High-Tc

These abbreviations correspond to the term "high critical-temperature superconductor".

Y-Ba-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compounds Y1Ba2Cu3Ox or Y2Ba1Cu1O5 corresponding to the short cuts Y-123 or Y-211.

Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compounds Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox or Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox corresponding to the short cuts Bi-2223 or Bi-2212.

Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compound Hg1Ba2Ca2Cu3Ox corresponding to the short cut Hg-1223.

Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compound Tl2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox corresponding to the short cut Tl-2223.

{containing rare earth oxides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on yttrium, lanthanum or cerium oxide containing cuprates.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

Cuprates or oxide-forming salts thereof, as additive for ceramics or as secondary phase

Complex oxides based on rare earth copper oxide single crystals

{Type 1-2-3}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The compounds Y1Ba2Cu3Ox or Y2Ba1Cu1O5 corresponding to the short cuts Y-123 or Y-211

{containing thallium oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For instance ceramics based on the compound Tl2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox corresponding to the short cut Tl-2223

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cuprates or oxide-forming salts thereof, as additive for ceramics or as secondary phase

Gallium oxides, gallates, indium oxides, indates, thallium oxides, thallates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4)

{also containing lead oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The cuprate containing both thallium oxide and lead oxide

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

{containing bismuth oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based for instance on the compounds Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox or Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox corresponding to the short cuts Bi-2223 or Bi-2212.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cuprates or oxide-forming salts thereof, as additive for ceramics or as secondary phase

Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc bismuthate (Zn(BiO3)2)

{also containing lead oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The cuprate containing both bismuth oxide and lead oxide

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

based on zinc, tin, or bismuth oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. zincates, stannates or bismuthates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on the single metal oxide ZnO or Bi2O3. Mixed oxides of ZnO with gallium or indium oxide. Mixed oxides of ZnO with gallium or indium oxide and also tin oxide, containing more zinc oxide then tin oxide. Mixed oxides of alkali metal, alkaline metal oxide or rare earth metal oxide with bismuth oxide, the bismuthates.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxide of zinc oxide and iron oxide: ferrite

Ceramics based on mixed oxides of bismuth with copper: cuprates

C04B 35/4521 and subgroup

Ceramics based on mixed oxides of bismuth with titanium: bismuth titanate

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with zinc or bismuth oxides

Zinc oxides, zincates, cadmium oxides, cadmiates, mercury oxides, mercurates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. ZnO

Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc bismuthate (Zn(BiO3)2)

The preparation of zinc compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 9/00 and subgroups

The preparation of gallium, indium or thallium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 15/00 and subgroups

The preparation of bismuth compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 29/00 and subgroups

Transparent conductive oxide layers (TCO) being part of a multilayer coating on glass Layers comprising zinc oxide

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of bismuth and vanadium

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of zinc

C09C 1/04 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic Zn or Cd compounds

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth

C09K 11/74 and subgroups

Obtaining zinc oxide

C22B 19/34 and subgroups

Target materials for coating by Physical Vapour Deposition

Zinc oxide in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of zinc or cadmium oxide

Resistors, e.g. varistors based on ZnO

Thin film transistors having a semiconductor body comprising an oxide semiconductor material, e.g. zinc oxide, copper aluminium oxide, cadmium stannate

Wideband gap semiconductor comprising zinc oxide, e.g. ZnO

Fuel cells operating at high temperature, e.g. with stabilised ZrO2 electrolyte, the electrolyte consisting of oxides, the electrolyte containing bismuth oxide

Special rules of classification

Bi13Mn13O40 is classified in C04B 35/016, Bi13Fe13O40 in C04B 35/26, Bi13Co13O40 in C04B 35/01, Bi13Mn6.5Fe6.5O40 in C04B 35/2658, Bi11Co7.5Cu7.5O40 is classified in C04B 35/01 and C04B 35/4521, Bi18.2Mn3.9Co3.9O40 is classified in C04B 35/016 and C04B 35/01. None of these compositions is classified in C04B 35/453

based on tin oxides or stannates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on the single oxide SnO2, or on mixed oxides of alkali metal, alkaline earth or rare earth metals with tin oxide. Ceramics based on mixed oxides of gallium or indium with tin, possibly also containing zinc, e.g. indium tin oxide (ITO) or indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on mixed oxides of indium, tin and zinc containing more zinc than tin.

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with tin oxide

Tin oxides, stannates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g., indium tin oxide (ITO)

The preparation of tin compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 19/00 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing germanium, tin or lead

C09K 11/66 and subgroups

Thin film transistors having a semiconductor body comprising an oxide semiconductor material, e.g. zinc oxide, copper aluminium oxide, cadmium stannate

Transparent ITO electrodes

Transparent conductive oxide layers (TCO) being part of a multilayer coating on glass Layers comprising indium tin oxide (ITO)

M03C217/598

based on titanium oxides or titanates (containing also zirconium or hafnium oxides, zirconates or hafnates C04B 35/49)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on the single metal oxide phase TiO2 or on sub-oxides of titanium oxide, e.g. Ti2O3. Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of titanium, the so-called titanates.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramic compositions based on titanium oxides or titanates, containing also zirconium or hafnium oxides, zirconates or hafnates

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone Titanium oxide, e.g. titanates

Making fibres based on titanium oxide

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with titanium oxides or titanates

Titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. rutile or anatase as additive for making ceramics or as secondary phase in a ceramic

C04B 2235/3232 and subgroups

Refractory metal oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Titania or titanate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Materials for prostheses based on titania or titanium oxide TiO

Catalysts or catalyst carriers comprising titanium; Oxides or hydroxides thereof

The preparation of titanium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 23/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of titanium

C09C 1/36 and subgroups

Ceramic insulating or dielectric materials

Resistors, e.g. varistors, based on titanium oxide or titanates

Fixed capacitors containing a ceramic dielectric based on titanium oxides or titanates

Light-sensitive devices comprising an oxide semiconductor electrode comprising titanium oxide, e.g. TiO2

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing titanium, e.g. TiO2

Piezoelectric ceramics

Wideband gap semiconductor comprising titanium oxide, e.g. TiO2

Ceramic dielectric resonators

based on titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of titanium, the so-called titanates.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. zirconate-titanates such as PZT

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates containing also lead and also titanates

Titanates as additive for making ceramics or as secondary phase in a ceramic

C04B 2235/3234 and subgroup

Zirconates or hafnates containing also titanium oxide or titanates as additive for making ceramics or as secondary phase in a ceramic

The preparation of titanium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds containing, besides titanium, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

The preparation of titanate compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 23/003 and subgroups

Single crystals of Titanates; Germanates; Molybdates; Tungstates

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having positive temperature coefficient mainly consisting of perovskites, e.g. titanates

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of perovskites, e.g. titanates

based on alkaline earth metal titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of titanium with the alkaline earth metals Mg and/or Ca, e.g. magnesium titanate (MgTiO3) or calcium barium titanate with the formula Ca0.6Ba0.4TiO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth zirconate-titanates such as magnesium zirconate titanate

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkaline earth oxides or salts as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Alkaline earth metal titanates as additive for making ceramics or as secondary phase in a ceramic

The preparation of alkaline earth metal titanate compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

Fixed capacitors containing a ceramic dielectric based on alkaline earth titanates

Insulating layers on semi-conductor bodies having a perovskite structure

Manufacture of capacitors containing a perovskite dielectric

H01L 28/55 and subgroups

based on barium titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of barium and titanium, containing more Ba than of any of the other alkaline earth metals, e.g. barium magnesium titanate containing more Ba than Mg.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth zirconate-titanates such as barium zirconate titanate

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Barium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

Barium titanate normally has the perovskite structure. If the structure of the barium titanate material is not mentioned, it can normally be assumed it is a perovskite. This means that the head-class C04B 35/468 rarely needs to be used.

{based on BaTiO3 perovskite phase}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of barium and titanium, containing more Ba than of any of the other alkaline earth metals, e.g. barium calcium titanate with the formula Ca0.4Ba0.6TiO3 Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of titanium, the so-called titanates.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics having the perovskite structure, ABO3

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

Barium titanate normally has the perovskite structure. If the structure of the barium titanate material is not mentioned, it can normally be assumed it is a perovskite. This means that the head-class C04B 35/468 rarely needs to be used.

{containing lead compounds (C04B 35/472 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of barium and titanium, containing more Ba than of any of the other alkaline earth metals, and also containing some amount of Pb, e.g. as dopant

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lead titanate based ceramics

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth lead zirconate-titanates such as barium containing PZT

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

{based on phases other than BaTiO3 perovskite phase}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Barium titanate normally has the perovskite structure. If the structure of the barium titanate material is not mentioned, it can normally be assumed it is a perovskite. Other barium titanate phases are BaTi4O9 and Ba2Ti9O20.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth zirconate-titanates such as barium zirconate titanate

{containing lead compounds (C04B 35/472 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of barium and titanium, containing more Ba than of any of the other alkaline earth metals, and also containing some amount of Pb, e.g. as dopant

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lead titanate based ceramics

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth lead zirconate-titanates such as barium containing PZT

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

Special rules of classification

Barium titanate normally has the perovskite structure. If the structure of the barium titanate material is not mentioned, it can normally be assumed it is a perovskite. Other barium titanate phases are not common.

based on strontium titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on alkaline earth metal titanates, containing more Sr than of any other alkaline earth metal, e.g. Ba0.45Ca0.05Sr0.50TiO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth zirconate-titanates such as strontium zirconate-titanate

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Strontium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

based on lead titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanates, containing more Pb in the titanate phase than of any other metal ion, except for titanium, e.g. Al0.45Pb0.55TiO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Barium titanate perovskite containing lead compounds based ceramic

Barium titanate containing lead compounds non-perovskite phase based ceramic

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. lead zirconate-titanates such PZT

C04B 35/491 and subgroup

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

Ceramic compositions for piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices

based on bismuth titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanates, containing more Bi in the titanate phase than of any other metal ion, except for titanium, e.g. Pb0.3Al0.3Bi0.4TiO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. bismuth zirconate-titanate

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc bismuthate (Zn(BiO3)2)

based on aluminium titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanates, containing more Al in the titanate phase than of any other metal ion, except for titanium, e.g. Al0.3Pb0.2Bi0.2Ba0.2La0.1TiO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. aluminium zirconate-titanate

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramic honeycombs, e.g. aluminum titanate honeycombs

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Honeycomb filter for exhaust apparatus

Aluminium titanate in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

based on zirconium or hafnium oxides, zirconates, {zircon} or hafnates
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ceramic materials having a zirconia phase or zirconate phase as the largest fraction, e.g. yttria-stabilised-zirconia, monoclinic zirconia, lanthanum zirconate

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: zirconium oxide

Making fibres based on zirconium oxide

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with zirconium oxides or zirconates, hafnium oxides or hafnates

C04B 41/5042 and subgroup

Zirconium or hafnium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. HfO2

C04B 2235/3244 and subgroups

Refractory oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Zirconia, hafnia, zirconate or hafnate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Materials for prostheses based on zirconia or zirconium oxide

Materials for prostheses based on hafnia or hafnium oxide

Catalysts comprising Zirconium or hafnium; Oxides or hydroxides thereof

The preparation of zirconium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 25/00 and subgroups

Zirconium oxide in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

Fixed capacitors containing a ceramic dielectric based on zirconium oxides or zirconates

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing hafnium, e.g. HfO2

H01L 21/02181, H01L 21/31645 (from the gas phase)

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing zirconium, e.g. ZrO2

H01L 21/02189, H01L 21/31641 (from the gas phase)

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

The head group C04B 35/48 only contains non-refractories of zirconia and/or zirconate with large grain sizes of at least 0,1 mm.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

YSZ

Yttria-stabilised zirconia

3Y-TZP

Zirconia partially stabilised in the tetragonal phase by 3 mol% yttria

{containing silicon, e.g. zircon}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Zirconates containing silica, such as zircon (ZrSiO4), zirconia ceramics containing a silica or silicate binder, zirconia refractories containing quartz

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: zircon

Alumina based refractories containing zircon

Alumina based refractories containing zircon, made by melt-casting

Zirconates or hafnates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zircon (ZrSiO4)

Silica as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Special rules of classification

Documents that are classified in C04B 35/481 can also be classified in other sub-groups of C04B 35/48, e.g. a zirconia refractory containing quartz is classified in both C04B 35/481 and C04B 35/482. A fine ceramic containing as major phase zircon and having at least one secondary phase is also classified in C04B 35/488. Classification in C04B 35/486 is not necessary, if the silica-containing zirconia ceramic is a fine ceramic with grain sizes below 100 microns. In practice C04B 35/482, C04B 35/484, C04B 35/488 and C04B 35/4885 are used in combination with C04B35/48A.

Zircon is in principle the only silicate that is not classified as a silicate, but is classified according to the other metal cation(s) present in the silicate.

Refractories from grain sized mixtures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Zirconia based refractories having large grains, the majority larger than 100 microns

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grain-sized magnesia-based refractories

C04B 35/043 and subgroups

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories

C04B 35/101 and subgroups

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories, containing zirconia or zircon

Grain-sized titania-based refractories

Grain-sized silicon carbide-based refractories

C04B 35/565 and subgroups, and C04B45/66

Monolithic refractories and refractory mortars

Using particles larger than 100 microns for making the ceramic

Bimodal, multi-modal or multi-fraction particle size distribution

Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof

B22C 1/00 and subgroups

Abrasive particles per se obtained by division of a mass agglomerated by sintering

Refractories by fusion casting
Definition statement

This place covers:

Refractories that are used directly after melting, either in particle or bulk form, as well as fused refractory that is sintered before use as refractory

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Clay wares made by methods involving melting, fusion or softening

Magnesia-based refractories made by fusion casting

C04B 35/05 and subgroup

Alumina-based refractories made by fusion casting

C04B 35/107 and subgroup

Alumina-based refractories made by fusion casting, containing zirconia or zircon

Fusing to make ceramic particles in general

Refractories in general made by fusion casting

Heat treatments such as] Calcining; Fusing Pyrolysis in general

B01J 6/00 and subgroups

Fine ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ceramic materials having a zirconia phase or zirconate phase as the largest fraction, e.g. yttria-stabilised-zirconia, monoclinic zirconia, lanthanum zirconate, where the major phase has an average grain size of below 100 micron

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Using particles of size 1-100 microns for making the ceramic

Protective coatings for engine blades

Fuel cells operating at high temperature, e.g. with stabilised ZrO2 electrolyte, the electrolyte consisting of oxides, the electrolyte containing zirconium oxide

Composites
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ceramic materials having a zirconia phase or zirconate phase as the largest fraction, e.g. yttria-stabilised-zirconia, monoclinic zirconia, lanthanum zirconate, but containing also at least one secondary phase, which is not a grain boundary phase. This secondary phase normally is another ceramic phase, but could also be a metallic non-continuous phase. The composite can also be a mixture of a zirconia and a zirconate phase or of two different zirconate phases.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconia refractories containing a secondary phase

Mixtures of different zirconia phases, e.g. a mixture of cubic and tetragonal zirconia or a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zirconia ceramics containing shaped metallic materials, e.g. metallic fibers

C04B 35/74 and subgroup

Zirconia ceramics containing ceramic fibers, whiskers or platelets, e.g. an zirconia particle matrix containing alumina fibers or alumina platelets

C04B 35/803 and additional symbols (CCA) for the fibers, whiskers, platelets

Ceramics containing one or more secondary phases

C04B 2235/80 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If the secondary phase is a ceramic fiber, whisker, platelet or similarly shaped ceramic particle, both C04B 35/803 and C04B 35/488 are given. The same logic applies to C04B 35/488 and C04B 35/74.

The secondary phases are indicated with symbols from C04B 2235/32-C04B 2235/428. The symbol C04B 2235/80 does not need to be used, since the class itself already indicates that secondary phases are present.

{with aluminium oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All sintered zirconia ceramics that contain at least one secondary alumina phase, where this secondary alumina phase is not a grain boundary phase

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconia refractories containing an alumina secondary phase

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alumina-based ceramics containing a zirconia secondary phase

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If the amount of zirconia phase is larger than the amount of alumina phase, C04B 35/4885 is given, if the amounts are equal, e.g. C04B40/40, then both C04B 35/119 and C04B 35/4885 are given.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ZTA

Zirconia toughened alumina

ATZ

Alumina toughened zirconia

containing also titanium oxides or titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Titanium-zirconates, zirconium-titanates, titanate-zirconates, for instance barium zirconate-titanate, mixed oxides containing at least zirconia and titania.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Titanates

C04B 35/462 and subgroups

Titanium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rutile or anatase

C04B 2235/3232 and subgroups

Titanate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not containing zirconium, e.g. aluminium titanate (Al2TiO5) or mixed niobate-titanates

C04B 2235/3234 and subgroup.

Zirconates or hafnates containing also titanium oxide or titanates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase in a ceramic, e.g. lead zirconate titanate (PZT, PbTi1-xZrxO3).

Ceramic insulating or dielectric materials

Resistors, e.g. varistors, based on metal oxides

Fixed capacitors containing a ceramic dielectric based on zirconium oxides containing also titanates

Piezoelectric ceramics

Ceramic dielectric resonators

Special rules of classification

If the amount of ZrO2 is quite small, e.g. BaTiO3 with only 1 wt% of zirconia dopant, then both C04B 35/49 and C04B 35/4682 are given.

based on lead zirconates and lead titanates {, e.g. PZT}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Lead zirconate titanate, doped possibly with other elements such as La.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead titanate based ceramics

Lead zirconate based ceramics

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

Ceramic probes, e.g. lead zirconate titanate (PZT) probes

Insulating layers on semi-conductor bodies having a perovskite structure

Manufacture of capacitors containing a perovskite dielectric

H01L 28/55 and subgroups

Piezo-electric devices; Electrostrictive devices; Magnetostrictive devices; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof of devices of ceramic compositions

H01L41/24

Special rules of classification

These materials normally have a perovskite structure. C04B 2235/768 can be added to indicate the presence of a perovskite structure.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PLZT

Lead zirconate titanate doped with lanthanum

containing also other lead compounds
Definition statement

This place covers:

PZT doped for instance with Mg, Nb, Ni or other elements that take the B position in the ABO3 perovskite structure of PZT, while the A-position is taken by Pb

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead titanate

Lead niobate titanate (zirconate)

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Niobates or tantalates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver niobate (AgNbO3)

Special rules of classification

These materials normally have a perovskite structure, ABO3. C04B 2235/768 can be added to indicate the presence of a perovskite structure. If there is any element at the B-position that is present in an amount larger than Zr and Ti together, then the material is classified in the class of this element, e.g. PbNb0.4Ti0.3Zr0.3 is classified in C04B 35/493, but PbNb0.55Ti0.3Zr0.15 is classified in C04B 35/499. PbAl0.4Ti0.1Zr0.5 is classified in C04B 35/493, but PbAl0.55Ti0.1Zr0.35 is classified in C04B 35/44. PbNb0.4Mg0.05Ti0.1Zr0.45 is also classified in C04B 35/493, since Ti and Zr together form the largest fraction of B-atoms. PbNb0.3W0.25Zr0.4Ti0.05 is classified in C04B 35/499 though, since Nb and W together form a larger fraction than Zr and Ti together.

based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on the single metal oxide phase Nb2O5, Ta2O5, MoOx, WOx, V2O5 or on sub-oxides such as niobium suboxide. Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of V, Nb, Ta, Mo or W.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics based on titanium oxide or titanates

C04B 35/46 and subgroups

Ceramics based on titanium oxide or titanates containing also zirconium or hafnium oxides, zirconates or hafnates

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with niobium oxides or niobates

Vanadium oxides, vanadates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. magnesium vanadate (Mg2V2O7).

Niobium or tantalum oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Nb2O5 or Ta2O5

C04B 2235/3251 and subgroups

Molybdenum oxides, molybdates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. cadmium molybdate (CdMoO4)

Tungsten oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. scheelite (CaWO4)

C04B 2235/3258 and subgroup

Refractory metal oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Refractory metal oxide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Materials for prostheses based on tantalum oxide

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides of vanadium

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides of molybdenum

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides of tungsten

The preparation of vanadium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 31/00 and subgroups

The preparation of niobium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 33/00 and subgroups

The preparation of tantalum compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 35/00 and subgroups/

The preparation of molybdenum compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 39/00 and subgroups

The preparation of tungsten compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 41/00 and subgroups/

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of molybdenum

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of bismuth and vanadium

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing vanadates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing chromium, molybdenum or tungsten

C09K 11/68 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing vanadium

C09K 11/69 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth vanadates; Chromates; Molybdates; Tungstates

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth vanadates; Chromates; Molybdates; Tungstates

Single crystals of Niobates; Vanadates; Tantalates

Single crystals of Titanates; Germanates; Molybdates; Tungstates

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having positive temperature coefficient mainly consisting of Vanadium oxides or oxidic compounds, e.g. VOx

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of Vanadium oxides or oxidic compounds, e.g. VOx

Fixed capacitors containing a ceramic dielectric based on niobium or tungsten, tantalum oxides or niobates, tantalates

H01G 4/1254 and subgroup

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing tantalum, e.g. Ta2O5

H01L 21/02183, H01L 21/31645 (from the gas phase)

Ceramic compositions for piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices

Details of surface acoustic wave devices of lithium niobate or lithium-tantalate substrates

Materials for prostheses based on niobium oxide

K61F2/00A6B2N

based on solid solutions with lead oxides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Lead niobate (PbNbO3), tantalate, etc., possibly doped with other elements such as Mg, Ni, Zr, Fe

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead titanate

Lead zirconate

C04B 35/486 and subgroups

Lead titanate zirconate

C04B 35/491 and subgroup

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

containing also titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

PZT-like material for instance with large amount of Nb, more than the amount of Ti and Zr together.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with niobium oxides or niobates

Titanate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not containing zirconium, e.g. aluminium titanate (Al2TiO5) or mixed niobate-titanates

C04B 2235/3234 and subgroup

The preparation of vanadium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides vanadium, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

The preparation of niobium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides niobium, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

The preparation of tantalum compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides tantalum, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

The preparation of molybdenum compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides molybdenum, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

The preparation of tungsten compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides tungsten, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

Special rules of classification

These materials normally have a perovskite structure, ABO3. C04B 2235/768 can be added to indicate the presence of a perovskite structure. If the combined amount of Nb/Ta/W/Mo/V is lower than the combined amount of Zr and Ti, then the material is classified in C04B 35/00-C04B 35/493, e.g. PbNb0.4Ti0.3Zr0.3 is classified in C04B 35/493, but PbNb0.55Ti0.3Zr0.15 is classified in C04B 35/499. PbAl0.4Ti0.1Zr0.5 is classified in C04B 35/493, but PbAl0.55Ti0.1Zr0.35 is classified in C04B 35/44. PbNb0.4Mg0.05Ti0.1Zr0.45 is also classified in C04B 35/493, since Ti and Zr together form the largest fraction of B-atoms. PbNb0.3W0.25Zr0.4Ti0.05 is classified in C04B 35/499 though, since Nb and W together form a larger fraction than Zr and Ti together.

based on rare-earth compounds {(non-oxide rare earth compounds C04B 35/5156)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramic materials containing as the largest fraction a phase consisting out of rare earth oxides or out of mixtures of rare earth oxides with alkali metals or alkaline earth metals, e.g. gadolinium cerate, GdxCe1-xO3, barium cerate, BaCeO3, magnesium lanthanate, MgLaO3, yttrium scandium oxide, YScOx (also classified C04B 35/505). Ceramic materials containing a mixture of rare earth metals and zirconia and/or hafnia, where the amount of rare earth metals is higher than the amount of zirconia, e.g. Ce0.3La0.3Zr0.4Ox.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with silica without alumina

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with both alumina and silica

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with chromium oxide, e.g. lanthanum chromites

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with alumina, without silica, e.g. scandium aluminate

Rare earth phosphates

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with copper oxide, e.g. superconducting LaBa-cuprate

C04B 35/4504 and subgroup

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide, e.g. dysprosium bismuthate

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with tin oxide, e.g. neodymium stannate

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with titanium oxides, such as lanthanum titanate or cerium titanate

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with zirconium oxide, e.g. cerium zirconate, containing more Zr than rare earth metals

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide, e.g. ytterbium titanate zirconate (YbTi0.5Zr0.5O3)

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide, e.g. erbium tantalum niobate (ErNb0.5Ta0.5O3)

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Ceramics based on non-oxide rare earth compounds

Rare earth oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rare earth non-oxide ceramics

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with rare earth oxides

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides of rare earths

The preparation of rare earth compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01F 17/00 and subgroups

Luminescent materials containing rare earth metals

C09K 11/77 and subgroups, C09K 11/0822

Shades containing photoluminescent material

Refractors containing photoluminescent material

Reflectors containing photoluminescent material

Elements containing photoluminescent material distinct from or spaced from the light source and subgroups

Elements with provision for controlling the spectral properties or intensity containing photoluminescent material

Scintillation detectors

Luminescent screens

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing at least one rare earth metal element, e.g. oxides of lanthanides, scandium or yttrium

Fuel cells operating at high temperature, e.g. with stabilised ZrO2 electrolyte, the electrolyte consisting of oxides, the electrolyte containing cerium oxide

Special rules of classification

If any of cerium or lanthanum oxide is present, C04B 2235/3229 (Ce) or C04B 2235/3227 (La) is used. C04B 2235/3224 does not need to be given, if C04B 35/50 is given for a certain composition.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Rare earth oxides

The oxides of scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lutetium (Lu), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb)

based on yttrium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramic materials containing as the largest fraction a phase consisting out of yttria or out of mixtures of yttria with other rare earth oxides, where yttria forms the largest fraction, e.g. yttrium scandium oxide, YScOx (also classified in C04B 35/50). Ceramic materials containing as the largest fraction a phase that is a mixture of yttria with alkali metals or alkaline earth metals. Ceramic materials containing a mixture of yttria and zirconia and/or hafnia, where the amount of yttria is higher than the amount of zirconia, e.g. Y0.6Zr0.4Ox.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of yttrium with silica without alumina

Mixed oxides of yttrium with both alumina and silica

Mixed oxides of yttrium with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

Mixed oxides of yttrium with chromium oxide, e.g. chromites

Mixed oxides of yttrium with alumina, without silica, e.g. yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12)

Yttrium phosphates

Mixed oxides of yttrium with copper oxide, e.g. superconducting LaBa-cuprate

C04B 35/4504 and subgroup

Mixed oxides of yttrium with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide

Mixed oxides of yttrium with tin oxide

Mixed oxides of yttrium with titanium oxides

Mixed oxides of yttrium with zirconium oxide, containing more Zr than yttrium, e.g. YSZ, yttria-stabilised-zirconia

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of yttrium with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of yttrium with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rare earth non-oxide ceramics

Yttrium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

based on compounds of actinides ({non-oxide actinide compounds C04B 35/5158} ; nuclear fuel materials G21C 3/62)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics having as the largest fraction an oxide based on actinides, e.g. uranium oxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Non-oxide actinide ceramics, e.g. uranium carbide

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Actinide oxides, mixed metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides, as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides of actinides

Compounds of thorium

The preparation of uranium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 43/00 and subgroups

The preparation of transuranic element compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 56/00 and subgroups

Ceramic nuclear fuel materials

G21C 3/62 and subgroups

based on non-oxide ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics having as the largest fraction a non-oxide material, e.g. a carbide, nitride, boride, silicide, fluoride, sulphide, selenide.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Non-oxide ceramics having a metallic binder

C22C 29/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making fibres based on non-oxide ceramic material

Ceramic products containing macroscopic reinforcing agents containing non-metallic materials: fibres, filaments, whiskers, platelets, or the like: the matrix of the ceramic products consisting of non-oxides only

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with non-oxide ceramics

Non-oxides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/38 and subgroups

Non-oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/08 and subgroup

Non-oxide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/36 and subgroups

Non-oxide glass compositions, e.g. binary or ternary halides, sulphides or nitrides of germanium, selenium or tellurium

C03C 3/32, C03B 2201/80 and subgroups

Non-oxide coatings on glass

C03C 17/3429 and subgroups

Non-oxide ceramics in MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL (F01) OR machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0804 and subgroups

{based on halogenides other than fluorides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sintered ceramics having as the largest fraction a chloride, bromide or iodide phase, or a mixture of these phases

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Starting powder mixtures based on halogenides used to make ceramics

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with salts or salty compositions: containing halogen in the anion

Halogens per se

Halides of sodium, potassium or alkali metals in general

C01D 3/00 and subgroups

Halide glasses other than fluoride glasses, i.e. Cl, Br or I glasses, e.g. AgCl-AgBr "glass"

{based on phosphides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sintered ceramics having as the largest fraction a phosphide phase. Phosphides are metal-phosphor compounds that do not contain oxygen.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphate ceramics, metal-phosphor-oxygen compounds

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Metal salts chosen for the nature of the anions as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. phosphides, hydrides, acetylacetonate, hydroxides, or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/44 and subgroups

Preparation of phosphides per se, e.g. phosphide powder, not preparative to making a phosphide ceramic

C01B 25/08 and subgroups

Boride or phosphide coating on glass

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing phosphides

Single crystals based on gallium phosphide

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being a phosphide

Phosphides used as active substance in electrodes for fuel cells and batteries

{based on rare earth compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sintered ceramics having as the largest fraction a rare earth non-oxide phase, e.g., a lanthanum carbide, yttrium nitride, cerium boride, scandium silicide, dysprosium fluoride

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rare earth oxide based ceramics

Yttrium oxide based ceramics

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on carbides, e.g. rare earth carbides

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on nitrides, e.g. rare earth nitrides

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on borides, e.g. rare earth borides

Borides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rare earth boride

Carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rare earth carbide

Nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. oxynitrides, carbonitrides, oxycarbonitrides, lithium nitride (Li3N), magnesium nitride (Mg3N2), rare earth nitride

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

The preparation of nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics, with one or more rare earth metals

Special rules of classification

The documents classified in this class are also classified in the class of the specific type of non oxide, e.g. lanthanum carbide is classified in C04B 35/5156 and C04B 35/56, cerium nitride is classified in C04B 35/5156 and C04B 35/58.

{based on actinide compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The synthesis of actinide carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides, fluorides, sulphides, selenides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Actinide oxide based ceramics

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on carbides, e.g. actinide carbides

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on nitrides, e.g. actinide nitrides

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on borides, e.g. actinide borides

Borides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. actinide boride

Carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. actinide carbide

Nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. oxynitrides, carbonitrides, oxycarbonitrides, lithium nitride (Li3N), magnesium nitride (Mg3N2), actinide nitride

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi, U, Pt

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

The preparation of nitride powders, with one or more actinides, e.g. UN, PuN

The preparation of actinide carbide powders

Ceramic nuclear fuel materials

G21C 3/62 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

The documents classified in this class are also classified in the class of the specific type of non oxide, e.g. uranium carbide is classified in C04B 35/5158 and C04B 35/56, plutonium nitride is classified in C04B 35/5158 and C04B 35/58.

based on carbon, e.g. graphite
Definition statement

This place covers:

All inorganic objects containing as largest fraction an inorganic carbon phase or carbon-based mixtures used for making carbon-based bodies or other ceramic objects, e.g. sintered carbon electrodes, characterised by their composition or their synthesis

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on carbides

C04B 35/56 and subgroups

A carbon-based matrix containing carbon fibers

Diamond bodies containing a metallic binder

Carbon electrodes used in electrolytic capacitors, rectifiers, detectors, switching devices, light-sensitive or temperature-sensitive devices

H01G 9/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide-based ceramics or ceramic mixtures in general containing carbon

Alumina-based refractories containing carbon

Ceramic powders coated with carbon

Ceramic fibers coated with carbon

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing carbon fibers or carbon whiskers

C04B 35/80 and subgroups and C04B 2235/5248

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing carbon nanotubes

C04B 35/80 and subgroups and C04B 2235/5288

Coating or impregnating a ceramic substrates with carbon

C04B 41/5001 and subgroups

Carbon additives for ceramics

C04B 2235/422 and subgroups

Organics compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat-treatment, e.g. phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Fibrous carbon additives for ceramics

Carbon nanotube additives for ceramics

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing carbon as an impurity

Carbon interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Carbon substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Carbon materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses

Carbon-based inorganic membranes

Presses for the formation of diamonds or boronitride

B01J 3/065 and subgroup

Catalysts comprising carbon

B01J 21/18, and subgroup, C07C 2521/18

High pressure synthesis of diamond

Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting: non-consumable electrodes; C-electrode

Carbon electrodes for use in soldering, welding, or cutting

The preparation of carbon powders per se, not preparative to the making of carbon ceramics

C01B 32/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: carbon

C09C 1/44 and subgroups

Electrodes for electrolytic processes based on carbon

C25B 11/12 and subgroup

Carbon ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

Constructions of heat-exchange apparatus characterised by the selection of particular materials, of carbon, e.g. graphite

Carbonic moderators in nuclear reactors

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of Carbon or carbides

Field emission cathodes common to discharge tubes: carbon type

H01J 2201/30453 and subgroups

Field emission cathodes common to electron emission display panels: carbon type

H01J 2329/0444 and subgroups

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being carbon, e.g. diamond-like carbon

Semiconductor bodies: diamond

Electrodes based on carbonaceous material, e.g. graphite-intercalation compounds or CFx for fuel cells and batteries

Carbon-based electrodes for fuel cells and batteries

Ohmic-resistance heating, heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material being carbon only, e.g. carbon black, graphite

H05B 3/145, C03B 2205/63 (for fiber drawing)

Electrodes mainly consisting of carbon for heating by electric discharge

H05B 7/085 and subgroup

Carbon-based electrodes for electric arc lamps

H05B 31/08 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

The carbonaceous additives used for making the carbon-based body are further indicated with the codes C04B 2235/424 (carbon black), C04B 2235/425 (graphite) and C04B 2235/427 (diamond).

Diamond based composites are classified normally in C04B 35/52 rather than in C04B 35/528.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

C/C

Carbon fibres in a carbon matrix

{obtained by impregnation of carbon products with a carbonisable material}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The carbonisable material normally is carbonised through a heat treatment. The end-product contains mainly carbon phase.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Porous carbon is infiltrated with Si-containing polymer that is carbonised to form a product containing mainly SiC

Impregnation of a carbon product with Si in order to form SiC

Porous carbon is infiltrated with Si-and N-containing polymer that is carbonised to form a product containing mainly Si3N4

Impregnation of a fibrous carbon product with a carbonisable material

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Impregnation of carbon products with materials that lead to the formation of other phases than carbon, where one of these other phases forms the largest fraction of the end-product (thus the end product does not have carbon as largest fraction anymore)

Classification is in the class of this largest fraction, e.g. impregnation with alumina to such an extent that the end-product contains more alumina than carbon leads to the class C04B 35/117 (alumina composites) and the code C04B 2235/422 (carbon additive or secondary phase in the end-product)

The synthesis and properties of porous carbon bodies

C04B 38/00 and subgroups

Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware obtained by a chemical conversion or reaction other than those relating to the setting or hardening of cement-like material or to the formation of a sol or a gel, e.g. by carbonising or pyrolysing preformed cellular materials based on polymers, organo-metallic or organo-silicon precursors

C04B 38/0022 and subgroups

Impregnation of carbon products with materials that lead to the formation of other phases than carbon, where none of these other phases form the largest fraction of the end-product

C04B 41/00 and subgroups

Materials with friction-reduced moving parts, e.g. ceramics lubricated by impregnation with carbon

Gas infiltration of green bodies or pre-forms

Liquid infiltration of green bodies or pre-forms

Impregnated carbon catalyst carriers

B01J 21/18, and subgroup, C07C 2521/18

Impregnation of carbon electrodes

Special rules of classification

The symbols C04B 2235/614 and C04B 2235/616 are used in combination with C04B 35/521 to indicate whether the infiltration is through gas or liquid, respectively.

{Graphite (C04B 35/536 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All shaped products or mixtures for making a shaped product that have graphite as the largest fraction

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

All shaped products or mixtures for making a shaped product that have expanded graphite as the largest fraction

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of graphite as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of graphite specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Creating porosity in ceramic products by burning out graphite

Graphite as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Graphite materials for grafts or prostheses

Graphite reactor vessels

The preparation and after-treatment of graphite powders

C01B 32/20 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: graphite

Sliding surface consisting mainly of graphite

obtained from polymer precursors, e.g. glass-like carbon material
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carbon containing polymers are carbonised, leading to a product that has as largest fraction a carbon phase, e.g. carbonising a shaped phenol resin

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixtures of polymer precursors and carbon particles, where the amount of carbon particles is larger than the amount of polymer precursors

Carbon and silicon containing polymers are carbonised, leading to a product that has as largest fraction a silicon carbide phase, e.g. carbonising a shaped polysilane resin

Carbon, silicon and nitrogen containing polymers are carbonised, leading to a product that has as largest fraction a silicon nitride phase, e.g. carbonising a shaped polysilazane resin

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. carbonising phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

obtained from carbonaceous particles with or without other non-organic components
Definition statement

This place covers:

The shaping of carbon particles into a compact and possible further densification through heat treatment

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The shaping of graphite particles into a compact

C04B 35/522, C04B 35/536 (expanded graphite)

containing a carbonisable binder
Definition statement

This place covers:

The shaping of carbon particles into a compact and possible further densification through heat treatment, whereby binders such as pitch, tar, phenolic resin, etc., all possible binders from the range C04B 35/632-C04B 35/6365 can be used, as long as the further (heat) treatment is in non-oxidising atmosphere.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Carbon shaped bodies where the binder is not added to starting powder mixture, but is impregnated or infiltrated into an already shaped carbonaceous body

Mixtures of carbon particles with carbonisable binder, where the amount of carbonisable binder is larger than the amount of carbon particles

C04B 35/524 and C04B 2235/422 (carbon particles)

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Organics compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat-treatment

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Preparation of active carbon using carbonaceous precursors per se and binders, e.g. pitch, and producing the granules

Special rules of classification

If a carbonisable binder is used, classification in C04B 35/528 is not necessary, unless also the possibility of not using the carbonisable binder is disclosed. C04B 35/532 is also given to graphite powders containing a carbonisable binder, together with C04B 35/522 (or C04B 35/536).

Since the class C04B 35/532 already indicates that organics are carbonised and become part of the ceramic, the code C04B 2235/48 is superfluous.

based on expanded graphite {or complexed graphite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Shaped objects of expanded graphite, possibly further heat-treated, or preparing of expanded graphite preparatory to the shaping of the mixture

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Creating porosity in the ceramic product by expanding the graphite

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Graphite as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

The preparation and after-treatment of intercalated graphite powders

The preparation and after-treatment of expanded or exfoliated graphite powders

Intercalated carbon- or graphite fibres

Electrodes based on carbonaceous material, e.g. graphite-intercalation compounds or CFx for fuel cells and batteries

based on sulfides or selenides {or tellurides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics having as the largest fraction a sulphide, selenide or telluride phase, or a mixture of these phases

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Starting powder mixtures based on sulphides, selenides or tellurides used to make ceramics

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with salts or salty compositions: containing sulphur in the anion, e.g. sulphides

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with sulphides or selenides

Catalysts comprising sulphides

B01J 27/04 and subgroups

Sulphide compounds per se

C01B 17/20 and subgroups

Selenides and tellurides per se

Preparation of sulphides metal compounds in general

Chalcogenide glasses, e.g. containing S, Se, Te

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing sulphides

C09K 11/56 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing two or more rare earth metals: oxysulfides

Single crystals based on Sulphur-, selenium- or tellurium-containing compounds

C30B 29/46 and subgroups

Sulphide ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0856 and subgroup

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being a sulphide

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being a selenide

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being a telluride

Electrodes for accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte based on inorganic compounds other than oxides or hydroxides, e.g. sulphides, selenides, tellurides, halogenides or LiCoFy

based on fluorides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics having as the largest fraction a fluoride phase

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Starting powder mixtures based on fluorides used to make ceramics

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with fluorine compounds

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with fluorides

Catalysts containing fluoride

Fluorides per se

Fluorides of sodium, potassium or alkali metals in general

Fluoride glasses

C03C 3/325, C03B 2201/82 and subgroup

based on carbides {or oxycarbides (containing free metal binder C22C 29/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics having as the largest fraction a carbide phase, a compound between carbon and a metal or semi-metal, e.g. e.g. potassium carbide, magnesium carbide, Cerium carbide (CeC2), Manganese carbide (Mn3C), Iron carbide (Fe3C), Cobalt carbide (CoC), Nickel carbide (Ni3C), Copper carbide (Cu2C), Zinc carbide (ZnC), Germanium carbide (GeC), Gold carbide (Au2C2), Silver carbide (Ag2C2), Antimony carbide (SbC).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Carbo-nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58 and subgroups

Carbides containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/06 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: carbides

C04B 14/322 and subgroups

Making fibres based on carbides

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with carbides

Carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rare earth carbide

C04B 2235/3817 and subgroups

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

Carbon as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. carbonising phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Carbide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

Materials for prostheses based on metal carbides

A61F 2310/00269 and subgroups

Coating materials for prostheses based on metal carbides

A61F 2310/0073 and subgroups

Carbide catalysts

B01J 27/22, C07C 2527/22 and subgroups

Casting non-ferrous metals with a high melting point, e.g. metallic carbides

Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting comprising refractory compounds, e.g. carbides

Making carbide powders

C01B 32/90 and subgroups

Materials for coating a single layer on glass: carbides, silicides

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides or silicides; Preparation of the powder mixture used as the starting material

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides, silicides starting from a melt

Metallic alloys based carbides, but not containing other metal compounds

C22C 29/06 and subgroups

Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material: carbides

Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes: carbides

C23C 16/32 and subgroup

Single crystals of carbides

Carbide ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0813 and subgroups

Friction linings

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of carbon or carbides

Varistor cores, Carbide, e.g. SiC type

Electrical contacts having a noble metal as the basic material and containing carbides

Encapsulations with oxides or nitrides or carbides, e.g. ceramics, glass, e.g. encapsulating layers, coatings of semi-conductors

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

Carbonitrides are seen as nitrides. If a ceramic is however a mixture of separate carbide and nitride phases, then classification occurs in the class that corresponds to the phase that is present as the largest fraction, which could be a carbide class.

{with a well-defined oxygen content, e.g. oxycarbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All oxy-carbides and all carbides that contain oxygen in the principal carbide phase

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Carbide ceramics containing oxide secondary phases, e.g. a carbide containing a silica sintering aid

C04B 35/56 or subgroups, except C04B 35/5603 and symbols from C04B 2235/32- C04B 2235/365 to indicate the oxide phase

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-oxides with a defined oxygen content as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. SiOC, SiON, TiON

Making powders of oxycarbides, sulfocarbides or mixtures of carbides with other bodies, e.g. graphite; Carbides of other non-metals, e.g. silicocarbides, borocarbides

Silicon oxycarbide, oxynitride or oxycarbonitride glasses

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof: forming insulating materials on a substrate: the material containing Si, O, and at least one of H, N, C, F, or other non-metal elements, e.g. SiOC, SiOC:H or SiONC

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate by gas or vapour deposition, the material containing carbon doped silicon oxide, e.g. SiOC

Special rules of classification

The oxy-carbides are also classified in the other sub-groups of C04B 35/56, e.g. titanium oxy-carbide is classified in C04B 35/5603 and C04B 35/5611. Silicon oxy-carbide is classified in C04B 35/5603 and in C04B 35/565 or one of the subgroups of C04B 35/565. Carbides that are normally classified in the head group C04B 35/56 are only classified in C04B 35/5603, in the case it is an oxy-carbide and not in C04B 35/56.

{based on refractory metal carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on refractory metal carbides or refractory metal oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Refractory carbides other than refractory metal carbides, e.g. a SiC refractory or boron carbide refractory

Cemented refractory carbides

C22C 29/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide ceramics based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Refractory metal nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58007 and subgroups

Refractory metal boride ceramics

C04B 35/58064 and subgroups/

Refractory metal silicide ceramics

C04B 35/58092 and subgroups/

Refractory mortars or monolithic refractories

Refractory metal carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. VC, Cr3C2, ZrC, HfC, NbC, TaC, MoC or Mo2C

C04B 2235/3839 and subgroups

Refractory metals as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), tantalum (Ta)

Coating for prosthesis made of tantalum carbide

Coating for prosthesis made of chromium carbide

Coating for prosthesis made of niobium carbide

The preparation of tungsten or molybdenum carbide powders

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Refractory carbides

titanium carbide, vanadium carbide, chromium carbide, zirconium carbide, niobium carbide, molybdenum carbide, hafnium carbide, tantalum carbide, tungsten carbide

{based on titanium carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium carbides or titanium oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Titanium (oxy)carbonitride ceramics

Titanium (oxy)carbide with a metallic binder

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Titanium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/46 and subgroups

Titanium (oxy)nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58014 and subgroup

Titanium (oxy)boride ceramics

After-treatment of mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics; Treatment of natural stone: with titanium carbide

Titanium carbide as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. TiC

Materials for prostheses, containing titanium carbide

Making titanium (oxy)carbide powders

Titanium carbide ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

Materials for prostheses, coatings containing titanium carbide

K6F2/00B22B4T

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed refractory carbides, e.g. TiCrC, both C04B 35/5607 (for the Cr) and C04B 35/5611 are added, since the amount of Ti and Cr is the same. Ti0.9Cr1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/5607 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of Ti, e.g. C04B 2235/3843 or C04B 2235/404)

{based on titanium silicon carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium carbides or titanium oxy-carbides that also contain silicon, or silicon carbides or silicon oxy-carbides that also contain titanium

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Silicon carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/565 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with titanium carbide

Silicon carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. SiC or SiOC

C04B 2235/3826 and subgroups

Silicon as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Special rules of classification

The relation between Ti and Si can vary to almost any extent, thus both Ti0.9Si0.1C and Ti0.1Si0.9C are classified in this group and neither in C04B 35/5611 nor in C04B 35/565 and subgroups. Only when the amount of Ti or Si is very low, classification in C04B 35/5611 or in C04B 35/565 and subgroups might be considered.

{based on titanium aluminium carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium carbides or titanium oxy-carbides that also contain aluminium, or aluminium carbides or aluminium oxy-carbides that also contain titanium

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Aluminium carbide based ceramics

Carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. aluminum carbide

Aluminium as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Special rules of classification

The relation between Ti and Al can vary to almost any extent, thus both Ti0.9Al0.1C and Ti0.1Al0.9C are classified in this group and neither in C04B 35/5611 nor in C04B 35/56. Only when the amount of Ti or Al is very low, classification in C04B 35/5611 or in C04B 35/56 might be considered.

{based on zirconium or hafnium carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on zirconium or hafnium carbides or zirconium or hafnium oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)carbonitride ceramics

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)nitride ceramics

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)boride ceramics

Materials for prostheses, coatings made of zirconium carbide

Materials for prostheses, coatings made of hafnium carbide

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed refractory carbides, e.g. ZrTiC, both C04B 35/5611 (for the Ti) and C04B 35/5622 are added, since the amount of Ti and Zr is the same. Ti0.9Zr1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/5622 (possibly using an additional symbol(CCA) to indicate the presence of Ti, e.g. C04B 2235/3843 or C04B 2235/404)

{based on tungsten carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on tungsten carbides or tungsten oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Tungsten (oxy)carbonitride ceramics

Tungsten carbide with a metallic binder

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tungsten oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Tungsten (oxy)nitride ceramics

Tungsten (oxy)boride ceramics

Tungsten carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. WC

Coating for prosthesis made of tungsten carbide

The preparation of tungsten or molybdenum carbide powders

Metallic alloys based on tungsten carbide

Tungsten carbide ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed carbides, e.g. WSiC, both C04B 35/565 (for the Si) and C04B 35/5626 are added, since the amount of W and Si is the same. Si0.9W1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/5626 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of Si, e.g. C04B 2235/3826 or C04B 2235/428)

based on boron carbide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on boron carbides or boron oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on boron carbo-nitride

C04B 35/583 and subgroup

Boron carbide with a metallic binder

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: boron carbide

Ceramics based on boron oxide

Ceramics based on boron oxycarbide

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with boron carbide

Boron oxide or borate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Boron carbide as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. B4C

Boron as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Boron-containing organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. borazine, borane or boranyl

Materials for prostheses based on boron carbide

Coatings for prostheses based on boron carbide

Preparation of boron carbide powders

Metallic alloys based on B4C

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed carbides, e.g. SiBC, both C04B 35/565 (for the Si) and C04B 35/563 are added, since the amount of B and Si is the same. Si0.9B1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/563 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of Si, e.g. C04B 2235/3826 or C04B 2235/428). B0.9Si1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/565 or subgroup of C04B 35/565 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of B, e.g. C04B 2235/3821 or C04B 2235/421).

based on silicon carbide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on silicon carbides or silicon oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Silicon carbide based ceramics containing also Ti, e.g. Ti0.1Si0.9C

Ceramics based on silicon carbo-nitride

C04B 35/584 and subgroups

Silicon carbide with a metallic binder

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: silicon carbide

Ceramics based on silicon oxide

Ceramics based on silicon oxycarbide

C04B 35/5603 and C04B 35/565 and subgroups

Ceramics based on silicon nitride

C04B 35/584 and subgroups

Making fibres based on silicon carbide

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with silicon carbide

Silicon carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. SiC or SiOC

C04B 2235/3826 and subgroups

Si-containing organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. silicone resins, (poly)silanes, (poly)siloxanes or (poly)silazanes

Cubic symmetry, e.g. beta SiC

Hexagonal symmetry, alpha SiC

Silicon carbide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

Materials for prostheses based on silicon carbide SiC

Coating materials for prostheses, the coating material based on silicon carbide SiC

Silicon carbide catalyst

Preparation of silicon carbide powders

Metallic alloys based on SiC

Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes: silicon carbide

Rope or cable materials: silicon carbides

Silicon carbide ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

Varistor cores, Carbide, e.g. SiC type

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the coating being silicon carbide

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being silicon carbide

Thin film transistors having a semiconductor body comprising semiconductor materials of the fourth group not being silicon, or alloys including an element of the group IV, e.g. Ge, SiN alloys, SiC alloys

H01L 29/78684 and subgroup

Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; details thereof: characterised by their semiconductor bodies: including, apart from doping materials or other impurities, only AIVBIV compounds, e.g. SiC

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: silicon, e.g. silicon carbide, magnesium silicide, heating transistors or diodes

Special rules of classification

Both Ti0.9Si0.1C and Ti0.1Si0.9C are classified in C04B 35/5615 and not in C04B 35/5611 nor in C04B 35/565 and subgroups. Only when the amount of Ti or Si is very low, classification in C04B 35/5611 or in C04B 35/565 and subgroups might be considered.

In the case of mixed carbides, e.g. SiBC, both C04B 35/565 (for the Si) and C04B 35/563 are added, since the amount of B and Si is the same. Si0.9B1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/563 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of Si, e.g. C04B 2235/3826 or C04B 2235/428). B0.9Si1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/565 or subgroup of C04B 35/565 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of B, e.g. C04B 2235/3821 or C04B 2235/421).

For all other mixed carbides containing Si the reasoning is as with SiBC, classification is in the carbide group of the metal element that is most abundant, with the exception of TiSi-carbides.

If the main phase is alpha SiC, C04B 2235/767 (hexagonal phase) is attributed, if the main phase is beta SiC, C04B 2235/762 (cubic phase) is attributed.

Synonyms and Keywords

SiC/SiC

Silicon carbide reinforced with silicon carbide fibers

obtained from {Si-containing} polymer precursors {or organosilicon monomers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Silicon carbide ceramics made by pyrolysing silicone resins, (poly)silanes, (poly)siloxanes, (poly)silazanes etc., or porous ceramics that are infiltrated with a silicon-containing resin and pyrolysed to a product that contains mainly silicon carbide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Porous carbon is infiltrated with Si-containing polymer that is carbonised to form a product containing mainly carbon

Carbon and silicon containing polymers are carbonised, leading to a product that has as largest fraction a carbon phase

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics based on carbon obtained from polymer or organic precursors

Ceramics based on silicon nitride obtained from polymer or organic precursors

Si-containing organic compounds, e.g. silicone resins, (poly)silanes, (poly)siloxanes or (poly)silazanes used for becoming part of a ceramic after heat-treatment, e.g. phenol resins

Special rules of classification

The end-product of the pyrolysis needs to have as largest fraction a silicon carbide phase. If after pyrolysis the product is hot-pressed, C04B 35/575 is added as well.

obtained by reaction sintering {or recrystallisation}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A carbon containing material and a silicon containing material are reacted to form in-situ a SiC containing ceramics, e.g. a porous carbon body is infiltrated with molten Si and reacted to SiC or a porous carbon body is infiltrated with gaseous SiOx and reacted to SiC, or carbon powder and SiO2 and/or Si powder are mixed, shaped and heated to a temperature and in an atmosphere where they react to SiC

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Infiltration of porous carbon product with molten Si, with the end-product containing more carbon phase than SiC

Infiltration of porous carbon product with molten Si, with the end-product containing more unreacted silicon phase than SiC

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Reaction sintering to make silicon nitride based ceramics

Reaction sintering to make ceramics in general

C04B 35/65 and subgroups

A paper sheet which after carbonisation will react with silicon to form a porous silicon carbide porous body]

Carbon as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/422 and subgroups

Silicon as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Special rules of classification

The end-product of the reaction sintering needs to have as largest fraction a silicon carbide phase. If after reaction sintering the product is hot-pressed, C04B 35/575 is added as well. Silicon is not regarded as a metallic phase, thus silicon carbide materials that contain a large amount of silicon phase are not regarded as ceramics having a metallic binder, which are classified in C22C 29/00 and subgroups, but as a ceramic with a secondary phase.

If a SiC ceramic is made by mixing 55 wt% SiC with 45 wt% of Si/C mixture, and this mixture is reaction sintered, C04B 35/573 should not be given, but C04B 35/565, since the majority of the material does not result from reaction sintering.

When classifying in C04B 35/573, classification in C04B 35/65 is superfluous.

obtained by pressure sintering
Definition statement

This place covers:

A SiC-containing or forming material is densified under mechanical pressure, leading to a product having SiC as the largest fraction.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressure sintering to make silicon nitride based ceramics

Pressure sintering to make ceramics in general

Special rules of classification

When classifying in C04B 35/575, classification in C04B 35/645 is superfluous. C04B 35/575 can be used in combination with C04B 35/571 or C04B 35/573, when pressure sintering a silicon containing polymer respectively when pressure sintering a reaction sintered SiC based ceramic.

{obtained by gas pressure sintering}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A SiC-containing or forming material is densified under gas pressure, leading to a product having SiC as the largest fraction.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gas pressure sintering to make silicon nitride based ceramics

Hot isostatic pressing to make ceramics in general

Special rules of classification

When classifying in C04B 35/5755, classification in C04B 35/6455 is superfluous. C04B 35/5755 can be used in combination with C04B 35/571 or C04B 35/573, when gas pressure sintering a silicon containing polymer respectively when gas pressure sintering a reaction sintered SiC based ceramic.

based on borides, nitrides, {i.e. nitrides, oxynitrides, carbonitrides or oxycarbonitrides} or silicides {(containing free binder metal C22C 29/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Making nitride ceramics, compounds between nitrogen and a metal or semi-metal, e.g. aluminum nitride, alkali nitrides, alkaline earth metal nitrides, rare earth nitrides, gallium nitride, indium nitride, carbonitrides, oxynitrides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The preparation of nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/06 and subgroups, C01B 21/082 and subgroups

Carbonitrides containing a metallic binder

Nitrides containing a metallic binder

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: granular materials, e.g. microballoons: carbides; nitrides; borides; silicides

C04B 14/32 and subgroups

Making fibres based on nitrides

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with borides, nitrides or silicides

Nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. oxynitrides, carbonitrides, oxycarbonitrides, lithium nitride (Li3N), magnesium nitride (Mg3N2), rare earth nitride

C04B 2235/3852 and subgroups

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

Gases other than oxygen used as reactant for making a ceramic phase, e.g. nitrogen used to make a nitride phase

C04B 2235/46 and subgroup

Materials for prostheses based on metal nitrides

A61F 2310/00299 and subgroups

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of compounds based on metal nitrides

A61F 2310/00856 and subgroups

High pressure synthesis of gallium nitrides

The preparation of oxynitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

The preparation of aluminium oxynitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

The preparation of carbonitrides or oxycarbonitrides of metals, boron or silicon per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

Silicon oxycarbide, oxynitride or oxycarbonitride glasses

Nitride glasses

Nitride coating on glass

Nitride coatings on glass

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing nitrides

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides or silicides; Preparation of the powder mixture used as the starting material

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides, silicides starting from a melt

Alloys based on carbonitrides

Single crystals of nitrides

C30B 29/38, C30B 29/403 and subgroup

Nitride ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/083 and subgroups

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being a nitride

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate containing a nitride coating layer

Making conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrode the insulator being formed after the semiconductor body, the semiconductor being silicon: making the insulator on single crystalline silicon, e.g. using a liquid, i.e. chemical oxidation in a nitrogen-containing ambient, e.g. nitride deposition, growth, oxynitridation, NH3 nitridation, N2O oxidation, thermal nitridation, RTN, plasma nitridation, RPN

Treatment of semiconductor bodies to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques composed of alternated layers or of mixtures of nitrides and oxides or of oxynitrides, e.g. formation of oxynitride by oxidation of nitride layers

H01L 21/3143 and subgroups

Treatment of semiconductor bodies to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques composed of nitrides

Encapsulations with oxides or nitrides or carbides, e.g. ceramics, glass, e.g. encapsulating layers, coatings of semi-conductors

Semiconductor bodies including, apart from doping materials or other impurities, only AIIIBV compounds: nitride compounds

Metal-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the insulating material containing nitrogen, e.g. nitride, oxynitride, nitrogen-doped material

Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof, Processes for devices with an active region comprising only III-V compounds comprising nitride compounds

Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof, Processes for devices with an active region comprising only III-V compounds with a substrate not being a III-V compound comprising nitride compounds

Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of superconducting devices comprising nitrides or carbonitrides

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: silicon, e.g. silicon carbide, magnesium silicide, heating transistors or diodes

Special rules of classification

Carbonitrides are seen as nitrides. If a ceramic is however a mixture of separate carbide and nitride phases, then classification occurs in the class that corresponds to the phase that is present as the largest fraction, which could be a carbide class.

{based on refractory metal nitrides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on refractory metal nitrides or refractory metal oxy-nitrides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Refractory nitrides other than refractory metal nitrides, e.g. a silicon nitride refractory or boron nitride refractory

Cemented refractory nitrides

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide ceramics based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Refractory metal carbide ceramics

C04B 35/5607 and sub/classes

Refractory metal boride ceramics

C04B 35/58064 and sub/classes

Refractory metal silicide ceramics

C04B 35/58092 and sub/classes

Refractory mortars or monolithic refractories

Refractory metal nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. vanadium nitride (VN), tungsten nitride (WN2)

Refractory metals as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), tantalum (Ta)

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of chromium nitride

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of niobium nitride

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of tantalum nitride

The preparation of nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics, with vanadium, niobium or tantalum

The preparation of nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics, with chromium, molybdenum or tungsten

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Refractory nitrides

titanium nitride, vanadium nitride, chromium nitride, zirconium nitride, niobium nitride, molybdenum nitride, hafnium nitride, tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride

{based on titanium nitrides, e.g. TiAlON}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium nitrides or titanium oxy-nitrides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Titanium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/46 and subgroups

Titanium (oxy)carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/5611 and subgroups

Titanium (oxy)boride based ceramics

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with titanium nitride

Materials for prostheses based on titanium nitrides

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of titanium nitride

The preparation of titanium, zirconium or hafnium nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/076 and subgroups, C01B 21/076

Titanium nitride ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

Making conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the insulator being formed after the semiconductor body, the semiconductor being silicon the final conductor layer next to the insulator being a composite, e.g. TiN

Metal-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the conductor material next to the insulator being a composite material, e.g. organic material, TiN, MoSi2

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed refractory nitrides, e.g. TiCrN, both C04B 35/58007 (for the Cr) and C04B 35/58014 are added, since the amount of Ti and Cr is the same. Ti0.9Cr1.1N is only classified in C04B 35/5607.

{based on titanium carbonitrides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium carbonitrides or titanium oxycarbonitrides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Carbonitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. titanium carbonitride, zirconium carbonitride

{based on zirconium or hafnium nitrides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on zirconium or hafnium nitrides or zirconium or hafnium oxy-nitrides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)carbide ceramics

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)boride ceramics

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of hafnium nitride

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of zirconium nitride

The preparation of titanium, zirconium or hafnium nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/076 and subgroups, C01B 21/076

Zirconium nitride ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed refractory nitrides, e.g. ZrTiN, both C04B 35/58014 (for the Ti) and C04B 35/58028 are added, since the amount of Ti and Zr is the same. Ti0.9Zr1.1N is only classified in C04B 35/58028.

{based on zirconium or hafnium carbonitrides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on zirconium or hafnium carbonitrides or zirconium or hafnium oxycarbonitrides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Carbonitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. titanium carbonitride, zirconium carbonitride

{based on iron group metals nitrides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Nitride ceramics based on iron nitride, nickel nitride or cobalt nitride

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cobalt oxide based ceramics

Nickel oxide based ceramics

Iron oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/26 and subgroups

Iron group carbide based ceramics

Iron group boride based ceramics

Nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. oxynitrides, carbonitrides, oxycarbonitrides, lithium nitride (Li3N), magnesium nitride (Mg3N2), rare earth nitride, iron group metal nitrides

Iron group metals as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. nickel (Ni) or cobalt (Co)

The preparation of nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics, with iron, cobalt or nickel

{based on borides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramic materials based one or more boride phases, a compound between boron and a metal or semi-metal, e.g. e.g. aluminium boride, Rare earth boride, e.g. dysprosium boride (DyB2), Lanthanum boride (LaB6), Manganese boride (Mn2B, MnB or MnB2), Iron boride (Fe2B, FeB), Cobalt boride (CoB), Nickel boride (NiB), Copper boride (Cu3B2), Gallium boride (GaB12), Scandium Iridium Boride (Sc3Ir5B2), Silver boride (AgB2), Nickel bismuth boride (Ni23-xBixB6), Silicon boride (SiBn)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on boron carbide

Ceramics based on boron nitride

C04B 35/583 and subgroup

Borides containing a metallic binder

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with borides

Boron oxide or borate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Borides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rare earth boride

C04B 2235/3804 and subgroups

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

Boron as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

Boron-containing organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. borazine, borane or boranyl

Materials for prostheses based on metal borides

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of compounds based on metal borides

A61F 2310/0067 and subgroups

Preparation of metal boride powders

Boride or phosphide coating on glass

Boride or phosphide coating on glass

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides or silicides; Preparation of the powder mixture used as the starting material

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides, silicides starting from a melt

Alloys based on borides

Details of electrodes, of magnetic control means, of screens, or of the mounting or spacing thereof, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps: main electrodes: solid thermionic cathodes with compounds having metallic conductive properties, e.g. lanthanum boride, as an emissive material

{based on magnesium boride, e.g. MgB2}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on a magnesium boride phase, whether superconducting or not

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnesium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/04 and subgroups

Magnesium carbide based ceramics

Magnesium nitride based ceramics

Alkaline earth metals as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Mg

Permanent superconductor devices comprising metal borides, e.g. MgB2

Superconducting devices comprising a junction of dissimilar materials, namely Josephson-effect devices comprising metal borides, e.g. MgB2

Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of superconducting devices comprising metal borides, e.g. MgB2

{based on refractory borides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on refractory metal borides or refractory metal oxy-borides, Vanadium diboride (VB2), Chromium boride (CrB or CrB2), Niobium or tantalum diboride (NbB2 or TaB2), Molybdenum boride (Mo2B or Mo2B5), Tungsten boride (W2B, WB or W2B5)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Refractory borides other than refractory metal borides, e.g. a silicon boride refractory

Cemented refractory borides

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide ceramics based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Refractory metal carbide ceramics

C04B 35/5607 and subgroups

Refractory metal nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58007 and subgroups

Refractory metal silicide ceramics

C04B 35/58092 and subgroups

Refractory mortars or monolithic refractories