CPC Definition - Subclass C04B

Last Updated Version: 2019.02
LIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE {(roofing granules E04D 7/005)}; CERAMICS (devitrified glass-ceramics C03C 10/00); REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
Definition statement

This place covers:

Chemical aspects of the processing of lime, magnesia or dolomite and of molten slag.

Compositional aspects of:

  • inorganic binders, such as hydraulic cements ;
  • mortars, concrete and artificial stone, e.g. the choice of fillers or active ingredients therefore;
  • shaped ceramic products, e.g. clay-wares, refractories , non-oxides.

Physico-chemical aspects of methods for obtaining mortars, concrete, artificial stones or ceramics , e.g. for delaying the setting time of mortar compositions.

Treatment including defibrillating of materials such as fillers , agglomerated or waste materials, or refuse to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone.

Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware, and the preparation thereof.

Methods and apparatus for:

  • burning or slaking lime;
  • obtaining mineral binders, e.g. Portland cement or hemihydrate plaster;
  • the expansion of mineral fillers , such as clay, perlite or vermiculite.

After- treatment of artificial stones, mortars, concrete and ceramics , e.g. coating or impregnation of green concrete after primary shaping.

Non-mechanical treatment of natural stone.

Processing powders of inorganic compounds in preparation to the manufacturing of ceramic products .

The joining of burned ceramics with other articles by heating.

media60.png

media61.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Granulating apparatus

B01J 2/00

Mechanical features relating to the working of mortars, concrete, stone, clay-wares or ceramics , e.g. mixing or shaping ceramic compositions, boring natural stone

B28

Chemical preparation of powders of inorganic compounds

C01

Devitrified glass-ceramics

C03C 10/00

Compositions containing free metal bonded to carbides, diamond, oxides, borides, nitrides, silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, such as oxynitrides or sulfides, other than as macroscopic reinforcing agents

C22C

Building elements or constructions; Finishing work on buildings

E04

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials for prostheses or for coating prostheses

A61L 27/00

Chemical or biological purification of waste gases

B01D 53/34

Layered products

B32B

Treating inorganic non-fibrous materials to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties

C09C

Adhesives

C09J

Cementing or plastering compositions for boreholes or wells

C09K 8/00

Alloys based on refractory metals

C22C

Shaft or vertical furnaces in general

F27B 1/00

Hydraulic hardening materials , e.g. concretes, ceramics or refractories for protection against radiation, i.e. shielding

G21F 1/00

Special rules of classification

In this subclass, for the parts C04B 2/00-C04B 32/00, C04B 38/00, C04B 40/00, C04B 41/00 the CIS indexing system is used. For details, see below

Combination set (C-sets)

1. Introduction

1.1 This manual relates to the rules to be applied when classifying documents using C-sets in the "cement part" of subclass C04B. With the "cement part" we mean the whole of the subclass, with the exception of the range C04B 33/00 - C04B 37/00.

However, symbols of the range C04B 33/00 - C04B 35/00 can be used as Indexing Codes (when the classification is in C04B 38/00 or C04B 41/00).

1.2 C-sets are used in three major areas:

- C04B 2/00 - C04B 32/00 and C04B 40/00: Compositions of cement/concrete mixtures or of artificial stone like materials

- C04B 38/00: porous materials

- C04B 41/00: after treatment.

1.3 Symbols that are used in the present C-set system are chosen from:

- C04B 2/00 - C04B 41/00 (with the exception of C04B 37/00):

these are symbols which can be used as classification as well as symbols in the combination sets (C-set),

these are symbols used as additional information (CCA) or within the C-set (see below).

1.4 The principles of Combination sets are based on the possibilities offered by the IPC (until IPC7) for using classification symbols also as (linked) Indexing Codes.

The C-sets are present in EPODOC:

/CCI : CPC classification symbol

/CCA: Additional information

/CLC: the combination sets (C-sets) of symbols linked to the classification (CCI) or to the additional information (CCA)

The first symbol of a C-set is referred to as the "base class". Symbols in the C-set are separated by a comma (,).

The base group can be an CCI or CCA group

2. C-sets in the range C04B 2/00 - C04B 32/00 and C04B 40/00

2.1 This part of C04B relates to cement-, mortar-, concrete- and artificial stone compositions or their constituents or ingredients.

As a general rule such compositions (further referred to as "mixtures") contain three types of ingredients:

- one or more binders (organic or inorganic)

- fillers (inactive ingredients)

- active ingredients, e.g. accelerators.

[Exception: main group C04B 30/00 relates to compositions not containing binders].

2.2 Overview of main groups:

- C04B 2/00 - C04B 12/00 : relate to inorganic binders as such

- C04B 14/00 - C04B 20/00 : relate to fillers

- C04B 22/00 - C04B 24/00 : relate to active ingredients

- C04B 26/00 - C04B 32/00 : relate to the mixtures

- C04B 40/00 : relates to characteristics / preparation of the mixtures

2.3 Classification rules:

2.3.1 When an invention relates to an individual ingredient, classification is made in the range C04B 2/00 - C04B 12/00 if this ingredient is a binder, in the range C04B 14/00 - C04B 20/00 if the ingredient is a filler and in the range C04B 22/00 - C04B 24/00 if it is an active ingredient.

2.3.2 When an invention relates to a mixture, classification is made in the range C04B 26/00 - C04B 32/00, according to the binder used while applying the last place rule (LPR). So if a combination of an organic and an inorganic binder is present, classification is made in C04B 28/00, not in C04B 26/00. If a combination of two inorganic binders is present, classification is done in C04B 28/00 according to the LPR for one of the binders, the others are added as symbols in the C-set and are chosen from C04B 7/00-C04B 12/00 groups. If one of the ingredients is (suspected to be) new or unusual, or special details describing this ingredient are given, classification is also made for this ingredient.

2.3.3 When the invention merely relates to the preparation or characteristics of the mixture, classification is made in C04B 40/00. If the mixture as such or one of its ingredients is considered to be new or unusual, classification is made for these aspects too. For obtaining porous materials see point 3. below.

2.3.4 When the invention relates to an active additive which is a mixture on its own, e.g. the combination of two specific polymers and a specific inorganic salt, classification is made in C04B 40/0039. If the use of one of the ingredients as such is new to the field, classification for this ingredient as such is made also.

2.4 C-set rules:

2.4.1 Primary goal of the combination set is to identify the individual constituents of the mixtures, using the classification symbols for these ingredients as part of a C-set, linked to the classification symbol which already identifies (one of) the binder(s).

Example 1:

A mixture containing a mixed binder of aluminium cement, Portland cement and a polymeric co-binder, next to diatomaceous earth and an inorganic sulfate will be classified - according to the LPR - in C04B 28/06, the other ingredients being identified by the appropriate symbols in the C-set:

An organic co-binder next to an inorganic binder is indexed as an active organic ingredient (main group C04B 24/00).

Because in this example, all ingredients as such are known in the field, no further classification is made.

2.4.2 When for one of the ingredients alternatives are mentioned, separate C-sets are made.

Example 2:

If in the example 1, an inorganic chloride was mentioned as an alternative to the sulfate, the indexing would look like:

(Putting C04B 22/12 and C04B 22/142 in the same set would mean they are both present in the same mixture).

2.4.3 When classification is made for individual (active) ingredients, their function or in some cases their characteristics can be identified using the C04B 2103/00 series.

Example 3:

A new organic sulfonated plasticizer:

When for a mixture, many alternatives for the same ingredient with a specific function are mentioned, instead of making a set for each alternative, only one C-set with the C04B symbol in the C-set for the function can be made. If one of the alternatives is preferred in the document a second set with the symbol for that alternative can be made too.

Example 4:

In a concrete mixture, a superplasticizer is added. This superplasticizer can be chosen from many alternatives, for each of which a C04B 24/00 entry exist. However a lignosulfonate is preferred.

2.4.4 In a similar way, characteristics or uses of the mixtures are identified with symbols of the C04B 2111/00 series. These symbols are always used as additional information.(CCA)

Example 5:

The composition of example 1 is used for sound insulation:

In addition to the above sets CCA: C04B 2111/52

2.4.5 When information is given about the preparation or characteristics of

the mixtures - this information not being the "main" information - additional symbols of main group C04B 40/00 can be added in the C-set.

Example 6:

The mixture of example 1 is hardened using microwaves:

The mixture of example 1 is of the deferred action type:

2.4.6 When the process of making is the main invention a CCI in C04B 40/00 can be given. As a general rule, when classifying in C04B 40/00, symbols in the C-set are used to identify the kind of mixture, not to identify the individual ingredients. If it is important to identify these ingredients, further classification is made as mixture and the ingredients are identified by symbols linked to the classification symbol of the mixture in the C-set.

Example 7:

If only common ingredients are used:

If also the composition of the mixture is of interest:

2.4.7 A special case within main group C04B 40/00 are the pre-mixtures of ingredients.

Here the same principle as for point 2.4.1 is applied, i.e. the classification symbols identifying the ingredients are linked to C04B 40/0039 (CCI) and a symbol from the range C04B 26/00 - C04B 32/00 is added to the C-set to indicate for which kind of mixture the pre-mixture is intended to be used.

Example 8:

2.4.8 In the range for inorganic binders as such (C04B 2/00 - C04B 12/00) symbols can also be used in a C-set to identify aspects for which a classification symbol exists, but which aspects as such are not important enough to be classified.

Example 9:

Example 10:

2.4.9 For agglomerated materials (= artificial aggregates or fillers), which are classified in C04B 18/021 and subgroups, the starting materials other than the binder can be identified with further symbols in the C-set.

Example 11:

Making artificial gravel from a mixture of cement and mining refuse:

2.4.10 Main group C04B 20/00 is a general group for fillers. When classification is made in this group, very often the specific filler involved is identified by adding the specific filler symbol in the C-set..

Example 12:

Expanding perlite in a rotary kiln:

Example 13:

Coating alumina with metal:

2.4.10a Groups C04B 20/123 and C04B 20/126 are used in the C-set only in combination with C04B 20/12 to indicate:

-in the case of C04B 20/123 that a coating is an alternative to the previous indicated coating

Example 14:

-in the case of C04B 20/126 that the coating layer is the same as a previous coating layer

Example 15:

3.Classifying in main group C04B 38/00.

3.1 This part of C04B relates to porous or lightweight cement-, mortar-, concrete-and artificial stone compositions and porous or lightweight ceramics.

More generally we could say that C04B 38/00 relates to inorganic foamed materials or bodies, with the exception of foamed metal.

Subdivision of C04B 38/00 is largely based on the methods used for obtaining the porosity or the reduction in weight, e.g. by adding lightweight filler (C04B 38/08), by adding a gas forming agent (C04B 38/02) or by burning out a burnable additive (C04B 38/06).

3.2 Classification and C-set rules:

3.2.1 Officially in main group C04B 38/00, there is no LPR. Nonetheless when porosity is obtained by a combination of methods, as a general rule, classification is made in the last appropriate place. The second method, not identified by classification (CCI), is identified by a C04B 38/00 symbol in the C-set. If of interest, documents can be even classified twice (see further point 3.2.3)

3.2.2 The central idea for classification/indexing in C04B 38/00 is:

- classification according to the method (see 3.2.1) and

- Indicating the nature of the material that is made porous or lightweight.

For identifying the nature of the material, symbols can be chosen from C04B 26/00 - C04B 35/00. In very exceptional cases also C04B 14/00 symbols can be used.

Example 16:

Obtaining a porous silicon carbide body by dissolving out a soluble salt.

Example 17:

Obtaining porous porcelain by burning out a monolithic PUR sponge impregnated with clay slip:

HOWEVER there is a fundamental difference in approach when classifying "cement type" mixtures and "ceramic type" materials or bodies: see points 3.2.6 and 3.2.7 below!

3.2.3 When a combination of methods is used, the method that is not identified by the classification is given a C04B 38/00 symbol in the C-set.

Example 18:

To the material of example 14 there is also added a gas forming agent:

3.2.4 In the same way other aspects of interest can be identified by giving further C04B 38/00 symbols.

Example 19:

The material of example 18 is characterised by the dimensions of the nanosized pores and the overall % of porosity:

3.2.5 When classifying in main group C04B 38/00, in the same way as for the indexing of mixtures as described in point 2 above, symbols of the series C04B 2111/00 can be used to indicate properties are uses, e.g. sound insulation.

Example 20:

The material of example 17 is used for electronic applications:

3.2.6 Porous or lightweight ceramics are always classified in C04B 38/00 according to rules 3.2.1 to 3.2.5

3.2.7 Porous or lightweight cement-, concrete-, artificial stone- and like mixtures:

3.2.7a These type of mixtures are classified as such mixtures, so in the range C04B 26/00 - C04B 32/00, according to the rules of point 2 above. The appropriate C04B 38/00 symbols are added in the C-set.

Example 21:

Reinforced portland cement based concrete containing also carbon fibres and made porous by adding Al particles (Al will react with Ca(OH)2 liberated during cement hardening and thus produce H2 gas):

Example 22:

Foaming gypsum by adding specific sulfonated foaming agent:

3.2.7b When one or more of the other symbols give sufficient "C04B 38/00 information", no further C04B 38/00 symbols are given.

Example 23:

Expanded clay containing concrete will NOT receive symbol C04B 38/08, because C04B 14/12 already gives sufficient information:

3.2.7c So as a general rule these kind of mixtures are not classified in main group C04B 38/00. Classification is made in this main group only when the invention relates to the process of obtaining the porosity or the reduction of weight. When the composition as such is still interesting in such a case, further classification is made for the mixture.

Example 24:

The characteristic feature of the invention of example 21 is the way in which the Al particles are handled in the context of obtaining the gas concrete:

3.2.8 While in general the LPR is applied in main group C04B 38/00, exception is made for obtaining porous or lightweight ceramic particles C04B 38/009. As a general rule, this group takes precedence over the other C04B 38/00 groups.

Example 25:

Obtaining porous alumina particles by burning out polymeric core:

4. Classifying in main group C04B 41/00

4.1 This part of C04B relates to the after-treatment of materials covered by C04B,

i.e. after-treatment of cement-, mortar-, concrete- and artificial stone products as well as ceramic materials AND natural stone. Hereinafter the treated materials are referred to as "substrates".

While other kinds of after-treatment are not excluded, C04B 41/00 relates to after-treatment of substrate, mainly to :

- coating or impregnation of the substrates: C04B 41/45 and subgroups

- removing material from the substrates: C04B 41/53 and subgroups.

In main group C04B 41/00, no distinction is made between coating or impregnation. Therefore the terms coating, impregnation and layer are considered equivalent.

4.2 Classification and C-set rules:

4.2.1 As a general rule subdivision of main group C04B 41/00 is based on aspects relating to the method of after-treatment, such as the selection of the method for applying the coating material on the substrate, e.g. by CVD (C04B 41/4531) or the selection of the coating or impregnation material with which the substrate is treated, e.g. coating with carbon (C04B 41/5001).

When using C-set, only the range C04B 41/00 - C04B 41/5392 is used . Documents classified in the range C04B 41/60 - C04B 41/91 always get also a class in C04B 41/00 - C04B 41/5392, which may be combined with one or more C-sets.

4.2.2 To identify the substrate that is after-treated, the class C04B 41/009 is given and C-sets are created using complementary symbols chosen from:

- C04B 14/02 - C04B 14/36 when natural stone is treated

- C04B 26/00 - C04B 32/005 when artificial stone, e.g. concrete is treated

- C04B 33/00 - C04B 35/83 when ceramics are treated

- C04B 38/00 - C04B 38/106 when porous materials are treated

- C04B 14/38 - C04B 14/48 when ceramic fibres are treated, i.e. only when classifying in C04B 41/4584.

When the substrate is further defined e.g. a wood fiber/particle board, which in itself is information that does not require classification in the substrate class itself e.g. C04B 28/02 , then the C04B 41/009 set will be:

If a class in C04B 28/00 is also required because the mixture per se is interesting and is part of the invention information, then the C04B 41/009 set will comprise only the C04B 28/02 symbol

Example 26:

Impregnating a natural marble stone with polyester:

Example 27:

Concrete based on aluminium cement is treated with waterglass (Na-silicate):

Example 28:

A silicon nitride body is glazed:

Example 29:

Coating alumina fibres with aluminium:

So for classification, C04B 41/4584 takes precedence over other C04B 41/00 groups when ceramic particles or fibres are treated!

Multiple coating of particulate or fibrous material is usually also classified in C04B 41/52 so that it is possible to attribute C-sets for each coating layer (see point 4.2.5 below).

4.2.3 In main group C04B 41/00, the LPR applies. As most subgroups relate to specific methods of applying coatings are subgroups of C04B 41/4505, while the groups identifying the nature of the coating material are further down in the scheme, this LPR in general results in a classification according to the material applied. One or more symbols identifying aspects of the method used are added in the C-set.

Example 30:

The process of example 26 is carried out under vacuum and increased temperature:

However, when the invention relates to the process proper, classification is made in the process group and a further symbol is used in the C-set for identifying the applied material on the substrate. If more ample information has to be given about the nature of the coating, classification is also made for this aspect in combination with a further C-set.

Example 31:

The process of example 26 is carried out under an atmosphere of very specific composition, this composition being the essential feature of the invention:

Example 32:

In the example 31, the polyester can be mixed with other polymers:

Exception on the LPR: for classification, C04B 41/4584 takes precedence over other groups of C04B 41/00 when treatment of ceramic fibres or particles is concerned (see example 29).

4.2.4 When alternatives are to be identified, the same procedure is applied as for concrete and like mixtures, i.e. two or more C-sets of symbols are made. There might be alternatives both for the process and the material applied to the substrate.

Example 33:

The treatment of example 27 can be carried out either under vacuum or under inert atmosphere:

4.2.5 Multiple coating or impregnation.

When the same substrate is coated with two or more layers, classification is made in C04B 41/52. If one of the layers as such might be new in the field, classification for this layer as such is made too.

For each layer a separate C-set is made, each starting with C04B 41/52, the first set relating to the first layer, the second set relating to the second layer etc.

Example 34:

A clay ware body is first coated with an engobe and then with a glaze:

Example 35:

The engobe used in example 34 looks new to the field:

Exception: when the different coatings result in layers of the same composition, classification is made according to the nature of that layer and C04B 41/52 is added to the C-set !

Example 36:

A boron carbide body is coated with two or more layers, which might slightly differ in composition, but which all result in a carbon coating:

As for single layer coatings, additional C04B 41/00 codes can be added to the C-set to identify other interesting aspects of the respective coatings.

4.2.6 When, in the case of multiple coating, alternatives are mentioned, the following procedure is followed.

If, e.g. for layer 2 an alternative is to be identified, the third C-set will represent this alternative layer, with at the end the symbol C04B 41/522. [This symbol is not to be used for classification.] So in this case, a possible third layer will be identified by the fourth C-set, because the third one refers to an alternative of the second layer (represented by the second set).

Example 37:

In the example 34, a porcelain layer can be used as an alternative to the engobe layer:

-When a coating layer is the same as a previous coating layer, a similar procedure as above is followed, adding the symbol C04B 41/524 at the end of the layer that is identical to a previously identified layer

Example 38

4.2.7 For the sake of classification/C-sets in C04B, treatment of "green" concrete or ceramics, i.e. concrete that has not hardened yet, resp. ceramic products that are not fired yet, is considered to be covered by C04B 41/00. Such documents will receive C04B 41/4578 as an extra symbol in the C-set. Only in exceptional cases, classification can be made in this group.

Example 39:

The substrate of example 25 is treated before hardening of the concrete:

4.2.8 Group C04B 41/53 relates to the removal of part of the materials of the treated article. A coating process including a step like polishing, roughening or etching is however not classified in C04B 41/53 or a subgroup (what could be expected applying the last place rule), but is classified applying the general rules for coatings above and adding C04B 41/53 or a subgroup to the C-set. If however the removal is the essential step of the invention, classification in C04B 41/53 is (also) made.

4.2.9 In the same way as when classifying/C-sets in the other parts of C04B, mentioned above, symbols of the series C04B 2111/00 can be used to identify uses or characteristics of the products obtained.

Example 40:

The material of example 36 is used for electronic applications:

/Indexing Code: C04B 2111/00844

media0.png

media1.png

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Active ingredients

Ingredients having an effect on the mortar-, concrete- or artificial stone composition during processing or on the characteristics of the final product, e.g. as set accelerator, as dispersant or as gas generating agent. Other examples are processing aids or property improvers, e.g. grinding aids, used after the cement burning process or in the absence of such a burning process.

Cement

The binder proper, i.e. excluding any additional ingredient or additive added to the finished binder as such, with the exception of mixtures of binders.

Clinker

The unground sintered product leaving the cement kiln. In patent literature this term might be used literally, i.e. to indicate the unground sintered product leaving the cement kiln, or it might be used to indicate the ground cement without any additive, i.e. not interground with additives such as gypsum.

Ceramics

Inorganic, non metallic products obtained by a process involving a shaping step and a sintering or comparable heat treatment step, with the exclusion of cements , cermets and glasses, glazes, vitreous enamels and devitrified glass ceramics.

Fillers

Inactive ingredients, include pigments, aggregates and fibrous reinforcing materials.

Fine ceramics

Ceramics having a polycrystalline fine-grained microstructure, e.g. of dimensions below 100 micrometer.

Hydraulic binder

For the purpose of classification and search in this subclass, the terms " cement " and " hydraulic binder " are considered to be equivalent, even if in literature, an hydraulic binder might be defined as a mixture of cement and one or more inorganic additives.

Mortar- , concrete- and artificial stone compositions

They are considered as a single group of materials, are mixtures of one or more binders with fillers or other ingredients. In the context of such compositions, the terms " cement " and "binder" are considered equivalent.

Resin mortar or resin concrete

Mortar or concrete containing resin as a binder instead of cement , i.e. excluding any inorganic binder and containing a considerable amount of inorganic filler compared with the amount of the organic binder.

Refractories

Ceramics or mortars withstanding high temperatures of at least about 1500 degrees C. For classification and search in this subclass no substantial distinction is made between the terms " refractories " and " ceramics ".

Porous materials

Materials which are deliberately made porous, e.g. by adding gas-forming, foaming, burnable or lightweight additives to the composition they are made of.

Lime, magnesia or dolomite (hydraulic lime cements C04B 7/34)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Lime binders as such; Preparation thereof;

C-set is used only incidentally in this class. If so, symbols are chosen from other C04B 2/00 groups and C04B. A C04B 2/00 symbol in a C-set set having a C04B 28/00 CPC class indicates the presence of a second binder.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydraulic lime cements

C04B 7/34

Mixtures containing lime as a binder

C04B 28/10

Lime {(obtaining Ca(OH)2 otherwise than by simple slaking of quick lime C01F 11/02)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Obtaining Ca(OH)2 otherwise than by simple slaking of quick lime

C01F 11/02

Slaking {(simultaneous dehydrating of gypsum and slaking of lime C04B 11/022)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Slaking, with water including air slaking, filtering after slaking

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Devices for filtering after slaking

C04B 2/08

Simultaneous dehydrating of gypsum and slaking of lime

C04B 11/022

Warming up food and the like, e. g. by slaking lime

A47J 36/28, F24V 30/00

Hydration of MgO

C01F 5/16

Chemical heat sources

C09K 5/063

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices and method

documents are classified in C04B 2/08 and receive a C-set C04B 2/08; C04B 2/04

{Slaking of impure quick lime, e.g. contained in fly ash}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydrating cement clinker

C04B 7/51

Quenching coke

C10B 39/00

Devices therefor
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices for slaking lime, e.g. devices for preparing milk of lime or for purifying slaked lime e.g. by filtering

in shaft or vertical furnaces (shaft or vertical furnaces in general F27B 1/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Shaft or vertical furnaces in general

F27B 1/00

Treatment of {metallurgical} slag (manufacture of slag wool C03B; in, or for, the production of metals C21B, C22B); Artificial stone from molten {metallurgical} slag (mechanical aspects B28B 1/54 {other cast stone C04B 32/005})
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanical aspects

B28B 1/54

Manufacture of slag wool

C03B

Other cast stone

C03B 32/005

Treatment of slag in, or for the production of metals

C21B, C22B

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Metallurgical slag

Slag from metallurgy processes

Hydraulic cements (calcium sulfate cements C04B 11/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cements as such and their manufacturing methods.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Porsal cement

C04B 7/32

Special rules of classification

CIS is used only incidentally in this class. If so, index codes are chosen from other C04B 7/00 groups and C04B. A C04B 7/00 index code in a CIS set having a C04B 28/00 EC class indicates the presence of a second binder.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Hydraulic cement

- like cements setting under the influence of water and - cements hardening in the air and under water

Portland cement
Definition statement

This place covers:

Portland cement (PC),

i.e. hydraulic cement produced by firing limestone or chalk and clay (or other silica, alumina, iron bearing materials) so that Ca-silicate sand aluminates are formed. Average composition: 45% C3S, 25%C2S, rest C3A, C4AF;

i.e. average oxide composition: SiO2 17-24, Al2O3 3-7, Fe2O3 1-5, CaO60-65, MgO 1-5, alkali 1, SO3 1-3;

i.e. average water : cement ratio is 0.4 - 0.6;

i.e. during hydration Ca(OH)2 is formed, given thus an alkaline reaction;

i.e. PC clinker mostly coground with gypsum to retard setting;

e.g. WHITE PC: low proportion of iron oxide by the choice of raw materials or by firing in reducing flame;

e.g. MEDUSA CEMENT = white PC ;

e.g. LOW HEAT CEMENT : high % of C2S and C4AF, low % of C3S and C3A;

e.g. MASONRY CEMENT for more plastic mortar, often produced by grinding more finely than ordinary PC , a mixture of PC and limestone (or colloidal clay, diatomaceous earth);

e.g. RAPID HARDENING PC = ground finer than PC, slightly altered, setting time similar but strength developed more rapidly;

e.g. SULPHATE RESISTANT PC = high % of C3S and C2S, low % of C3A and C4AF. Should not contain C3A to avoid formation of ettringite (="cement bacillus")

using raw materials containing gypsum {, i.e. processes of the Mueller-Kuehne type}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Portland cement using raw materials containing gypsum, e.g. using CaSO4 instead of chalk or limestone as raw material in the combined production of cement and H2SO4 (actually production of SO2)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ca-aluminosulfate cements

C04B 7/323

using alkaline raw materials (C04B 7/60 takes precedence)
Special rules of classification

C04B 7/60 takes precedence

Natural pozzuolanes; Natural pozzuolana cements; {Artificial pozzuolanes or artificial pozzuolana cements other than those obtained from waste or combustion residues, e.g. burned clay; Treating inorganic materials to improve their pozzuolanic characteristics} (cements containing slag C04B 7/14)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Slag cements

C04B 7/14

Cements based on fly ash

C04B 7/26

Cements based on combustion residues, e.g. from coal

C04B 7/28

Pozzuolans as fillers

C04B 14/14

Compositions based on (fly) ash, without addition of lime (producing) compound

C04B 28/021

Lime-pozzuolana based compositions

C04B 28/18

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Artificial pozzuolana cements

C04B 7/24 and subgroups

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Pozzuolana

a material that, ground and mixed with lime and water, produces at ordinary temperatures compounds with hydraulic properties;

Pozzuolana cement

obtained by grinding together a pozzuolana with cement clinker or (hydraulic) lime;

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • " Natural pozzuolanas "," Santorini earth "," Trass "," Volcanic ash "and " Diatomaceous earth "
Cements containing slag (slags from waste incineration C04B 7/28)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cements comprising slags as raw material, e.g. cements having low heat of hydration, cements with higher glass content (improved hydraulic characteristics)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mâchefer (= slag from coal combustion)

C04B 7/28

Slags from combustion of coal, or waste incineration

C04B 7/28

Silicates added as active ingredients before/during the burning process

C04B 7/427

Metallurgical slag
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement containing metallurgical slag,

Examples of metallurgical slag :

blast furnace slag .;

STEELMAKING SLAGS.

L.D. slags, (as such not suited as hydraulic cement because of high content of CaO and MgO (lime and magnesia are sprayed on the bath during the oxygen injection for decarburizing and refining the steel)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Treatment of slag

C04B 5/06

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Scorie

metallurgical byproduct based on silicates

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Laitier = scorie de haut fourneau = blast furnace slag

Laitier d'aciéries = steelmaking slags

LD slags = scorie d'aciéries

Mixtures thereof with other inorganic cementitious materials or other activators
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement containing metallurgical slag with other inorganic cementitious materials or other activators,

e.g. basic slags + PC clinker or anhydrite;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ingredients added to the slag in the molten state

C04B 5/06

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

METAAL CEMENTEN = basic slags + PC clinker or anhydrite;

{with alkali metal containing activators, e.g. sodium hydroxide or waterglass}
Special rules of classification

when the alkali activated slag results in a polymeric - Davidovits type - cement, additional classification in C04B 12/005 should be given

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

waterglass

Sodium silicate

with calcium oxide containing activators {(C04B 7/1535 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement containing metallurgical slag mixed with calcium oxide containing activators,

e.g. SLAG CEMENT = "cold process slag cement" = obtained by cogrinding granulated B.F. slag

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

BF slag = ciment de laitier

slakkencementen (BE) = ciment de laitier à la chaux (FR)

Portland cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement containing metallurgical slag mixed with Portland cements,

e.g. PORTLAND BLAST FURNACE CEMENT (GB) = cogrinding 65% B.F. slag +PC clinker (no gypsum);

e.g. PORTLAND BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT (US) = 25-65% granulated B.F.slag;

e.g. CIMENTS DE HAUT-FOURNEAU (BE) = 30-70% granulated B.F. slag;

e.g. CIMENTS PERMETALLIQUES (BE) = more than 70% B.F. slag;

e.g. CIMENTS PORTLAND DE FER (FR) = 25-35% B.F. slag;

e.g. CIMENTS METALLURGIQUES MIXTES (FR) = 45-55% B.F. slag;

e.g. CIMENTS DE HAUT-FOURNEAU (FR) = 65-75% B.F. slag;

e.g. CIMENTS DE LAITIER AU CLINKER (FR) = more than 80% B.F. slag;

e.g. EISENPORTLANDZEMENT (DE) = less than (35 or) 40% B.F. slag;

e.g. HOCHOFENZEMENT (DE) = 36 (or 41) -85% B.F. slag;

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Portland cements = ciments de haut-fourneau = ciment permétallique,= ciments Portland de fer = ciments métallurgiques mixtes = ciments de laitier au clinker = eisenportalndzement = hochofenzement

with calcium sulfate containing activators {(C04B 7/1535 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement containing metallurgical slagmixed with calcium sulfate containing activators,

e.g. SUPERSULPHATED CEMENT = granulated B.F. slag + CaSO4 + small % PC or lime

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cement containing metallurgical slag mixed with alkali metal containing activators

C04B 7/1535

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Supersulphated cement = ciment métallurgique sursulfaté = ciment sursulfaté = sulfathüttenzement

Cements from oil shales, residues or waste other than slag
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cement using as raw materials oil shales, residues or waste resulting from different processes, e.g. combustion waste, demolition waste, household, not being slag

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waste as additive to the raw material

C04B 7/42

Waste as fillers for concrete compositions

C04B 18/00

{Mixtures thereof with activators or composition-correcting additives, e.g. mixtures of fly ash and alkali activators}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cements produced from oil shales, residues or wastes mixed with activators or composition-correcting additives

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

when the alkali activated waste results in a polymeric - Davidovits type - cement, additional classification in C04B 12/005 should be given

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Activator

Material used to enhance the hydraulic activity of (waste) raw materials

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Composition correcting additives = activators

from raw materials containing flue dust {, i.e. fly ash (C04B 7/243 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydraulic cements from oil shales, residues or wastes other than slag mixed with activators or composition-correcting additives

C04B 7/243

from combustion residues, {e.g. ashes or slags from waste incineration} ({C04B 7/243} , C04B 7/26 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cements produced from combustion residues,

e.g. artificial pozzuollans other than slags or fly ashes.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydraulic cements from oil shales, residues or waste other than slag mixed with activators or composition-correcting additives

C04B 7/243

Hydraulic cements from raw materials containing flue dust

C04B 7/26

Concrete compositions containing artificial pozzuollans

C04B 28/18

from oil shale; from oil shale residues {; from lignite processing, e.g. using certain lignite fractions}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic cements produced from oils shale, from oil shale residues, from lignite processing,

e.g. simultaneous production of cement and combustion gas from coal

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Schistes houillers = bitumineus kalksteen

Aluminous cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic aluminous cements, obtained by melting (or sintering) a mixture of bauxite and chalk; cooling; grinding.

Composed of :3CaO.Al2O3 (tricalcium dialuminate), CaO.2Al2O3 (calciumtetraaluminate), CaO.Al2O3 (calcium metaaluminate).

Comp.: CaO 37.7 ,Al2O3 38.5 , Fe2O3 12.7 , FeO 3.9 , SiO2 5.3 , SO3 0.1 .

Hydration: -->mostly 3CaO.Al2O.6H2O + Al(OH)3 formed;

i.e. characteristics: less aggressive to the skin than PC,

* very rapid strength development (24h = 28 days for PC)

*setting time = similar to PC

* sulphate/seewater resistant

* colour =black ,

* to be used to -10 C

used for castable refractories;

e.g. high alumina cement;

e.g. 11CaO.7Al2O3.CaX2

{Calcium aluminosulfate cements, e.g. cements hydrating into ettringite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic calcium aluminosulfate cements

e.g. 4CaO.3Al2O3.SO3;

Hydraulic lime cements; Roman cements {; natural cements}
Definition statement

This place covers:

i.e. HYDRAULIC LIME : obtained from limestone containing clay, burnt at 1000 - 1200 C ..>; beta-C2S, C2AS, C4AF .

WATERKALK. The more hydraulic the closer to cement;

i.e. ROMAN CEMENT = ROCK CEMENT = obtained by calcining a natural mixture of clay and limestone;

i.e. NATURAL CEMENT = idem (below sintering);

e.g. SELENITIC CEMENT = lime + 5 - 10% plaster of lime;

e.g. HYDRAULIC HYDRATED LIME = hydrated dry cement. Product obtained by calcining limestone containing silica and alumina to a temper. short of incipient fusion --->; sufficient free CaO formed to permit hydration and leaving unhydrated suffic. calc. silicate;

e.g. HIGH CALCIUM HYDRAULIC HYDRATED LIME = hydraulic hydrated lime containing <= 5% MgO;

e.g. HIGH MAGNESIUM HYDRAULIC HYDRATED LIME = hydraulic hydrated lime containing >= 5% MgO;

{Condition or time responsive control in hydraulic cement manufacturing processes (controlling or regulating in general G05; F27B 7/42 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Controlling, monitoring hydraulic cement manufacturing processes,, e.g.. automation

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangement of controlling, monitoring rotary-drum furnaces

F27B 7/42

Controlling or regulating in general

G05

{Avoiding environmental pollution during cement-manufacturing}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacture of hydraulic cements preventing environmental pollution during the process e.g. desulfuration

Active ingredients added before, or during, the burning process (after the burning process C04B 22/00, C04B 24/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacture of hydraulic cements by treating raw materials with active ingredients added before or during the burning processes e.g. additives for obtaining white cement

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Blended cements with slags

C04B 7/14

Adding ingredients after the burning process

C04B 22/00, C04B 24/00

{Acids or salts thereof}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacture of hydraulic cements by treating raw materials with acids or salts added before or during the burning processes e.g. vanadates

Heat treatment, e.g. precalcining, burning, melting; Cooling {(aspects only relating to the installation F27B)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Automatisation aspects

C04B 7/361

Desulfuration

C04B 7/364

Aspects only relating to the installation

F27B

Furnaces, kilns, ovens and details thereof

F27B, F27D

{Preheating without addition of fuel}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacture of hydraulic cement by preheating without addition of fuel during the preheating step, for example by using exhaust gases, e.g. RSP = reinforced suspension preheater

{Preheating with addition of fuel, e.g. calcining}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Manufacture of hydraulic cement by preheating with addition of fuel , e.g. with addition of fuel in the calcining step, besides the addition of fuel in the kiln itself

{Treatment or selection of the fuel therefor, e.g. use of hazardous waste as secondary fuel (fuels in general C10L); Use of particular energy sources, e.g. waste hot gases from other processes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Treatment or selection of the fuel for the burning during the manufacture of hydraulic cement e.g. fuel for burning other raw material; waste hot gases

e.g. heavy fuel oil (S-content >1%)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Refuse consuming furnaces

F23G

{in shaft or vertical kilns}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

For lime

C04B 2/12

Shaft or vertical kilns in general

F27B 1/00

in fluidised beds {, e.g. spouted beds}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Calcination in fluidised beds

C04B 7/432, C04B 7/434

electric
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric burning or melting during the manufacture of hydraulic cement

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Non-electric melting

C04B 7/4484

Clinker treatment (C04B 7/47 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cooling during the manufacture of the hydraulic cement

C04B 7/47

Hydrating
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clinker hydration during manufacture of hydraulic cement, i.e. in principle for the hydration of the lime content of the clinker;

e.g. hydrating ground clinker

Grinding {; After-treatment of ground cement}
Definition statement

This place covers:

grinding and cooling : CIS indexed as (C04B 7/52; C04B 7/47)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydrating ground clinker

C04B 7/51

Still contains grinding aids

C04B 7/52

Grinding aids

are classified as active ingredients, e.g. in C04B 24/00, and receive C04B 2103/52 as an Indexing Code

Grinding aids in general

B02C 23/06

{After-treatment of ground cement (C04B 7/368 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Obtaining spherical cement particles in the manufacture of hydraulic cement

C04B 7/368

{obtaining cements characterised by fineness, e.g. by multi-modal particle size distribution}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cements characterised by fineness obtained by the clinker grinding e.g. "microcement": particles with diameter smaller than 15 micrometer

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Unground clinker

C04B 7/006

Methods for eliminating alkali metals or compounds thereof {, e.g. from the raw materials or during the burning process; methods for eliminating other harmful components (avoiding environmental pollution C04B 7/364)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Avoiding environmental pollution

C04B 7/364

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For aspects relating to cement kiln dust

C04B 7/436, C04B 18/162

Magnesium cements or similar cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cements are based on magnesium, e.g. Mg oxychloride, Mg oxysulfate; Preparation thereof;

Special rules of classification

CIS is used only incidentally in this class. If so, index codes are chosen from other C04B 9/00 groups and C04B. A C04B 9/00 index code in a CIS set having a C04B 28/00 EC class indicates the presence of a second binder.

Manufacture, e.g. preparing the batches (preheating, burning, calcining or cooling lime stone, magnesite or dolomite C04B 2/10)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Process of manufacturing magnesium cements or similar cements, e.g. burning, calcining

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Preheating, burning, calcining or cooling lime stone, magnesite or dolomite

C04B 2/10

Calcium sulfate cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Calcium sulfate cements,

e.g. Natural forms of CaSO4.2H2O: SELENITE, MARIAGLAS, TERRA ALBA,SATINITE, ALABASTER;

e.g. MORMOR CEMENT = Ca-sulphate;

e.g. MACK´S CEMENT = plaster of Paris + K2SO4 or Na2SO4;

e.g. LANDPLASTER = CaSO4.2H2O ;

e.g. aging of calcined gypsum

Special rules of classification

CIS is used only incidentally in this class. If so, index codes are chosen from other C04B 11/00 groups and C04B.

{Methods and apparatus for} dehydrating gypsum {(for other purposes than cement manufacture C01F 11/466)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and apparatus for dehydrating gypsum,

e.g. PLASTER = mostly alpha + beta.

e.g. regeneration of gypsum molds: (classification being //( C04B 11/02; C04B 11/262) or other way around)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Drying alpha-hemihydrate

C04B 11/032

Calcining in general

B01J 6/00

For other purposes than cement manufacture

C01F 11/466

for the wet process, e.g. dehydrating in solution or under saturated vapour conditions, {i.e. to obtain alpha-hemihydrate (C04B 11/0281 - C04B 11/0288 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

e.g. drying of alpha-gypsum;

e.g. quick setting alpha-plaster + K2CO3;

Relationships with other classification places

used for making moulds for the ceramic industry.

Moulds are classified in B29C in combination with B29K index scheme

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Attention

C04B 11/02

Take precedence

C04B 11/0281 - C04B 11/0288

Special rules of classification

The presence of C04B 11/032 in a c-set indicates that alpha-hemihydrate form is used

for the dry process, e.g. dehydrating in a fluidised bed or in a rotary kiln {, i.e. to obtain beta-hemihydrate (C04B 11/0281 - C04B 11/0288 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices for the dry process of dehydrating gypsum

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

C04B 11/0281 - C04B 11/0288 take precedence

Special rules of classification

The presence of C04B 11/036 in a c-set indicates that beta-hemihydrate form is used

Cements not provided for in groups C04B 7/00 - C04B 11/00
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkali metal silicates per se and their preparation

C01B 33/32

Ammonium silicates per se and their preparation

C01C 1/00

Phosphate cements (in, or for, the manufacture of ceramics C04B 33/00, C04B 35/00)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

In or for the manufacturing of ceramics

C04B 33/00, C04B 35/00

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone (expanding or defibrillating materials C04B 20/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Inorganic materials used ad fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, and their treatment to enhance their filling properties e.g. inorganic pigments other than oxides;

C04B 14/00 and subgroups are used as substrate codes for coatings of natural stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Oxide pigments

C04B 14/30 and subgroups

Expanding or defibrillating materials

C04B 20/00

{Carbon}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carbon used as fillers for mortar, concrete or artificial stone, elemental carbon, e.g. COKE, KOKS (=90%C), LIGNITE, COCKES, "TEERKOKS";

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"MINERAL NOIR" = shale (70% SiO2, 30%C) = coal black = " NOIRMINER" = "NOIR D´ IVOIRE"

Silica-rich materials; Silicates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Silica-rich materials, silicates used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. "LOESS";

e.g. GREYWACKE, GRAYWACKE = conglomerate rock (round pebbles + sand, cemented together.)

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

{Magnesium silicates, e.g. talc, sepiolite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Magnesium silicates used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SEPIOLITE; ASBESTINE

{Alkali-metal containing silicates, e.g. petalite (waterglass C04B 12/04)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alkali-metal containing silicates, Al-alkali metal silicates used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. PETALITE Li2O.Al2O3.8SiO2;

e.g. SPODUMENE LiO2.Al2O3.4SiO2;

e.g. EUCRYPTITE LiO2.Al2O3.2SiO2;

e.g. NEPHELINE SYENITE;

e.g. MAGADIITE

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waterglass

C04B 12/04

Quartz; Sand
Definition statement

This place covers:

Quartz, sand used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SILICA (SiO2) is polymorphic i.e. capable of existing in two or more crystal forms. Main forms of crystalline silica : QUARTZ,TRIDYMITE, CRISTOBALITE.

e.g. vitreous silica, amorphous silica;

e.g. precipitated silica; pyrogenic silica;

e.g. SILT = fine sand;

e.g. CHERT; FLINT; MOLDING SAND;

{Microsilica, e.g. colloïdal silica (preparing microsilica slurries or suspensions C04B 18/148)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

microsilica used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. colloidal silica 0.001-0.2 microns

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

C04B 18/146, C04B 12/04 take precedence

Preparing microsilica slurries or suspensions

C04B 18/148

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Microsilica

Silica having micro- or nanosize particles

{Silica aerogel}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Silica aerogel used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. silica aerogel being obtained by forming a SiO2 gel impregnated with a solvent, and evaporating the solvent under hypercritical conditions

{Specific natural sands, e.g. sea -, beach -, dune - or desert sand}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Specific natural sands used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. BARKHAN SAND, BARHAN SAND

Diatomaceous earth
Definition statement

This place covers:

Diatomaceous earth used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. hydrated amorphous silica, skeletons of Diatomacea which are related to brown algae

e.g. INFUSORIAL EARTH;

e.g. TRIPOLITE;

e.g. FOSSIL FLOUR,, MOUNTAIN FLOUR;

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

FOSSIL FLOUR= FARINE FOSSILE= MOUNTAIN FLOUR

KIESELGUHR, KIESELMEHL

"DIATOMEEN PELITE";

"MOLERERDE"

BERGHMEHL

Clay {(sepiolite C04B 14/042; grog C04B 18/025)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clay used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. Al silicates;

e.g. BALL CLAY;;FULLERS EARTH;;

e.g. MARL;

e.g. PORCELANITE

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sepiolite

C04B 14/042, some older document are in C04B 14/10

Chamotte, fireclay, fired clay, grog

C04B 18/025 (older documents have a C-set C04B 14/10; C04B 18/023)

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

BALL CLAY= GLAISE = FULLERS EARTH= LEEM;

MERGEL" = "MARNE" = MARL

OCRE

{Bentonite, e.g. montmorillonite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Bentonite, e.g. montmorillonite used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. HECTORITE, synthetic hectorite;

e.g. BLEACHING EARTH, "BLEICHERDE" = Al-Mg-Silikate

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waste bleaching earth

C04B 18/0454

{Kaolin}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Kaolin used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

Kaolin is not sintered

e.g. METAKAOLIN, KAOLINITE;

e.g. SMECTITE [9212];

{Shale, slate (colliery shale C04B 18/125)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Shale, slate used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Shale residues, colliery shale

C04B 18/125

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

SHALE = SLATE = "SCHISTE" = "SCHIEFER" = "LEISTEEN" (harde klei) =ARDOISE

Expanded clay
Definition statement

This place covers:

Expanded clay used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. porous clay; expanded shale;

Minerals of vulcanic origin {(granite C04B 14/048)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mineral of volcanic origin used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. natural pozzuolanes (pozzolana, puzzolan) other than diatomaceous earth;

e.g. IGNEOUS ROCK

e.g. ANDESITE, RHYOLITE, PORFIER;

e.g. OBSIDIAN = vulcanic glass with little or no crystal water;

e.g. TRASS = TUFF = unconsolidated vulcanic ashes;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

TUF

porous rock formed from cemented volcanic ashes or from calcareous deposits in lakes or springs

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

IGNEOUS ROCK = "ERGUSSGESTEIN " = "ROCHE EFFUCIVE

UITVLOEIINGS GESTEENTE" = "GESTOLDE LAVA"

"PECHSTEIN" = acidic vulcanic glass;

porous, e.g. pumice
Definition statement

This place covers:

Porous minerals of volcanic origin used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. PUMICE = porous volcanic rock;

e.g. LIPARITE =(Ca pegmatite) e.g. SHIRAZU, SHIRASU = volcanic ash;

e.g. PUMIZITE = volcanic glass

e.g. SCORIA, CINDER

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PUMICE = "PIERRE PONCE " = "PUIMSTEEN" = "BIMS"(12mm)

FLUGSAND = like bims but finer (7-10mm);

Perlite
Definition statement

This place covers:

Perlite being mineral of volcanic origin used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone e.g. volcanic glass

{expanded}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Expanded perlite (mineral of volcanic origin) used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. expanded by evaporation of crystal water

Mica; Vermiculite {(mechanical splitting B28D)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mica, vermulite used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. "GLIMMER", KAl3Si3O10(OH)2;

e.g. BIOTITE = dark or magnesia mica (rich in Mg and Fe);

e.g. MUSCOVITE = (Na,K)2O.3Al2O3.6SiO2.2H2O;

e.g. TRACHYLIPARITE;

e.g. sericite

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Punching of mica

B26F 1/00

Mechanical splitting

B28D

Mica treatment

C09C 1/405

Pulp or paper comprising mica or vermiculite

D21H 13/44

{Vermiculite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vermiculite used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. = hydrated biotite mica (OH)2(Mg Fe)3(SiAlFe)4O10.4H2O;

{expanded}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Delamination of mica

C04B 14/20

Chemical delamination

C04B 14/208

{Mica or vermiculite modified by cation-exchange; chemically exfoliated vermiculate}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ion exchanged silicates

C01B 33/44

{delaminated mica or vermiculite platelets}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanical delamination

C04B 14/20

Glass {; Devitrified glass}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any type of glass used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. recuperated, waste glass;

e.g. frits, email

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Vitreous SiO2

C04B 14/06

porous, e.g. foamed glass
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lightweight materials

C04B 18/027

Carbonates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carbonates used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. MAGNESITE, DOLOMITE, "DOLOMIE"

of calcium
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carbonates of calcium used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. TRIPOLI;

e.g. SHELLS, CORAL, MOTHER OF PEARLS,

e.g. CHALK,

e.g. ICELAND SPAR = pure crystalline calcite (CaCO3)

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"ARDUIN" = blue stone

Chalk = "NEUBERGER KREIDE", "KIESELKREIDE

Oxides other than silica {(ferrites C04B 14/363)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxides other than silica used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. simple oxides;

e.g. oxides used as pigments;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ferrites

C04B 14/363

Oxides as active ingredients

C04B 22/06

Special rules of classification

used as CIS codes for refractory filler in concrete

{Alumina}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alumina used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. Al(OH)3;

e.g. BAUXITE;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Gelatinous Al(OH)3

C04B 22/06

{Zirconium oxide (zircon C04B 14/046)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

{Iron oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Iron oxide used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. CAPUT MORTUUM = ENGLISH RED = Fe2O3

Inorganic materials not provided for in groups {C04B 14/022 and} C04B 14/04 - C04B 14/34
Definition statement

This place covers:

Inorganic materials not classified in groups C04B 14/022, C04B 14/04 - C04B 14/34 used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. mineral salt (NaCl);

e.g. LITHOPONE = BaSO4 + ZnS (=pigment);

e.g. SPINEL = MgAl2O4

{Soil, e.g. laterite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Soil used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. mud, sapronel, laterite

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Harbour/river sludge

C04B 18/0436

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

mud, sapronel, = "Faulschlamm

Fibrous materials; Whiskers
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fibres in general

D01

{Carbon (carbon nanotubes C04B 14/026)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Carbon nanotubes

C04B 14/026

Fabrication of carbon fibres

D01F 9/12

Asbestos
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

- treating asbestos fibres see D06M 7/005, D02G 3/20;

- coating of asbestos in general see C03C 25/00;

- coating of asbestos CIS example C04B 20/10, C04B 14/40;

- disposal of asbestos see B09B 3/0066;

- asbestos from old buildings CIS example ( C04B 14/40, C04B 18/16)

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

CHRYSOTILE (serpentine family)

3MgO.2SiO2.2H2O

CROCIDOLITE (amphibole family)

BLUE ASBESTOS3Na2O.6FeO.2Fe2O3.16SiO2.H2O

AMOSITE (amphibole family)

2Ca.5MgO.8SiO2.H2O

TREMOLITE

amphibole family

ANTHOPHYLLITE

(Mg,Fe)7Si8O22(OH)2

ASBESTINE

fibrous variety of talc +tremolite

Glass
Definition statement

This place covers:

Glass fibers, glass whiskers used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Composition of (alkali-resistant) glass fibres

C03C 13/00

Coating glass fibres used for cement reinforcement

C03C 25/10

Glass fibres for resin matrix

C08J 5/08

Treatment for enhancing alkali resistance {(composition of alkali resistant glass fibres C03C 13/00; coating of glass fibres C03C 25/10)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Composition of alkali resistant glass fibres

C03C 13/00

Coating of glass fibres

C03C 25/10

Rock wool {; Ceramic or silicate fibres (C04B 14/40, C04B 14/42 take precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Take precedence

C04B 14/40, C04B 14/42

Ceramic fibres as such

C03C 13/00, C04B 35/62227

{Oxides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxides , hydroxides of rock wool used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

{Titanates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Titanates, TiO2 of rock wool used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

Cellulosic materials (cellulosic waste materials, e.g. sawdust, rice husks, C04B 18/24)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cellulosic fibres

C04B 18/24

Cellulosic waste materials, e.g. sawdust, rice husks

C04B 18/24

Macromolecular compounds (C04B 16/02 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Macromolecular organic compounds used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone e.g. glass-clear thermoplastic MBS resin (methacrylate-butadiene-styrene) for packaging , medical applications

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cellulosic materials as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 16/02

fibrous
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fibrous organic macromolecular compounds used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. regenerated cellulose fibers;

e.g. textile waste,

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

textile waste="Textilschnitzel"

{Fibrilles, e.g. fibrillated films}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fibrilles used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. polyalkanes;

e.g. stretched films,

e.g. "pulp" aramid fibers = very short , highly fibrillated with very fine fibrils or subfibers attached to core fibre

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fibrillated films in general

D01D 5/42

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

stretched films= films "etirés"

{Polyamides; Polyaramides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fibrilles of polyamaide, of polyaramides used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone e.g. aromatic polyetheramide fibers;

e.g. ARAMID fibers = poly (p-phenylene terephtalamide)

e.g. NYLON = aliphatic polyamide

porous, e.g. expanded polystyrene beads {or microballoons}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Porous organic macromolecular compounds used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. PS, EPS;

e.g. expanded PS

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Working up macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials

C08J 9/00

Treatment for enhancing the mixability with the mortar {(coating C04B 20/10)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Takes precedence

C04B 20/10

characterised by the shape (fibrous macromolecular compounds C04B 16/06; porous macromolecular compounds C04B 16/08 ){, e.g. perforated strips}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organic materials used as fillers for mortar, concrete or artificial stone characterised by their shape

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fibrous macromolecular compounds

C04B 16/06

Porous macromolecular compounds

C04B 16/08

Only characterised by the form

E04C

Use of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone (use of waste materials for the manufacture of cement C04B 7/24); Treatment of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse, specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Use of waste materials for the manufacture of cement

C04B 7/24

Granulating materials in general

B01J 2/00

Making microcapsules or microballoons

B01J 13/00

Agglomerated materials {, e.g. artificial aggregates}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Conditioning silica fume

C04B 18/147

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Temporary compacting of cement

C04B 7/36

Temporary compacting of gypsum

C04B 11/268

Making unhardened granules, mixing these granules, molding and hardening

C04B 40/0028 ( C04B 18/02 has been used as CIS code in this meaning)

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Artificial aggregates/synthetic aggregates

aggregates which are not "natural" in the way that crushed rocks or sands and gravels are. It implies human-made materials, whether by-products of some other industry or deliberately manufactured

{agglomerated by a mineral binder, e.g. cement}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Takes precedence

C04B 18/027

Waste from building industry

C04B 18/16

Special rules of classification

For agglomerated materials (=artificial aggregates or fillers) which are classified in C04B 18/021 or other equivalent subgroups of C04B 18/00, the starting materials other than the binder can be identified in the C-set with Indexing Codes. Codes are chosen form C04B 14/00, C04B 16/00, C04B 18/00 and less often from C04B 22/00 or C04B 24/00.

{agglomerated by an organic binder}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Still to be cleaned

C04B 18/022

Takes precedence;

C04B 18/027

Special rules of classification

See rules under C04B 18/021

{Fired or melted materials (C04B 20/06 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Agglomerated materials wherein a melting or firing step takes place during the agglomeration.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Porous fired material

C04B 18/027 ( + C-set code C04B 18/023)

Expanding clay, perlite, vermiculite or like granular materials used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 20/06

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Expanded clay

C04B 14/12

Pelletizing fly ash

C04B 18/085

Porous or hollow ceramic granular material

C04B 38/009

Special rules of classification

See rules under C04B 18/021

{Grog}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Grog used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. crushed refactory materials added to ceramic mixes to reduce lamination in clays and shrinkage on drying,

e.g. crushed pottery, firekrick, quartz quartzite, burned ware, saggers;

e.g. CHAMOTTE, FIRED CLAY, FIRECLAY as filler for concrete

Special rules of classification

Before [9105] documents were classified in C04B 14/10 and received C04B 20/04 index code in the C-set

{Melted materials (C04B 14/22 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Agglomerated materials wherein a melting step takes place during the agglomeration

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Glass, devitrified glass used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 14/22

{Lightweight materials (C04B 14/12 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Low density or porous agglomerated material used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

C04B 14/12 takes precedence

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Expanded clay

C04B 14/12

Porous glass

C04B 14/24

Expanding clay, vermiculite, perlite

C04B 20/06

Porous or hollow ceramic granular material

C04B 38/009

Special rules of classification

for crushed porous concrete aggregate ("Gasbetonbruch Zuschlag") , one set of codes with C04B 18/027 or C04B 38/00 and an alternative with C04B 18/16

Waste materials; Refuse {(C04B 14/405 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials, refuse, e.g. from industrial or other processes that are not covered by the subgroups

e.g. Si-Stoff;

e.g. mixtures of wastes

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waste added during the cement production i.e. in the kiln raw materials

C04B 7/24 or C04B 7/14

Waste glass

C04B 14/22

Waste asbestos

C04B 14/405

Making harmful chemical agents harmless

A62D 3/00 and subgroups

Disposal of asbestos

B09B 3/0066

Solidification of liquid or solid radioactive waste

G21F 9/16, G21F 9/34

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Solidification of sludges

C02F 11/008

{Waste from the purification of bauxite, e.g. red mud}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste from the purification of bauxite used as filler for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

treatment of waste from aluminium production

C01F 7/066

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Red mud, red sludge

solid waste product of the Bayer process, composed of a mixture of solid and metallic oxide-bearing impurities (high content of oxidised iron)

{Dry materials}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Dry waste materials used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

Wet waste materials that is dried before use as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

{Dredged harbour or river sludge (other slurries or sludges C04B 18/0418)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Other slurries or sludges

C04B 18/0418

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Soil

C04B 14/361

Waste materials in general

C04B 18/04

{Synthetic gypsum, e.g. phosphogypsum (gypsum from smoke purification C04B 18/064)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Synthetic gypsum form waste material used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Gypsum from smoke purification

C04B 18/064

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Synthetic gypsum, flue-gas desulfurisation gypsum

byproduct of coal-fired power plants (coal burned with flue gas desulfurisation)

{Bleaching earth}
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Bleaching earth

(waste) bleaching earth is used as absorbent material for cleaning/bleaching of mineral, natural oils, fats and waxes. After the use it becomes "fat" bleaching earth. The fats/oils are removed as much as possible by boiling with soda and salt giving a low fat ("mager") bleaching earth

{Other specific industrial waste materials not provided for elsewhere in C04B 18/00}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Other specific industrial waste materials not provided in the other subgroups of C04B 18/00 used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. PYRITE CINDER Fe2O3;

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

kiesabbraende

Combustion residues, e.g. purification products of smoke, fumes or exhaust gases
Definition statement

This place covers:

Combustion residues used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. bottom ash;

e.g. coal ash, cinders

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Collecting residues from parts of furnace plants

F23J 3/06

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"SCHMELZKAMMERASCHE", "KESSELASCHE

{Ashes from fluidised bed furnaces}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ashes from fluidised bed furnaces used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. AFBC ashes = atmospheric fluidised bed combustion ashes

Special rules of classification

fly ashes from fluidised bed furnaces take two alternative sets of codes one with C04B 18/061 and one with C04B 18/08

{Residues from coal gasification}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Residues from coal gasification used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. residues from the partial oxidation of coal

Flue dust {, i.e. fly ash}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Flue dust, fly ash used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

flu

e.g. PFA = Pulverised Fuel Ash;

e.g. EFA = ElectroFilter Ash ("elektrofilter Abzug");

e.g. HVFA = High Volume Fly Ash ";

e.g. Class F fly ash: pozzolanic,usually from bituminous coal, low Ca, glass part is reactive with cement;

e.g. Class C fly ash: pozzolanic and cementitious, normally from lignite or sub. bituminous coal;

e.g. Class N fly ash;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Slaking of lime in the presence of fly ash

C04B 2/06

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Flue dust

by-product of the burning of pulverised coal

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

" ElectroFilter Ash = elektrofilter AbzugHigh Volume Fly Ash= cendres volantes

"Steinkohlefilterasche

{from brown coal or lignite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Flue dust from brown coal or lignite used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Lignite fly ash = Braunkohlefilterasche"

{Cenospheres}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cenospheres used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. = floating fraction of PFA = hollow spheres (20-200micron) of aluminosilicate glass;

e.g. ARMOSPHERES, FILLITE, EXTENDOSPHERES

{Pelletizing}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Pelletizing fuel dust used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

Melting fuel dust to form aggregate;

e.g. sintered PFA

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For LYTAG

C04B 14/12

Agglomerated fired materials

C04B 18/023

Expanding clay, vermiculite, perlite and the like

C04B 20/06

Burned {or pyrolised} refuse
Definition statement

This place covers:

Burned or pyrolised refuse used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. MSW = municipal solid waste;

e.g. slags from waste incineration;

e.g. burned paper processing waste

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Burned refuse in cement manufacturing

C04B 7/28

Incineration of waste

F23G 5/00

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Clinker = machefer

{Burned rice husks or other burned vegetable material}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Burned rice husks or other burned vegetable material used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. expanded rice hull ash, reburned rice hull ash

{Burned or pyrolised sludges}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Burned or pyrolised sludges used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SSA = SEWAGE SLUDGE ASH / SLAG

{Gaseous combustion products or dusts collected from waste incineration, e.g. sludge resulting from the purification of gaseous combustion products of waste incineration}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Gaseous combustion products or dusts collected from waste incineration used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. AQCS =Air quality combustion system = fly ash + desulfurisation products

from quarries, mining or the like
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials form quarries, mining or the like used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Tailings = BERGE", "BERGEMATERIAL", "GRUBENBERGE", "WASCHBERGE

from metallurgical processes (treatment of slag C04B 5/00; for manufacture of cement C04B 7/14)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials from metallurgical processes used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. nephelin slurry" (=from Al-production)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Treatment of slag

C04B 5/00

For manufacture of cement

C04B 7/14

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Nephelin slurry = NEPHELIN SCHLAMM

{Slags}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Slags from metallurgical processes used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. blast furnace slag;

e.g. cupola slag, "

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

cupola slag = KUPOLOFENSCHLACKE

{Silica fume}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Filter dust from silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloy production;

(non-thixotropic)

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Thixotropic silica fume e.g. CAR-BO-SIL

C04B 14/062

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "MICROSILICA", "ferrosilicon dust", "silica flue dust" and "amorphous silica"
{other than silica fume or slag}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials from metallurgical processes other than silica fume or slag used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. EAFD, electric arc furnace dust

from building or ceramic industry {(separating plants for waste concrete slurry B03B 9/063)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials from building or ceramic industry used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. reclaiming cement slurry;

e.g. broken ceramic tiles

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Separating of concrete slurry as refuse

B03B 9/063

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials agglomerated by a mineral binder

C04B 18/021

Lightweight materials

C04B 18/027

Special rules of classification

foamed concrete as aggregate : two sets of codes , one with C04B 18/16 and one with C04B 18/027

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"CASSONS" = broken ceramic tiles

{Cement kiln dust; Lime kiln dust}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cement kiln dust, lime kiln dust used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Any other dust resulting from cement production

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Recuperation of cement kiln dust during cement fabrication

C04B 7/436

organic (C04B 18/10 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organic waste materials used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. HAIR, FEATHERS, LEATHER;

e.g. MANURE, MEST;

e.g. wool fibers

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

. MANURE= LISIER= GUELLE,= MEST

from macromolecular compounds {(recycled expanded polystyrene C04B 16/08)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Recycled expanded polystyrene

C04B 16/08

Recovery from working up of polymers

C08J 11/04

Vegetable refuse, e.g. rice husks, maize-ear refuse; Cellulosic materials, e.g. paper {, cork}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vegetable refuse, cellulosic materials used as fillers for mortar, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. CORK, SISAL, PEAT, KAPOK;

e.g. VEGETABLE IVORY = CORAJO = TAGUA;

e.g. COMPOST;

e.g. expanded cellulosic material i.e. puffed rice, popcorn is classified in this group and received the C-set containing C04B 20/06

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Processing, machining of boards fabricated from pressed wood fibers

B29J5/00

Regenerated cellulose fibers

C04B 16/06 ( C04B 18/24 still to be cleaned)

"Spaanplaten"

C08L 97/02

{Paper, e.g. waste paper; Paper pulp}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Paper products used as fillers for mortar, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. pulp from bark;

e.g. waste paper

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Still contains older documents

C04B 18/24

Wood pulp

C04B 18/26

{Waste from paper processing or recycling paper, e.g. de-inking sludge (burned paper processing waste C04B 18/10)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waste paper itself

C04B 18/241

{Cork; Bark}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cork, bark used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

wood and bark are not synonymous, wood used as filler being classified in C04B 18/26

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanical working of cork

B27J 5/00

{from specific plants, e.g. hemp fibres}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Peat, algae

C04B 18/24

Wood, e.g. sawdust, wood shavings
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wood used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. BAMBOO;

e.g. ARBOLITE = wood chips/waste cement boards;

e.g. FIBROLITE = wood wool cement boards

Mineralising; Compositions therefor
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mineralising vegetable refuse, compositions therefor used as filler for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

With organic materials

C04B 20/1018, older documents still present in C04B 18/28.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Mineralising

Treatment with a mineral substance

Mixed waste; Waste of undefined composition, (C04B 18/10 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Takes precedence

C04B 18/10

{Materials specified by a shape not covered by C04B 20/0016 - C04B 20/0056, e.g. nanotubes}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Reinforcing elements for concrete

E04C 5/01

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Nanotechnology for materials or surface science; Manufacture or treatment of nanostructures

B82Y 30/00, B82Y 40/00

{Hollow or porous granular materials}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lightweight agglomerated material,

C04B 18/027

Hollow or porous ceramic granular material

C04B 38/009

Special rules of classification

hollow or porous particles of specific composition are classified according to the composition and receive C04B 20/002 as CIS code;

{Fibrous materials}
Definition statement

This place covers:

e.g. mixtures of different fibres; when the specific fibre type is not so important

e.g. FIBRE = relatively short;

e.g. FILAMENT = (quasi-)endless;

e.g. YARN = united assembly of fibres (e.g. by spinning);

e.g. THREAD = assembly of yarns or filaments

{Mixtures of fibres of different physical characteristics, e.g. different lengths}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mixtures of fibres of different physical characteristics used as materials for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. by twisting

{characterised by the grain distribution}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Materials used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone according to more than one of groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 and characterised by the grain distribution

e.g. fine aggregate < 5mm, coarse aggregate > 5mm,

mortar: no coarse aggregate,

concrete: >50% coarse aggregate;

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Granulometry 0/3

material less than or equal to 3mm

Treatment
Definition statement

This place covers:

Treatment of materials used as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 specially adapted to enhance their filling properties

e.g. removing dust from particles;

e.g. getting round particles (e.g. scrap glass)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

cation exchange of vermiculite

C04B 14/206

Temporary compaction/granulation

C04B 18/028

Heat treatment
Definition statement

This place covers:

Heat treatment of materials according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. drying

{by grate sintering}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Expanding clay, perlite, vermiculite or like granular materials by grate sintering to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. Blast roasting=Dwight-Lloyd process

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grate sintering of ores or scrap F27B 21/06

C22B 1/20

Endless-strand sintering apparatus

F27B 21/06

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Saugzugsinteranlage = Dwight-Lloyd

{in fluidised beds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Expanding clay, perlite, vermiculite or like granular materials in fluidised beds to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Wirbelschicht = fluidised beds

{Selection of ingredients added before or during the thermal treatment, e.g. expansion promoting agents or particle-coating materials}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

- expanded clay- see also C04B 18/027

C04B 14/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Expanded aggregates

C04B 18/027

Defibrillating asbestos {(defibrillating other fibres C04B 20/026)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Defibrillating asbestos to enhance its filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. dispersing, flocculating asbestos;

e.g. separating asbestos from bearing material, ores

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

"opening" fibres in general

D01G 9/00

Carding machines

D01G 15/02

Defibrillating other fibres

C04B 20/026

Coating or impregnating {(roofing granules E04D 7/005)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mineralising wood

C04B 18/28

Coating glass fibres, asbestos or other mineral fibres

C03C 25/00

Roofing granules

E04D 7/005

Special rules of classification

if a mixture is used for the coating: last place rule applies , add C04B 20/10+ codes for other ingredients in the C-set

{with organic materials (pigments or dyes C04B 20/1096)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Coating with pigments or dyes

C04B 20/1096

{Macromolecular compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coating or impregnating with macromolecular compounds materials according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. polymer + pigment

{Organo-metallic compounds; Organo-silicon compounds, e.g. bentone}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coating or impregnating with organo-metallic compounds, organo-silicon compounds, materials according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. with BENTONE

{Silicates, e.g. glass}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coating or impregnating with silicates, materials according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. SAND, SILICA FUME, GLASS

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waterglass

C04B 20/1077

{with pigments or dyes (C04B 20/1059 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Coating with pigments or precursors thereof , materials according to more than one of the groups C04B 14/00 - C04B 18/00 to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 20/1059

Multiple coating or impregnating
Special rules of classification

Groups C04B 20/123 and C04B 20/126 are used for indexing purposes only in C04B 20/12 to indicate:

-in the case of C04B 20/123 that a coating is an alternative to the previous indexed coating; example:

-in the case of C04B 20/126 that the coating layer is the same as a previous coating layer; example:

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators {, shrinkage compensating agents}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. HYDRAZINE, NH2NH2;

e.g. SILICATES;

e.g. HYDROALUMITE 3CaO.Al2O3.CaX2.nH2O, X = (NO3, NO2, OH, CH3COO, CO3,SO4)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alkali metal silicates

C04B 12/04

zeolites

C04B 14/047 (older documents still in C04B 22/00)

Special rules of classification

Inorganic active ingredients as components of a cementitious mixture are indexed in the CIS database using entries from C04B 22/00. Classification in C04B 22/00 and subgroups is made when these ingredients are (or suspected to be) new or unusual or special details describing this ingredient are given.

{Waste inorganic materials}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Nitre cake

C04B 22/14

Special rules of classification

used as code to indicate that another C04B 22/00 ingredient is a wasteproduct

{Boron compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Boron compounds, e.g. fluoro-boron compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

organic boron compounds

C04B 24/006

{Water}
Definition statement

This place covers:

e.g. magnetised water

e.g. ionized water

e.g. alkali-ion water

Special rules of classification

This class is given as an index in a C-set or as a class only when very particular aspects of the mixing water are given

{containing dissolved additives or active agents, i.e. aqueous solutions used as gauging water (C04B 22/0026 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Salt water used as active ingredient for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 22/0026

{Aluminates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aluminates used as active ingredient for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Calcium sulphoaluminates,

C04B 7/32

Cement or like inorganic materials added as expanding or shrinkage compensating ingredients in mortars or concrete compositions

C04B 22/008

Elements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Elements used as active ingredient for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. Si;

e.g. O3

Metals, e.g. aluminium used as blowing agent
Definition statement

This place covers:

Metals used as active ingredient for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Oxides, Hydroxides (C04B 22/0013 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

oxides, hydrocides used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. gelatinous Al(OH)3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

SiO2

C04B 14/062

Al2O3, Al(OH)3

C04B 14/303

Takes precedence

C04B 22/0013

CO2

C04B 22/10

{of the alkali or alkaline-earth metals}
Definition statement

This place covers:

oxides, hydroxides of the alkali or alkaline-earth metals used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. NH4OH;

e.g. NATRON LYE = AQUEOUS SOLUTION of NaOH;

e.g. HYDROXYLAMINE = NH2OH;

e.g. (POTASH) LYE= aqueous solution of KOH;

e.g. NaOH with Soda impurities;

e.g. KOH

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"LESSIVE DE SOUDE" = " NATRONLOOG" = NATRON LYE = AQUEOUS SOLUTION of NaOH;

(POTASH) LYE = "LAUGE" = aqueous solution of KOH

"SODASTEIN" = "SEIFENSTEIN" = NaOH with Soda impurities;

"POTASCHE" = "POTASSE" = KOH

{Peroxides, e.g. hydrogen peroxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Peroxides used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. H2O2

Acids or salts thereof {(C04B 22/0013 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acids or salts of inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. MOLYBDATES;

e.g. PERMANGANATES

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Boron compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 22/0013

containing carbon in the anion
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acids or salts of inorganic materials containing carbon in the anion, used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SALMIAC = (NH4)2CO3

e.g. SODA = SODA ASH = Na2CO3;

e.g. K4(Fe((CN)6).3H2O yellow, K3(Fe(CN)6) red;

e.g. CYANATES, KCN;

e.g. also CO2

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

SALMIAC = (NH4)2CO3 = "GEISTERSALTZ" = "HIRSCHHORNSALZ";

SODA = SODA ASH = "SOUDE"

"BLUTLAUGENSALZ" = K4(Fe((CN)6).3H2O yellow, K3(Fe(CN)6) red;

containing halogen in the anion
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acids or salts of inorganic materials containing halogen in the anion used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. BLEACHING POWDER = CaCl(OCl).CaO.H2O;

e.g. Hg chloride;

e.g. MURIATIC ACID = HCl

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

BLEACHING POWDER = "CHLORKALK"

"SUBLIM CORROSIF" = Hg chloride

{Chlorides of ammonium or of the alkali or alkaline earth metals, e.g. calcium chloride}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Chlorides of ammonium or of alkali or alkaline earth metals used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. NH4Cl = muriate of ammonia

{Fluorine compounds, e.g. silico-fluorine compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fluorine compounds of inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SILICOFLUORIDES;

e.g. FLUOROSILICATES

containing sulfur in the anion, e.g. sulfides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acids or salts thereof of inorganic materials containing sulfur in the anion used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SULFAMIMIC ACID = NH2SO3H;

e.g. Na-THIOSULFATE = Na2S2O3 x 5 H2O;

e.g. Ca-THIOCYANATE

{Sulfates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sulfates of inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. EPSOM SALT = MgSO4;

e.g. KFe(SO4)2 x 12H2O;

e.g. mixtures or alternatives of sulfates (covered by several C04B 22/142 subgroups)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Jarosite

C04B 22/14

Bisulfates, hydroxysulfates, e. g. KHSO4,

C04B 22/14

Alums

C04B 22/148

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"BITTERSALZ" = EPSOM SALT

"EISENALAUNE" = Doppelsalze des Eisen(III)-sulfats nach Art derAlaune, e.g. "KALIUMEISENALAUN" (KFe(SO4)2 x 12H2O);

{Alkali-metal sulfates; Ammonium sulfate}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alkali-metal sulfates, ammonium sulfate of inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. GLAUBERITE

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Other ´alums´, i.e. other than Al-alums

C04B 22/142

Alums or alunite, calcined or not

C04B 22/148

{Aluminium-sulfate}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aluminium-sulfate of inorganic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. (calcined) ALUNITE;

e.g. ALUMS

containing phosphorus in the anion, e.g. phosphates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acids or salts thereof of inorganic materials containing phosphorous in the anion,

e.g. MICROCOSMIC SALT = Na(NH4)HPO4.4H2O

Use of organic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. plasticisers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organic materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. LIGROIN (benzine);

e.g. RUTIN;

e.g. WHITE SPIRIT = mainly heptane, octane;

e.g. impure NAPHTALENE e.g. esters of inorganic acids, ethylene carbonate;

e.g. PERFUME;

e.g. YEAST

e.g. norbornene and its derivatives (e.g. as modifiers for sulfur cements)

e.g. (di) cyclopentadiene (e.g. as modifiers for sulfur cements)

Special rules of classification

Organic active ingredients as components of a cementitious mixture are indexed in the C-set of the CIS database using entries from C04B 24/00. Classification in C04B 24/00 and subgroups is done when these ingredients are (or suspected to be) new or unusual or special details describing such an ingredient are given.

{Waste organic materials}
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Vinasse

residual liquid from the distillation of liquid alcohol;

Fusel oil

mixture of alcohols, fatty acids and esters obtained during distillation of fermentation alcohol

{Phosphorus-containing compounds}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorus containing polymers

C04B 24/243

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PHOSPHONOCARBOXYLIC ACID

H2O3P-R-COOH

PHOSPHONIC ACID

RPO3H2

PHOSPHINIC ACID

R2PO2H

PHOSPHORIC ESTER

(HO)2PO-OR

PHYTIC ACID = PHYTINIC ACID = meso-inositol hexaphosphoric acid

C6H6(OPO(OH2))6

{Halogen-containing compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

all halogenated compounds except chlorosilanes

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Pesticides

C04B 24/00

Halogenated polymers of the type corresponding to groups C04B 24/28- C04B 24/383

receive two classes, one in C04B 24/005 and one in the polymer group

Halogen containing polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon to carbon unsaturated bonds

C04B 24/2682

Chlorosilanes

C04B 24/42

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

PERFLUOR compounds

CnF2n-1 (all H exchanged for F)

PENTA CHLORO PHENOLATE = PENTA CHLORO PHENATE

C6Cl5ONa

{Aldehydes, ketones}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aldehydes, ketones used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. GLYOXAL OHCCHO;

e.g. FURFURAL;

e.g. FORMALIN (40% aq. sln of formaldehyde);

e.g. ACETYL ACETONE CH3COCH2COCH3;

e.g. DIOXAN

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Paraformaldehyde

C04B 24/023

Alcohols; Phenols; Ethers
Definition statement

This place covers:

All Alcohols, phenols, ethers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. ALCOHOL;

e.g. PHENOL;

e.g. POLYHYDRIC ALCOHOLS i.e. DIOLS: GLYCOL, TRIOLS: GLYCEROL =GLYCERINE = 1,2,3-PROPANETRIOL, ETHYLENE GLYCOL (HOCH2CH2OH),TRIMETHYLENE GLYCOL = 1,3-PROPANEDIOL (HO(CH2)3OH);

e.g. "KRESOL" CRESOL = CH3C6H4OH, o-, m-, p-;

e.g. ETHYLALCOHOL = SPIRITUS;

e.g. SORBIT = SORBITOL C6H14O6 (6 OH groups), SORBITAN =MONOANHYDROSORBIT C6H4O(OH)4;

e.g. FUCUSOL = FUCOSOL = furfurol + methylfurfurol;

e.g. 2,3-DIHYDROXY-1,4-DIOXAN = glyoxal trimer;

e.g. CATECHOL = 1,2-C6H4(OH)2;

e.g. RESORCINOL = 1,3-C6H4(OH)2;

e.g. HYDROQUINONE = 1,4-C6H4(OH)2;

e.g. PHLOROGLUCINOL = 1,3,5-C6H3(OH)3;

e.g. PYROGALLOL = 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene;

e.g. NAPHTHOL;

e.g. PENTAERYTHRITOL;

e.g. ALKOXIDE = ALCOOLATE i.e. Al(OC2H5)3;

e.g. EUGENOL;

e.g. TERPINEOL, TERPINENOL

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PHENOL = "CARBOLSAEURE"

RESORCINOL = "RESORZIN"

{Ethers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ethers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. ETHER R-O-R´;

e.g. DIETHYLENE GLYCOL HOCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH;

e.g. TRIOXYMETHYLENE = TRIOXANE (CH2O)3 = PARAFORMALDEHYDE;

e.g. epoxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Glycidylether: appears as terminal group of epoxy resin structures

C04B 24/281

{Fatty alcohols}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All fatty alcohols used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. ethoxylated fatty alcohols

Carboxylic acids; Salts, anhydrides or esters thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carboxylic acids, Salts, anhydrides thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS R-COOH (carboxy-, -oic acid);

e.g. CARBOXYLIC ACID SALTS R-COOM (M carboxylate, -oate);

e.g. ANHYDRIDES;

e.g. GLYOXYLIC ACID HOOCHO;

e.g. BENZOIC ACID, BENZOATES;

e.g. AGATHIC ACID;

e.g. NAPHTHENIC ACID, NAPHTHENATES;

e.g. RESIN ACID, RESINATES e.g. complex mixture of monocarboxylic acids derived from pine tree extrudate, tree stumps, or tall oil manufacturing. Major components : ABIETIC ACID (=SYLVIC ACID)and PIMARIC ACID;

e.g. KETOCARBOXYLIC ACIDS HO2CCH2CH2COCOOH= a-ketoglutaric acid;

e.g. COAL ACIDS;

e.g. ERYTHORBIC ACID, ERYTHORBATES;

e.g. RESIN SOAPS, SAPONIFIED RESINS

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

ROSIN = mainly resin acids

C04B 24/34

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"HARZSEIFEN"=RESIN SOAPS, SAPONIFIED RESINS

{Esters, e.g. lactones}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Esters of carboxylic acids used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. organic carbonates e.g. ETHYLENE CARBONATE;

e.g. ESTERS R-COOR´ (R-carboxylate, R- oxycarbonyl, R-oate);

e.g. GLYCERIDES = glycerine esters;

e.g. ACETINS = acetates (ethanoates) of glycerol, MONOACETIN,DIACETIN,TRIACETIN;

e.g. ETHYLENE GLYCOL DIACETATE = ethylidene diacetate = acetaldehydediacetate H3CCO-O-C2H4-O-OCCH3;

e.g. LACTONES = cyclic esters;

e.g. CAPROLACTONE

containing hydroxy groups
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carboxylic acids, salts, anhydrides containing hydroxy groups, used as active ingredients for mortars, concreter or artificial stone

e.g. OXYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS;

e.g. LACTIC ACID CH3-CH(OH)-COOH;

e.g. CREAM OF TARTAR = potassium hydrogen tartrate C4H5O6K;

e.g. Na a- and b- GLUCOHEPTONATE;

e.g. CITRIC ACID;

e.g. GLUCONIC ACID;

e.g. GALLIC ACID;

e.g. ALDONIC ACID;

e.g. SACCHARIC ACID = TETRAHYDROXYADIPIC ACID;

e.g. CRESYLIC ACID;

e.g. FLUORESCEIN = RESORCINOLPHTHALEIN = URANINE (Na salt) =DIOXYLFLUORANE C20H12O5;

e.g. BILE ACID (cholic acid)

Fats; Fatty oils; Ester type waxes; Higher fatty acids, i.e. having at least seven carbon atoms in an unbroken chain bound to a carboxyl group; Oxidised oils or fats
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fats, fatty oils, ester type waxes, oxidised oils or fats used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. FATS = esters of long chain fatty acids and glycerol;

e.g. FATTY OILS = idem e.g. SOJA OIL, OLIVE OIL,RICINUS OIL = CASTOROIL,LINSEED OIL, PALM OIL;

e.g. ESTER TYPE WAXES = "CIRE" = monoesters of long chain unbranched fatty acids and alcohols e.g. MONTAN WAX, CHIN-SAP WAX, SPERMACETI WAX=WALRAT;

e.g. LIPIDES = esters of long chain carboxylic acids e.g. FATS;

e.g. RAPESEED OIL (COLZA OIL);

e.g. CHINA WOOD OIL;

e.g. ETHOXYLATED FATTY ACID

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"RUEBOEL" = RAPESEED OIL ("REPSOEL", "RAPSOEOL","RUEBSENOEL", "RUEBOEL", COLZA OIL);

e.g. "HOLZOEL" = "TUNGOEL" = CHINA WOOD OIL

{Higher fatty acids}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Higher fatty acids, i.e. having at least seven carbon atoms in an unbroken chain bound to a carboxyl group used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SOAPS = salts of higher fatty acids;

e.g. UNSATURATED HIGHER FATTY ACIDS : PALMITOLEIC, OLEIC, RICINOLEIC,LIONLEIC, LINOLENIC, ELEOSTEARIC;

e.g. SATURATED HIGHER FATTY ACIDS: CAPROIC, CAPRYLIC, CAPRIC, LAURIC,MYRISTIC, PALMITIC, STEARIC, ARACHIDIC, BEHEMIC, LIGNOCERIC, CEROTIC;

e.g. OLEIN;

e.g. OLEIC ACID

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Rosin (= mainly resin acids)

C04B 24/34

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

OLEIC ACID = "ÖLSAÜRE" = "OLIENSAÜRE" = "OCTADECENSAÜRE"= "ACIDUMOLEINICUM"

Carbohydrates or derivatives thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carbohydrates or derivatives thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. historically Cx(H2O)y = polyhydroxylated compounds;

e.g. OLIGOSACCHARIDES : DISACCHARIDES, TRISACCHARIDES, TETRASACCHARIDES;

e.g. MOLASSE, MELASSE, SUCROSE;

e.g. MANNITOL= MANNITE;

e.g. WHEY (lactose is the most important ingredient after water);

e.g. SKIMMED MILK;

e.g. SAPONIN = plant glycosides, forming soapy lathers on shaking with water;

e.g. GLYCOSIDES (GLUCOSIDES) , hydrolyse into sugars and other organic substances;

e.g. LEVULOSE = d-FRUCTOSE= FRUIT SUGAR, DIABETIN, LEVOGLUCOSE,SUCROLEVULOSE;

e.g. ALDOSE, KETOSE

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

MANNITOL= MANNITE= "MANNAZUCKER";

MANNITOL= MANNITE;

e.g. WHEY = "MOLKE" = "WEI" = "BOTERMELK"

Nitrogen containing compounds {organic derivatives of hydrazine (hydrazine C04B 22/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Nitrogen containing compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. PENAZOLINE e.g. CA93:136836, CA92:63547, CA93:172622, CA90:141458;

e.g. CHLOROPHYLL;

e.g. AMINE OXIDE R1-R2-R3-N=O

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydrazine

C04B 22/00

{Amines, polyamines}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Amines, polyamines used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. and derivatives e.g. salts;

e.g. TM UROTROPINE = HEXAMETHYLENE TETRAMINE;

e.g. ANILINE C6H5-NH2 = PHENYLAMINE = AMINOBENZENE;

e.g. FATTY AMINES

{Hydroxy amines}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydroxy amines and derivatives, e.g. salts used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone;

e.g. NH2 + OH;

e.g. ETHANOLAMINES: MONOETHANOLAMINE, DIETHANOLAMINE, TRIETHANOLAMINE;

e.g. ADRENALINE

{Amino-carboxylic acids}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Amino-carboxylic acids and derivatives used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. NH2 + COOH;

e.g. NITRILOTRIACETIC ACID N(CH2COOH)3;

e.g. GLUTAMIC ACID = a-AMINOGLUTARIC ACID = 2-AMINOPENTANEDIOIC ACID =amino acid derived from hydrolysis of vegetable protein;

e.g. GLYCINE = AMINOACETIC ACID H2N-CH2-COOH;

e.g. EDTA = ETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID

e.g. betaine

{Amides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Amides, acid amides and derivatives used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. e.g. RCONH2, (RCO)2NH, (RCO)3N;

e.g. FATTY AMIDES e.g. COCOAMIDE

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Carbamide = urea

C04B 24/126

Isocyanuric acid

C04B 24/128

Lactams = cyclic amides, caprolactam

C04B 24/128

Glycylglycine = diglycine = dipeptide H2N-CH2-CO-NH-CH2-COOH

C04B 24/14

{Compounds containing one or more carbon-to-nitrogen double or triple bonds, e.g. imines}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compounds containing one or more carbon-to nitrogen double or triple bonds and derivatives used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. CYANATES R-N=C=O;

e.g. CYANAMIDE NH2CN;

e.g. DICYANDIAMIDE H2N-CNH-NH-CN;

e.g. NITRILES RCN;

e.g. IMINES R-CH=NH

{Urea}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Urea and derivatives used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. = CARBAMIDE NH2-CO-NH2;

e.g. THIOUREA = THIOCARBAMIDE NH2-SC-NH2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

N,N-dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea

C04B 24/128

{Heterocyclic nitrogen compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All heterocyclic nitrogen compounds , even if they fall under one of the categories covered by the previous subgroups used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. LACTAMS = cyclic amides , CAPROLACTAM;

e.g. CYANURATES, ISOCYANURIC ACID;

e.g. HYDANTOIN = GLYCOLYLUREA = GLYCOLUSIL;

e.g. IMIDAZOLE

e.g. DINITROPENTAMETHYLENE TETRAMINE

Peptides; Proteins; Derivatives thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

PEPTIDES (much smaller number of amino units per molecule than proteins); ENZYMES;

PROTEINS (polymers of a-amino acids) and derivatives thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. GELATIN, COLLAGEN, KERATIN;

e.g. CASEIN,

e.g. BLOOD, HEMOGLOBINE;

e.g. GLUTEN;

e.g. ZEIN = corn protein

e.g. BLACK GRAM = polysaccharide-protein

e.g. PROTALBINIC ACID, LYSALBINIC ACID;

e.g. soluble proteins: ALBUMINS, GLOBULINS, GLUTELINS, HISTONES,PROTAMINES;

e.g. GLYCYLGLYCINE = dipeptide

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

CASEIN,=COLLE D´OS

"KOELNER LEIM

Sulfur-containing compounds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sulfur-containing compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. SULfONIC COMPOUNDS = -SO3H, sulfonated;

e.g. SULFURIC COMPOUNDS = -OSO3H, sulfated;

e.g. BUNTE SALTS = water soluble organic thiosulphate compounds;

e.g. TURKEY RED OIL = SULFORICINATE;

e.g. ISOPROPYL THIOCYANATE (CH3)2CHSCN

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sulfonated polystyrene

C04B 24/22

Sulfonated ketone resins

C04B 24/30

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

TURKEY RED OIL = SULFORICINATE = "TURKISCH ROTÖL"

Lignin sulfonic acid or derivatives thereof, e.g. sulfite lye
Definition statement

This place covers:

Lignin sulfonic acid or derivatives thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. LIGNIN SULFONIC ACID = substituted phenylpropane R-CH(SO3H)-CH(OH)-R

e.g. modified lignosulfonate

Sulfonated aromatic compounds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sulfonated aromatic compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. SULFANOL;

e.g. FOKS = fuel oil cracking sulfonated = salt of sulfonated andoxidised product resulting from the reaction of SO3 with fuel oils from steam cracking of oil products

Condensation {or polymerisation} products thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

Condensation or polymerisation products thereof of sulfonated aromatic compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Condensation or polymerisation products containing aromatic nucleus;

e.g. sulphonated polystyrene;

e.g. sulphonated amino-s-triazine

{Sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde condensation products}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde condensation products used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. sulphonated melamine resins;

e.g. triazine-HCHO condensation product

Macromolecular compounds (C04B 24/14 takes precedence; macromolecular compounds comprising sulfonate or sulfate groups C04B 24/16)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Macromolecular compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. LIGNIN;

e.g. HUMIC ACID;

e.g. LIGNATE

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Peptides, proteins, derivatives thereof

C04B 24/14

Sulfur-containing compounds

C04B 24/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

petroleum resins

C04B 24/26 ( C04B 24/24 still to be cleaned)

obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds {(C04B 24/243 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. PETROLEUM RESIN (C4/C6 alkene fraction, C8/C10 aromatic fraction or dicyclopentadiene fraction);

e.g. VERSATATES;

e.g. LATEX RESIN;

e.g. COUMARONE RESIN = CUMAR RESIN or GUM = PARACOUMARONE RESIN =BENZOFURAN = synthetic rein from coal tar destillates;

e.g. DIALLYL POLYMERS

Relationships with other classification places

Resins as such equivalent to those are classified in C08F

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorous-containing polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

C04B 24/243

{Polyalkenes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyalkenes obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. POLYTERPENES i.e. NATURAL RUBBER

{Coumarone polymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coumarone polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. INDENE-CUMARONE RESIN

{Polyvinylalcohols; Polyvinylacetates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyvinylalcohols, polyvinylacetates obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. ETHYLENE VINYLACETATE;

e.g. VINYLLAURATE-VINYLACETATE;

e.g. POLYVINYL PROPIONATE

{Polyacrylates; Polymethacrylates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyacrylates, polymethyacrylates obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

e.g. COPOLYMERS of POLY(METH)ACRYLATES with other VINYL MONOMERS (e.g. styrene, vinylacetate);

e.g. mixture of acrylic monomers

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

copolymers having three different monomers

C04B 24/2688

{Nitrogen containing polymers, e.g. polyacrylamides, polyacrylonitriles}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Nitrogen containing polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. ACRYLNITRIL-STYROL COPOLYMER;

e.g. ACRYLNITRIL-BUTADIENE COPOLYMER;

e.g. Polyvinylamide

{of ethylenically unsaturated dicarboxylic acid polymers, e.g. maleic anhydride copolymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds of ethylenically unsaturated dicarboxylic acid polymers and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. STYROL-MALEIC ACID COPOLYMER;

e.g. VINYLACETATE-MALEIC ACID COPOLYMER;

e.g. ISOBUTYLENE-MALEIC ACID COPOLYMER;

e.g. POLYALKYLENE SUCCENIC ANHYDRIDE;

e.g. VINYL ACETATE-DIBUTYL MALEATE COPOLYMER

{Polystyrenes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polystyrenes compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. STYRENE-BUTADIENE;

e.g. STYRENE-BUTADIENE-PVA

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Styrene-acryl copolymers

C04B 24/2641

Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers

C04B 24/2664

Special rules of classification

C04B 24/2641 takes precedence.

{Halogen containing polymers, e.g. PVC}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Halogen containing polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. PTFE (RN 9002-84-0);

e.g. CHLOROPRENE

{Copolymers containing at least three different monomers}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polyacrylates

C04B 24/2641

Special rules of classification

C04B 24/2682 takes precedence

obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds {(C04B 24/243 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHTALATE;

e.g. POLYIMIDES; POLYESTER IMIDE; POLYAMIDIMINE;

e.g. POLYTHIOCARBONATE;

e.g. POLYSULFONES; POLYSULPHONAMIDE;

e.g. POLYTHIOETHER;

e.g. POLYSULPHIDE;

e.g.. ETHOXYLINE RESIN;

e.g. FURAN RESIN (deriv. from furfuryl alcohol);

e.g. POLYALKYLENE POLYAMINES;

e.g. POLYAMINES; POLYESTERAMIDES

e.g. POLYETHYLENE IMINE (CH2CH2NH)x

Relationships with other classification places

resins as such equivalent to those classified in C08G

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorous-containing polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

C04B 24/243

{Polyepoxides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyepoxides compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. a-EPICHLORHYDRINE-1 CHLORO 2,3 EPOXY PROPANE

{Polyesters}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyesters compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. ALKYD resins;

e.g. polylactic acid, polylactide

{Phenol-formaldehyde condensation polymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The use for instance of phenol resin as binder, novolac resin, resol resin.

Phenol-formaldehyde resins, as a group, are formed by a step-growth polymerization reaction that can be either acid- or base-catalysed. Since formaldehyde exists predominantly in solution as a dynamic equilibrium of methylene glycol oligomers, the concentration of the reactive form of formaldehyde depends on temperature and pH.

Phenol is reactive towards formaldehyde at the ortho and para sites (sites 2, 4 and 6) allowing up to 3 units of formaldehyde to attach to the ring. The initial reaction in all cases involves the formation of a hydroxymethyl phenol:

HOC6H5 + CH2O → HOC6H4CH2OH

Novolacs (originally Novolak, the name given by Leo Baekeland), are phenol-formaldehyde resins made where the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol of less than one. The polymerization is brought to completion using acid-catalysis. The phenol units are mainly linked by methylene groups

Base-catalysed phenol-formaldehyde resins are made with a formaldehyde to phenol ratio of greater than one (usually around 1.5). These resins are called resols. Phenol, formaldehyde, water and catalyst are mixed in the desired amount, depending on the resin to be formed, and are then heated

media31.png

Phenol - the simplest of the phenols

media32.png

Formaldehyde

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Using phenol resin for joining ceramic with ceramic

C04B 37/008

Using phenol resin for joining ceramic with metal

C04B 37/028

Using phenol resin for joining ceramic with glass

C04B 37/047

The use of phenol-formaldehyde condensation products in coatings of ceramic substrates

C04B 41/4823

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones added as active ingredient to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone: phenol-formaldehyde condensation polymers

C04B 24/302, C04B 26/122

Binders for refractory mould or core materials based on resins or rosins obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds: condensation polymers of aldehydes and ketones: with phenols

B22C 1/2253

{Melamine-formaldehyde condensation polymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Melamine resin or melamine formaldehyde (also shortened to melamine) is a hard, thermosetting plastic material made from melamine and formaldehyde by polymerization.

media33.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The use of condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones in coatings of ceramic substrates: melamine-formaldehyde condensation products

C04B 41/4815

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones added as active ingredient to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone: melamine-formaldehyde condensation polymers

C04B 24/305, C04B 26/125

{Urea-formaldehyde condensation polymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Urea-formaldehyde, also known as urea-methanal, named so for its common synthesis pathway and overall structure, [1] is a non-transparent thermosetting resin or plastic, made from urea and formaldehyde heated in the presence of a mild base such as ammonia or pyridine

media34.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The use of condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones in coatings of ceramic substrates: urea-formaldehyde condensation products

C04B 41/4819

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones added as active ingredient to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone: urea-formaldehyde condensation polymers

C04B 24/307, C04B 26/127

Polyethers, e.g. alkylphenol polyglycolether
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polyethers compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

also polyethylene glycol esters

e.g. POLYETHYLENE OXIDE;

e.g. POLYETHYLENEPOLYAMINE, POLYETHYLENE IMINE;

e.g. POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL,

e.g. POLYACETAL GLYCOL;

e.g. ALKYLPHENOLPOLYGLYCOL ETHER;

e.g. PARAFORMALDEHYDE;

e.g. ALKYLAMINO POLY(OXYMETHYLENE)GLYCOL

Natural resins, e.g. rosin {(C04B 24/243 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Natural resin used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. natural (animal, vegetable) waxes: CANDELLILA WAX, CARNAUBA WAX,KANNUTILLA WAX;

e.g. TURPENTINE OIL (PINENES);

e.g. COLOPHONIUM = COLOPHANE;

e.g. CREOSOTE;

e.g. ROSIN is obtained from various species of pine = ABIETIC ACID;

e.g. SHELLAC

e.g. LACQUER = shellac dissolved in alcohol, coloured with saffron or dragon´s blood;

e.g. EUCALIPTUS OIL; TALL OIL;

e.g. GUTTA-PERCHA;

e.g. v g tale;

e.g. VINSOL

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorous-containing polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

C04B 24/243

Polysaccharides

C04B 24/38

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

CREOSOTE ="HOLZTEER"

SHELLAC = "SCHELLACK" = "SCHOLLENLACK" = "BLATTLACK" = "GUMMILACK"= "LACCA IN TABULIS";

"MUCILAGE";

"GOUDRON"

Bituminous materials, e.g. tar, pitch {(C04B 24/243 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Bituminous materials used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. ASPHALT, ASPHALTITE;

e.g. KEROSINE, PARAFFIN;

e.g. "PARAFFIN OIL, VASELINE OIL;

e.g. CARBOLINEUM;

e.g. PETROLATUM;

e.g. mineral, paraffin waxes

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorous-containing polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

C04B 24/243

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ASPHALT= "KOOLTEER"= ASPHALTITE;

PARAFINE= PARAFFIN OIL

"CERESIN" = "ZERESIN" = "HART PARAFIN" = "GEREINIGTES ERDWACHS" ="CERA MINERALIS ALBA";

"BRAI de HOUILLE"

Polysaccharides or derivatives thereof {(C04B 24/243 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polysaccharides or derivatives thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. ARABIC GUM, GUM ACACIA;

e.g. GALACTO-MANNAN, GUAR GUM, GLUCO-MANNAN;

e.g. AGAR AGAR;

e.g. TANNIN = TANNIC ACID;

e.g. GUM GHATTI, LOCUST BEAN GUM = CAROB BEAN GUM;

e.g. CAROB FRUIT;

e.g. INULIN ;

e.g. WELAN GUM

e.g. FRENCH CEMENT = gum arabic + powdered starch;

e.g. ALGINATES, GLYCOGEN, PECTINE; CHITOSAN; DEXTRAN

e.g. XANTHOMANOS GUM = XANTHAN GUM;

e.g. SCLEROGLUCAN, CURDLAN, PULLULAN;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphorous-containing polymers used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone,

C04B 24/243

Polyethers

C04B 24/32

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"JOHANNESBROOD" = CAROB FRUIT

INULIN = "POLYVRUCHTENSUIKER"

{Cellulose or derivatives thereof}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cellulose or derivatives thereof used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. CELLULOSE; CARBOXY METHYL CELLULOSE CMC;

e.g. HYDROXY ETHYL CELLULOSE HEC;

e.g. METHYL HYDROXY ETHYL CELLULOSE MHEC;

e.g. DEXTRIN = starch derivative;

e.g. HEMICELLULOSE = KARAYA GUM = PENTASANE = GALACTON-GELOSE;

e.g. regenerated cellulose;

e.g. cellulose ethers;

e.g. VISCOSE; TRAGANTH

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used

STAERKE"; DEXTRIN = starch derivative

{Organo-inorganic complexes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any organo-inorganic complexes used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. metal carbonyls

Organo-silicon compounds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organo-silicon compounds used as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

e.g. POLYSILANES -Si-Si-Si-Si-;

e.g. SILICONES -Si-O-Si-O-Si-

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing only organic binders {, e.g. polymer or resin concrete (mechanical aspects of moulding polymer or resin concrete B29C 67/242)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organic or polymeric concretes or mortars i.e. compositions bearing an organic or polymeric binder.

This group covers organic or polymeric concrete compositions comprising at least 50% inorganic filler.

e.g. organic (e.g. polymer) P or B compounds as binder;

e.g. waterproof lacquer, benzol, acetone, aluminium powder and camphor e.g. LIGNIN derivatives;

e.g. MONTAN WAX

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

A combination of an organic and inorganic binder

C- set : (C04B 28/00; C04B 24/00)

Polymer modified concrete (PMC) or polymer concrete (PC) or polymer mortar (PM )

C-set: (C04B 28/00; C04B 24/00)

Mechanical aspects, moulding polymer or resin concrete

B29C 67/242

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oil well cements containing organic binders

are classified in C04B 26/00 according to the composition and receive also a C09K 8/44 class

Organic or polymeric compositions with filler content less than 50%

C08J, C08K, C08L, C09D

Polyester compositions

C08L 67/00

Bituminous compositions

C08L 95/00

Grouting with organic compounds

E02D20/02

Special rules of classification

Classification is made according to the binder used, applying last place rule (LPR). Fillers and active ingredients are classified using the C-set symbols chosen from C04B 14/00, C04B 18/00, C04B 22/00 or C04B 24/00. If one of these ingredients is (or suspected to be) new or unusual or special details describing this ingredient are given, classification is also made for this ingredient.

When a list of possible organic binders is given, classification is made to the more general entry e.g. C04B 26/04 or C04B 26/10 or even C04B 26/02. If specific examples are given of one binder out of a list, a second more specific class relating to the exemplified binder is given.

{Oil-based binders, e.g. containing linseed oil}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing oil-based binders

e.g. DRYING OILS, linseed oil

Macromolecular compounds
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Attention P compounds

C04B 26/00

Lignin derivatives

C04B 26/00

Montan wax

C04B 26/00

Petroleum resins

C04B 26/04

{Proteins or derivatives thereof}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing proteins or derivatives thereof

e.g. MILK

obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds

e.g. PETROLEUM RESINS

{Polyalkenes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds being polyalkylenes

e.g. polybutadiene

Acrylates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds being acrylates

e.g. thermoplastic polymethylmethacrylate type polymer

obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grouting with organic components

E21D 20/02

{Phenol-formaldehyde condensation polymers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing phenol-formaldehyde condensation polymers

e.g. CRESOL -FORMALDEHYDE

Polyepoxides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing polyepoxides

e.g. POLYETHYLENE OXIDE

Polyurethanes
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing polyurethanes

e.g. castor oil, polymerises with isocyanates

Polyesters; Polycarbonates
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

polyester compositions

C08L 67/00 + F (inorganic filler); C08L 67/02 (saturated); C08L 67/06 (unsaturated)

Natural resins, e.g. rosin
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing natural resins as organic binders

e.g. ARAUCARIA RESIN

Bituminous materials, e.g. tar, pitch {(C08L 95/00 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing bituminous materials as organic binders

e.g. PARAFFIN;

e.g. tar + asphalt + sulphur

Relationships with other classification places

Construction of, or surfaces for roads E01C

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of bituminous materials

C08L 95/00

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used

"HOLZZEMENT" = tar + asphalt + sulphur

{Cellulose or derivatives thereof, e.g. starch (C04B 26/24 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing cellulose or derivatives thereof as organic binders

e.g. "ZELLIN"

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing cellulosic waste liquor as organic binder

C04B 26/24

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used

"ZELLIN"

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder

e.g. (water soluble) fluorosilicate as binder

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dental cements

A61K 6/06

Surgical cements

A61L 24/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oil well cements containing inorganic binders

C04B 28/00

According to the composition and receive also

C09K 8/46

Special rules of classification

Classification is made according to the binder used, applying last place rule (LPR). Fillers and active ingredients are classified using the C-set symbols chosen from C04B 14/00, C04B 16/00, C04B 18/00, C04B 22/00 or C04B 24/00. If one of these ingredients is (or suspected to be) new or unusual or special details describing this ingredient are given, classification is also made for this ingredient.

When more than one inorganic binders are used, classification is made in C04B 28/00 according to LPR and the second or third binder are indicated with entries chosen from C04B 7/00 or C04B 11/00 (or if one of these binders can be seen as an active ingredient e.g. lime, from C04B 22/00).

{containing unburned clay (polymer binder - clay mixtures used in well cementing C09K 8/44)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing unburned clay as inorganic binders

e.g. clay + NAOH mixtures as binder;

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polymer binder - clay mixtures used in well cementing

C09K 8/44

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

TORCHIS" = COB = DAUB

clay + straw

{containing gelatineous or gel forming binders, e.g. gelatineous Al(OH)3, sol-gel binders}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing gelatineous or gel forming binders

e.g. Al(OH)3;

e.g. Al2(OH)xXy

{containing mineral polymers, e.g. geopolymers of the Davidovits type}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing mineral polymers as inorganic binders

e.g. TECTOALUMINOSILICATE;

e.g. POLY(SIALATE) (-Si-O-Al-O-) (PS);

e.g. POLY(SIALATE-SILOXO) (-Si-O-Al-O-Si-O-) (PSS);

e.g. POLY(SIALATE-DISILOXO) (-SI-O-Al-O-Si-O-Si-O-) (PSDS)

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkali-activated cements

C04B 28/26

{Ash cements, e.g. fly ash cements (fly ash as filler C04B 18/08); Cements based on incineration residues, e.g. alkali-activated slags from waste incineration (alkali-activated combustion residues as such C04B 7/243; mixtures of the lime-pozzuolane type C04B 28/18); Kiln dust cements}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alkali-activated combustion residues

C04B 7/243

Fly ash as filler

C04B 18/08

Mixtures of the lime-pozzuolane type

C04B 28/18

Special rules of classification

when the alkali activated waste results in a polymeric - Davidovits type - cement, additional classification in C04B 28/006 should be given

Portland cements
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Portland cement

Hydraulic cement produced by pulverizing clinkers consisting essentially of hydraulic calcium silicates, usually containing one or more of the forms of calcium sulfate as an inter ground addition

Aluminous cements (monolithic refractories or refractory mortars C04B 35/66)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars

C04B 35/66

{Calcium aluminosulfate cements, e.g. cements hydrating into ettringite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing calcium aluminosulfate cements as inorganic binders

e.g. aluminous cement + portland cement + gypsum;

Slag cements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing slag cements as inorganic binders

e.g. slag + water --> hydraulic reaction with formation of GEHLENITE or ETTRINGITE according to the base present

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Water glass as activator

C04B 28/26 + C04B 18/141

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

"Laitiers granules

Lime cements or magnesium oxide cements
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lime paints / varnishes

C09D 1/10

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "slaked lime", "calcium hydroxide" and "hydrated lime"
{Magnesium oxide or magnesium carbonate cements}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, based on magnesium oxide or magnesium carbonate binders

Hydraulic lime
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Hydraulic lime

a lime mainly consisting of calcium silicates, calcium aluminates and calcium hydroxide. Produced by burning argilaceous limestones

containing calcium sulfate cements {(gypsum-paper plates E04C)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dentistry preparations based on gypsum

A61K 6/0625

Gypsum bandages

A61L 15/08

Gypsum-paper boards

E04C 2/043

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

VERGOLDER-GUSSMASSE

gypsum + chalk + glue

{containing dihydrated gypsum before the final hardening step, e.g. forming a dihydrated gypsum product followed by a de- and rehydration step}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing dehydrated gypsum before the final hardening step, blocks of natural gypsum as inorganic binders

containing mixtures of the silica-lime type
Special rules of classification

- the "silica" used has to be indicated (possible entries C04B 14/06+, C04B 18/08 etc. ) but the lime is not classified separately, as it is considered inherent to the composition.

Rules of classification:

{containing formed Ca-silicates before the final hardening step}
Special rules of classification

see rules in C04B 28/18

{the Ca-silicates being present in the starting mixture}
Special rules of classification

See rules in C04B 28/18

containing alkyl, ammonium or metal silicates; containing silica sols {(reaction mixtures resulting in mineral polymers C04B 28/006; polymeric reaction products of alkali metal silicates with isocyanates C08G 18/3895)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Colloidal silica as filler

C04B 14/062

(water soluble) fluorosilicates as binder

C04B 28/00

Reaction mixtures resulting in mineral polymers

C04B 28/006

Fibres + colloidal silica

C04B 30/02

Polymeric reaction products of alkali metal silicates with isocyanates

C08G 18/3895

Silicates of the alkali metals
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Reaction mixtures resulting in mineral polymers

C04B 28/006

Foundry moulds based on alkali metal silicates

B22C 1/18

Alkali metal silicates as such

C01B 33/32

Paints based on alkali metal silicates

C09D 1/02

Adhesives based on alkali metal silicates

C09J 1/02

For soil stabilisation

C09K 17/12

Use of waterglass in road making

E01C 7/10

containing organic polyacids, e.g. polycarboxylate cements {, i.e. ionomeric systems}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dental cements

A61K 6/0835

Surgical ionomer cements

A61L 24/12

containing magnesium cements {or similar cements} (magnesium oxide cements C04B 28/10)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Magnesium oxide cements

C04B 28/10

Magnesium oxychloride cements, e.g. Sorel cement
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dental cements

A61K 6/06

containing cold phosphate binders
Relationships with other classification places

Preparations for dental purposes

A61K 6/00

Surgical cements

A61L 24/00

Materials for prostheses

A61L 27/00

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Coating of metals in general

C23C 22/00

Special rules of classification

- since 1/4/92 classification is done according to the note following C04B 28/34;

- ammonium compounds are considered to be alkali metal compounds;

- phosphate compositions for coating metallic surfaces (for passivating purposes) are classified in C04B 28/34 and subgroups and receive C04B 2111/00525 as symbol

- starting mixture of oxide + phosphate C04B 28/34;

- starting mixture of acid + oxide C04B 28/342;

- starting mixture containing phosphate only C04B 28/344;

- starting mixture of acid + phosphate C04B 28/346;

- starting mixture of acid + oxide + phosphate C04B 28/348

Compositions for artificial stone, not containing binders
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Insulation for cavity walls

E04B 1/7604

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Artificial stone, i.e. cast stone

Synthetic stone compounds

containing fibrous materials
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • in principle as defined in the title- no binder;
  • but also e.g. fibers held together with a minor amount of binder can receive C04B 30/02 as additional class (in which case the binder is indexed from C04B 7/00 if inorganic, or C04B 24/00 if organic);
  • also fibers held together by minor amounts of e.g. refractory oxides- these oxides are then indexed as filler from C04B 14/00
{Artificial stone obtained by melting at least part of the composition, e.g. metal (C04B 28/36 and C03C take precedence; cast stone from molten slag C04B 5/00; artificial stone obtained by melting the polymeric ingredient of the composition C04B 26/00)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cast stone from molten slag

C04B 5/00

Artificial stone obtained by melting the polymeric ingredient of the composition

C04B 26/00

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone containing sulphur, sulphides or selenium, as inorganic binder

C04B 28/36

Glass compositions containing a non-glass component

C03C 14/00

with reinforcements {(contains no documents; reinforcing elements E04C 5/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

This group is only used as symbol in the C-set to indicate the presence of reinforcements (in the sense of E04C 5/00). The group itself does not contain any documents

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Cathodic protection of reinforced concrete

C23F 13/02

Reinforcing elements for concrete

E04C 5/00

Clay-wares (monolithic refractories or refractory mortars C04B 35/66; porous products C04B 38/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ceramic products based on clay materials, the processing of clay materials preparatory to the making of clay products, the following shaping methods for clay materials: slip-casting (C04B 33/28) and dry-pressing (C04B 33/20).

Relationships with other classification places

working by grinding or polishing B24

Processes for the shaping of clay materials, except for slip-casting (C04B 33/28) and dry-pressing (C04B 33/20) B28B

Preparing clay; producing mixtures containing clay B28C

Working stone or stone-like materials, e.g. brick, concrete or glass , not provided for elsewhere; machines, devices, tools therefore B28D

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Granular clay used as filler in cement, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 14/10

Heat treating clay to expand it for use as filler in cement, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 20/06

Clay used as active ingredient in cement, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 24/40

Unburned clays used as filler in cement, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 28/001

Ceramic materials based on silicates other than clays

C04B 35/16

Creating porosity in a ceramic, cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone by using expanding clay

C04B 38/064

Coating or impregnating a ceramic substrate with clay

C04B 41/5037

Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products

C04B 2235/00 and subgroups

Aspects relating to ceramic laminates or to joining of ceramic articles with other articles by heating

C04B 2237/00 and subgroups

Clays used in catalysts

B01J 21/16

Clays used in molecular sieves

B01J 29/049

Clay used as binding agent in refractory moulds

B22C 1/181

Clay moulds for slip-casting metals

B22F 3/22

Devitrified glass-ceramics

C03C 10/00 and subgroups

Use of clays as compounding ingredient for polymers

C08K 3/346

Treatment of clay materials to enhance pigmenting or filling properties for non-clay and non-ceramic products (usually for polymer products)

C09C 1/42

Interference pigments characterized by the core material, the core consisting of glass or silicate material like mica or clays, e.g. kaolin

C09C 2200/102

Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings with an outer layer of ceramics or clay

E04F 13/142

Rigid pipes of glass or ceramics, e.g. clay, clay tile, porcelain

F16L 9/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars

C04B 35/66

Joining of a ceramic or clay layer to another layer

C04B 37/00 and subclasses

Porous ceramic products

C04B 38/00 and subclasses

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Silica as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3418

Silicates other than clay as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. water glass (Na2SiO3)

C04B 2235/3427 and subgroups

Clays as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bentonites/smectites such as montmorillonite, kaolines such as halloysite, illite, talc, sepiolite and attapulgite, vermiculite

C04B 2235/349

Clays added to foodstuffs

A23L 33/29

Clay used in cosmetics

A61K 8/26

Clay used in medicines

A61K 33/06

Clays used for solid sorbents or as filter aid

B01J 20/12, B01D 2253/11

Catalysts comprising clays or other mineral silicates

B01J 21/16, C07C 2521/16

Proportioning the ingredients for mixing clay or cement with other substances

B28C 7/00

Resin-bonded materials containing containing mineral aggregates, e.g. sand, clay or the like

B29K 2303/08

Laminated products composed mainly of ceramics, e.g. clay ceramics

B32B 18/00

Using clay fillers in resin laminates

B32B 27/20

Clay used as pigment in printing ink

B41M 5/1555

Clay used in the coating of printing paper

B41M 5/5218

Modelling clay for creating decorative effects

B44C 3/04

Making or composition of clay compounds (powders)

C01B 33/40

Preparation of acyclic or carbocyclic hydrocarbons, using clay catalysts

C07C 2521/16, C07C 2529/04 and subgroups

Clay used in aqueous well drilling compositions

C09K 8/04 and subclasses

Chemical nature of materials in mouldable or extrudable form for sealing or packing joints or covers, clays

C09K 2200/0252 and subgroups

Clay used in lubricant compositions

C10M 113/10 , C10M 125/30, C10M 2201/103 and subgroups

Clays used in detergent compositions

C11D 3/1253

Clay used as carrier in detergent compositions

C11D 3/505

Clay used in pulp compositions

D21H 17/68

Clay pigments used for coating paper

D21H 19/40

Clays used in foundations, excavations, embankments, underground or underwater structure

E02D 2300/0037 and subgroups

Machines for obtaining or the removal of materials in open-pit mines, for quarrying stone, sand, gravel, or clay

E21C 47/10

Rigid pipes, of glass or ceramics, e.g. clay, clay tile, porcelain

F16L 9/10

Apparatus for preheating charges or arrangements for preheating charges: drying of green clay prior to baking

F27D 13/005

Target discs characterised by their material, structure or surface, e.g. clay pigeon targets characterised by their material

F41J 1/01

Clay-pigeon targets; clay-disc targets

F41J 9/16 and subclasses

Treating radioactively contaminated material by fixation in stable solid media in an inorganic matrix, e.g. clays, zeolites

G21F 9/162

Special rules of classification

The indexing scheme C04B 2235/00-C04B 2235/9692 is used in C04B 33/00, with the exception of a few symbols that overlap with classes in C04B 33/00. The following symbols are not used in C04B 33/00:

C04B 2235/349: clay additives

C04B 2235/5472: ceramic or refractory mixtures of materials with different sizes

C04B 2235/6027: slip-casting of ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 2235/604: pressing at non-sintering temperatures of ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 2235/606: drying of green ceramic or refractory bodies

C04B 2235/9661: colouring of ceramic or refractory materials

If the phase composition of the sintered clay material is specified, C04B 35/14, C04B 35/16 or one of its subgroups might be given to indicate the main phase of the sintered clay product.

The processing classes C04B 35/624-C04B 35/62695 are also used in the clay field, just as powder and fiber coating classes from C04B 35/628. The inorganic binder classes C04B 35/6306-C04B 35/6316 and the organic binder classes C04B 35/6325-C04B 35/638 are also used in the clay field.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Clay

Clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. Silts, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays, but there is some overlap in both particle size and other physical properties, and there are many naturally occurring deposits which include silts and also clay. The distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline. Geologists and soil scientists usually consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm (clays being finer than silts), sedimentologists often use 4-5 μm, and colloid chemists use 1 μm. Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils' Atterberg Limits. ISO 14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 μm and silts larger. Clay minerals are hydrous aluminum phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations. Clays have structures similar to the micas and therefore form flat hexagonal sheets Clays are commonly referred to as 1:1 or 2:1. Clays are fundamentally built of tetrahedral sheets and octahedral sheets, as described in the structure section below. A 1:1 clay would consist of one tetrahedral sheet and one octahedral sheet, and examples would be kaolinite and serpentine. A 2:1 clay consists of an octahedral sheet sandwiched between two tetrahedral sheets, and examples are illite, smectite, attapulgite, and chlorite (although chlorite has an external octahedral sheet often referred to as "brucite"). Clay minerals include the following groups:Kaolin group which includes the minerals kaolinite, dickite, halloysite, and nacrite (polymorphs of Al2Si2O5(OH)4). Some sources include the kaolinite-serpentine group due to structural similarities. Smectite group which includes dioctahedral smectites such as montmorillonite and nontronite and trioctahedral smectites for example saponite. Illite group which includes the clay-micas. Illite is the only common mineral. Chlorite group includes a wide variety of similar minerals with considerable chemical variation. Other 2:1 clay types exist such as sepiolite or attapulgite, clays with long water channels internal to their structure. Clay mineral group Halloysite – Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Kaolinite – Al2Si2O5(OH)4 Illite – (K,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10[(OH)2,(H2 O)] Montmorillonite – (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2·nH2 O Vermiculite – (MgFe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2·4H2 O Talc – Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Palygorskite – (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)·4(H2 O) Pyrophyllite – Al2Si4O10(OH)2

B28B

clay means any clay or ceramic material

Preparing or treating the raw materials individually or as batches
Definition statement

This place covers:

The powders are treated either as a powder or in shaped form

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fillers added to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone: expanding clay, perlite, vermiculite or like granular materials

C04B 20/06 and subgroups

Apparatus or methods for mixing clay with other substances

B28C 3/00 and subgroups

Controlling the operation of apparatus for producing mixtures of clay, ceramic or cement with other substances; supplying or proportioning the ingredients for mixing clay or cement with other substances; discharging the mixture

B28C 7/00 and subgroups

{Mixtures of materials with different sizes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The document mentions that the inorganic starting materials deliberately have different mesh sizes, such as a fraction of < 400 mesh, a fraction of 200-400 mesh and a fraction > 200 mesh, or the document mentions different particle sizes, e.g. two fractions, one with sizes below and one with size above 0,1 mm. A certain constituent is added with two different particle sizes, by adding for instance kaolin with a size of 1 micron and kaolin with a size of 10 micron. A powder is added that contains one fraction, but this fraction has a bimodal particle size distribution.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clay mixtures in which the organic additives have different size fractions

C04B 33/1305

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fillers added to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone: characterised by the grain distribution: fillers with bimodal grain size distribution

C04B 20/0096

Ceramic or refractory mixtures of materials with different sizes

C04B 2235/5472

Separation of particles of different sizes through sedimentation

B01D 21/00 and subgroups

Inorganic particles per se with a bimodal particle size distribution

C01P 2004/53

Special rules of classification

This class is not complete. The years 1981-2005 are missing. Some documents with clay-mixtures of materials with different sizes might have the symbol C04B 2235/5472.

Clay; Kaolin
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mixtures contain clay or kaolin additives

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with clay/kaolin

C04B 41/5037 and subgroups

Clays as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bentonites/smectites such as montmorillonite, kaolines such as halloysite, illite, talc, sepiolite and attapulgite, vermiculite

C04B 2235/349

Rendering lime harmless
Definition statement

This place covers:

The lime in or for the clay material is reacted to form calcium alumino-silicate phases

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Calcium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. lime

C04B 2235/3208

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Lime

calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide

Preventing efflorescence
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any method that prevents the efflorescence (or salting out) of salts present in the clay mixture or present in the starting materials to be used for forming a clay mixture

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Metal salts chosen for the nature of the anions as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. phosphides, hydrides, acetylacetonate, hydroxides, or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/44 and subgroups

Products characterised by the absence or the low content of specific components, e.g. alkali metal free alumina ceramics

C04B 2235/72 and subgroups

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Efflorescence

the loss of water (or a solvent) of crystallization from a hydrated or solvated salt to the atmosphere on exposure to air.

Eliminating iron or lime
Definition statement

This place covers:

Removing lime or iron salts from the clay mixture

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Calcium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. lime

C04B 2235/3208

Iron oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. hematite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4)

C04B 2235/3272 and subgroup

Products characterised by the absence or the low content of specific components, e.g. alkali metal free alumina ceramics

C04B 2235/72 and subgroups

Separation of particles of different sizes through sedimentation

B01D 21/00 and subgroups

Compounding ingredients (C04B 33/36, C04B 35/71 take precedence {; pigments for ceramics C09C 1/0009})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Preparing mixtures for making clay materials, e.g. adding waste glass to a clay mixture.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Reinforced clay wares

C04B 33/36

Reinforced ceramics

C04B 35/71 and subgroups

Apparatus or methods for producing or N:processing clay suspensions, e.g. slip

B28C 1/02 and subgroups

Apparatus or methods for processing clay-containing substances in non-fluid condition

B28C 1/10 and subgroups

Supplying or proportioning the ingredients

B28C 7/04 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Glass starting materials for making ceramics, e.g. silica glass

C04B 2235/36 and subgroup

Pigments for ceramics

C09C 1/0009

Special rules of classification

If waste glass is used, the symbol C04B 2235/36 is added as well.

{Organic additives}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All organic additives added to form the product

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Organic additives added to ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 35/632 and subclasses

Organic additives that are added to the clay material to create porosity after a heat treatment

C04B 38/06 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkoxides as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. methoxide, tert-butoxide

C04B 2235/441

Organic acids as starting material for making ceramics, e.g., EDTA, citrate, acetate, oxalate

C04B 2235/449

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. carbonising phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Organic fibers used as starting material for making ceramics

C04B 2235/5212

Special rules of classification

If a certain polymer is specified as additive, one of the subclasses of C04B 35/634 can be given, to indicate the specific polymer. C04B 35/6325, C04B 35/636, C04B 35/6365 and C04B 35/638 can be used as well. A certain amount of documents of clay mixtures with organic additives might have received C04B 35/632 or one of the subclasses, such as one of the polymer additive classes (C04B 35/634 and subclasses) without having received the class C04B 33/1305. If the organic additive is a binder, C04B 33/1315 is given as well.

{Inorganic additives}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All inorganic additives added to form the product

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Inorganic additives to ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 35/6303 and subclasses

Inorganic additives that are added to the clay material to create porosity after a heat treatment

C04B 38/06 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides, as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/32 and subgroups

Non-metal oxides, mixed non-metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides, as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/34 and subgroups

Glass starting materials for making ceramics, e.g. silica glass

C04B 2235/36 and subgroup

Non-oxides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/38 and subgroups

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

Non metallic elements as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. sulphur, phosphor, selenium or tellurium

C04B 2235/42 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If a certain inorganic is specified as additive, C04B 35/6306 or one of its subclasses, or C04B 35/6316 can, if appropriate be given. A certain amount of documents of clay mixtures with inorganic additives might have received C04B 35/6303 or one of the subclasses without having received the class C04B 33/131. The class has not been used in the years 1983-2005. If the inorganic additive is a binder, C04B 33/1315 is given as well. If none of the subclasses of C04B 35/6303 is appropriate, symbol from the range C04B 2235/32-C04B 2235/549 can be given.

{Non-ceramic binders}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Binders for clay mixtures that are neither clay materials themselves nor ceramic materials as classified in C04B 35/01-C04B 35/597.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Binders for ceramic products

C04B 35/63- C04B 35/638

Binders for refractory moulds

B22C 1/16 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

The binder is normally also classified in either C04B 33/1305 or C04B 33/131. If the binder is one of the materials classified in C04B 35/6306 (and subclasses), C04B 35/6316, C04B 35/634 (and subclasses) or C04B 35/636 (and subclasses), the respective additive class from C04B 35/00 is given as well. If none of the subclasses of C04B 35/6303 or C04B 35/632 is appropriate, symbol from the range C04B 2235/32-C04B 2235/549 can be given.

Waste materials; Refuse; {Residues} (C04B 33/16 takes precedence; {waste glass C04B 33/13})
Definition statement

This place covers:

The use of waste materials to make clay objects, not covered by any of the subclasses, such as silica fume, except for waste glass.

Relationships with other classification places

Disposal of solid waste B09B

Removing ash, clinker, or slag from combustion chamber F21J

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The addition of waste glass to clay materials

C04B 33/13

Adding lean materials, e.g. grog quartz

C04B 33/16

The addition of waste materials to ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 35/62204 and subgroups

Waste materials that are added to the clay material to create porosity after a heat treatment

C04B 38/065

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cements containing slag

C04B 7/14 and subgroups

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 18/04 and subgroups

Use of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, or treatment of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse, specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: waste material from metallurgical processes being silica fume

C04B 18/146 and subgroups

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators: waste inorganic materials

C04B 22/0006

Coating or impregnating of mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics with waste materials

C04B 41/4598

Phosphates or phosphites (calcium phosphates C04B 2235/3212) as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. orthophosphate (PO43-), pyrophosphate (P2O74-), hypophosphite (H2PO2-), or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/447

Manufacture of articles from scrap or waste metal particles

B22F 8/00

Active carbon from waste materials, e.g. tyres, spent sulphite pulp liquor

C01B 32/324

Preparation of alkali metal aluminates; aluminium oxide or hydroxide there from by treating aluminous minerals or waste-like raw materials with alkali hydroxide,

C01F 7/06

Melting in furnaces of glass-forming waste materials

C03B 5/005

Use of waste materials, e.g. slags as ingredients generally applicable to manufacture of glasses, glazes, or vitreous enamels

C03C 1/002

Devitrified glass ceramics containing waste materials, e.g. slags

C03C 10/0063

Foundations for pavings characterised by material or composition used, e.g. waste or recycled material

E01C 3/003

Special rules of classification

If more than one type of waste is used as additive for making one and the same clay object, all types of wastes are indicated with the appropriate class. Also when only small amounts are added, e.g. less than 5 wt% of the respective waste material, it is still being classified.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Devitrified glass ceramics

glass ceramics having a crystalline phase dispersed in a glassy phase and constituting at least 50% by weight of the total composition

{Waste slurries, e.g. harbour sludge, industrial muds (slurries of specific well-defined waste streams, e.g. phosphate muds, other than red mud, C04B 33/132)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The use of waste slurries such as unburned sewage sludge for making clay objects

Relationships with other classification places

Treatment of water, waste water, sewage, or sludge C02F

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Slurries of specific well-defined waste streams, e.g. phosphate muds, other than red mud

C04B 33/132

The use of burned sewage sludge for making clay objects

C04B 33/1357

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: wet materials, e.g. slurries

C04B 18/0418

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: dredged harbour or river sludge

C04B 18/0436

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators: waste slurries or solutions used as gauging water

C04B 22/0046

Use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients in polymers: waste materials, e.g. treated or untreated sewage sludge

C08K 11/005

Incineration of waste adapted for burning two or more kinds, e.g. liquid and solid, of waste being fed through separate inlets

F23G 5/008

Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste for sludges or waste products from water treatment installations

F23G 7/001

{Red mud}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The use of unburned red mud for making clay objects

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. waste from the purification of bauxite, e.g. red mud

C04B 18/0409

Titanium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rutile or anatase

C04B 2235/3232 and subgroups

Iron oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. hematite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4)

C04B 2235/3272 and subgroup

Preparation of alkali metal aluminates; aluminium oxide or hydroxide there from by treating aluminous minerals or waste-like raw materials with alkali hydroxide: separation of the insoluble residue, e.g. red mud

C01F 7/0646 and subgroup

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Red mud

Is a solid waste product of the Bayer process, the principal industrial means of refining bauxite in order to provide alumina as raw material for the electrolysis of aluminium by the Hall–Héroult process. A typical plant produces one to two times as much red mud as alumina. This ratio is dependent on the type of bauxite used in the refining process. Red mud is composed of a mixture of solid and metallic oxide-bearing impurities, and presents one of the aluminium industry's most important disposal problems. The red colour is caused by the oxidised iron present, which can make up to 60% of the mass of the red mud. In addition to iron, the other dominant particles include silica, unleached residual aluminium, and titanium oxide.

{Recycled material, e.g. tile dust, stone waste, spent refractory material}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Residues from sawing stones or ceramics, left refractory material, etc. is used for making a clay product

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hydraulic cements from waste building materials, e.g. waste asbestos-cement products, demolition waste

C04B 7/246

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: waste from quarries, mining or the like

C04B 18/12 and subgroup

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: waste from building or ceramic industry

C04B 18/16 and subgroup

Grain-sized magnesia-based refractories

C04B 35/043 and subgroups

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories

C04B 35/101 and subgroups

Grain-sized titania-based refractories

C04B 35/46 and C04B 35/66

Grain-sized zirconia-based refractories

C04B 35/482

Grain-sized silicon carbide-based refractories

C04B 35/565 and subgroups, and C04B45/66

Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars

C04B 35/66

Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; grain structures thereof

B22C 1/00 and subgroups

{Hazardous waste other than combustion residues (dredging sludge C04B 33/1321)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For instance waste containing halogens.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Treating radioactively contaminated material; decontamination arrangements therefore; treating liquids by fixation in an inorganic matrix, e.g. clays, zeolite

G21F 9/162

Treating radioactively contaminated material; decontamination arrangements therefore; treating solids by fixation in an inorganic matrix

G21F 9/302

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Waste asbestos fibers added as filler to concrete, cement, mortar or artificial stone

C04B 14/405

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: hazardous waste

C04B 18/0463

Dredging sludge waste used for making clay wares

C04B 33/1321

Halide containing anions as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. chlorate (ClO3-), bromide (Br-), iodate (IO3-), chlorite (ClO2-), or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/444

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substances

A62D 3/00 and subgroups

Treating radioactively contaminated material; decontamination arrangements therefore

G21F 9/00 and subgroups

{containing heavy metals}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste containing metals or metal salts such as V, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Co, Ni, Cd, Hg, Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, etc. being used as additive for making clay products.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: hazardous waste contaminated by heavy metals

C04B 18/0472

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

C04B 2235/3224

Vanadium oxides, vanadates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. magnesium vanadate (Mg2V2O7).

C04B 2235/3239

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

Niobium or tantalum oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Nb2O5 or Ta2O5

C04B 2235/3251 and subgroup

Molybdenum oxides, molybdates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. cadmium molybdate (CdMoO4)

C04B 2235/3256

Tungsten oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. scheelite (CaWO4)

C04B 2235/3258 and subgroup

Manganese or rhenium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. MnO

C04B 2235/3262 and subgroups

Cobalt oxides, cobaltites or cobaltates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc cobaltite (ZnCo2O4) or bismuth cobaltate (BiCoO3)

C04B 2235/3275 and subgroup

Nickel oxides, nickelates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. NiO

C04B 2235/3279

Copper oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. CuO or Cu2O

C04B 2235/3281 and subgroup

Zinc oxides, zincates, cadmium oxides, cadmiates, mercury oxides, mercurates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. ZnO

C04B 2235/3284

Gallium oxides, gallates, indium oxides, indates, thallium oxides, thallates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4)

C04B 2235/3286

Germanium oxides, N:antimonite or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. copper N:antimonite (CuGeO3)

C04B 2235/3287

Noble metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. IrO2, PdO, RhO2

C04B 2235/3289 and subgroup

Tin oxides, stannates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g., indium tin oxide (ITO)

C04B 2235/3293

Antimony oxides, antimonates, antimonites or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, indium antimonite (InSbO4)

C04B 2235/3294

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc bismuthate (Zn(BiO3)2)

C04B 2235/3298

{without additional clay}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alumino-silicate products made by sintering waste materials, without adding any clay material.

Special rules of classification

Normally a document that is classified in this class will also receive one of the other waste classes from C04B 33/00, to indicate the type of waste material.

Combustion residues, e.g. fly ash, incineration waste {(silica fume C04B 33/132)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The residues of the combustion of all wastes not covered by one of the subgroups, e.g. residues of the combustion of hazardous waste, refuse

Relationships with other classification places

Removal or treatment of combustion products or combustion residues F23J

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fly ash used in cement

C04B 28/021

Silica fume added as ingredient for clay mixtures

C04B 33/132

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hydraulic cements from combustion residues, e.g. ashes or slags from waste incineration

C04B 7/28

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: combustion residues, e.g. purification products of smoke, fumes or exhaust gases

C04B 18/06 and subgroups

Hydraulic ash cements, e.g. fly ash cements, cements based on incineration residues, kiln dust cements

C04B 28/021

Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware, by burning-out added substances: waste material; refuse other than vegetable refuse

C04B 38/0665

Chemical or biological purification of waste gases

B01D 53/34

{Fuel ashes, e.g. fly ash}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All fuel ashes, usually coal ashes from the burning of coal, which results in a light fraction, the fly ash or flue dust and the heavy fraction the (coal) bottom ash.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ashes, such as fly ashes, from the burning of household waste, municipal waste, industrial waste, general garbage and sewage sludge

C04B 33/1355 and C04B 33/1357

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Slaking of impure quick lime, e.g. contained in fly ash

C04B 2/063

Hydraulic cements with activators or composition-correcting additives, e.g. mixtures of fly ash and alkali activators

C04B 7/243

Hydraulic cements from raw materials containing flue dust, i.e. fly ash

C04B 7/26

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: residues from coal gasification

C04B 18/065

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: combustion residues: flue dust, i.e. fly ash

C04B 18/08 and subgroups

Ash cements, e.g. fly ash cements

C04B 28/021

Preparation of alkali metal aluminates; aluminium oxide or hydroxide there from by treating aluminous minerals from waste-like raw materials, e.g. fly ash, Bayer calcination dust with alkali hydroxide,

C01F 7/0693

Working up raw materials other than ores, e.g. scrap, to produce non-ferrous metals and compounds thereof: working-up flue dust

C22B 7/02

Devices for conducting smoke or fumes, e.g. flues

F23J 11/00 and subgroups

Fittings for chimneys or flues

F23J 13/00 and subgroups

Arrangement of devices for treating smoke or fumes

F23J 15/00 and subgroups

{Incineration residues}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The residues from the incineration of household waste, municipal waste, industrial waste, general garbage

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

All ashes from fuel burning, such as fly ash or bottom ash from coal combustion

C04B 33/1352

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cements containing slags from waste incineration

C04B 7/28

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: combustion residues: burned or pyrolised refuse

C04B 18/10 and subgroups

Incineration of waste, incinerator constructions; details, accessories or control therefore

F23G 5/00 and subgroups

Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals

F23G 7/00 and subgroups

Treating radioactively contaminated material; decontamination arrangements therefore; treating liquids by incineration; by calcination, e.g. desiccation

G21F 9/14

Treating radioactively contaminated material; decontamination arrangements therefore; treating solids by incineration

G21F 9/32

{Sewage sludge ash or slag}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sewage sludge that has been burned/incinerated is used as additive for making clay objects

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sewage sludge that not has been burned/incinerated is used as additive for making clay objects

C04B 33/132

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: combustion residues: burned or pyrolised sludges

C04B 18/103

Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals for sludges or waste products from water treatment installations

F23G 7/001

from metallurgical processes, e.g. slag, furnace dust, galvanic waste
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste materials resulting from metallurgical processes that are used for making clay products.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Use of silica fume from metallurgical processes for making clay materials

C04B 33/132

Combusted metallurgical waste products used for making clay products

C04B 33/135

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Treatment of metallurgical slag. Artificial stone from molten metallurgical slag

C04B 5/00 and subgroups

Hydraulic cements containing metallurgical slag

C04B 7/147 and subgroups

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: waste from metallurgical processes

C04B 18/14 and subgroup

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulphates: slag cements

C04B 28/08 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating e.g. injection in masonry, partial coating of green or fired ceramics with masses bonded by inorganic slag cements

C04B 41/5083

Manufacture of articles from scrap or waste metal particles

B22F 8/00

Shaping clay or other ceramic compositions, slag or mixtures containing cementitious material e.g. plaster: specially adapted for producing articles from molten material, e.g. slag

B28B 1/54

Manufacture or treatment of flakes, fibres, or filaments from softened glass, minerals, or slags

C03B 37/00 and subgroups

Ingredients generally applicable to manufacture of glasses, glazes, or vitreous enamels: use of waste materials, e.g. slags

C03C 1/002

Devitrified glass ceramics containing waste materials, e.g. slags

C03C 10/0063

General features in the manufacture of pig-iron: recovery of by-products, e.g. slag

C21B 3/04 and subgroups

Making pig-iron in the blast furnace: making slag of special composition

C21B 5/04

Manufacture of carbon-steel: processes yielding slags of special composition

C21C 5/06 , C21C 5/36, C21C 5/54

Working up raw materials other than ores, e.g. scrap, to produce non-ferrous metals and compounds thereof: working-up slag

C22B 7/04

Equipment for removing or retaining slag

F27D 3/1545 and subgroup

Devices or methods for removing incrustations, e.g. slag, metal deposits, dust; Devices or methods for preventing the adherence of slag

F27D 25/00 and subgroup

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Devitrified glass ceramics

glass ceramics having a crystalline phase dispersed in a glassy phase and constituting at least 50% by weight of the total composition

Slag

A partially vitreous by-product of smelting ore to separate the metal fraction from the unwanted fraction. It can usually be considered to be a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. However, slags can contain metal sulfides (see also matte) and metal atoms in the elemental form.

Colouring matters
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clays products of which the colour is specified or to which a colouring additive is added.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The colouring of glazes

C04B 41/5022

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Iron oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. hematite (Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4)

C04B 2235/3272 and subgroup

Colouring of ceramics or refractories

C04B 2235/9661

Pigments for ceramics

C09C 1/0009 and subgroup

Pigments exhibiting interference colours

C09C 1/0015, C09C 2200/00 and subgroups

Pigments consisting of flaky, non-metallic substrates, characterised by a surface-region containing free metal

C09C 1/0078

Composite particulate pigments or fillers, i.e. containing at least two solid phases, except those consisting of coated particles of one compound

C09C 1/0081 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: metallic pigments or fillers

C09C 1/62 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

The colouring additives that are added, e.g. iron oxide or cobalt oxide, are normally classified with a symbol from the C04B 2235/00-scheme.

Lean materials, e.g. grog, quartz
Definition statement

This place covers:

The addition of lean materials such as grog, quartz, alumina to the clay mixture.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Materials consisting mainly out of grog/chamotte

C04B 33/22

Ceramic silica based materials

C04B 35/14

Ceramic silicate based materials

C04B 35/16 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: granular materials: quartz; sand

C04B 14/06 and subgroups

Use of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, treatment of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse, specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: grog

C04B 18/025

Silicon oxide, silicic acids, or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silica sol, fused silica, silica fume, cristobalite, quartz or flint, e.g. silicic acid H2Si2O5

C04B 2235/3418

Special rules of classification

The lean materials that are added, e.g. quartz or alumina, are normally classified with a symbol from the C04B 2235/00-scheme.

If the phase composition of the sintered clay material is specified, C04B 35/16 or one of its subgroup might be given to indicate the main phase of the sintered clay product.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Grog

Also known as firesand and chamotte, is a ceramic raw material. It has high percentage of silica and alumina. It can be produced by firing selected fire clays to high temperature before grinding and screening to specific particle sizes. It can also be produced from pitchers. The particle size distribution is generally coarser in size than the other raw materials used to prepare clay bodies. It tends to be porous and have low density. It is available as a powder, mortar, or in the form of fire bricks. Grog is composed of: 40% minimum alumina (Al2O3), 30% minimum silica (SiO2), 4% maximum Iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), and 2% maximum of calcium oxide (CaO) and magnesium oxide (MgO) combined.[1]

Lean materials

materials having a high percentage in silica and/or alumina, containing little alkali metal oxides, alkaline earth metal oxides, iron oxides, etc.

for liquefying the batches
Definition statement

This place covers:

Making slurries of clay materials. Adding additives to facilitate the formation and/or stability of clay material slurries

Special rules of classification

The additives used to liquefy the batches are indicated with the classes C04B 33/1305, C04B 33/131 and C04B 33/1315, the classes C04B 35/6306-C04B 35/6316, C04B 35/6325 and C04B 35/63404-C04B 35/638. Symbols from the range C04B 2235/00 and subgroups can be used as well.

for dry-pressing (C04B 33/13 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

The preparation of the powder to improve the pressing properties and methods of dry-pressing the powder.

Relationships with other classification places

Mechanical aspects of pressing clay materials B28B

Presses in general B30B

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compounding ingredients of clay mixtures

C04B 33/13 and subgroups

Dry-pressing clay at sintering temperatures

C04B 33/326

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressing at sintering temperatures of ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 35/645 and subgroup

Pressing at non-sintering temperatures of ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 2235/604

Making metallic articles by compacting

B22F 3/02 and subgroups

Mechanical aspects of hot-pressing ceramic materials

B28B 3/025

Press moulds and press-ram assemblies for shaping clay or other ceramic compositions

B28B 7/0097

Grog products
Definition statement

This place covers:

Materials consisting mainly out of grog/chamotte

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clay products or clay compositions to which grog/chamotte is added as a minority additive

C04B 33/16

Special rules of classification

If the phase composition of the sintered clay material is specified, C04B 35/14, C04B 35/16 or one of its subgroups might be given to indicate the main phase of the sintered product.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Grog

Also known as firesand and chamotte, is a ceramic raw material. It has high percentage of silica and alumina. It can be produced by firing selected fire clays to high temperature before grinding and screening to specific particle sizes. It can also be produced from pitchers. The particle size distribution is generally coarser in size than the other raw materials used to prepare clay bodies. It tends to be porous and have low density. It is available as a powder, mortar, or in the form of fire bricks. Grog is composed of: 40% minimum alumina (Al2O3), 30% minimum silica (SiO2), 4% maximum Iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), and 2% maximum of calcium oxide (CaO) and magnesium oxide (MgO) combined.[1]

Manufacture of porcelain or white ware
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions that lead to porcelain, e.g. containing high amount of china clay, are being used

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating of green or fired ceramics with porcelain

C04B 41/5038

Porcelain or ceramic teeth

A61C 13/083

Porcelain materials for prosthesis

A61F 2310/00335

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of porcelain

A61F 2310/0094

Special rules of classification

If the phase composition of the sintered clay material is specified, C04B 35/14, C04B 35/16 or one of its subgroups might be given to indicate the main phase of the sintered clay product.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Porcelain

ceramic material made by heating raw materials, generally including clay in the form of kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 °C (2,192 °F) and 1,400 °C (2,552 °F). The toughness, strength, and translucence of porcelain arise mainly from the formation of glass and the mineral mullite within the fired body at these high temperatures

of porcelain for electrical insulation
Definition statement

This place covers:

Porcelain used in the electric industry

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Abrasives

C09K 3/14

Selection of ferrites for their magnetic properties

H01F 1/34

Slip casting (mechanical features B28B 1/26)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Slip casting of clay/porcelain mixtures

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanical features of slip-casting clay materials

B28B 1/26 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Slip casting of ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 2235/6027

Semi-permeable inorganic membranes for separation processes made by slurry techniques, e.g. die or slip-casting

B01D 67/0046

Slip casting metallic articles

B22F 3/22

Making clay or ceramic tubular articles by slip casting and moulds therefore

B28B 21/08

Slip casting plastics

B29C 41/16

Drying methods
Definition statement

This place covers:

Drying methods for clay-based powder slurries or clay-based green bodies

Relationships with other classification places

Drying solid materials or objects by removing liquid therefrom F26B

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanical aspects of drying clay objects

B28B 11/243

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Drying ceramic or refractory powder mixtures

C04B 35/62655

Processes, in general, for influencing or modifying the properties of mortars, concrete or artificial stone compositions: Selection of the hardening environment

C04B 40/02 and subgroups

Removal of physically bonded water from cement or ceramics, e.g. drying of hardened concrete

C04B 41/5307

Drying of green ceramic or refractory bodies

C04B 2235/606

Processing clay- or ceramic containing substances in non-fluid condition by heating, drying

B28C 1/227

Surface treatment of glass not in the form of fibres or filaments: drying; dehydroxylation]

C03C 23/0085

Burning methods
Definition statement

This place covers:

All specific burning and sintering methods used for shaped clay materials, e.g. using a specific heating or cooling rate, a specific furnace, a specific atmosphere

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Heat treatments of clay powders

C04B 35/62645 and subgroups

Superficial sintering of clay objects with the goal of creating a porous object

C04B 38/0038 and subgroup

Mechanical aspects of sintering clay objects

B28B 11/243

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Heat treatment, e.g. precalcining, burning, melting; cooling of hydraulic cements

C04B 7/43 and subgroups

Burning or sintering processes of ceramic or refractory products

C04B 35/64

Processes, in general, for influencing or modifying the properties of mortars, concrete or artificial stone compositions: making use of a rise in temperature, e.g. caused by an exothermic reaction

C04B 40/0082

Processes, in general, for influencing or modifying the properties of mortars, concrete or artificial stone compositions: heating up to sintering temperatures

C04B 40/0268

After-treatment of mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics: heat treatment

C04B 41/0072

Aspects relating to heat treatment of ceramic bodies such as green ceramics or pre-sintered ceramics, e.g. burning, sintering or melting processes

C04B 2235/65 and subgroups

Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; apparatus specially adapted therefore; Presses and furnaces

B22F 3/00 and subgroups

Manufacture of composite layers, workpieces, or articles, comprising metallic powder, by sintering the powder, with or without compacting wherein at least one part is obtained by sintering or compression

B22F 7/00 and subgroups

Sintering glass

C03B 19/06 and subgroups

Shaft or like vertical or substantially vertical furnaces wherein no smelting of the charge occurs, e.g. calcining or sintering furnaces

F27B 1/005

Special rules of classification

When giving this class, it should be checked if one of the symbols from the range C04B 2235/65-C04B 2235/668 is applicable. If so, this symbol should be given as well.

{involving melting, fusion or softening}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Complete melting of the clay material or at least to a large extent

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Heat treatments such as] calcining; fusing pyrolysis in general

B01J 6/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Artificial stone from molten metallurgical slag

C04B 5/00 and subgroups

Artificial stone obtained by melting at least part of the composition, e.g. metal

C04B 32/005

Melting of material to make a ceramic powder

C04B 35/62665

Melting of ceramic or refractory material to make a bulk ceramic

C04B 35/653 and subgroup

Porous clay ceramics obtained by generating pores in the ceramic material while in the molten state

C04B 38/0087

Processes, in general, for influencing or modifying the properties of mortars, concrete or artificial stone composition: involving melting of at least part of the composition

C04B 40/0085

Thermally activated mortars, e.g. by melting ingredients

C04B 40/0691

Coating or impregnating "in situ", e.g. impregnating of artificial stone by subsequent melting of a compound added to the artificial stone composition

C04B 41/0018

Coating or impregnating applied from the molten state; thermal spraying, e.g. plasma spraying

C04B 41/4523 and subgroup

Superficial melting of the ceramic substrate before or during the coating or impregnating step

C04B 41/4588

Shaping methods specially adapted for producing clay or ceramic articles from molten material, e.g. slag refractory ceramic materials

B28B 1/54

Special rules of classification

When giving this class, it should be checked if one of the symbols from the range C04B 2235/65-C04B 2235/668 is applicable. If so, this symbol should be given as well.

{under pressure}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods such as sinterforging, HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), SPS (spark plasma sintering).

Relationships with other classification places

Presses in general B30B

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Pressing and heating of the clay green compact at the same time at temperatures lower than the sintering temperature

C04B 33/20

Processes using ultra high pressure, e.g. for the formation of diamonds; apparatus therefore, e.g. moulds, dies

B01J 3/06 and subgroups

Mechanical aspects of hot-pressing clay materials

B28B 3/025

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressure sintering of ceramics and refractories

C04B 35/645 and subgroup

Pressing at non-sintering temperatures of ceramic or refractory mixtures

C04B 2235/604

Using constraining layers before or during sintering of ceramic laminates or ceramic substrates that are joined with other substrates

C04B 2237/56 and subgroups

Both compacting and sintering of metallic articles

B22F 3/12

Both compacting and sintering of metallic articles by forging

B22F 3/17

Hot-pressing glass powder

C03B 19/063

Special rules of classification

When giving this class, it should be checked if one of the symbols from the range C04B 2235/65-C04B 2235/668 is applicable. If so, this symbol should be given as well. If SPS is used, C04B 2235/666 should be given as well.

combined with glazing
Definition statement

This place covers:

Applying a glaze, engobe or enamel before sintering and then sinter.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Method of applying the glaze and/or choice of the substrate for glazing

C04B 41/5022 and subgroup, C04B 41/86

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with engobes

C04B 41/504

Mechanical aspects of glazing clay objects

B28B 11/044

Composition of enamels and glazes

C03C 8/00 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

When giving this class, it should be checked if one of the symbols from the range C04B 2235/65-C04B 2235/668 is applicable. If so, this symbol should be given as well.

Reinforced clay-wares
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clay materials containing macro-additives such as fibers and/or whiskers, that give strength to the compact

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clay materials having additives such as binders, waste material, colouring additives

C04B 33/1315, C04B 33/132 and subgroups, C04B 33/14 (respectively)

Mechanical aspects of shaping clay objects containing fibers

B28B 1/52

Arrangements specially adapted for the production of shaped ceramic articles with elements wholly or partly embedded in the moulding material; production of reinforced objects

B28B 23/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fibrous materials and whiskers added to cement, concrete, mortar or artificial stone

C04B 14/38 and subgroups, C04B 20/0048 and subgroups

Compositions for artificial stone, not containing binders, containing fibrous materials

C04B 30/02

Making ceramic fibers per se

C04B 35/62227

Coating ceramic and carbon fibers

C04B 35/62844 and subgroups

Ceramic material reinforced with fibers

C04B 35/71 and subclasses, e.g. C04B 35/83, C/C composites

Fibers used in ceramic composition

C04B 2235/5208 and subgroups

Fiber or whisker reinforced substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/38

Making metallic fibers per se

B22F 1/004

The synthesis of glass fibers

C03B 37/01 and subgroups

Glass fibre or filament compositions

C03C 13/00 and subgroups

Glass compositions containing a non-glass component, e.g. compositions containing fibres, filaments, whiskers, platelets, or the like, dispersed in a glass matrix

C03C 14/00

Making fibers of inorganic material, not being glass, metallic or ceramic, e.g. carbon

D01F 9/12

Special rules of classification

The classes C04B 35/71-C04B 35/83 are not used in combination with C04B 33/36. The reinforcements are indicated with symbol from the scheme C04B 2235/00-C04B 2235/549, and mainly from the range C04B 2235/5208-C04B 2235/5296 (different types of fiber additives).

Shaped ceramic products characterised by their composition {(porous ceramic products C04B 38/00; ceramic articles characterised by particular shape, see the relevant classes, e.g. linings for casting ladles, tundishes, cups or the like B22D 41/02; ceramic substrates for microelectronic semi-conductors H01L 23/15)}; Ceramics compositions (containing free metal bonded to carbides, diamond, oxides, borides, nitrides, silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, e.g. oxynitrides or sulfides other than as macroscopic reinforcing agents C22C; {shaping of ceramics B28B}); Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products {(chemical preparation of powders of inorganic compounds C01; infiltration of sintered ceramic preforms with molten metal C04B 41/51)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramic compositions or refractories based on oxides or oxide mixtures or solid solutions of two or more oxides; processes for their manufacture.

Ceramic compositions based on rare earth compounds or on compounds of actinides; processes for their manufacture.

Ceramic compositions or refractories based on non-oxides, e.g. on carbon, sulphides, selenides, fluorides, carbides, borides, nitrides or silicides; processes for their manufacture.

Monolithic refractories or refractory mortars, including those whether or not containing clay; processes for their manufacture.

Ceramic products containing macroscopic reinforcing agents, e.g. shaped metallic or non-metallic materials; processes for their manufacture.

Shaped ceramic products or refractories characterised by their composition; processes for manufacturing these shaped ceramic products or refractories:

  • Shaped products obtained by a ceramic-forming technique;
  • Shaped products obtained from polymer precursors;
  • Shaped products obtained by Sol-Gel processing;
  • Shaped products obtained by Rapid Prototyping techniques;
  • Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of the shaped products ;
  • Additives specially adapted for forming the shaped products , e.g. binders;

Processes characterised by the burning or sintering step.

Shaped products obtained by processes involving a melting step.

Relationships with other classification places

Filters, membranes for separation processes B01D

Catalysts B01J

Working by grinding or polishing B24

Mechanical features relating to the working of mortars, concrete, stone, clay-wares or ceramics , e.g. mixing or shaping ceramic compositions, boring natural stone B28B

Chemical preparation of powders of inorganic compounds C01

Chemical composition of glasses, glazes, or vitreous enamels C03C

Treating inorganic non-fibrous materials to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties C09C, C09C

Compositions containing free metal bonded to carbides, diamond, oxides, borides, nitrides, silicides, e.g. cermets, or other metal compounds, such as oxynitrides or sulphides, other than as macroscopic reinforcing agents C22C

Furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts F27

Basic electric elements H01

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clay-wares

C04B 33/00 and subgroups

Devitrified glass-ceramics

C03C 10/00 and subgroups

Manufacture of carbon fibres

D01F 9/12 and subgroups

Casings, linings, walls, roofs of furnaces, kilns, ovens, or retorts

F27D 1/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Joining of a ceramic layer to another layer

C04B 37/00 and subgroups

Obtaining porous ceramic products

C04B 38/00 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with ceramic material

C04B 41/5025 and subgroups, C04B 41/87

Infiltration of sintered ceramic preforms with molten metal

C04B 41/51

Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products

C04B 2235/00 and subgroups

Ceramic interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/04 and subgroups

Ceramic substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/32 and subgroups

Dental prostheses, e.g. porcelain or ceramic teeth

A61C 13/08 and subgroups

Ceramic materials for prostheses or for coating prostheses

A61L 27/10 and subgroup

Ceramic material for prosthesis

A61L 27/10

Materials for catheters or for coating catheters

A61L 29/00 and subgroups

Materials for other surgical articles

A61L 31/00 and subgroups

Inorganic membranes

B01D 71/02 and subgroups

Articles characterised by particular shape, see the relevant classes, e.g. linings for casting ladles, tundishes, cups or the like

B22D 41/02 and subgroups

Producing shaped articles from the material , e.g. by slip-casting

B28B 1/00 and subgroups

Apparatus or methods for mixing clay or ceramic with other substances

B28C 3/00 and subgroups

Proportioning the ingredients for mixing clay or cement with other substances

B28C 7/00 and subgroups

Layered products essentially comprising ceramics , e.g. refractory products

B32B 18/00

Printing plates or foils; Materials therefore made entirely of inorganic materials other than natural stone or metals, e.g. ceramics, carbide materials, ferroelectric materials]

B41N 1/006

Luminescent materials

C09K 11/00 and subgroups

Fireproofing materials

C09K 21/00 and subgroups

Alloys based on carbides, oxides, borides, nitrides or silicides, e.g. cermets

C22C 29/00 and subgroups

Materials for coating by flame or plasma spraying

C23C 4/10 and subgroups

Materials for coating by sputtering, e.g. ceramic targets

C23C 14/06 and subgroups

Single crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure

C30B 29/00 and subgroups

Ceramics; oxides in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/08 and subgroups

Materials for parts of bearings, e.g. sliding-contact bearings

F16C 33/00 and subgroups

Materials for friction linings

F16D 69/02 and subgroups

Materials for pistons, trunk pistons, plungers

F16J 1/01 and subgroups

Materials for piston-rings or seats therefore

F16J 9/26 and subgroups

Materials for rigid pipes, of glass or ceramics, e.g. clay, clay tile, porcelain

F16L 9/10 and subgroups

Materials for protection of pipes or pipe fittings against corrosion or incrustation

F16L 58/00 and subgroups

Shades containing photoluminescent material

F21V 1/17

Refractors containing photoluminescent material

F21V 5/10

Reflectors containing photoluminescent material

F21V 7/26

Elements containing photoluminescent material distinct from or spaced from the light source

F21V 9/30

Elements with provision for controlling the spectral properties or intensity containing photoluminescent material

F21V 9/45

Casings, linings, walls of combustion chambers characterised by the shape of the bricks or blocks

F23M 5/02 and subgroups

Arrangement or mounting of linings for fire-boxes, e.g. fire-back

F24B 13/02 and subgroups

Shaft or vertical furnaces in general

F27B 1/00 and subgroups

Measuring steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or a fluent solid material by electric or magnetic pressure-sensitive elements. Transmitting or indicating the displacement of mechanical pressure-sensitive elements, used to measure the steady or quasi-steady pressure of a fluid or fluent solid material by electric or magnetic means using a ceramic diaphragm, e.g. alumina, fused quartz, glass

G01L 9/0075

Ceramics; Glasses; Refractories as protection against x-radiation, gamma radiation, corpuscular radiation or particle bombardment

G21F 1/06

Materials for conductors or conductive bodies

H01B 1/00 and subgroups

Materials for insulators or insulating or dielectric bodies

H01B 3/00 and subgroups

Superconductive or hyperconductive conductors, cables, or transmission lines

H01B 12/00 and subgroups

Materials for varistor cores

H01C 7/105 and subgroups

Materials for magnets or magnetic bodies

H01F 1/00 and subgroups

Superconducting magnets or coils

H01F 6/00 and subgroups

Materials for fixed capacitors, e.g. ceramic dielectrics

H01G 4/12 and subgroups

Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices characterised by the material , e.g. ceramic substrates

H01L 23/00 and subgroups

Ceramic substrates for microelectronic semi-conductors

H01L 23/15

Details of semiconductor or other solid state devices characterised by the material , encapsulations, e.g. encapsulating layers, coatings, characterised by the material, Oxides or nitrides or carbides, e.g. ceramics, glass

H01L 23/291

Materials for superconductive or hyperconductive devices

H01L 39/00 and subgroups

Materials for piezo-electric or electrostrictive elements

H01L 41/00 and subgroups

Materials for inert electrodes with catalytic activity for electrochemical generators, e.g. for fuel cells

H01M 4/86 and subgroups

Fuel cells containing glass or ceramic materials

H01M 8/0215 and subgroups

Materials for solid electrolytes of fuel cells

H01M 8/10 and subgroups

Dielectric resonators of the waveguide type

H01P 7/10 and subgroups

Diaphragms comprising ceramic-like materials, e.g. pure ceramic, glass, boride, nitride, carbide, mica and carbon materials

H04R 2307/023

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

In this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, compositions are classified according to the constituent present in the highest proportion by weight.

In this group, magnesium is considered as an alkaline earth metal.

In this group, a composite is considered as a sintered mixture of different powdered materials, other than sintering aids, the materials being present as separate phases in the sintered product.

In this group, fine ceramics are considered as products having a polycrystalline fine-grained microstructure, e.g. of dimensions below 100 micrometers.

The production of ceramic powder is classified in this group in so far as it relates to the preparation of powder with specific characteristics. If the powder is used for making a sintered ceramic, it is classified in C04B 35/00, e.g. making alumina powder that is used for a sintered alumina ceramic. If the composition of powder is new, the preparation of the powder is classified as well, irrespective of whether a sintered ceramic is made, e.g. the preparation of a barium titanate powder with a new composition that is used as filler in polymers is still classified in C04B 35/00. A new method for making an already known ceramic powder that is not used for making a sintered ceramic is not classified in C04B 35/00, but in C01 or C09, e.g. a new method for making alumina powder that is used for abrasives or as polymer filler is not classified in C0B35.

Any ingredient of a refractory mortar composition containing a hydraulic cement , e.g. aluminous cement , classified in C04B 35/66, which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified according to the Last Place Rule of note (2) after the subclass title of C04B, in groups C04B 7/00 - C04B 24/00. This can for example be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of compositions using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given as "additional information". For example, such an additional classification in group C04B 24/00 may be given for an organic retarder added to the refractory mortar composition.

The symbols from C04B 2235/00 are usable for all documents classified in C04B 35/00 (as well as for C04B 33/00, C04B 37/00 and B32B 18/00). The symbols from C04B 2235/00 indicate additional information regarding additives used in the starting mixture, methods for making green bodies, aspects relating to the heat treatments that are given, secondary phases present in the final product, physical aspects of the final product and properties of the final product.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Ceramics

Inorganic, non metallic products obtained by a process involving a shaping step and a sintering or comparable heat treatment step, with the exclusion of cements, cermets and glasses, glazes, vitreous enamels and devitrified glass ceramics.

Fine ceramics

Ceramics having a polycrystalline fine-grained microstructure, e.g. of dimensions below 100 micrometer.

Glass-ceramic

having a crystalline phase dispersed in a glassy phase and constituting at least 50% by weight of the total composition

Refractories

Ceramics or mortars withstanding high temperatures of at least about 1500 degrees C. For classification and search in this subclass no substantial distinction is made between the terms "refractories" and "ceramics ".

Carbon-carbon composites

Products consisting of carbon fibres in a carbon matrix are usually referred to as "carbon-carbon composites ".

Porous materials

Materials which are deliberately made porous, e.g. by adding gas- forming, foaming, burnable or lightweight additives to the composition they are made of.

based on oxide ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

All oxide ceramics that are not classified in one of the sub-groups. These are for instance oxides based on gallium, indium, thallium, cobalt, nickel, noble metals, antimony, germanium, e.g. cobaltates, germanates, antimonates.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Oxide ceramics containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with oxide ceramic material

C04B 41/5027, C04B 41/5072

Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides, as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/32 and subgroups

Gallium oxides, gallates, indium oxides, indates, thallium oxides, thallates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4)

C04B 2235/3286

Germanium oxides, germanates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. copper germanate (CuGeO3)

C04B 2235/3287

Noble metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. IrO2, PdO, RhO2

C04B 2235/3289 and subgroup

Antimony oxides, antimonates, antimonites or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, indium antimonate (InSbO4)

C04B 2235/3294

Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc bismuthate (Zn(BiO3)2)

C04B 2235/3298

Non-metal oxides, mixed non-metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides, as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/34 and subgroups

Boron oxide or borate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3409

Oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/06 and subgroups

Oxide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/34 and subgroups

Materials for prostheses based on metal oxides

A61L 27/10 and subgroups

Oxide ceramic membranes

B01D 71/024 and subgroups

The preparation of gallium, indium or thallium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 15/00 and subgroups

The preparation of antimony compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 30/00 and subgroups

The preparation of cobalt compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 51/00 and subgroups

The preparation of nickel compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 53/00 and subgroups

The preparation of ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, or platinum compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 55/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of antimony

C09C 1/0096

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing germanates

C09K 11/0844

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing antimonates

C09K 11/0894

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing iron, nickel and cobalt

C09K 11/60 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing gallium, indium or thallium

C09K 11/62 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing germanium, tin or lead

C09K 11/66 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth

C09K 11/74 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth germanates

C09K 11/745

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth germinates

C09K 11/7707, C09K 11/7735, C09K 11/775, C09K 11/7775, C09K 11/7793

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth antimonates; arsenates

C09K 11/7714, C09K 11/7742, C09K 11/7782, C09K 11/7798

Oxide single crystals

C30B 29/16 and subgroups

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting oxides

H01C 7/043 and subgroups

Light-sensitive devices comprising an oxide semiconductor electrode

H01G 9/2027

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being an oxide

H01L 21/02403, H01L 21/02414

Electrodes for accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte, e.g. for lithium-accumulators; Processes of manufacture thereof: based on mixed oxides or hydroxides, or on mixtures of oxides or hydroxides, e.g. LiCoOx

H01M 4/131, H01M 4/1391

Fuel cells operating at high temperature, e.g. with stabilised ZrO2 electrolyte, Electrode material consisting of oxides

H01M 4/9025, and subgroup

Fuel cells operating at high temperature, e.g. with stabilised ZrO2 electrolyte, the electrolyte consisting of oxides

H01M 8/1246 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

Classification occurs by identifying which phase of the final product is present in the largest amount. This does not necessarily need to be more than 50%, you could also have 40% A, 35% B and 25% C. If there are two or more phases present in the same amount as the largest amount, all phases are classified, thus with 30% A, 30% B, 30% C and 10% D the phases A, B and C are all three classified. For example, a final product containing 50% zirconia and 50% alumina receives the classes C04B 35/119 (alumina reinforced with zirconia) and C04B 35/4885 (zirconia reinforced with alumina).

The alkali metal oxides, alkaline earth metal oxides and rare earth oxides form many different mixed oxides with other metal oxides. If alkali metal oxides, alkaline earth metal oxides and rare earth oxides are present in a mixed oxide with another metal oxide, the other metal oxide is almost always determining the classification.

The symbols from C04B 2235/00 are usable for all documents classified in C04B 35/00 (as well as for C04B 33/00, C04B 37/00 and B32B 18/00). The symbols from C04B 2235/00 indicate additional information regarding additives used in the starting mixture, methods for making green bodies, aspects relating to the heat treatments that are given, secondary phases present in the final product, physical aspects of the final product and properties of the final product.

{containing carbon (C04B 35/103 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxide ceramics containing carbon products, e.g. oxide refractories containing a carbon binder such as pitch, tar, bitumen (materials which are classified in C04B 35/63496), or oxide materials containing graphite, diamond or carbon black additives.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alumina-based refractories containing carbon

C04B 35/103

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bituminous additives for ceramic materials, e.g. tar, pitch

C04B 35/63496

Carbon as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/422 and subgroups

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. carbonising phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If the carbon additive is tar or pitch, C04B 35/63496 is given as well. The carbonaceous additives are further indicated with the symbols C04B 2235/424 (carbon black), C04B 2235/425 (graphite) and C04B 2235/427 (diamond). In the case polymeric additives from the classes C04B 35/63404 and subgroups, C04B 35/63448 and subgroups and C04B 35/63492 are added to an oxide ceramic mixture and are carbonised, C04B 2235/48 is given, but C04B 35/013 not.

{based on manganites}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on manganese oxide and all manganites and manganates, e.g. perovskites such as lanthanum manganate LaMnO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides containing more of other transition metal oxides, e.g. LaCo0.6Mn0.4O3

C04B 35/01 (for the cobaltate), C04B 2235/3227 (for the La), C04B 2235/3262 (for the Mn), C04B 2235/768 (for the perovskite structure)

Mixed oxides containing more of group 13-15 metal oxides, e.g. BaAl0.6Mn0.4O3

C04B 35/44 (for the aluminate), C04B 2235/3215 (for the Ba), C04B 2235/3262 (for the Mn), C04B 2235/768 (for the perovskite structure)

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with manganates

C04B 41/5028

Manganese or rhenium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. MnO

C04B 2235/3262 and subgroups

The preparation of manganese compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 45/00 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing manganese or rhenium

C09K 11/57 and subgroups

Electrolytic production of manganese oxides

C25B 1/21

Electrolytic production of electrodes based on manganese dioxide or lead dioxide

C25B 11/16

Manganite magnets

H01F 1/0317

Diluted non-magnetic ions in a magnetic cation-sublattice, e.g. La1-x(Ba,Sr)xMnO3

H01F 1/407

Electrodes for fuel cells and batteries composed of or comprising active material of manganese oxides or hydroxides

H01M 4/50 and subgroups

Fuel cells applied on a support operating at high temperature, the electrode being of complexed oxides, optionally doped, of the type M1MeO3, M1 being an alkaline earth metal or a rare earth, Me being a metal, e.g. perovskites, with the anode and the cathode in the form of gas diffusion electrodes

H01M 4/9033

based on magnesium oxide, calcium oxide or oxide mixtures derived from dolomite
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxides based on single oxide phases of MgO or CaO or mixed oxides of MgO and CaO, or mixed oxides of alkaline earth oxides with either alkali metal oxides and/or rare earth oxides, in which the alkaline earth metal oxide forms the largest fraction. Mixed oxides of magnesia/calcia with zirconium oxide, in which the amount of magnesia/calcia is larger than the amount of zirconia, e.g. Mg0.6Zr0.4Ox

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with both alumina and silica, e.g. cordierite

C04B 35/195

Mixed oxides of MgO with silica without alumina, e.g. forsterite (Mg2SiO4)

C04B 35/20

Mixed oxides of CaO with silica without alumina, e.g. wollastonite (CaSiO4)

C04B 35/22

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups, C04B 35/2683

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with chromium oxide, e.g. chromites

C04B 35/42

Mixed oxides of CaO with alumina, without silica, e.g. calcium aluminate

C04B 35/44

Mixed oxides of MgO with alumina, without silica, e.g. magnesium aluminate, spinel

C04B 35/443

Magnesium or calcium based phosphates

C04B 35/447

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with copper oxide, e.g. cuprates

C04B 35/45 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide, e.g. magnesium bismuthate

C04B 35/453

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with tin oxide, e.g. magnesium stannate

C04B 35/457

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with titanium oxides, such as magnesium titanate or calcium titanate

C04B 35/465

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with zirconium oxide, e.g. magnesium zirconate, containing more Zr than Mg and Ca

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide, e.g. calcium titanate zirconate (CaTi0.5Zr0.5O3)

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO and/or CaO with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide, e.g. magnesium tantalum niobate (MgNb0.5Ta0.5O3)

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Obtaining lime, magnesia or dolomite

C04B 2/00 and subgroups

Alkaline earth oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. BeO

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of alkaline earth metals or magnesium

C09C 1/02 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic alkaline earth metal compounds

C09K 11/0816, C09K 11/55

based on magnesium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxides based on single oxide phases of MgO, or mixed oxides of MgO with either alkali metal oxides and/or rare earth oxides, in which the MgO forms the largest fraction

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of MgO with both alumina and silica, e.g. cordierite

C04B 35/195

Mixed oxides of MgO with silica without alumina, e.g. forsterite (Mg2SiO4)

C04B 35/20

Mixed oxides of MgO with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups, C04B 35/2683

Mixed oxides of MgO with chromium oxide, e.g. chromites

C04B 35/42

Mixed oxides of MgO with alumina, without silica, e.g. magnesium aluminate, spinel

C04B 35/443

Magnesium based phosphates

C04B 35/447

Mixed oxides of MgO with copper oxide, e.g. cuprates

C04B 35/45 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide, e.g. magnesium bismuthate

C04B 35/453

Mixed oxides of MgO with tin oxide, e.g. magnesium stannate

C04B 35/457

Mixed oxides of MgO with titanium oxides, such as magnesium titanate

C04B 35/465

Mixed oxides of MgO with zirconium oxide, e.g. magnesium zirconate

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide, e.g. magnesium titanate zirconate (MgTi0.5Zr0.5O3)

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide, e.g. magnesium tantalum niobate (MgNb0.5Ta0.5O3)

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: magnesia

C04B 14/304

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: magnesia; magnesium hydroxide

C04B 22/066

Magnesium oxide or magnesium carbonate cements

C04B 28/105, C04B 28/30 and subgroup

Making fibres based on magnesium oxide

C04B 35/62263

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with magnesium oxide

C04B 41/5029, C04B 41/5084 (cementitious)

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3206

Materials for prostheses based on magnesia or magnesium oxide

A61F 2310/00197

Catalysts comprising the elements, oxides, or hydroxides of magnesium

B01J 21/10, C07C 2521/10

Preparation of magnesium compound powders, e.g. magnesium oxide powder

C01F 5/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds containing only magnesium as metal

C09C 1/028

Refractories from grain sized mixtures
Definition statement

This place covers:

MgO based refractories having large grains, the majority larger than 100 microns

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

MgO ceramics with the majority of the grain smaller than 100 microns

C04B 35/053

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories

C04B 35/101 and subgroups

Grain-sized titania-based refractories

C04B 35/46 and C04B 35/66

Grain-sized zirconia-based refractories

C04B 35/482

Grain-sized silicon carbide-based refractories

C04B 35/565 and subgroups, and C04B45/66

Monolithic refractories and refractory mortars

C04B 35/66

Using particles larger than 100 microns for making the ceramic

C04B 2235/5427

Bimodal, multi-modal or multi-fraction particle size distribution

C04B 2235/5472

Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof

B22C 1/00 and subgroups

{containing refractory metal compounds other than chromium oxide or chrome ore}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The majority of the refractory material is MgO, a minority a refractory metal oxide such alumina, zirconia, titania, or a refractory metal non-oxide such as a carbide or boride

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Titanium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rutile or anatase

C04B 2235/3232 and subgroups

Zirconium or hafnium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. HfO2

C04B 2235/3244 and subgroups

Borides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3804 and subgroups

Carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3817 and subgroups

containing chromium oxide or chrome ore
Definition statement

This place covers:

The refractory contains some type of chromium oxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fused magnesia refractories containing chromium oxide or chrome ore

C04B 35/051

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing chromium oxide or chromium ore

C04B 35/105

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

{obtained from fused grains}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Both refractories that are used directly after melting, either in particle or bulk form, as well as fused refractory that is sintered before use as refractory

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Complete fusion of the magnesia refractory without subsequent heat treatment

C04B 35/05

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fusing to make ceramic particles in general

C04B 35/62665

{obtained from prereacted sintered grains ("simultaneous sinter")}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The refractory mixture has been sintered before use

Refractories by fusion casting
Definition statement

This place covers:

The magnesia-based refractory has been melted

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Magnesia-based refractory that has been melted and subsequently sintered

C04B 35/0473

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Clay wares made by methods involving melting, fusion or softening

C04B 33/323

Alumina-based refractories made by fusion casting

C04B 35/107 and subgroup

Zirconia-based refractories made by fusion casting

C04B 35/484

Fusing to make ceramic particles in general

C04B 35/62665

Refractories in general made by fusion casting

C04B 35/657

Heat treatments such as] Calcining; Fusing Pyrolysis in general

B01J 6/00 and subgroups

{containing chromium oxide or chrome ore}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Melted MgO based refractory containing also chromium oxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Magnesia-based refractory containing chromium oxide or chrome ore that has been melted and subsequently sintered

C04B 35/0476

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing chromium oxide or chromium ore

C04B 35/105

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

Fine ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

MgO-based ceramics having a majority of grains with a size of below 100 microns. Oxides based on single oxide phases of MgO, or mixed oxides of MgO with either alkali metal oxides and/or rare earth oxides, in which the MgO forms the largest fraction.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of MgO with both alumina and silica, e.g. cordierite

C04B 35/195

Mixed oxides of MgO with silica without alumina, e.g. forsterite (Mg2SiO4)

C04B 35/20

Mixed oxides of MgO with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups, C04B 35/2683

Mixed oxides of MgO with chromium oxide, e.g. chromites

C04B 35/42

Mixed oxides of MgO with alumina, without silica, e.g. magnesium aluminate, spinel

C04B 35/443

Magnesium based phosphates

C04B 35/447

Mixed oxides of MgO with copper oxide, e.g. cuprates

C04B 35/45 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide, e.g. magnesium bismuthate

C04B 35/453

Mixed oxides of MgO with tin oxide, e.g. magnesium stannate

C04B 35/457

Mixed oxides of MgO with titanium oxides, such as magnesium titanate

C04B 35/465

Mixed oxides of MgO with zirconium oxide, e.g. magnesium zirconate

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide, e.g. magnesium titanate zirconate (MgTi0.5Zr0.5O3)

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of MgO with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide, e.g. magnesium tantalum niobate (MgNb0.5Ta0.5O3)

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Using particles of size 1-100 microns for making a ceramic

C04B 2235/5436

based on calcium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxides based on single oxide phases of CaO, or mixed oxides of MgO with either alkali metal oxides and/or rare earth oxides, in which the CaO forms the largest fraction. The ceramic can have all grain sizes.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of CaO with both alumina and silica, e.g. cordierite

C04B 35/195

Mixed oxides of CaO with silica without alumina, e.g. wollastonite (CaSiO4)

C04B 35/22

Mixed oxides of CaO with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups, C04B 35/2683

Mixed oxides of CaO with chromium oxide, e.g. chromites

C04B 35/42

Mixed oxides of CaO with alumina, without silica, e.g. calcium aluminate

C04B 35/44

Calcium based phosphates

C04B 35/447

Mixed oxides of CaO with copper oxide, e.g. cuprates

C04B 35/45 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of CaO with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide, e.g. calcium bismuthate

C04B 35/453

Mixed oxides of CaO with tin oxide, e.g. calcium stannate

C04B 35/457

Mixed oxides of CaO with titanium oxides, such as calcium titanate

C04B 35/465

Mixed oxides of CaO with zirconium oxide, e.g. calcium zirconate

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of CaO with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide, e.g. calcium titanate zirconate (CaTi0.5Zr0.5O3)

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of CaO with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide, e.g. calcium tantalum niobate (CaNb0.5Ta0.5O3)

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hydraulic lime

C04B 28/12

Eliminating lime or iron from clay mixtures

C04B 33/10

Calcium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. lime

C04B 2235/3208 and subgroups

Materials for prostheses based on calcia or calcium oxide CaO

A61F 2310/00221

The preparation of compounds of calcium, barium and strontium in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01F 11/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: calcium carbonates

C09C 1/021 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: calcium sulphates

C09C 1/025

based on oxide mixtures derived from dolomite
Definition statement

This place covers:

mixtures of CaO and MgO

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3206

Calcium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. lime

C04B 2235/3208 and subgroups

Dolomite, i.e. mixed calcium magnesium carbonate, or oxides derived from dolomite as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/321

Carbonates (CO32-) as starting material for making ceramics or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/442

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Dolomite

(CaMg)(CO3)2

based on beryllium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Oxide ceramics based on the single oxide phase of BeO.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkaline earth oxides or salts as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Preparation of beryllium compound powders, e.g. beryllium oxide powder

C01F 3/00 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing beryllium compounds

C09K 11/55

based on aluminium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing as the largest fraction the single oxide Al2O3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with silica

C04B 33/00 (clay ceramics) or C04B 35/18 and subgroups (alumino-silicate ceramics)

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with other metal oxides

C04B 35/44 (aluminates)

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with magnesia

C04B 35/443 (magnesia-alumina spinel)

Alumina containing a metallic binder, e.g. an alumina cermet with Al binder

C22C 29/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: alumina

C04B 14/303

Making fibres based on aluminium oxide

C04B 35/62236

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with alumina

C04B 41/5031

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Alumina or aluminate interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/064

Alumina or aluminate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/343

Materials for prostheses or coatings of prostheses based on aluminium oxides

A61L 27/105

Materials for prostheses based on aluminium oxides

A61L 27/105 and subgroups

Alumina-based membranes

B01D 71/025

Catalysts comprising alumina

B01J 21/04, C07C 2521/04

Preparation of aluminium compound powders, e.g. aluminium oxide powder

C01F 7/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of aluminium

C09C 1/40 and subgroups

Abrasives

C09K 3/14

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing aluminium

C09K 11/64 and subgroups

Alumina single crystals

C30B 29/20

Aluminium oxide in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0869 and subgroup

Materials for vessels of gas- or vapour discharge lamps

H01J 61/30

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof: forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing aluminium, e.g. Al2O3

H01L 21/02178

Refractories from grain sized mixtures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alumina based refractories having large grains, the majority larger than 100 microns

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grain-sized magnesia-based refractories

C04B 35/043 and subgroups

Grain-sized titania-based refractories

C04B 35/46 and C04B 35/66

Grain-sized zirconia-based refractories

C04B 35/482

Grain-sized silicon carbide-based refractories

C04B 35/565 and subgroups, and C04B45/66

Monolithic refractories and refractory mortars

C04B 35/66

Using particles larger than 100 microns for making the ceramic

C04B 2235/5427

Bimodal, multi-modal or multi-fraction particle size distribution

C04B 2235/5472

Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof

B22C 1/00 and subgroups

Abrasive particles per se obtained by division of a mass agglomerated by sintering

C09K 3/1418

{containing refractory metal compounds other than those covered by C04B 35/103 - C04B 35/106}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Refractories based on alumina containing other oxide refractories such as magnesia, titania

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing carbon

C04B 35/103

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing chromium oxide or chromium ore

C04B 35/105

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on alumina containing zirconia

C04B 35/106

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3206

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Titanium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rutile or anatase

C04B 2235/3232 and subgroups

containing non-oxide refractory materials, e.g. carbon (C04B 35/106 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Shaped alumina-based refractory ceramics or alumina-based refractory mixtures, containing non-oxides such as carbon, pitch, tar, carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides, fluorides, sulphides, any material that would be classified in C04B 35/515-C04B 35/597.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on alumina containing zirconia

C04B 35/106

Shaped alumina-based refractory ceramics or alumina-based refractory mixtures containing polymers such as polymeric binders

C04B 35/63404 and subgroups, C04B 35/63448 and subgroups and C04B 35/63492 and C04B 35/636 and subgroup

Shaped alumina-based refractory ceramics or alumina-based refractory mixtures containing non-oxide fibers or non-oxide whiskers

C04B 35/803 and C04B 2235/524 and subgroups

Shaped alumina-based refractory ceramics or alumina-based refractory mixtures containing carbon nanotubes

C04B 35/803 and C04B 2235/5288

Shaped alumina-based refractory ceramics or alumina-based refractory mixtures containing carbon as an impurity

C04B 2235/721

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide-based ceramics or ceramic mixtures in general containing carbon

C04B 35/013

Non-oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/515 and subgroups

Ceramic powders coated with non-oxide ceramic materials

C04B 35/62828 and subgroups

Ceramic fibers coated with non-oxide ceramic materials

C04B 35/62857 and subgroups

Non-oxide additives for ceramics

C04B 2235/38 and subgroups

Carbon additives for ceramics

C04B 2235/422 and subgroups

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat-treatment, e.g. phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Fibrous non-oxide additives for ceramics

C04B 2235/524

Carbon nanotube additives for ceramics

C04B 2235/5288

Special rules of classification

If the carbon additive is tar or pitch, C04B 35/63496 is given as well. The carbonaceous additives are further indicated with the codes C04B 2235/424 (carbon black), C04B 2235/425 (graphite) and C04B 2235/427 (diamond). Other non-oxide additives, such as silicon carbide or silicon nitride, are indicated with a symbol from C04B 2235/48. In the case polymeric additives from the classes C04B 35/63404 and subgroups, C04B 35/63448 and subgroups and C04B 35/63492 are added to an oxide ceramic mixture and are carbonised, C04B 2235/48 is given, but C04B 35/013 not.

containing chromium oxide or chrome ore
Definition statement

This place covers:

Refractories based on alumina, containing also chromium oxide

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on magnesia containing chromium oxide or chrome ore

C04B 35/047 and subgroups

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

containing zirconium oxide or zircon (ZrSiO4)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Refractories based on alumina, containing also zirconium oxide, possibly also containing silicon oxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alumina refractories containing zirconia, made by melt-casting

C04B 35/109

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fine alumina ceramics containing zirconia

C04B 35/119

Zirconium or hafnium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. HfO2

C04B 2235/3244 and subgroups

Zirconates or hafnates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zircon (ZrSiO4)

C04B 2235/3248

Refractories by fusion casting
Definition statement

This place covers:

Both refractories that are used directly after melting, either in particle or bulk form, as well as fused refractory that is sintered before use as refractory

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Clay wares made by methods involving melting, fusion or softening

C04B 33/323

Magnesia-based refractories made by fusion casting

C04B 35/05 and subgroup

Zirconia-based refractories made by fusion casting

C04B 35/484

Fusing to make ceramic particles in general

C04B 35/62665

Refractories in general made by fusion casting

C04B 35/657

Heat treatments such as] Calcining; Fusing Pyrolysis in general

B01J 6/00 and subgroups

Abrasive particles per se obtained by division of a mass agglomerated by melting, at least partially, e.g. with a binder

C09K 3/1427

containing zirconium oxide or zircon (ZrSiO4)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Refractories based on alumina, made by melting, containing also zirconium oxide, possibly also containing silicon oxide

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on alumina containing zirconia

C04B 35/106

Fine alumina ceramics containing zirconia

C04B 35/119

Zirconates or hafnates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zircon (ZrSiO4)

C04B 2235/3248

Fine ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures having as the largest fraction alumina single phase material having an average grain size of below 100 microns

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with silica

C04B 33/00 (clay ceramics) or C04B 35/18 and subgroups (alumino-silicate ceramics)

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with other metal oxides

C04B 35/44 (aluminates)

Ceramics containing as the largest fraction a mixed oxide of alumina with magnesia

C04B 35/443 (magnesia-alumina spinel)

Alumina containing a metallic binder, e.g. an alumina cermet with Al binder

C22C 29/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures having as the largest fraction alumina single phase material having an average grain size of above 100 microns

C04B 35/101 and subgroups

Using particles of size 1-100 microns for making the ceramic

C04B 2235/5436

{Minute sintered entities, e.g. sintered abrasive grains or shaped particles such as platelets (abrasives C09K 3/14)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mainly alumina particles that are bonded together into aggregates and used as abrasive

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Bulk alumina objects

C04B 35/111

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Powdery starting material for making ceramics containing flakes, platelets or plates

C04B 2235/5292

Abrasive particles per se obtained by division of a mass agglomerated by sintering

C09K 3/1418

based on beta-aluminium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on alumina(te) phases with the composition MAl11O18 or LnAl12O19

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Other aluminates

C04B 35/44 or C04B 35/443 (spinel)

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Aluminates other than alumino-silicates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. spinel (MgAl2O4)

C04B 2235/3222

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

C04B 2235/3224

Preparation of beta-alumina powders

C01F 7/028

Translucent or transparent products
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sintered alumina ceramics that are translucent or transparent

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramic materials other than alumina that are transparent or translucent

C04B 2235/9653

Composites
Definition statement

This place covers:

All sintered alumina ceramics that contain at least one secondary phase, where this secondary phase is neither a grain boundary phase nor a different type of alumina phase. The main phase can be for instance alpha-alumina, the secondary phase an aluminate.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alumina refractories containing a secondary phase

C04B 35/1015- C04B 35/106, C04B 35/109

Alumina ceramics containing a mixture of different alumina phases, e.g. alpha-alumina and beta-alumina

C04B 35/111, C04B 35/113, C04B 35/115

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alumina ceramics containing shaped metallic materials, e.g. metallic fibers

C04B 35/74 and subgroup

Alumina ceramics containing ceramic fibers, whiskers or platelets, e.g. an alumina particle matrix containing alumina fibers or alumina platelets

C04B 35/803 and additional symbols (CCA)for the fibers, whiskers, platelets

Ceramics containing one or more secondary phases

C04B 2235/80 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If the secondary phase is a ceramic fiber, whisker, platelet or similarly shaped ceramic particle, both C04B 35/803 and C04B 35/117 are given. The same logic applies to C04B 35/117 and C04B 35/74.

The secondary phases are indicated with codes from C04B 2235/32-C04B 2235/428. The code C04B 2235/80 does not need to be used, since the class itself already indicates that secondary phases are present.

with zirconium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

All sintered alumina ceramics that contain at least one secondary zirconia phase, where this secondary zirconia phase is not a grain boundary phase

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Alumina refractories containing a zirconia secondary phase

C04B 35/106, C04B 35/109

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zirconia-based ceramics containing an alumina secondary phase

C04B 35/4885

Zirconium or hafnium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. HfO2

C04B 2235/3244 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If the amount of alumina phase is larger than the amount of zirconia phase, C04B 35/119 is given, if the amounts are equal, e.g. C04B40/40, then both C04B 35/119 and C04B 35/4885 are given.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ZTA

Zirconia toughened alumina

ATZ

Alumina toughened zirconia

based on chromium oxide (C04B 35/047 and C04B 35/105 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by a single oxide phase of chromium oxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on magnesia containing chromium oxide or chrome ore

C04B 35/047 and subgroups

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing chromium oxide or chromium ore

C04B 35/105

Mixed oxides of chromium with alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and rare earth metals

C04B 35/42

Mixed oxides of chromium with titanium oxide, containing more Cr, e.g. Cr0.6Ti0.4O2

C04B 35/42

Mixed oxides of chromium with titanium oxide, containing more Ti, e.g. Cr0.4Ti0.6O2

C04B 35/462

Chromium oxide based material with a metallic binder

C22C 29/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone chromium oxide

C04B 14/307

Magnesia-based refractories containing chromia

C04B 35/047 and subgroups, C04B 35/051

Alumina-based refractories containing chromia

C04B 35/105

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with chromium oxide

C04B 41/5033

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

Refractory metal oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/068

Refractory metal oxide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/345

The preparation of chromium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 37/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of chromium

C09C 1/34 and subgroups

based on silica
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by a crystalline single oxide phase of SiO2, e.g. quartz or cristobalite

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by a mixed oxide phase of SiO2, e.g. silicates such as cordierite, alumino-silicates in general, magnesium silicates such as forsterite, calcium silicates such as wollastonite

C04B 33/00 (clays), C04B 35/16 and subgroups (silicates)

Materials having as largest fraction a form of crystalline SiO2 but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% quartz and 20% glass matrix

C03C 10/0009

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: granular materials: quartz; sand

C04B 14/06 and subgroups

Making fibers based on silica

C04B 35/6224

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with silica

C04B 41/5035

Silica as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3418

Silica or silicate interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/062

Silica or silicate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/341

Materials for prostheses based on silica or silicon oxide

A61F 2310/00215

Silica-based membranes

B01D 71/027

Catalysts comprising silica

B01J 21/08, C07C 2521/08

Preparation of silica powders, sols, gels, dispersions and their after-treatments

C01B 33/113 and subgroups

Processes specially adapted for the production of quartz or fused silica articles

C03B 20/00

Pure silica glass, e.g. pure fused quartz

C03B 2201/02 and subgroups, C03C 2201/02

Glass compositions with more than 90% silica by weight, e.g. quartz

C03C 3/06

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of silicon

C09C 1/28 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing silicon

C09K 11/59 and subgroups

Quartz single crystals

C30B 29/18

Silica in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0886

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate by gas or vapour deposition, the material containing silica

H01L 21/31608 and subgroup

based on silicates other than clay {(zircon C04B 35/48)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All silicates that are not clay (see C04B 33/00 for the definition of clays). A silicate is a compound containing a silicon bearing anion. The great majority of silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included. Silicate compounds, including the minerals, consist of silicate anions whose charge is balanced by various cations. Myriad silicate anions can exist, and each can form compounds with many different cations. Hence this class of compounds is very large. Both minerals and synthetic materials fit in this class. Silicates are mainly a mixed oxide phase of SiO2 with at least one other metal oxide, e.g. transition metal silicates such as iron silicate, or barium silicate, or rare earth silicates.

Relationships with other classification places

Materials having as largest fraction a crystalline silicate phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% silicate and 20% glass matrix C03C

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clay wares

C04B 33/00 and subgroups

Ceramics based on zirconium or hafnium silicates, e.g. zircon (ZrSiO4)

C04B 35/481

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 14/04 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with silicates

C04B 41/5024

Silica as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3418

Silicates other than clay as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. water glass (Na2SiO3)

C04B 2235/3427 and subgroups

Silica or silicate interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/062

Silica or silicate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/341

Preparation of silicate powders, sols, gels, dispersions and their after-treatments

C01B 33/20 and subgroups, C01B 37/005

Coating compositions, e.g. paints, varnishes or lacquers, based on alkali metal silicates

C09D 1/02 and subgroup

Adhesives based on water-soluble alkali silicate

C09J 1/02

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing silicates

C09K 11/0838

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing iron, nickel and cobalt as silicate

C09K 11/607

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic halogen silicate compounds

C09K 11/617

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing germanium, tin or lead silicates

C09K 11/666

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing refractory silicates

C09K 11/676

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing chromium, molybdenum or tungsten silicates

C09K 11/685

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing vanadium silicates

C09K 11/698

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth silicates

C09K 11/7442, C09K 11/757

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth silicates

C09K 11/7706, C09K 11/7721, C09K 11/7734, C09K 11/7749, C09K 11/7758, C09K 11/7764, C09K 11/7774, C09K 11/7792

Single crystals of silicates

C30B 29/34

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Silicate mineral

Mineralogically, silicate minerals are divided according to structure of their silicate anion into the following groups: Nesosilicates (lone tetrahedron) - [SiO4]4−, e.g. olivine. Sorosilicates (double tetrahedra) - [Si2O7]6−, e.g. epidote, melilite group. Cyclosilicates (rings) - [SinO3n]2n−, e.g. tourmaline group. Inosilicates (single chain) - [SinO3n]2n−, e.g. pyroxene group. Inosilicates(double chain) - [Si4nO11n]6n−, e.g. amphibole group. Phyllosilicates (sheets) - [Si2nO5n]2n−, e.g. micas and clays. Tectosilicates (3D framework) - [AlxSiyO2(x+y)]x−, e.g. quartz, feldspars, zeolites. Note that tectosilicates can only have additional cations if some of the silicon is replaced by a lower-charge cation such as aluminium . Al for Si substitution is common.

rich in aluminium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by a mixed oxide phase of SiO2 with alumina, the alumino-silicates

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Materials made of clay

C04B 33/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making fibres based on silica, rich in aluminium oxide

C04B 35/62245

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Alumino-silicates other than clay as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2)

C04B 2235/3463 and subgroups

Catalysts comprising silica and alumina

B01J 21/12, C07C 2521/12

Catalysts comprising Crystalline aluminosilicate zeolites; Isomorphous compounds thereof

B01J 29/06 and subgroups

Preparation of aluminium containing silicate powders, sols, gels, dispersions and their after-treatments

C01B 33/26 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing aluminium silicates

C09K 11/646

Mullite {3Al2O3-2SiO2}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by a mullite phase

Relationships with other classification places

Materials having as largest fraction a mullite phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% mullite and 20% glass matrix C03C

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mullite catalysts or catalysts supports

B01J 21/16

Alkali metal aluminosilicates, e.g. spodumene
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by an alumino-silicate phase containing more alkali metal ions than ions of other type, such as alkaline earth metal ions

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Materials having as largest fraction a spodumene phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% spodumene and 20% glass matrix

C03C 10/0018 and subgroup

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkali oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Na2O, K2O

C04B 2235/3201 and subgroup

Alkali metal alumino-silicates other than clay as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. spodumene (LiAlSi2O6), alkali feldspars such as Albite (NaAlSi3O8) or Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8), micas such as Muscovite (KAl2(AlSi3)O10(OH)2), zeolites such as Natrolite (Na2Al2Si3O10·2H2O)

C04B 2235/3472

Alkaline earth aluminosilicates, e.g. cordierite {or anorthite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics or ceramics mixture of which the largest fraction is formed by an alumino-silicate phase containing more alkaline earth metal ions than ions of other type, such as alkali metal ions

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Materials having as largest fraction a cordierite phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% cordierite and 20% glass matrix

C03C 10/0045

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cordierite honeycombs

C04B 38/0006 and subgroups

Alkaline earth oxides or salts as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Alkaline earth metal alumino-silicates other than clay as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. cordierite ((Mg,Fe)2Al3(Si5AlO18)), beryl (Be3Al2(Si6O18)), micas such as margarite (CaAl2(Al2Si2)O10(OH)2), plagioclase feldspars such as anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8), zeolites such as chabazite (CaAl2Si4O12·6H2O)

C04B 2235/3481

Cordierite honeycombs containing a catalyst

B01J 35/04

Special rules of classification

The cordierite honeycombs are normally classified in C04B 38/0006, but receive classification in C04B 35/195 as well, if specific details regarding the starting materials are given, or if the end-composition of the cordierite is specified, e.g. the presence of a certain secondary phase or the use of certain combinations of starting materials.

rich in magnesium oxide {, e.g. forsterite (C04B 35/195 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All silicate ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing a substantial amount of MgO, thus not containing MgO as an impurity

Relationships with other classification places

Materials having as largest fraction a forsterite phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% forsterite and 20% glass matrix C03C

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Magnesium alumino-silicates

C04B 35/195

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnesium silicates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. forsterite (Mg2SiO4)

C04B 2235/3445

Catalysts comprising silica and magnesia

B01J 21/14, C07C 2521/14

Preparation of magnesium silicate powders, sols, gels, dispersions and their after-treatments

C01B 33/22

rich in calcium oxide {, e.g. wollastonite (C04B 35/195 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All silicate ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing a substantial amount of CaO, thus not containing CaO as an impurity

Relationships with other classification places

Materials having as largest fraction a forsterite phase but also containing a glass matrix, e.g. 80% forsterite and 20% glass matrix C03C

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Calcium alumino-silicates

C04B 35/195

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: alkaline-earth metal silicates, e.g. wollastonite

C04B 14/043

Calcium silicate based hydraulic cement

C04B 28/02 and subgroups

Calcium silicates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. wollastonite (CaSiO3)

C04B 2235/3454

Preparation of alkaline earth metal silicate powders, sols, gels, dispersions and their after-treatments

C01B 33/24

Calcium silicates as compounding ingredient for polymers

C08K 3/34

based on ferrites
Definition statement

This place covers:

All oxidic ferrites, combinations between Fe2O3 and other oxides, such as FeO, ZnO, MnO, BaO, as well as Fe2O3 (hematite) itself

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Metallic ferrite (Fe)

C22C 38/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: ferrites

C04B 14/363

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with ferrite

C04B 41/5036

Ferrites as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. manganese ferrite (MnFe2O4)

C04B 2235/3274

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites

C01G 49/0018 and subgroups

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds containing, besides iron, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

C01G 49/009

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of iron

C09C 1/22 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing iron, nickel and cobalt

C09K 11/60 and subgroups

Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefore: the pole pieces being ferrite

G11B 5/193

Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefore: record carriers characterised by the selection of the material comprising one or more layers of magnetisable material homogeneously mixed with a bonding agent the magnetic material being a ferrite

G11B 5/70678 and subgroups

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of iron oxides or ferrites

H01C 7/046

Ferrite magnets

H01F 1/0315

Hard magnetic material, e.g. ferrites

H01F 1/10

Soft magnetic material, e.g. ferrites

H01F 1/344 and subgroups

Thin magnetic films, e.g. of one-domain structure made of ferrites

H01F 10/20 and subgroups

Details of cathode ray tubes or electron beam tubes Electron beam control outside the vessel by magnetic fields Cores for field producing elements, e.g. ferrite

H01J 2229/7031

Loop aerials with a substantially uniform current distribution around the loop and having a directional radiation pattern in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the loop with ferrite rod or like elongated core

H01Q 7/08

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

The effect of many metal oxide additives on the grain growth of ferrites is mentioned

document XP022314655, table 1

Special rules of classification

The sintered ferrite bodies are classified in C04B 35/00 as well as in H01F. Ferrite powders are classified in C01G 49/00, as well as H01F. The synthesis of ferrite powders is also classified in C04B 35/00 if the ferrite composition is a new composition or if the synthesis is preparatory to making a sintered body. More than one subgroup of C04B 35/26 can be attributed due to one ferrite composition.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Ferrite

Chemical compounds consisting of ceramic materials with iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3) as their principal component. Many of them are magnetic materials and they are used to make permanent magnets, ferrite cores for transformers, and in various other applications. Many ferrites are spinels with the formula AB2O4, where A and B represent various metal cations, usually including iron. Some ferrites have hexagonal crystal structure, e.g. barium ferrite BaO:6Fe2O3 or BaFe12O19.

{Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The metal ions can be part both of the main composition as additives to the main composition.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals and one or more of the group comprising alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2641

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc and one or more ferrites of the group comprising nickel, copper or cobalt

C04B 35/265

Other ferrites containing manganese or zinc, e.g. Mn-Zn ferrites

C04B 35/2658

Other ferrites containing nickel, copper or cobalt

C04B 35/2666

Other ferrites containing rare earth metals, e.g. rare earth ferrite garnets

C04B 35/2675

Other ferrites containing alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2683

Alkali oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Na2O, K2O

C04B 2235/3201 and subgroup

Alkaline earth oxides or salts as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

C04B 2235/3224

Manganese or rhenium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. MnO

C04B 2235/3262 and subgroups

Cobalt oxides, cobaltites or cobaltates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc cobaltite (ZnCo2O4) or bismuth cobaltate (BiCoO3)

C04B 2235/3275 and subgroup

Nickel oxides, nickelates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. NiO

C04B 2235/3279

Copper oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. CuO or Cu2O

C04B 2235/3281 and subgroup

Zinc oxides, zincates, cadmium oxides, cadmiates, mercury oxides, mercurates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. ZnO

C04B 2235/3284

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one alkali metal

C01G 49/0027

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing alkaline earth metal, magnesium or lead

C01G 49/0036

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one rare earth metal, yttrium or scandium

C01G 49/0054

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing zinc

C01G 49/0063

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing manganese

C01G 49/0072

Special rules of classification

If the ferrite contains Mn/Zn/Ni/Cu/Co and rare earth and alkali/alkaline earth/lead both C04B 35/2608 and C04B 35/2641 are attributed. If it also contains both Mn/Zn and Ni/Cu/Co C04B 35/265 is attributed as well. Thus, C04B 35/2608, C04B 35/2641 and C04B 35/265 could be attributed to one and the same ferrite composition. If C04B 35/2608 is attributed for a certain ferrite, C04B 35/2658, C04B 35/2666, C04B 35/2675, C04B 35/2683 and C04B 35/2691 are not attributed for this ferrite composition. These classes could of course be attributed due to other ferrite compositions in the same document.

Since none of the individual metal ions of Mn/Zn/Ni/Cu/Co and rare earth and alkali/alkaline earth/lead necessarily needs to be present, when C04B 35/2608 is given, all metal ions present (except for Fe) need to be classified with symbols from C04B 2235/00.

{containing lithium}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The ferrite containing Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu or Co and also Li

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lithium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Li2O

C04B 2235/3203

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one alkali metal

C01G 49/0027

Special rules of classification

Since here the Li-ion necessarily needs to be present, the additional symbol (CCA) for Li (C04B 2235/3203) is not necessary

{containing magnesium}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The ferrite containing Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu or Co and also Mg

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3206

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing alkaline earth metal, magnesium or lead

C01G 49/0036

{containing barium, strontium or calcium}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ferrites like barium hexaferrite, doped with Mn/Zn/Ni/Cu/Co.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Calcium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. lime

C04B 2235/3208 and subgroups

Strontium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3213

Barium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3215

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing alkaline earth metal, magnesium or lead

C01G 49/0036

Soft magnetic material, e.g. Hexaferrites with decreased hardness or anisotropy, i.e. with increased permeability in the microwave (GHz) range

H01F 1/348

Thin magnetic films, e.g. of one-domain structure made of hexagonal ferrites

H01F 10/205

{Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals and one or more ferrites of the group comprising alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The ferrite containing a rare earth like La, Nd, Ce and for instance Li, Na, K, Ba, Sr, Mg, Ca, W

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Other ferrites containing rare earth metals, e.g. rare earth ferrite garnets

C04B 35/2675

Other ferrites containing alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2683

Alkali oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Na2O, K2O

C04B 2235/3201 and subgroup

Alkaline earth oxides or salts as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

C04B 2235/3224

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one alkali metal

C01G 49/0027

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing alkaline earth metal, magnesium or lead

C01G 49/0036

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one rare earth metal, yttrium or scandium

C01G 49/0054

Special rules of classification

If the ferrite contains Mn/Zn/Ni/Cu/Co and rare earth and alkali/alkaline earth/lead both C04B 35/2608 and C04B 35/2641 are attributed. If it also contains both Mn/Zn and Ni/Cu/Co C04B 35/265 is attributed as well. Thus, C04B 35/2608, C04B 35/2641 and C04B 35/265 could be attributed to one and the same ferrite composition. If C04B 35/2641 is attributed for a certain ferrite, C04B 35/2658, C04B 35/2666, C04B 35/2675, C04B 35/2683 and C04B 35/2691 are not attributed for this ferrite composition. These classes could of course be attributed due to other ferrite compositions in the same document.

{Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese or zinc and one or more ferrites of the group comprising nickel, copper or cobalt}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The ferrite containing Mn or Zn and one of the group Ni, Cu, Co

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Other ferrites containing manganese or zinc, e.g. Mn-Zn ferrites

C04B 35/2658

Other ferrites containing nickel, copper or cobalt

C04B 35/2666

Manganese or rhenium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. MnO

C04B 2235/3262 and subgroups

Cobalt oxides, cobaltites or cobaltates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc cobaltite (ZnCo2O4) or bismuth cobaltate (BiCoO3)

C04B 2235/3275 and subgroup

Nickel oxides, nickelates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. NiO

C04B 2235/3279

Copper oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. CuO or Cu2O

C04B 2235/3281 and subgroup

Zinc oxides, zincates, cadmium oxides, cadmiates, mercury oxides, mercurates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. ZnO

C04B 2235/3284

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing zinc

C01G 49/0063

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing manganese

C01G 49/0072

Special rules of classification

If the ferrite contains Mn/Zn/Ni/Cu/Co and rare earth and alkali/alkaline earth/lead both C04B 35/2608 and C04B 35/2641 are attributed. If it also contains both Mn/Zn and Ni/Cu/Co C04B 35/265 is attributed as well. Thus, C04B 35/2608, C04B 35/2641 and C04B 35/265 could be attributed to one and the same ferrite composition. If C04B 35/265 is attributed for a certain ferrite, C04B 35/2658, C04B 35/2666, C04B 35/2675, C04B 35/2683 and C04B 35/2691 are not attributed for this ferrite composition. These classes could of course be attributed due to other ferrite compositions in the same document.

{Other ferrites containing manganese or zinc, e.g. Mn-Zn ferrites}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The ferrite contains usually both Mn and Zn, the common Mn-Zn ferrite

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc and one or more ferrites of the group comprising nickel, copper or cobalt

C04B 35/265

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manganese or rhenium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. MnO

C04B 2235/3262 and subgroups

Zinc oxides, zincates, cadmium oxides, cadmiates, mercury oxides, mercurates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. ZnO

C04B 2235/3284

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing zinc

C01G 49/0063

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing manganese

C01G 49/0072

{Other ferrites containing nickel, copper or cobalt}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ferrites containing Ni, Co, Cu, but not Zn or Mn

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc and one or more ferrites of the group comprising nickel, copper or cobalt

C04B 35/265

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cobalt oxides, cobaltites or cobaltates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc cobaltite (ZnCo2O4) or bismuth cobaltate (BiCoO3)

C04B 2235/3275 and subgroup

Nickel oxides, nickelates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. NiO

C04B 2235/3279

Copper oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. CuO or Cu2O

C04B 2235/3281 and subgroup

{Other ferrites containing rare earth metals, e.g. rare earth ferrite garnets}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ferrites containing rare earth metal oxides such as La, Nd, Sm, but not alkaline earth metal oxides, Cu, Co, Zn, Ni, Mn

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals and one or more of the group comprising alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2641

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

C04B 2235/3224

Garnet type symmetry

C04B 2235/764

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one rare earth metal, yttrium or scandium

C01G 49/0054

{Other ferrites containing alkaline earth metals or lead}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ferrites like barium hexaferrite.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals and one or more of the group comprising alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2641

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkaline earth oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. BeO

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing alkaline earth metal, magnesium or lead

C01G 49/0036

{Other ferrites containing alkaline metals}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ferrites containing alkali metal oxides but not rare earth metal oxides or oxides of Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, Zn

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising manganese, zinc, nickel, copper or cobalt and one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups

Compositions containing one or more ferrites of the group comprising rare earth metals and one or more of the group comprising alkali metals, alkaline earth metals or lead

C04B 35/2641

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkali oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Na2O, K2O

C04B 2235/3201 and subgroup

The preparation of iron compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being mixed oxides or hydroxides, e.g. ferrites, containing one alkali metal

C01G 49/0027

based on chromites (C04B 35/047 and C04B 35/105 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Chromites and chromates. All ceramics containing as the largest phase mixed oxides of chromium with alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and rare earth metals, not containing other transition or post-transition metal oxides, or mixed oxides of chromium with other transition or post-transition metal oxides, in which the amount of chromium is larger than of any other transition or post-transition metal oxide, e.g. a mixture with titanium oxide, containing more Cr, e.g. Cr0.6Ti0.4O2.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grain-sized refractory mixtures based on magnesia containing chromium oxide or chrome ore

C04B 35/047 and subgroups

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories containing chromium oxide or chromium ore

C04B 35/105

Mixed oxides of chromium with other transition or post-transition metal oxides, in which there is at least one other transition or post-transition metal oxide in an amount larger than chromium, e.g. a mixture with titanium oxide, containing more Ti, e.g. Cr0.4Ti0.6O2.

C04B 35/462

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators

C04B 22/087

Chromium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Cr2O3

C04B 2235/3241 and subgroup

Chromates or chromites as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. aluminum chromate Al2(CrO4)3 or lanthanum strontium chromite (La1-xSrxCrO3)

C04B 2235/3243

Refractory metal oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/068

Refractory metal oxide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/345

Chromite containing catalysts

B01J 23/26, B01J 23/86 and subgroups

The preparation of chromium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides chromium, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

C01G 37/006

The preparation of chromium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds being chromates or bichromates

C01G 37/14

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: zinc chromate

C09C 1/08

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: lead chromate

C09C 1/20

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing chromium, molybdenum or tungsten

C09K 11/68 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth vanadates; Chromates; Molybdates; Tungstates

C09K 11/7457, C09K 11/758

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth vanadates; Chromates; Molybdates; Tungstates

C09K 11/7708, C09K 11/7722, C09K 11/7736, C09K 11/7751, C09K 11/7765, C09K 11/7776, C09K 11/7794

Fuel cells containing Chromium complex oxides

H01M 8/0219

based on aluminates
Definition statement

This place covers:

All mixed oxides in which alumina is mixed with alkali metal oxides, alkaline earth metal oxides or rare earth metal oxides.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on aluminate-silicate

C04B 33/00 and subgroups (clays) or C04B 35/18 and subgroups

Ceramics based on beta-aluminas (MAl11O18 or LnAl12O19)

C04B 35/113

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators: aluminates

C04B 22/0093

Hydraulic aluminate cements

C04B 28/06 and subgroup, C04B 7/323

Ceramics based on alumina single oxide phase

C04B 35/10 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with aluminate

C04B 41/5032

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Aluminates other than alumino-silicates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. spinel (MgAl2O4)

C04B 2235/3222

Alumina or aluminate interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/064

Alumina or aluminate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/343

Aluminate catalysts or catalysts carrier

B01J 21/04, B01J 23/78

Preparation of alkali metal aluminates powders

C01F 7/04 and subgroups

Preparation of alkaline earth metal aluminates powders

C01F 7/16 and subgroups

Purification of aluminates

C01F 7/47 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing aluminates

C09K 11/0838

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing germanium, tin or lead aluminates

C09K 11/666

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing refractory metal aluminates

C09K 11/676

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing chromium, molybdenum or tungsten aluminates

C09K 11/685

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing vanadium aluminates

C09K 11/698

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth aluminates

C09K 11/7442, C09K 11/757

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth aluminates

C09K 11/7706, C09K 11/7721, C09K 11/7734, C09K 11/7749, C09K 11/7758, C09K 11/7764, C09K 11/7774, C09K 11/7792

Devices characterised by the luminescent material

H01J 61/44

Thin film transistors having a semiconductor body comprising an oxide semiconductor material, e.g. zinc oxide, copper aluminium oxide, cadmium stannate

H01L 29/7869

Magnesium aluminate spinel
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on magnesium aluminate (MgOAl2O3 or MgAl2O4) having the spinel phase

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics based on magnesia single oxide phase

C04B 35/04 and subgroups

Ceramics based on alumina single oxide phase

C04B 35/10 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with spinels

C04B 41/5046

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3206

Ceramics in general with the spinel symmetry

C04B 2235/763

Catalysts comprising spinels

B01J 21/005, C07C 2521/00

Special rules of classification

If the class C04B 35/443 is given, C04B 2235/763 does not need to be given.

based on phosphates {, e.g. hydroxyapatite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on inorganic phosphor-oxide compounds

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on metal-phosphor compounds without oxygen, the phosphides

C04B 35/5154

Ceramics having a phosphate binder

C04B 35/6306 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Phosphate cements

C04B 12/02 and subgroups

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: phosphates, e.g. apatite

C04B 14/366

Making fibres based on phosphates

C04B 35/62268

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with phosphates

C04B 41/5048, C04B 41/5092 (phosphate cements), C04B 41/67

Calcium phosphates, e.g. hydroxyapatite additives or secondary phases

C04B 2235/3212

Phosphates or phosphites (calcium phosphates C04B 2235/3212) as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. orthophosphate (PO43-), pyrophosphate (P2O74-), hypophosphite (H2PO2-), or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/447

Materials for prostheses containing a phosphorus-containing compound, e.g. apatite

A61L 27/12

Phosphate catalysts

B01J 27/18 and subgroups, B01J 29/82 and subgroups

Preparation of phosphates per se, e.g. phosphates powder, not preparative to making a phosphates ceramic

C01B 25/26 and subgroups, C01B 37/002

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing phosphates

C09K 11/0855 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing phosphorus

C09K 11/70 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth phosphates

C09K 11/7464 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth phosphates

C09K 11/7709 and subgroups, C09K 11/7723 and subgroups, C09K 11/7737 and subgroups, C09K 11/7752 and subgroups, C09K 11/7777 and subgroups, C09K 11/7795 and subgroups

Phosphate single crystals

C30B 29/14

based on copper oxide or solid solutions thereof with other oxides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Precursor materials for ceramic superconductors and high critical-temperature superconductive materials characterised by the ceramic-forming technique or the ceramic composition based on cuprates.

Non superconductive ceramic copper oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides.

Relationships with other classification places

Single-crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure or crystallographic orientation characterised by the material or by the method: C30B

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxide of copper oxide and iron oxide: ferrite

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups, C04B 35/265, C04B 35/2666

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: copper oxide or solid solutions thereof

C04B 14/309

Making fibres based on copper oxide

C04B 35/62254

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with copper oxide ceramic material

C04B 41/5074 and subgroup

Copper oxides, cuprates or oxide-forming salts thereof, e.g. CuO or Cu2O as additive for ceramics or as secondary phase

C04B 2235/3281

The preparation of copper compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds containing, besides copper, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

C01G 3/006

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing copper, silver or gold

C09K 11/58 and subgroups

Ceramic superconductor Rope or cable materials

D07B 2205/405

Superconductive conductors, cables, or transmission lines

H01B 12/00 and subgroups

Superconducting magnets or coils

H01F 6/00 and subgroups

Superconductors characterised by the material, containing copper oxide

H01L 39/126 and subgroup

Processes peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of composite superconductor filaments comprising copper oxide

H01L 39/2419, H01L 39/2419 and subgroups

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

HTS or High-Tc

These abbreviations correspond to the term "high critical-temperature superconductor".

Y-Ba-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compounds Y1Ba2Cu3Ox or Y2Ba1Cu1O5 corresponding to the short cuts Y-123 or Y-211.

Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compounds Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox or Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox corresponding to the short cuts Bi-2223 or Bi-2212.

Hg-Ba-Ca-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compound Hg1Ba2Ca2Cu3Ox corresponding to the short cut Hg-1223.

Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

In patent literature this abbreviation is used for the general substance group, which includes e.g. the compound Tl2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox corresponding to the short cut Tl-2223.

{containing rare earth oxides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on yttrium, lanthanum or cerium oxide containing cuprates.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

C04B 2235/3224

Cuprates or oxide-forming salts thereof, as additive for ceramics or as secondary phase

C04B 2235/3282

Complex oxides based on rare earth copper oxide single crystals

C30B 29/225

{Type 1-2-3}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The compounds Y1Ba2Cu3Ox or Y2Ba1Cu1O5 corresponding to the short cuts Y-123 or Y-211

{containing thallium oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For instance ceramics based on the compound Tl2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox corresponding to the short cut Tl-2223

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cuprates or oxide-forming salts thereof, as additive for ceramics or as secondary phase

C04B 2235/3282

Gallium oxides, gallates, indium oxides, indates, thallium oxides, thallates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc gallate (ZnGa2O4)

C04B 2235/3286

{also containing lead oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The cuprate containing both thallium oxide and lead oxide

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

{containing bismuth oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based for instance on the compounds Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox or Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox corresponding to the short cuts Bi-2223 or Bi-2212.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cuprates or oxide-forming salts thereof, as additive for ceramics or as secondary phase

C04B 2235/3282

Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc bismuthate (Zn(BiO3)2)

C04B 2235/3298

{also containing lead oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The cuprate containing both bismuth oxide and lead oxide

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

based on zinc, tin, or bismuth oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. zincates, stannates or bismuthates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on the single metal oxide ZnO or Bi2O3. Mixed oxides of ZnO with gallium or indium oxide. Mixed oxides of ZnO with gallium or indium oxide and also tin oxide, containing more zinc oxide then tin oxide. Mixed oxides of alkali metal, alkaline metal oxide or rare earth metal oxide with bismuth oxide, the bismuthates.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxide of zinc oxide and iron oxide: ferrite

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups, C04B 35/265, C04B 35/2658

Ceramics based on mixed oxides of bismuth with copper: cuprates

C04B 35/4521 and subgroup

Ceramics based on mixed oxides of bismuth with titanium: bismuth titanate

C04B 35/478

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with zinc or bismuth oxides

C04B 41/5049

Zinc oxides, zincates, cadmium oxides, cadmiates, mercury oxides, mercurates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. ZnO

C04B 2235/3284

Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc bismuthate (Zn(BiO3)2)

C04B 2235/3298

The preparation of zinc compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 9/00 and subgroups

The preparation of gallium, indium or thallium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 15/00 and subgroups

The preparation of bismuth compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 29/00 and subgroups

Transparent conductive oxide layers (TCO) being part of a multilayer coating on glass Layers comprising zinc oxide

C03C 2217/944

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of bismuth and vanadium

C09C 1/0006

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of zinc

C09C 1/04 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing inorganic Zn or Cd compounds

C09K 11/0811, C09K 11/54

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth

C09K 11/74 and subgroups

Obtaining zinc oxide

C22B 19/34 and subgroups

Target materials for coating by Physical Vapour Deposition

C23C 14/08

Zinc oxide in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0891

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of zinc or cadmium oxide

H01C 7/044

Resistors, e.g. varistors based on ZnO

H01C 7/112

Thin film transistors having a semiconductor body comprising an oxide semiconductor material, e.g. zinc oxide, copper aluminium oxide, cadmium stannate

H01L 29/7869

Wideband gap semiconductor comprising zinc oxide, e.g. ZnO

H01L 51/4233

Fuel cells operating at high temperature, e.g. with stabilised ZrO2 electrolyte, the electrolyte consisting of oxides, the electrolyte containing bismuth oxide

H01M 8/1266

Special rules of classification

Bi13Mn13O40 is classified in C04B 35/016, Bi13Fe13O40 in C04B 35/26, Bi13Co13O40 in C04B 35/01, Bi13Mn6.5Fe6.5O40 in C04B 35/2658, Bi11Co7.5Cu7.5O40 is classified in C04B 35/01 and C04B 35/4521, Bi18.2Mn3.9Co3.9O40 is classified in C04B 35/016 and C04B 35/01. None of these compositions is classified in C04B 35/453

based on tin oxides or stannates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on the single oxide SnO2, or on mixed oxides of alkali metal, alkaline earth or rare earth metals with tin oxide. Ceramics based on mixed oxides of gallium or indium with tin, possibly also containing zinc, e.g. indium tin oxide (ITO) or indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on mixed oxides of indium, tin and zinc containing more zinc than tin.

C04B 35/453

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with tin oxide

C04B 41/505

Tin oxides, stannates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g., indium tin oxide (ITO)

C04B 2235/3293

The preparation of tin compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 19/00 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing germanium, tin or lead

C09K 11/66 and subgroups

Thin film transistors having a semiconductor body comprising an oxide semiconductor material, e.g. zinc oxide, copper aluminium oxide, cadmium stannate

H01L 29/7869

Transparent ITO electrodes

H01L 31/022466, H01L 31/1884, H01L 51/442

Transparent conductive oxide layers (TCO) being part of a multilayer coating on glass Layers comprising indium tin oxide (ITO)

M03C217/598

based on titanium oxides or titanates (containing also zirconium or hafnium oxides, zirconates or hafnates C04B 35/49)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on the single metal oxide phase TiO2 or on sub-oxides of titanium oxide, e.g. Ti2O3. Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of titanium, the so-called titanates.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramic compositions based on titanium oxides or titanates, containing also zirconium or hafnium oxides, zirconates or hafnates

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone Titanium oxide, e.g. titanates

C04B 14/305

Making fibres based on titanium oxide

C04B 35/62259

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with titanium oxides or titanates

C04B 41/5041

Titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. rutile or anatase as additive for making ceramics or as secondary phase in a ceramic

C04B 2235/3232 and subgroups

Refractory metal oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/068

Titania or titanate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/346

Materials for prostheses based on titania or titanium oxide TiO

A61F 2310/00227

Catalysts or catalyst carriers comprising titanium; Oxides or hydroxides thereof

B01J 21/063

The preparation of titanium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 23/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of titanium

C09C 1/36 and subgroups

Ceramic insulating or dielectric materials

H01B 3/12

Resistors, e.g. varistors, based on titanium oxide or titanates

H01C 7/115

Fixed capacitors containing a ceramic dielectric based on titanium oxides or titanates

H01G 4/1218

Light-sensitive devices comprising an oxide semiconductor electrode comprising titanium oxide, e.g. TiO2

H01G 9/2031

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing titanium, e.g. TiO2

H01L 21/02186

Piezoelectric ceramics

H01L 41/187

Wideband gap semiconductor comprising titanium oxide, e.g. TiO2

H01L 51/4226

Ceramic dielectric resonators

H01P 7/10

based on titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of titanium, the so-called titanates.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. zirconate-titanates such as PZT

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates containing also lead and also titanates

C04B 35/499

Titanates as additive for making ceramics or as secondary phase in a ceramic

C04B 2235/3234 and subgroup

Zirconates or hafnates containing also titanium oxide or titanates as additive for making ceramics or as secondary phase in a ceramic

C04B 2235/3249

The preparation of titanium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, the compounds containing, besides titanium, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

C01G 23/002

The preparation of titanate compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 23/003 and subgroups

Single crystals of Titanates; Germanates; Molybdates; Tungstates

C30B 29/32

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having positive temperature coefficient mainly consisting of perovskites, e.g. titanates

H01C 7/025

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of perovskites, e.g. titanates

H01C 7/045

based on alkaline earth metal titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of titanium with the alkaline earth metals Mg and/or Ca, e.g. magnesium titanate (MgTiO3) or calcium barium titanate with the formula Ca0.6Ba0.4TiO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth zirconate-titanates such as magnesium zirconate titanate

C04B 35/49

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alkaline earth oxides or salts as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3205 and subgroups

Alkaline earth metal titanates as additive for making ceramics or as secondary phase in a ceramic

C04B 2235/3236

The preparation of alkaline earth metal titanate compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 23/006

Fixed capacitors containing a ceramic dielectric based on alkaline earth titanates

H01G 4/1227, H01G 4/1218

Insulating layers on semi-conductor bodies having a perovskite structure

H01L 21/31691

Manufacture of capacitors containing a perovskite dielectric

H01L 28/55 and subgroups

based on barium titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of barium and titanium, containing more Ba than of any of the other alkaline earth metals, e.g. barium magnesium titanate containing more Ba than Mg.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth zirconate-titanates such as barium zirconate titanate

C04B 35/49

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Barium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3215

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

Barium titanate normally has the perovskite structure. If the structure of the barium titanate material is not mentioned, it can normally be assumed it is a perovskite. This means that the head-class C04B 35/468 rarely needs to be used.

{based on BaTiO3 perovskite phase}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of barium and titanium, containing more Ba than of any of the other alkaline earth metals, e.g. barium calcium titanate with the formula Ca0.4Ba0.6TiO3 Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of titanium, the so-called titanates.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics having the perovskite structure, ABO3

C04B 2235/768

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

Barium titanate normally has the perovskite structure. If the structure of the barium titanate material is not mentioned, it can normally be assumed it is a perovskite. This means that the head-class C04B 35/468 rarely needs to be used.

{containing lead compounds (C04B 35/472 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of barium and titanium, containing more Ba than of any of the other alkaline earth metals, and also containing some amount of Pb, e.g. as dopant

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lead titanate based ceramics

C04B 35/472

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth lead zirconate-titanates such as barium containing PZT

C04B 35/491

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

{based on phases other than BaTiO3 perovskite phase}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Barium titanate normally has the perovskite structure. If the structure of the barium titanate material is not mentioned, it can normally be assumed it is a perovskite. Other barium titanate phases are BaTi4O9 and Ba2Ti9O20.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth zirconate-titanates such as barium zirconate titanate

C04B 35/49

{containing lead compounds (C04B 35/472 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of barium and titanium, containing more Ba than of any of the other alkaline earth metals, and also containing some amount of Pb, e.g. as dopant

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lead titanate based ceramics

C04B 35/472

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth lead zirconate-titanates such as barium containing PZT

C04B 35/491

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

Special rules of classification

Barium titanate normally has the perovskite structure. If the structure of the barium titanate material is not mentioned, it can normally be assumed it is a perovskite. Other barium titanate phases are not common.

based on strontium titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on alkaline earth metal titanates, containing more Sr than of any other alkaline earth metal, e.g. Ba0.45Ca0.05Sr0.50TiO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. alkaline earth zirconate-titanates such as strontium zirconate-titanate

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Strontium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3213

based on lead titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanates, containing more Pb in the titanate phase than of any other metal ion, except for titanium, e.g. Al0.45Pb0.55TiO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Barium titanate perovskite containing lead compounds based ceramic

C04B 35/4684

Barium titanate containing lead compounds non-perovskite phase based ceramic

C04B 35/4688

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. lead zirconate-titanates such PZT

C04B 35/491 and subgroup

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

Ceramic compositions for piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices

H01L 41/187

based on bismuth titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanates, containing more Bi in the titanate phase than of any other metal ion, except for titanium, e.g. Pb0.3Al0.3Bi0.4TiO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. bismuth zirconate-titanate

C04B 35/49

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bismuth oxides, bismuthates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zinc bismuthate (Zn(BiO3)2)

C04B 2235/3298

based on aluminium titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanates, containing more Al in the titanate phase than of any other metal ion, except for titanium, e.g. Al0.3Pb0.2Bi0.2Ba0.2La0.1TiO3

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics containing also titanium oxides or titanates, e.g. aluminium zirconate-titanate

C04B 35/49

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramic honeycombs, e.g. aluminum titanate honeycombs

C04B 38/0006

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Honeycomb filter for exhaust apparatus

F01N 3/0222

Aluminium titanate in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0878

based on zirconium or hafnium oxides, zirconates, {zircon} or hafnates
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ceramic materials having a zirconia phase or zirconate phase as the largest fraction, e.g. yttria-stabilised-zirconia, monoclinic zirconia, lanthanum zirconate

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: zirconium oxide

C04B 14/306

Making fibres based on zirconium oxide

C04B 35/6225

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with zirconium oxides or zirconates, hafnium oxides or hafnates

C04B 41/5042 and subgroup

Zirconium or hafnium oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. HfO2

C04B 2235/3244 and subgroups

Refractory oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/068

Zirconia, hafnia, zirconate or hafnate substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/348

Materials for prostheses based on zirconia or zirconium oxide

A61F 2310/00239

Materials for prostheses based on hafnia or hafnium oxide

A61F 2310/00251

Catalysts comprising Zirconium or hafnium; Oxides or hydroxides thereof

B01J 21/066

The preparation of zirconium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 25/00 and subgroups

Zirconium oxide in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0895

Fixed capacitors containing a ceramic dielectric based on zirconium oxides or zirconates

H01G 4/1236

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing hafnium, e.g. HfO2

H01L 21/02181, H01L 21/31645 (from the gas phase)

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing zirconium, e.g. ZrO2

H01L 21/02189, H01L 21/31641 (from the gas phase)

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

The head group C04B 35/48 only contains non-refractories of zirconia and/or zirconate with large grain sizes of at least 0,1 mm.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

YSZ

Yttria-stabilised zirconia

3Y-TZP

Zirconia partially stabilised in the tetragonal phase by 3 mol% yttria

{containing silicon, e.g. zircon}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Zirconates containing silica, such as zircon (ZrSiO4), zirconia ceramics containing a silica or silicate binder, zirconia refractories containing quartz

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: zircon

C04B 14/046

Alumina based refractories containing zircon

C04B 35/106

Alumina based refractories containing zircon, made by melt-casting

C04B 35/109

Zirconates or hafnates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. zircon (ZrSiO4)

C04B 2235/3248

Silica as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3418

Special rules of classification

Documents that are classified in C04B 35/481 can also be classified in other sub-groups of C04B 35/48, e.g. a zirconia refractory containing quartz is classified in both C04B 35/481 and C04B 35/482. A fine ceramic containing as major phase zircon and having at least one secondary phase is also classified in C04B 35/488. Classification in C04B 35/486 is not necessary, if the silica-containing zirconia ceramic is a fine ceramic with grain sizes below 100 microns. In practice C04B 35/482, C04B 35/484, C04B 35/488 and C04B 35/4885 are used in combination with C04B35/48A.

Zircon is in principle the only silicate that is not classified as a silicate, but is classified according to the other metal cation(s) present in the silicate.

Refractories from grain sized mixtures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Zirconia based refractories having large grains, the majority larger than 100 microns

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grain-sized magnesia-based refractories

C04B 35/043 and subgroups

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories

C04B 35/101 and subgroups

Grain-sized alumina-based refractories, containing zirconia or zircon

C04B 35/106

Grain-sized titania-based refractories

C04B 35/46 and C04B 35/66

Grain-sized silicon carbide-based refractories

C04B 35/565 and subgroups, and C04B45/66

Monolithic refractories and refractory mortars

C04B 35/66

Using particles larger than 100 microns for making the ceramic

C04B 2235/5427

Bimodal, multi-modal or multi-fraction particle size distribution

C04B 2235/5472

Compositions of refractory mould or core materials; Grain structures thereof

B22C 1/00 and subgroups

Abrasive particles per se obtained by division of a mass agglomerated by sintering

C09K 3/1418

Refractories by fusion casting
Definition statement

This place covers:

Refractories that are used directly after melting, either in particle or bulk form, as well as fused refractory that is sintered before use as refractory

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Clay wares made by methods involving melting, fusion or softening

C04B 33/323

Magnesia-based refractories made by fusion casting

C04B 35/05 and subgroup

Alumina-based refractories made by fusion casting

C04B 35/107 and subgroup

Alumina-based refractories made by fusion casting, containing zirconia or zircon

C04B 35/109

Fusing to make ceramic particles in general

C04B 35/62665

Refractories in general made by fusion casting

C04B 35/657

Heat treatments such as] Calcining; Fusing Pyrolysis in general

B01J 6/00 and subgroups

Fine ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ceramic materials having a zirconia phase or zirconate phase as the largest fraction, e.g. yttria-stabilised-zirconia, monoclinic zirconia, lanthanum zirconate, where the major phase has an average grain size of below 100 micron

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Using particles of size 1-100 microns for making the ceramic

C04B 2235/5436

Protective coatings for engine blades

F01D 5/288

Fuel cells operating at high temperature, e.g. with stabilised ZrO2 electrolyte, the electrolyte consisting of oxides, the electrolyte containing zirconium oxide

H01M 8/1253

Composites
Definition statement

This place covers:

All ceramic materials having a zirconia phase or zirconate phase as the largest fraction, e.g. yttria-stabilised-zirconia, monoclinic zirconia, lanthanum zirconate, but containing also at least one secondary phase, which is not a grain boundary phase. This secondary phase normally is another ceramic phase, but could also be a metallic non-continuous phase. The composite can also be a mixture of a zirconia and a zirconate phase or of two different zirconate phases.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconia refractories containing a secondary phase

C04B 35/482

Mixtures of different zirconia phases, e.g. a mixture of cubic and tetragonal zirconia or a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia

C04B 35/486

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zirconia ceramics containing shaped metallic materials, e.g. metallic fibers

C04B 35/74 and subgroup

Zirconia ceramics containing ceramic fibers, whiskers or platelets, e.g. an zirconia particle matrix containing alumina fibers or alumina platelets

C04B 35/803 and additional symbols (CCA) for the fibers, whiskers, platelets

Ceramics containing one or more secondary phases

C04B 2235/80 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If the secondary phase is a ceramic fiber, whisker, platelet or similarly shaped ceramic particle, both C04B 35/803 and C04B 35/488 are given. The same logic applies to C04B 35/488 and C04B 35/74.

The secondary phases are indicated with symbols from C04B 2235/32-C04B 2235/428. The symbol C04B 2235/80 does not need to be used, since the class itself already indicates that secondary phases are present.

{with aluminium oxide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All sintered zirconia ceramics that contain at least one secondary alumina phase, where this secondary alumina phase is not a grain boundary phase

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconia refractories containing an alumina secondary phase

C04B 35/482, C04B 35/484

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alumina-based ceramics containing a zirconia secondary phase

C04B 35/119

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

If the amount of zirconia phase is larger than the amount of alumina phase, C04B 35/4885 is given, if the amounts are equal, e.g. C04B40/40, then both C04B 35/119 and C04B 35/4885 are given.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ZTA

Zirconia toughened alumina

ATZ

Alumina toughened zirconia

containing also titanium oxides or titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Titanium-zirconates, zirconium-titanates, titanate-zirconates, for instance barium zirconate-titanate, mixed oxides containing at least zirconia and titania.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Titanates

C04B 35/462 and subgroups

Titanium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rutile or anatase

C04B 2235/3232 and subgroups

Titanate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not containing zirconium, e.g. aluminium titanate (Al2TiO5) or mixed niobate-titanates

C04B 2235/3234 and subgroup.

Zirconates or hafnates containing also titanium oxide or titanates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase in a ceramic, e.g. lead zirconate titanate (PZT, PbTi1-xZrxO3).

C04B 2235/3249

Ceramic insulating or dielectric materials

H01B 3/12

Resistors, e.g. varistors, based on metal oxides

H01C 7/108

Fixed capacitors containing a ceramic dielectric based on zirconium oxides containing also titanates

H01G 4/1245

Piezoelectric ceramics

H01L 41/187

Ceramic dielectric resonators

H01P 7/10

Special rules of classification

If the amount of ZrO2 is quite small, e.g. BaTiO3 with only 1 wt% of zirconia dopant, then both C04B 35/49 and C04B 35/4682 are given.

based on lead zirconates and lead titanates {, e.g. PZT}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Lead zirconate titanate, doped possibly with other elements such as La.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead titanate based ceramics

C04B 35/472

Lead zirconate based ceramics

C04B 35/486

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

Ceramic probes, e.g. lead zirconate titanate (PZT) probes

G01N 29/245

Insulating layers on semi-conductor bodies having a perovskite structure

H01L 21/31691

Manufacture of capacitors containing a perovskite dielectric

H01L 28/55 and subgroups

Piezo-electric devices; Electrostrictive devices; Magnetostrictive devices; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof of devices of ceramic compositions

H01L41/24

Special rules of classification

These materials normally have a perovskite structure. C04B 2235/768 can be added to indicate the presence of a perovskite structure.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PLZT

Lead zirconate titanate doped with lanthanum

containing also other lead compounds
Definition statement

This place covers:

PZT doped for instance with Mg, Nb, Ni or other elements that take the B position in the ABO3 perovskite structure of PZT, while the A-position is taken by Pb

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead titanate

C04B 35/472

Lead niobate titanate (zirconate)

C04B 35/499

Magnesium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3206

Niobates or tantalates as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver niobate (AgNbO3)

C04B 2235/3255

Special rules of classification

These materials normally have a perovskite structure, ABO3. C04B 2235/768 can be added to indicate the presence of a perovskite structure. If there is any element at the B-position that is present in an amount larger than Zr and Ti together, then the material is classified in the class of this element, e.g. PbNb0.4Ti0.3Zr0.3 is classified in C04B 35/493, but PbNb0.55Ti0.3Zr0.15 is classified in C04B 35/499. PbAl0.4Ti0.1Zr0.5 is classified in C04B 35/493, but PbAl0.55Ti0.1Zr0.35 is classified in C04B 35/44. PbNb0.4Mg0.05Ti0.1Zr0.45 is also classified in C04B 35/493, since Ti and Zr together form the largest fraction of B-atoms. PbNb0.3W0.25Zr0.4Ti0.05 is classified in C04B 35/499 though, since Nb and W together form a larger fraction than Zr and Ti together.

based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on the single metal oxide phase Nb2O5, Ta2O5, MoOx, WOx, V2O5 or on sub-oxides such as niobium suboxide. Ceramics based on mixed metal oxides of V, Nb, Ta, Mo or W.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics based on titanium oxide or titanates

C04B 35/46 and subgroups

Ceramics based on titanium oxide or titanates containing also zirconium or hafnium oxides, zirconates or hafnates

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with niobium oxides or niobates

C04B 41/5051

Vanadium oxides, vanadates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. magnesium vanadate (Mg2V2O7).

C04B 2235/3239

Niobium or tantalum oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Nb2O5 or Ta2O5

C04B 2235/3251 and subgroups

Molybdenum oxides, molybdates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. cadmium molybdate (CdMoO4)

C04B 2235/3256

Tungsten oxides or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. scheelite (CaWO4)

C04B 2235/3258 and subgroup

Refractory metal oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/068

Refractory metal oxide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/345

Materials for prostheses based on tantalum oxide

A61F 2310/00257

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides of vanadium

B01J 23/22

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides of molybdenum

B01J 23/28

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides of tungsten

B01J 23/30

The preparation of vanadium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 31/00 and subgroups

The preparation of niobium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 33/00 and subgroups

The preparation of tantalum compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 35/00 and subgroups/

The preparation of molybdenum compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 39/00 and subgroups

The preparation of tungsten compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 41/00 and subgroups/

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of molybdenum

C09C 1/0003

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: compounds of bismuth and vanadium

C09C 1/0006

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing vanadates

C09K 11/085

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing chromium, molybdenum or tungsten

C09K 11/68 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing vanadium

C09K 11/69 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing arsenic, antimony or bismuth vanadates; Chromates; Molybdates; Tungstates

C09K 11/7457, C09K 11/758

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing rare earth vanadates; Chromates; Molybdates; Tungstates

C09K 11/7708, C09K 11/7722, C09K 11/7736, C09K 11/7751, C09K 11/7765, C09K 11/7776, C09K 11/7794

Single crystals of Niobates; Vanadates; Tantalates

C30B 29/30

Single crystals of Titanates; Germanates; Molybdates; Tungstates

C30B 29/32

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having positive temperature coefficient mainly consisting of Vanadium oxides or oxidic compounds, e.g. VOx

H01C 7/026

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of Vanadium oxides or oxidic compounds, e.g. VOx

H01C 7/047

Fixed capacitors containing a ceramic dielectric based on niobium or tungsten, tantalum oxides or niobates, tantalates

H01G 4/1254 and subgroup

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing tantalum, e.g. Ta2O5

H01L 21/02183, H01L 21/31645 (from the gas phase)

Ceramic compositions for piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices

H01L 41/187

Details of surface acoustic wave devices of lithium niobate or lithium-tantalate substrates

H03H 9/02559

Materials for prostheses based on niobium oxide

K61F2/00A6B2N

based on solid solutions with lead oxides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Lead niobate (PbNbO3), tantalate, etc., possibly doped with other elements such as Mg, Ni, Zr, Fe

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lead titanate

C04B 35/472

Lead zirconate

C04B 35/486 and subgroups

Lead titanate zirconate

C04B 35/491 and subgroup

Lead oxides, plumbates or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silver plumbate (Ag5Pb2O6)

C04B 2235/3296

containing also titanates
Definition statement

This place covers:

PZT-like material for instance with large amount of Nb, more than the amount of Ti and Zr together.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with niobium oxides or niobates

C04B 41/5051

Titanate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not containing zirconium, e.g. aluminium titanate (Al2TiO5) or mixed niobate-titanates

C04B 2235/3234 and subgroup

The preparation of vanadium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides vanadium, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

C01G 31/006

The preparation of niobium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides niobium, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

C01G 33/006

The preparation of tantalum compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides tantalum, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

C01G 35/006

The preparation of molybdenum compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides molybdenum, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

C01G 39/006

The preparation of tungsten compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates, compounds containing, besides tungsten, two or more other elements, with the exception of oxygen or hydrogen

C01G 41/006

Special rules of classification

These materials normally have a perovskite structure, ABO3. C04B 2235/768 can be added to indicate the presence of a perovskite structure. If the combined amount of Nb/Ta/W/Mo/V is lower than the combined amount of Zr and Ti, then the material is classified in C04B 35/00-C04B 35/493, e.g. PbNb0.4Ti0.3Zr0.3 is classified in C04B 35/493, but PbNb0.55Ti0.3Zr0.15 is classified in C04B 35/499. PbAl0.4Ti0.1Zr0.5 is classified in C04B 35/493, but PbAl0.55Ti0.1Zr0.35 is classified in C04B 35/44. PbNb0.4Mg0.05Ti0.1Zr0.45 is also classified in C04B 35/493, since Ti and Zr together form the largest fraction of B-atoms. PbNb0.3W0.25Zr0.4Ti0.05 is classified in C04B 35/499 though, since Nb and W together form a larger fraction than Zr and Ti together.

based on rare-earth compounds {(non-oxide rare earth compounds C04B 35/5156)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramic materials containing as the largest fraction a phase consisting out of rare earth oxides or out of mixtures of rare earth oxides with alkali metals or alkaline earth metals, e.g. gadolinium cerate, GdxCe1-xO3, barium cerate, BaCeO3, magnesium lanthanate, MgLaO3, yttrium scandium oxide, YScOx (also classified C04B 35/505). Ceramic materials containing a mixture of rare earth metals and zirconia and/or hafnia, where the amount of rare earth metals is higher than the amount of zirconia, e.g. Ce0.3La0.3Zr0.4Ox.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with silica without alumina

C04B 35/16

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with both alumina and silica

C04B 35/18

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups, C04B 35/2641, C04B 35/2675

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with chromium oxide, e.g. lanthanum chromites

C04B 35/42

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with alumina, without silica, e.g. scandium aluminate

C04B 35/44

Rare earth phosphates

C04B 35/447

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with copper oxide, e.g. superconducting LaBa-cuprate

C04B 35/4504 and subgroup

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide, e.g. dysprosium bismuthate

C04B 35/453

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with tin oxide, e.g. neodymium stannate

C04B 35/457

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with titanium oxides, such as lanthanum titanate or cerium titanate

C04B 35/462

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with zirconium oxide, e.g. cerium zirconate, containing more Zr than rare earth metals

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide, e.g. ytterbium titanate zirconate (YbTi0.5Zr0.5O3)

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of rare earth metals with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide, e.g. erbium tantalum niobate (ErNb0.5Ta0.5O3)

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Ceramics based on non-oxide rare earth compounds

C04B 35/5156

Rare earth oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/066

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rare earth non-oxide ceramics

C04B 35/5156

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with rare earth oxides

C04B 41/5045

Rare earth oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Sc2O3, Lu2O3, Nd2O3

C04B 2235/3224

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides of rare earths

B01J 23/10

The preparation of rare earth compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01F 17/00 and subgroups

Luminescent materials containing rare earth metals

C09K 11/77 and subgroups, C09K 11/0822

Shades containing photoluminescent material

F21V 1/17

Refractors containing photoluminescent material

F21V 5/10

Reflectors containing photoluminescent material

F21V 7/26

Elements containing photoluminescent material distinct from or spaced from the light source and subgroups

F21V 9/30

Elements with provision for controlling the spectral properties or intensity containing photoluminescent material

F21V 9/45

Scintillation detectors

G01T 1/20, G01T 3/06

Luminescent screens

H01J 1/63

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate, the material containing at least one rare earth metal element, e.g. oxides of lanthanides, scandium or yttrium

H01L 21/02192

Fuel cells operating at high temperature, e.g. with stabilised ZrO2 electrolyte, the electrolyte consisting of oxides, the electrolyte containing cerium oxide

H01M 8/126

Special rules of classification

If any of cerium or lanthanum oxide is present, C04B 2235/3229 (Ce) or C04B 2235/3227 (La) is used. C04B 2235/3224 does not need to be given, if C04B 35/50 is given for a certain composition.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Rare earth oxides

The oxides of scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lutetium (Lu), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb)

based on yttrium oxide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramic materials containing as the largest fraction a phase consisting out of yttria or out of mixtures of yttria with other rare earth oxides, where yttria forms the largest fraction, e.g. yttrium scandium oxide, YScOx (also classified in C04B 35/50). Ceramic materials containing as the largest fraction a phase that is a mixture of yttria with alkali metals or alkaline earth metals. Ceramic materials containing a mixture of yttria and zirconia and/or hafnia, where the amount of yttria is higher than the amount of zirconia, e.g. Y0.6Zr0.4Ox.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixed oxides of yttrium with silica without alumina

C04B 35/16

Mixed oxides of yttrium with both alumina and silica

C04B 35/18

Mixed oxides of yttrium with iron oxides and possible other metal oxides, e.g. ferrites

C04B 35/2608 and subgroups, C04B 35/2641, C04B 35/2675

Mixed oxides of yttrium with chromium oxide, e.g. chromites

C04B 35/42

Mixed oxides of yttrium with alumina, without silica, e.g. yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12)

C04B 35/44

Yttrium phosphates

C04B 35/447

Mixed oxides of yttrium with copper oxide, e.g. superconducting LaBa-cuprate

C04B 35/4504 and subgroup

Mixed oxides of yttrium with zinc oxide and/or bismuth oxide

C04B 35/453

Mixed oxides of yttrium with tin oxide

C04B 35/457

Mixed oxides of yttrium with titanium oxides

C04B 35/462

Mixed oxides of yttrium with zirconium oxide, containing more Zr than yttrium, e.g. YSZ, yttria-stabilised-zirconia

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of yttrium with zirconium oxide and titanium oxide

C04B 35/49 and subgroups

Mixed oxides of yttrium with vanadium oxide and/or niobium oxide and/or molybdenum oxide and/or tungsten oxide and/or tantalum oxide

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rare earth non-oxide ceramics

C04B 35/5156

Yttrium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3225

based on compounds of actinides ({non-oxide actinide compounds C04B 35/5158} ; nuclear fuel materials G21C 3/62)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics having as the largest fraction an oxide based on actinides, e.g. uranium oxide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Non-oxide actinide ceramics, e.g. uranium carbide

C04B 35/5158

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Actinide oxides, mixed metal oxides or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides, as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/32

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides of actinides

B01J 23/12, C07C 2523/12

Compounds of thorium

C01F 15/00

The preparation of uranium compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 43/00 and subgroups

The preparation of transuranic element compounds in powder form, e.g. oxides, carbonates, halides, nitrates, sulphates

C01G 56/00 and subgroups

Ceramic nuclear fuel materials

G21C 3/62 and subgroups

based on non-oxide ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics having as the largest fraction a non-oxide material, e.g. a carbide, nitride, boride, silicide, fluoride, sulphide, selenide.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Non-oxide ceramics having a metallic binder

C22C 29/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making fibres based on non-oxide ceramic material

C04B 35/62272

Ceramic products containing macroscopic reinforcing agents containing non-metallic materials: fibres, filaments, whiskers, platelets, or the like: the matrix of the ceramic products consisting of non-oxides only

C04B 35/806

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with non-oxide ceramics

C04B 41/5053

Non-oxides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/38 and subgroups

Non-oxide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/08 and subgroup

Non-oxide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/36 and subgroups

Non-oxide glass compositions, e.g. binary or ternary halides, sulphides or nitrides of germanium, selenium or tellurium

C03C 3/32, C03B 2201/80 and subgroups

Non-oxide coatings on glass

C03C 17/3429 and subgroups

Non-oxide ceramics in MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL (F01) OR machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0804 and subgroups

{based on halogenides other than fluorides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sintered ceramics having as the largest fraction a chloride, bromide or iodide phase, or a mixture of these phases

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Starting powder mixtures based on halogenides used to make ceramics

C04B 2235/444

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with salts or salty compositions: containing halogen in the anion

C04B 41/5011

Halogens per se

C01B 7/00, C01B 9/00, C01B 11/00 and subgroups

Halides of sodium, potassium or alkali metals in general

C01D 3/00 and subgroups

Halide glasses other than fluoride glasses, i.e. Cl, Br or I glasses, e.g. AgCl-AgBr "glass"

C03B 2201/84

{based on phosphides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sintered ceramics having as the largest fraction a phosphide phase. Phosphides are metal-phosphor compounds that do not contain oxygen.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Phosphate ceramics, metal-phosphor-oxygen compounds

C04B 35/447

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Metal salts chosen for the nature of the anions as starting material for making ceramics, e.g. phosphides, hydrides, acetylacetonate, hydroxides, or present as secondary phase in the sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/44 and subgroups

Preparation of phosphides per se, e.g. phosphide powder, not preparative to making a phosphide ceramic

C01B 25/08 and subgroups

Boride or phosphide coating on glass

C03C 2217/283

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing phosphides

C09K 11/0883, C09K 11/7492

Single crystals based on gallium phosphide

C30B 29/44

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being a phosphide

H01L 21/02392

Phosphides used as active substance in electrodes for fuel cells and batteries

H01M 4/5805

{based on rare earth compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sintered ceramics having as the largest fraction a rare earth non-oxide phase, e.g., a lanthanum carbide, yttrium nitride, cerium boride, scandium silicide, dysprosium fluoride

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rare earth oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/50

Yttrium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/505

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on carbides, e.g. rare earth carbides

C04B 35/56

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on nitrides, e.g. rare earth nitrides

C04B 35/58

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on borides, e.g. rare earth borides

C04B 35/5805

Borides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rare earth boride

C04B 2235/3804

Carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rare earth carbide

C04B 2235/3817

Nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. oxynitrides, carbonitrides, oxycarbonitrides, lithium nitride (Li3N), magnesium nitride (Mg3N2), rare earth nitride

C04B 2235/3852

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

The preparation of nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics, with one or more rare earth metals

C01B 21/0627

Special rules of classification

The documents classified in this class are also classified in the class of the specific type of non oxide, e.g. lanthanum carbide is classified in C04B 35/5156 and C04B 35/56, cerium nitride is classified in C04B 35/5156 and C04B 35/58.

{based on actinide compounds}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The synthesis of actinide carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides, fluorides, sulphides, selenides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Actinide oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/51

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on carbides, e.g. actinide carbides

C04B 35/56

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on nitrides, e.g. actinide nitrides

C04B 35/58

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on borides, e.g. actinide borides

C04B 35/5805

Borides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. actinide boride

C04B 2235/3804

Carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. actinide carbide

C04B 2235/3817

Nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. oxynitrides, carbonitrides, oxycarbonitrides, lithium nitride (Li3N), magnesium nitride (Mg3N2), actinide nitride

C04B 2235/3852

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi, U, Pt

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

The preparation of nitride powders, with one or more actinides, e.g. UN, PuN

C01B 21/063

The preparation of actinide carbide powders

C01B 32/928

Ceramic nuclear fuel materials

G21C 3/62 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

The documents classified in this class are also classified in the class of the specific type of non oxide, e.g. uranium carbide is classified in C04B 35/5158 and C04B 35/56, plutonium nitride is classified in C04B 35/5158 and C04B 35/58.

based on carbon, e.g. graphite
Definition statement

This place covers:

All inorganic objects containing as largest fraction an inorganic carbon phase or carbon-based mixtures used for making carbon-based bodies or other ceramic objects, e.g. sintered carbon electrodes, characterised by their composition or their synthesis

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures based on carbides

C04B 35/56 and subgroups

A carbon-based matrix containing carbon fibers

C04B 35/83

Diamond bodies containing a metallic binder

C22C 26/00

Carbon electrodes used in electrolytic capacitors, rectifiers, detectors, switching devices, light-sensitive or temperature-sensitive devices

H01G 9/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide-based ceramics or ceramic mixtures in general containing carbon

C04B 35/013

Alumina-based refractories containing carbon

C04B 35/103

Ceramic powders coated with carbon

C04B 35/62839

Ceramic fibers coated with carbon

C04B 35/62873

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing carbon fibers or carbon whiskers

C04B 35/80 and subgroups and C04B 2235/5248

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing carbon nanotubes

C04B 35/80 and subgroups and C04B 2235/5288

Coating or impregnating a ceramic substrates with carbon

C04B 41/5001 and subgroups

Carbon additives for ceramics

C04B 2235/422 and subgroups

Organics compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat-treatment, e.g. phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Fibrous carbon additives for ceramics

C04B 2235/5248

Carbon nanotube additives for ceramics

C04B 2235/5288

Ceramics or ceramic mixtures containing carbon as an impurity

C04B 2235/721

Carbon interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/086

Carbon substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/363

Carbon materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses

A61L 27/08

Carbon-based inorganic membranes

B01D 71/021

Presses for the formation of diamonds or boronitride

B01J 3/065 and subgroup

Catalysts comprising carbon

B01J 21/18, and subgroup, C07C 2521/18

High pressure synthesis of diamond

B01J 2203/0655

Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting: non-consumable electrodes; C-electrode

B23K 35/0205

Carbon electrodes for use in soldering, welding, or cutting

B23K 35/402

The preparation of carbon powders per se, not preparative to the making of carbon ceramics

C01B 32/00 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: carbon

C09C 1/44 and subgroups

Electrodes for electrolytic processes based on carbon

C25B 11/12 and subgroup

Carbon ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0808, F05C 2203/0882

Constructions of heat-exchange apparatus characterised by the selection of particular materials, of carbon, e.g. graphite

F28F 21/02

Carbonic moderators in nuclear reactors

G21C 5/126

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of Carbon or carbides

H01C 7/048

Field emission cathodes common to discharge tubes: carbon type

H01J 2201/30453 and subgroups

Field emission cathodes common to electron emission display panels: carbon type

H01J 2329/0444 and subgroups

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being carbon, e.g. diamond-like carbon

H01L 21/02376

Semiconductor bodies: diamond

H01L 29/1602

Electrodes based on carbonaceous material, e.g. graphite-intercalation compounds or CFx for fuel cells and batteries

H01M 4/133 , H01M 4/1393, H01M 4/583 and subgroup, H01M 4/663

Carbon-based electrodes for fuel cells and batteries

H01M 4/96

Ohmic-resistance heating, heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the conductive material being carbon only, e.g. carbon black, graphite

H05B 3/145, C03B 2205/63 (for fiber drawing)

Electrodes mainly consisting of carbon for heating by electric discharge

H05B 7/085 and subgroup

Carbon-based electrodes for electric arc lamps

H05B 31/08 and subgroups

Special rules of classification

The carbonaceous additives used for making the carbon-based body are further indicated with the codes C04B 2235/424 (carbon black), C04B 2235/425 (graphite) and C04B 2235/427 (diamond).

Diamond based composites are classified normally in C04B 35/52 rather than in C04B 35/528.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

C/C

Carbon fibres in a carbon matrix

{obtained by impregnation of carbon products with a carbonisable material}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The carbonisable material normally is carbonised through a heat treatment. The end-product contains mainly carbon phase.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Porous carbon is infiltrated with Si-containing polymer that is carbonised to form a product containing mainly SiC

C04B 35/571

Impregnation of a carbon product with Si in order to form SiC

C04B 35/573

Porous carbon is infiltrated with Si-and N-containing polymer that is carbonised to form a product containing mainly Si3N4

C04B 35/589

Impregnation of a fibrous carbon product with a carbonisable material

C04B 35/83

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Impregnation of carbon products with materials that lead to the formation of other phases than carbon, where one of these other phases forms the largest fraction of the end-product (thus the end product does not have carbon as largest fraction anymore)

Classification is in the class of this largest fraction, e.g. impregnation with alumina to such an extent that the end-product contains more alumina than carbon leads to the class C04B 35/117 (alumina composites) and the code C04B 2235/422 (carbon additive or secondary phase in the end-product)

The synthesis and properties of porous carbon bodies

C04B 38/00 and subgroups

Porous mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware obtained by a chemical conversion or reaction other than those relating to the setting or hardening of cement-like material or to the formation of a sol or a gel, e.g. by carbonising or pyrolysing preformed cellular materials based on polymers, organo-metallic or organo-silicon precursors

C04B 38/0022 and subgroups

Impregnation of carbon products with materials that lead to the formation of other phases than carbon, where none of these other phases form the largest fraction of the end-product

C04B 41/00 and subgroups

Materials with friction-reduced moving parts, e.g. ceramics lubricated by impregnation with carbon

C04B 2111/00344

Gas infiltration of green bodies or pre-forms

C04B 2235/614

Liquid infiltration of green bodies or pre-forms

C04B 2235/616

Impregnated carbon catalyst carriers

B01J 21/18, and subgroup, C07C 2521/18

Impregnation of carbon electrodes

C25B 11/14

Special rules of classification

The symbols C04B 2235/614 and C04B 2235/616 are used in combination with C04B 35/521 to indicate whether the infiltration is through gas or liquid, respectively.

{Graphite (C04B 35/536 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All shaped products or mixtures for making a shaped product that have graphite as the largest fraction

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

All shaped products or mixtures for making a shaped product that have expanded graphite as the largest fraction

C04B 35/536

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of graphite as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of graphite specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 14/024

Creating porosity in ceramic products by burning out graphite

C04B 38/068

Graphite as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/425

Graphite materials for grafts or prostheses

A61L 27/08

Graphite reactor vessels

B01J 2219/0272

The preparation and after-treatment of graphite powders

C01B 32/20 and subgroups

Treatment of inorganic materials, other than fibrous fillers, to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties: graphite

C09C 1/46

Sliding surface consisting mainly of graphite

F16C 33/16

obtained from polymer precursors, e.g. glass-like carbon material
Definition statement

This place covers:

Carbon containing polymers are carbonised, leading to a product that has as largest fraction a carbon phase, e.g. carbonising a shaped phenol resin

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mixtures of polymer precursors and carbon particles, where the amount of carbon particles is larger than the amount of polymer precursors

C04B 35/532

Carbon and silicon containing polymers are carbonised, leading to a product that has as largest fraction a silicon carbide phase, e.g. carbonising a shaped polysilane resin

C04B 35/571

Carbon, silicon and nitrogen containing polymers are carbonised, leading to a product that has as largest fraction a silicon nitride phase, e.g. carbonising a shaped polysilazane resin

C04B 35/589

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. carbonising phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

obtained from carbonaceous particles with or without other non-organic components
Definition statement

This place covers:

The shaping of carbon particles into a compact and possible further densification through heat treatment

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The shaping of graphite particles into a compact

C04B 35/522, C04B 35/536 (expanded graphite)

containing a carbonisable binder
Definition statement

This place covers:

The shaping of carbon particles into a compact and possible further densification through heat treatment, whereby binders such as pitch, tar, phenolic resin, etc., all possible binders from the range C04B 35/632-C04B 35/6365 can be used, as long as the further (heat) treatment is in non-oxidising atmosphere.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Carbon shaped bodies where the binder is not added to starting powder mixture, but is impregnated or infiltrated into an already shaped carbonaceous body

C04B 35/521

Mixtures of carbon particles with carbonisable binder, where the amount of carbonisable binder is larger than the amount of carbon particles

C04B 35/524 and C04B 2235/422 (carbon particles)

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Organics compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat-treatment

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Preparation of active carbon using carbonaceous precursors per se and binders, e.g. pitch, and producing the granules

C01B 32/384

Special rules of classification

If a carbonisable binder is used, classification in C04B 35/528 is not necessary, unless also the possibility of not using the carbonisable binder is disclosed. C04B 35/532 is also given to graphite powders containing a carbonisable binder, together with C04B 35/522 (or C04B 35/536).

Since the class C04B 35/532 already indicates that organics are carbonised and become part of the ceramic, the code C04B 2235/48 is superfluous.

based on expanded graphite {or complexed graphite}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Shaped objects of expanded graphite, possibly further heat-treated, or preparing of expanded graphite preparatory to the shaping of the mixture

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Creating porosity in the ceramic product by expanding the graphite

C04B 38/02

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Graphite as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/425

The preparation and after-treatment of intercalated graphite powders

C01B 32/10, C01B 32/22

The preparation and after-treatment of expanded or exfoliated graphite powders

C01B 32/225

Intercalated carbon- or graphite fibres

D01F 11/129

Electrodes based on carbonaceous material, e.g. graphite-intercalation compounds or CFx for fuel cells and batteries

H01M 4/133 , H01M 4/1393, ,H01M 4/583 and subgroup, H01M 4/663

based on sulfides or selenides {or tellurides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics having as the largest fraction a sulphide, selenide or telluride phase, or a mixture of these phases

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Starting powder mixtures based on sulphides, selenides or tellurides used to make ceramics

C04B 2235/446

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with salts or salty compositions: containing sulphur in the anion, e.g. sulphides

C04B 41/5014

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with sulphides or selenides

C04B 41/5054

Catalysts comprising sulphides

B01J 27/04 and subgroups

Sulphide compounds per se

C01B 17/20 and subgroups

Selenides and tellurides per se

C01B 19/007

Preparation of sulphides metal compounds in general

C01G 1/12

Chalcogenide glasses, e.g. containing S, Se, Te

C03C 3/321 and subgroup, C03B 2201/86, C03B 2201/88

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing sulphides

C09K 11/56 and subgroups

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing two or more rare earth metals: oxysulfides

C09K 11/7771

Single crystals based on Sulphur-, selenium- or tellurium-containing compounds

C30B 29/46 and subgroups

Sulphide ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0856 and subgroup

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being a sulphide

H01L 21/02406

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being a selenide

H01L 21/02409

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being a telluride

H01L 21/02411

Electrodes for accumulators with non-aqueous electrolyte based on inorganic compounds other than oxides or hydroxides, e.g. sulphides, selenides, tellurides, halogenides or LiCoFy

H01M 4/136, H01M 4/1397

based on fluorides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics having as the largest fraction a fluoride phase

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Starting powder mixtures based on fluorides used to make ceramics

C04B 2235/445

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with fluorine compounds

C04B 41/5018

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with fluorides

C04B 41/5055

Catalysts containing fluoride

B01J 27/12

Fluorides per se

C01B 7/19 and subgroups, C01B 9/08, C01B 11/24

Fluorides of sodium, potassium or alkali metals in general

C01D 3/02

Fluoride glasses

C03C 3/325, C03B 2201/82 and subgroup

based on carbides {or oxycarbides (containing free metal binder C22C 29/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics having as the largest fraction a carbide phase, a compound between carbon and a metal or semi-metal, e.g. e.g. potassium carbide, magnesium carbide, Cerium carbide (CeC2), Manganese carbide (Mn3C), Iron carbide (Fe3C), Cobalt carbide (CoC), Nickel carbide (Ni3C), Copper carbide (Cu2C), Zinc carbide (ZnC), Germanium carbide (GeC), Gold carbide (Au2C2), Silver carbide (Ag2C2), Antimony carbide (SbC).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Carbo-nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58 and subgroups

Carbides containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/06 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: carbides

C04B 14/322 and subgroups

Making fibres based on carbides

C04B 35/62277

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with carbides

C04B 41/5057

Carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rare earth carbide

C04B 2235/3817 and subgroups

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

Carbon as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/422

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. carbonising phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Carbide interlayer used for joining a ceramic with another substrate

C04B 2237/083

Materials for prostheses based on metal carbides

A61F 2310/00269 and subgroups

Coating materials for prostheses based on metal carbides

A61F 2310/0073 and subgroups

Carbide catalysts

B01J 27/22, C07C 2527/22 and subgroups

Casting non-ferrous metals with a high melting point, e.g. metallic carbides

B22D 21/06

Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting comprising refractory compounds, e.g. carbides

B23K 35/327

Making carbide powders

C01B 32/90 and subgroups

Materials for coating a single layer on glass: carbides, silicides

C03C 2217/282

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides or silicides; Preparation of the powder mixture used as the starting material

C22C 1/051

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides, silicides starting from a melt

C22C 1/1068

Metallic alloys based carbides, but not containing other metal compounds

C22C 29/06 and subgroups

Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material: carbides

C23C 14/0635

Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes: carbides

C23C 16/32 and subgroup

Single crystals of carbides

C30B 29/36

Carbide ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0813 and subgroups

Friction linings

F16D 69/02

Non-adjustable resistors formed as one or more layers or coatings; Non-adjustable resistors made from powdered conducting material or powdered semi-conducting material with or without insulating material having negative temperature coefficient mainly consisting of carbon or carbides

H01C 7/048

Varistor cores, Carbide, e.g. SiC type

H01C 7/118

Electrical contacts having a noble metal as the basic material and containing carbides

H01H 1/0233

Encapsulations with oxides or nitrides or carbides, e.g. ceramics, glass, e.g. encapsulating layers, coatings of semi-conductors

H01L 23/291

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: conductive ceramics, e.g. metal oxides, metal carbides, barium titanate, ferrites, zirconia, vitreous compounds

H05B 3/141 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

Carbonitrides are seen as nitrides. If a ceramic is however a mixture of separate carbide and nitride phases, then classification occurs in the class that corresponds to the phase that is present as the largest fraction, which could be a carbide class.

{with a well-defined oxygen content, e.g. oxycarbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All oxy-carbides and all carbides that contain oxygen in the principal carbide phase

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Carbide ceramics containing oxide secondary phases, e.g. a carbide containing a silica sintering aid

C04B 35/56 or subgroups, except C04B 35/5603 and symbols from C04B 2235/32- C04B 2235/365 to indicate the oxide phase

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-oxides with a defined oxygen content as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. SiOC, SiON, TiON

C04B 2235/3895

Making powders of oxycarbides, sulfocarbides or mixtures of carbides with other bodies, e.g. graphite; Carbides of other non-metals, e.g. silicocarbides, borocarbides

C01B 32/907

Silicon oxycarbide, oxynitride or oxycarbonitride glasses

C03C 3/045

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof: forming insulating materials on a substrate: the material containing Si, O, and at least one of H, N, C, F, or other non-metal elements, e.g. SiOC, SiOC:H or SiONC

H01L 21/02126

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, forming insulating materials on a substrate by gas or vapour deposition, the material containing carbon doped silicon oxide, e.g. SiOC

H01L 21/31633

Special rules of classification

The oxy-carbides are also classified in the other sub-groups of C04B 35/56, e.g. titanium oxy-carbide is classified in C04B 35/5603 and C04B 35/5611. Silicon oxy-carbide is classified in C04B 35/5603 and in C04B 35/565 or one of the subgroups of C04B 35/565. Carbides that are normally classified in the head group C04B 35/56 are only classified in C04B 35/5603, in the case it is an oxy-carbide and not in C04B 35/56.

{based on refractory metal carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on refractory metal carbides or refractory metal oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Refractory carbides other than refractory metal carbides, e.g. a SiC refractory or boron carbide refractory

C04B 35/565 respectively C04B 35/563

Cemented refractory carbides

C22C 29/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide ceramics based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Refractory metal nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58007 and subgroups

Refractory metal boride ceramics

C04B 35/58064 and subgroups/

Refractory metal silicide ceramics

C04B 35/58092 and subgroups/

Refractory mortars or monolithic refractories

C04B 35/66

Refractory metal carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. VC, Cr3C2, ZrC, HfC, NbC, TaC, MoC or Mo2C

C04B 2235/3839 and subgroups

Refractory metals as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), tantalum (Ta)

C04B 2235/404

Coating for prosthesis made of tantalum carbide

A61F 2310/00269

Coating for prosthesis made of chromium carbide

A61F 2310/00754

Coating for prosthesis made of niobium carbide

A61F 2310/00772

The preparation of tungsten or molybdenum carbide powders

C01B 32/949

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Refractory carbides

titanium carbide, vanadium carbide, chromium carbide, zirconium carbide, niobium carbide, molybdenum carbide, hafnium carbide, tantalum carbide, tungsten carbide

{based on titanium carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium carbides or titanium oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Titanium (oxy)carbonitride ceramics

C04B 35/58021

Titanium (oxy)carbide with a metallic binder

C22C 29/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Titanium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/46 and subgroups

Titanium (oxy)nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58014 and subgroup

Titanium (oxy)boride ceramics

C04B 35/58071

After-treatment of mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics; Treatment of natural stone: with titanium carbide

C04B 41/5061

Titanium carbide as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. TiC

C04B 2235/3843

Materials for prostheses, containing titanium carbide

A61F 2310/00748

Making titanium (oxy)carbide powders

C01B 32/921

Titanium carbide ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0821

Materials for prostheses, coatings containing titanium carbide

K6F2/00B22B4T

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed refractory carbides, e.g. TiCrC, both C04B 35/5607 (for the Cr) and C04B 35/5611 are added, since the amount of Ti and Cr is the same. Ti0.9Cr1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/5607 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of Ti, e.g. C04B 2235/3843 or C04B 2235/404)

{based on titanium silicon carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium carbides or titanium oxy-carbides that also contain silicon, or silicon carbides or silicon oxy-carbides that also contain titanium

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Silicon carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/565 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with titanium carbide

C04B 41/5061

Silicon carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. SiC or SiOC

C04B 2235/3826 and subgroups

Silicon as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/428

Special rules of classification

The relation between Ti and Si can vary to almost any extent, thus both Ti0.9Si0.1C and Ti0.1Si0.9C are classified in this group and neither in C04B 35/5611 nor in C04B 35/565 and subgroups. Only when the amount of Ti or Si is very low, classification in C04B 35/5611 or in C04B 35/565 and subgroups might be considered.

{based on titanium aluminium carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium carbides or titanium oxy-carbides that also contain aluminium, or aluminium carbides or aluminium oxy-carbides that also contain titanium

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Aluminium carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/56

Carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. aluminum carbide

C04B 2235/3817

Aluminium as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/402

Special rules of classification

The relation between Ti and Al can vary to almost any extent, thus both Ti0.9Al0.1C and Ti0.1Al0.9C are classified in this group and neither in C04B 35/5611 nor in C04B 35/56. Only when the amount of Ti or Al is very low, classification in C04B 35/5611 or in C04B 35/56 might be considered.

{based on zirconium or hafnium carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on zirconium or hafnium carbides or zirconium or hafnium oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)carbonitride ceramics

C04B 35/58028

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58028

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)boride ceramics

C04B 35/58078

Materials for prostheses, coatings made of zirconium carbide

A61F 2310/00766

Materials for prostheses, coatings made of hafnium carbide

A61F 2310/00778

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed refractory carbides, e.g. ZrTiC, both C04B 35/5611 (for the Ti) and C04B 35/5622 are added, since the amount of Ti and Zr is the same. Ti0.9Zr1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/5622 (possibly using an additional symbol(CCA) to indicate the presence of Ti, e.g. C04B 2235/3843 or C04B 2235/404)

{based on tungsten carbides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on tungsten carbides or tungsten oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Tungsten (oxy)carbonitride ceramics

C04B 35/58007

Tungsten carbide with a metallic binder

C22C 29/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tungsten oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Tungsten (oxy)nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58007

Tungsten (oxy)boride ceramics

C04B 35/58064

Tungsten carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. WC

C04B 2235/3847

Coating for prosthesis made of tungsten carbide

A61F 2310/0079

The preparation of tungsten or molybdenum carbide powders

C01B 32/949

Metallic alloys based on tungsten carbide

C22C 29/10

Tungsten carbide ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0826

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed carbides, e.g. WSiC, both C04B 35/565 (for the Si) and C04B 35/5626 are added, since the amount of W and Si is the same. Si0.9W1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/5626 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of Si, e.g. C04B 2235/3826 or C04B 2235/428)

based on boron carbide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on boron carbides or boron oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on boron carbo-nitride

C04B 35/583 and subgroup

Boron carbide with a metallic binder

C22C 29/062

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: boron carbide

C04B 14/323

Ceramics based on boron oxide

C04B 35/01 together with C04B 2235/3409

Ceramics based on boron oxycarbide

C04B 35/5603 and C04B 35/563

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with boron carbide

C04B 41/5058

Boron oxide or borate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3409

Boron carbide as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. B4C

C04B 2235/3821

Boron as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/421

Boron-containing organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. borazine, borane or boranyl

C04B 2235/486

Materials for prostheses based on boron carbide

A61F 2310/00275

Coatings for prostheses based on boron carbide

A61F 2310/00736

Preparation of boron carbide powders

C01B 32/991

Metallic alloys based on B4C

C22C 29/062

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed carbides, e.g. SiBC, both C04B 35/565 (for the Si) and C04B 35/563 are added, since the amount of B and Si is the same. Si0.9B1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/563 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of Si, e.g. C04B 2235/3826 or C04B 2235/428). B0.9Si1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/565 or subgroup of C04B 35/565 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of B, e.g. C04B 2235/3821 or C04B 2235/421).

based on silicon carbide
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on silicon carbides or silicon oxy-carbides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Silicon carbide based ceramics containing also Ti, e.g. Ti0.1Si0.9C

C04B 35/5615

Ceramics based on silicon carbo-nitride

C04B 35/584 and subgroups

Silicon carbide with a metallic binder

C22C 29/065

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: silicon carbide

C04B 14/324

Ceramics based on silicon oxide

C04B 35/14

Ceramics based on silicon oxycarbide

C04B 35/5603 and C04B 35/565 and subgroups

Ceramics based on silicon nitride

C04B 35/584 and subgroups

Making fibres based on silicon carbide

C04B 35/62281

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with silicon carbide

C04B 41/5059

Silicon carbides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. SiC or SiOC

C04B 2235/3826 and subgroups

Si-containing organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. silicone resins, (poly)silanes, (poly)siloxanes or (poly)silazanes

C04B 2235/483

Cubic symmetry, e.g. beta SiC

C04B 2235/762

Hexagonal symmetry, alpha SiC

C04B 2235/767

Silicon carbide substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/365

Materials for prostheses based on silicon carbide SiC

A61F 2310/00281

Coating materials for prostheses, the coating material based on silicon carbide SiC

A61F 2310/00742

Silicon carbide catalyst

B01J 27/224 and subgroup, C07C 2527/224

Preparation of silicon carbide powders

C01B 32/956

Metallic alloys based on SiC

C22C 29/065

Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes: silicon carbide

C23C 16/325

Rope or cable materials: silicon carbides

D07B 2205/3017

Silicon carbide ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0817

Varistor cores, Carbide, e.g. SiC type

H01C 7/118

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the coating being silicon carbide

H01L 21/02167, H01L 21/02447, H01L 21/02529, H01L 21/3148

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being silicon carbide

H01L 21/02378, H01L 21/0445 and subgroups, H01L 21/8213, H01L 29/1608

Thin film transistors having a semiconductor body comprising semiconductor materials of the fourth group not being silicon, or alloys including an element of the group IV, e.g. Ge, SiN alloys, SiC alloys

H01L 29/78684 and subgroup

Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; details thereof: characterised by their semiconductor bodies: including, apart from doping materials or other impurities, only AIVBIV compounds, e.g. SiC

H01L 31/0312 and subgroups, H01L 31/03687, H01L 31/03765, H01L 31/1816, H01L 31/204

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: silicon, e.g. silicon carbide, magnesium silicide, heating transistors or diodes

H05B 3/148

Special rules of classification

Both Ti0.9Si0.1C and Ti0.1Si0.9C are classified in C04B 35/5615 and not in C04B 35/5611 nor in C04B 35/565 and subgroups. Only when the amount of Ti or Si is very low, classification in C04B 35/5611 or in C04B 35/565 and subgroups might be considered.

In the case of mixed carbides, e.g. SiBC, both C04B 35/565 (for the Si) and C04B 35/563 are added, since the amount of B and Si is the same. Si0.9B1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/563 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of Si, e.g. C04B 2235/3826 or C04B 2235/428). B0.9Si1.1C is only classified in C04B 35/565 or subgroup of C04B 35/565 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of B, e.g. C04B 2235/3821 or C04B 2235/421).

For all other mixed carbides containing Si the reasoning is as with SiBC, classification is in the carbide group of the metal element that is most abundant, with the exception of TiSi-carbides.

If the main phase is alpha SiC, C04B 2235/767 (hexagonal phase) is attributed, if the main phase is beta SiC, C04B 2235/762 (cubic phase) is attributed.

Synonyms and Keywords

SiC/SiC

Silicon carbide reinforced with silicon carbide fibers

obtained from {Si-containing} polymer precursors {or organosilicon monomers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Silicon carbide ceramics made by pyrolysing silicone resins, (poly)silanes, (poly)siloxanes, (poly)silazanes etc., or porous ceramics that are infiltrated with a silicon-containing resin and pyrolysed to a product that contains mainly silicon carbide

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Porous carbon is infiltrated with Si-containing polymer that is carbonised to form a product containing mainly carbon

C04B 35/521

Carbon and silicon containing polymers are carbonised, leading to a product that has as largest fraction a carbon phase

C04B 35/524

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics based on carbon obtained from polymer or organic precursors

C04B 35/524

Ceramics based on silicon nitride obtained from polymer or organic precursors

C04B 35/591

Si-containing organic compounds, e.g. silicone resins, (poly)silanes, (poly)siloxanes or (poly)silazanes used for becoming part of a ceramic after heat-treatment, e.g. phenol resins

C04B 2235/483

Special rules of classification

The end-product of the pyrolysis needs to have as largest fraction a silicon carbide phase. If after pyrolysis the product is hot-pressed, C04B 35/575 is added as well.

obtained by reaction sintering {or recrystallisation}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A carbon containing material and a silicon containing material are reacted to form in-situ a SiC containing ceramics, e.g. a porous carbon body is infiltrated with molten Si and reacted to SiC or a porous carbon body is infiltrated with gaseous SiOx and reacted to SiC, or carbon powder and SiO2 and/or Si powder are mixed, shaped and heated to a temperature and in an atmosphere where they react to SiC

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Infiltration of porous carbon product with molten Si, with the end-product containing more carbon phase than SiC

C04B 35/52

Infiltration of porous carbon product with molten Si, with the end-product containing more unreacted silicon phase than SiC

C04B 41/4584

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Reaction sintering to make silicon nitride based ceramics

C04B 35/591

Reaction sintering to make ceramics in general

C04B 35/65 and subgroups

A paper sheet which after carbonisation will react with silicon to form a porous silicon carbide porous body]

C04B 38/0032

Carbon as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/422 and subgroups

Silicon as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/428

Special rules of classification

The end-product of the reaction sintering needs to have as largest fraction a silicon carbide phase. If after reaction sintering the product is hot-pressed, C04B 35/575 is added as well. Silicon is not regarded as a metallic phase, thus silicon carbide materials that contain a large amount of silicon phase are not regarded as ceramics having a metallic binder, which are classified in C22C 29/00 and subgroups, but as a ceramic with a secondary phase.

If a SiC ceramic is made by mixing 55 wt% SiC with 45 wt% of Si/C mixture, and this mixture is reaction sintered, C04B 35/573 should not be given, but C04B 35/565, since the majority of the material does not result from reaction sintering.

When classifying in C04B 35/573, classification in C04B 35/65 is superfluous.

obtained by pressure sintering
Definition statement

This place covers:

A SiC-containing or forming material is densified under mechanical pressure, leading to a product having SiC as the largest fraction.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressure sintering to make silicon nitride based ceramics

C04B 35/593

Pressure sintering to make ceramics in general

C04B 35/645

Special rules of classification

When classifying in C04B 35/575, classification in C04B 35/645 is superfluous. C04B 35/575 can be used in combination with C04B 35/571 or C04B 35/573, when pressure sintering a silicon containing polymer respectively when pressure sintering a reaction sintered SiC based ceramic.

{obtained by gas pressure sintering}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A SiC-containing or forming material is densified under gas pressure, leading to a product having SiC as the largest fraction.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gas pressure sintering to make silicon nitride based ceramics

C04B 35/5935

Hot isostatic pressing to make ceramics in general

C04B 35/6455

Special rules of classification

When classifying in C04B 35/5755, classification in C04B 35/6455 is superfluous. C04B 35/5755 can be used in combination with C04B 35/571 or C04B 35/573, when gas pressure sintering a silicon containing polymer respectively when gas pressure sintering a reaction sintered SiC based ceramic.

based on borides, nitrides, {i.e. nitrides, oxynitrides, carbonitrides or oxycarbonitrides} or silicides {(containing free binder metal C22C 29/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Making nitride ceramics, compounds between nitrogen and a metal or semi-metal, e.g. aluminum nitride, alkali nitrides, alkaline earth metal nitrides, rare earth nitrides, gallium nitride, indium nitride, carbonitrides, oxynitrides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The preparation of nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/06 and subgroups, C01B 21/082 and subgroups

Carbonitrides containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/04

Nitrides containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: granular materials, e.g. microballoons: carbides; nitrides; borides; silicides

C04B 14/32 and subgroups

Making fibres based on nitrides

C04B 35/62286

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with borides, nitrides or silicides

C04B 41/5062

Nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. oxynitrides, carbonitrides, oxycarbonitrides, lithium nitride (Li3N), magnesium nitride (Mg3N2), rare earth nitride

C04B 2235/3852 and subgroups

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

Gases other than oxygen used as reactant for making a ceramic phase, e.g. nitrogen used to make a nitride phase

C04B 2235/46 and subgroup

Materials for prostheses based on metal nitrides

A61F 2310/00299 and subgroups

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of compounds based on metal nitrides

A61F 2310/00856 and subgroups

High pressure synthesis of gallium nitrides

B01J 2203/0665

The preparation of oxynitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/0821

The preparation of aluminium oxynitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/0825

The preparation of carbonitrides or oxycarbonitrides of metals, boron or silicon per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/0828

Silicon oxycarbide, oxynitride or oxycarbonitride glasses

C03C 3/045

Nitride glasses

C03C 3/328

Nitride coating on glass

C03C 17/225, C03C 17/3435, C03C 17/3626

Nitride coatings on glass

C03C 2217/281

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent, chemiluminescent materials containing nitrides

C09K 11/0883, C09K 11/7492

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides or silicides; Preparation of the powder mixture used as the starting material

C22C 1/051

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides, silicides starting from a melt

C22C 1/1068

Alloys based on carbonitrides

C22C 29/04

Single crystals of nitrides

C30B 29/38, C30B 29/403 and subgroup

Nitride ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/083 and subgroups

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being a nitride

H01L 21/02389

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate containing a nitride coating layer

H01L 21/02458, H01L 21/0254

Making conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrode the insulator being formed after the semiconductor body, the semiconductor being silicon: making the insulator on single crystalline silicon, e.g. using a liquid, i.e. chemical oxidation in a nitrogen-containing ambient, e.g. nitride deposition, growth, oxynitridation, NH3 nitridation, N2O oxidation, thermal nitridation, RTN, plasma nitridation, RPN

H01L 21/28202

Treatment of semiconductor bodies to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques composed of alternated layers or of mixtures of nitrides and oxides or of oxynitrides, e.g. formation of oxynitride by oxidation of nitride layers

H01L 21/3143 and subgroups

Treatment of semiconductor bodies to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques composed of nitrides

H01L 21/318

Encapsulations with oxides or nitrides or carbides, e.g. ceramics, glass, e.g. encapsulating layers, coatings of semi-conductors

H01L 23/291

Semiconductor bodies including, apart from doping materials or other impurities, only AIIIBV compounds: nitride compounds

H01L 29/2003

Metal-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the insulating material containing nitrogen, e.g. nitride, oxynitride, nitrogen-doped material

H01L 29/518

Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof, Processes for devices with an active region comprising only III-V compounds comprising nitride compounds

H01L 33/007

Semiconductor devices with at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier specially adapted for light emission; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof, Processes for devices with an active region comprising only III-V compounds with a substrate not being a III-V compound comprising nitride compounds

H01L 33/0075

Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of superconducting devices comprising nitrides or carbonitrides

H01L 39/2416

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: silicon, e.g. silicon carbide, magnesium silicide, heating transistors or diodes

H05B 3/148

Special rules of classification

Carbonitrides are seen as nitrides. If a ceramic is however a mixture of separate carbide and nitride phases, then classification occurs in the class that corresponds to the phase that is present as the largest fraction, which could be a carbide class.

{based on refractory metal nitrides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on refractory metal nitrides or refractory metal oxy-nitrides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Refractory nitrides other than refractory metal nitrides, e.g. a silicon nitride refractory or boron nitride refractory

C04B 35/584 respectively C04B 35/583

Cemented refractory nitrides

C22C 29/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide ceramics based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Refractory metal carbide ceramics

C04B 35/5607 and sub/classes

Refractory metal boride ceramics

C04B 35/58064 and sub/classes

Refractory metal silicide ceramics

C04B 35/58092 and sub/classes

Refractory mortars or monolithic refractories

C04B 35/66

Refractory metal nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. vanadium nitride (VN), tungsten nitride (WN2)

C04B 2235/3886

Refractory metals as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), tantalum (Ta)

C04B 2235/404

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of chromium nitride

A61F 2310/00754

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of niobium nitride

A61F 2310/00754

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of tantalum nitride

A61F 2310/0091

The preparation of nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics, with vanadium, niobium or tantalum

C01B 21/0617

The preparation of nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics, with chromium, molybdenum or tungsten

C01B 21/062

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Refractory nitrides

titanium nitride, vanadium nitride, chromium nitride, zirconium nitride, niobium nitride, molybdenum nitride, hafnium nitride, tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride

{based on titanium nitrides, e.g. TiAlON}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium nitrides or titanium oxy-nitrides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Titanium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/46 and subgroups

Titanium (oxy)carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/5611 and subgroups

Titanium (oxy)boride based ceramics

C04B 35/58071

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with titanium nitride

C04B 41/5068

Materials for prostheses based on titanium nitrides

A61F 2310/00323

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of titanium nitride

A61F 2310/0088

The preparation of titanium, zirconium or hafnium nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/076 and subgroups, C01B 21/076

Titanium nitride ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0847

Making conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the insulator being formed after the semiconductor body, the semiconductor being silicon the final conductor layer next to the insulator being a composite, e.g. TiN

H01L 21/28088

Metal-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the conductor material next to the insulator being a composite material, e.g. organic material, TiN, MoSi2

H01L 29/4966

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed refractory nitrides, e.g. TiCrN, both C04B 35/58007 (for the Cr) and C04B 35/58014 are added, since the amount of Ti and Cr is the same. Ti0.9Cr1.1N is only classified in C04B 35/5607.

{based on titanium carbonitrides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium carbonitrides or titanium oxycarbonitrides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Carbonitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. titanium carbonitride, zirconium carbonitride

C04B 2235/3856

{based on zirconium or hafnium nitrides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on zirconium or hafnium nitrides or zirconium or hafnium oxy-nitrides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)carbide ceramics

C04B 35/5622

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)boride ceramics

C04B 35/58078

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of hafnium nitride

A61F 2310/00892

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of zirconium nitride

A61F 2310/00892

The preparation of titanium, zirconium or hafnium nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/076 and subgroups, C01B 21/076

Zirconium nitride ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0852

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed refractory nitrides, e.g. ZrTiN, both C04B 35/58014 (for the Ti) and C04B 35/58028 are added, since the amount of Ti and Zr is the same. Ti0.9Zr1.1N is only classified in C04B 35/58028.

{based on zirconium or hafnium carbonitrides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on zirconium or hafnium carbonitrides or zirconium or hafnium oxycarbonitrides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Carbonitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. titanium carbonitride, zirconium carbonitride

C04B 2235/3856

{based on iron group metals nitrides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Nitride ceramics based on iron nitride, nickel nitride or cobalt nitride

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cobalt oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/01 together with C04B 2235/3275 or C04B 2235/3277

Nickel oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/01 together with C04B 2235/3279

Iron oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/26 and subgroups

Iron group carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/56

Iron group boride based ceramics

C04B 35/5805

Nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. oxynitrides, carbonitrides, oxycarbonitrides, lithium nitride (Li3N), magnesium nitride (Mg3N2), rare earth nitride, iron group metal nitrides

C04B 2235/3852

Iron group metals as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. nickel (Ni) or cobalt (Co)

C04B 2235/405

The preparation of nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics, with iron, cobalt or nickel

C01B 21/0622

{based on borides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramic materials based one or more boride phases, a compound between boron and a metal or semi-metal, e.g. e.g. aluminium boride, Rare earth boride, e.g. dysprosium boride (DyB2), Lanthanum boride (LaB6), Manganese boride (Mn2B, MnB or MnB2), Iron boride (Fe2B, FeB), Cobalt boride (CoB), Nickel boride (NiB), Copper boride (Cu3B2), Gallium boride (GaB12), Scandium Iridium Boride (Sc3Ir5B2), Silver boride (AgB2), Nickel bismuth boride (Ni23-xBixB6), Silicon boride (SiBn)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on boron carbide

C04B 35/563

Ceramics based on boron nitride

C04B 35/583 and subgroup

Borides containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/14

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with borides

C04B 41/507

Boron oxide or borate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3409

Borides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. rare earth boride

C04B 2235/3804 and subgroups

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

Boron as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/421

Boron-containing organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. borazine, borane or boranyl

C04B 2235/486

Materials for prostheses based on metal borides

A61F 2310/00263

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of compounds based on metal borides

A61F 2310/0067 and subgroups

Preparation of metal boride powders

C01B 35/04

Boride or phosphide coating on glass

C03C 17/3488

Boride or phosphide coating on glass

C03C 2217/283

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides or silicides; Preparation of the powder mixture used as the starting material

C22C 1/051

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides, silicides starting from a melt

C22C 1/1068

Alloys based on borides

C22C 29/14

Details of electrodes, of magnetic control means, of screens, or of the mounting or spacing thereof, common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps: main electrodes: solid thermionic cathodes with compounds having metallic conductive properties, e.g. lanthanum boride, as an emissive material

H01J 1/148

{based on magnesium boride, e.g. MgB2}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on a magnesium boride phase, whether superconducting or not

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnesium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/04 and subgroups

Magnesium carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/56

Magnesium nitride based ceramics

C04B 35/58

Alkaline earth metals as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Mg

C04B 2235/401

Permanent superconductor devices comprising metal borides, e.g. MgB2

H01L 39/141

Superconducting devices comprising a junction of dissimilar materials, namely Josephson-effect devices comprising metal borides, e.g. MgB2

H01L 39/226

Processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of superconducting devices comprising metal borides, e.g. MgB2

H01L 39/2487

{based on refractory borides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on refractory metal borides or refractory metal oxy-borides, Vanadium diboride (VB2), Chromium boride (CrB or CrB2), Niobium or tantalum diboride (NbB2 or TaB2), Molybdenum boride (Mo2B or Mo2B5), Tungsten boride (W2B, WB or W2B5)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Refractory borides other than refractory metal borides, e.g. a silicon boride refractory

C04B 35/5805

Cemented refractory borides

C22C 29/14

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide ceramics based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Refractory metal carbide ceramics

C04B 35/5607 and subgroups

Refractory metal nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58007 and subgroups

Refractory metal silicide ceramics

C04B 35/58092 and subgroups

Refractory mortars or monolithic refractories

C04B 35/66

Refractory metal borides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. TiB2, HfB2

C04B 2235/3813

Refractory metals as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), tantalum (Ta)

C04B 2235/404

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of compounds based on chromium boride

A61F 2310/00694

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of compounds based on molybdenum boride

A61F 2310/00712

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of compounds based on vanadium boride

A61F 2310/00712

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of compounds based on tungsten boride

A61F 2310/0079

{based on titanium borides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on titanium borides or titanium oxy-borides, Titanium diboride (TiB2)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Titanium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/46 and subgroups

Titanium (oxy)carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/5611 and subgroups

Titanium (oxy)nitride based ceramics

C04B 35/58014 and subgroup

Titanium (oxy)silicide based ceramics

C04B 35/58092

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of compounds based on titanium borides

K61F2/00L22B8T

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed refractory borides, e.g. TiCrB, both C04B 35/58064 (for the Cr) and C04B 35/58071 are added, since the amount of Ti and Cr is the same. Ti0.9Cr1.1B is only classified in C04B 35/58064.

{based on zirconium or hafnium borides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on zirconium borides or zirconium oxy-borides, Zirconium of hafnium diboride (ZrB2 or HfB2).

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zirconium oxide based ceramics

C04B 35/48 and subgroups

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)carbide ceramics

C04B 35/5622

Zirconium or hafnium (oxy)nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58028 and subgroup

Coating or prosthesis-covering structure made of compounds based on zirconium borides

A61F 2310/00706

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed refractory borides, e.g. ZrTiB, both C04B 35/58071 (for the Ti) and C04B 35/58078 are added, since the amount of Ti and Zr is the same. Ti0.9Zr1.1B is only classified in C04B 35/58078.

{based on silicides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on silicides or oxy-silicides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Silicides containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/18

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with silicides

C04B 41/5071

Silicides as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, i.e. chemical compounds between silicon and a one or more metals, e.g. chromium silicide (CrSi2), molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2), iron silicide (FeSi, FeSi2), cobalt silicide (Co2Si, CoSi, CoSi2)

C04B 2235/3891

Metal as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, not being present as a binding phase, e.g. La, Y, Mn, Re, Zn, Ga, In, Ge, Sb, Pb, Bi

C04B 2235/40 and subgroups

Silicon as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/428

The preparation of metal silicide powders

C01B 33/06

Materials for coating a single layer on glass: carbides, silicides

C03C 2217/282

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides or silicides; preparation of the powder mixture used as the starting material

C22C 1/051

Making hard metals based on borides, carbides, nitrides, oxides, silicides starting from a melt

C22C 1/1068

Alloys based on silicides

C22C 29/18

Forming inorganic semiconducting materials on a substrate, the substrate being conductive materials, e.g. metallic silicides

H01L 21/02425

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof, the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer, carrier concentration layer, the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of the fourth group of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping material; Deposition of semiconductor materials on a substrate, e.g. epitaxial growth the substrate being of crystalline conducting material, e.g. metallic silicides

H01L 21/02425

Making conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the final conductor layer being next to the insulator being silicon, e.g. polysilicon, with or without impurities, the conductor comprising a silicide layer formed by the silicidation reaction of silicon with a metal layer

H01L 21/28052

Making conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the final conductor layer being next to the insulator being silicon, e.g. polysilicon, with or without impurities, the conductor comprising a metal or metallic silicIde formed by deposition, e.g. sputter deposition, i.e. without a silicidation reaction

H01L 21/28061

Making conductor-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the insulator being formed after the semiconductor body, the semiconductor being silicon the final conductor layer next to the insulator being a metallic silicide

H01L 21/28097

Manufacture of electrodes on semiconductor bodies from a gas or vapour, e.g. condensation of conductive layers on semiconductor bodies comprising elements of the fourth group of the Periodic System the conductive layers comprising silicides

H01L 21/28518

Field-effect transistors with an insulated gate using self aligned silicidation, i.e. silicide

H01L 21/28518 and subgroup

Treatment of semiconductor bodies to form insulating layers thereon; deposition of non-insulating-, e.g. conductive- or resistive-, layers on insulating layers; after-treatment of these layer; deposition of metallic of metal-silicide layers

H01L 21/32053

Applying interconnections to be used for carrying current between separate components within a device characterised by the formation and the after-treatment of the conductors; modifying permanently or temporarily the pattern or the conductivity of conductive members, e.g. formation of alloys, reduction of contact resistances by forming silicides of refractory metals

H01L 21/76889

MIS technology , i.e. integration processes of field effect transistors of the conductor-insulator-semiconductor type with a particular manufacturing method of the gate conductors; silicided or salicided gate conductors

H01L 21/823443

MIS technology , i.e. integration processes of field effect transistors of the conductor-insulator-semiconductor type; complementary field-effect transistors, e.g. CMOS with a particular manufacturing method of the gate conductors; silicided or salicided gate conductors

H01L 21/823835

Metal-insulator-semiconductor electrodes, the conductor material next to the insulator being a composite material, e.g. a silicide layer, e.g. TiSi2

H01L 29/4975

Heater elements characterised by the composition or nature of the materials or by the arrangement of the conductor: silicon, e.g. silicon carbide, magnesium silicide, heating transistors or diodes

H05B 3/148

{based on refractory metal silicides}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on refractory metal silicides or refractory metal oxy-silicides

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Oxide ceramics based on vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum or tungsten oxides or solid solutions thereof with other oxides, e.g. vanadates, niobates, tantalates, molybdates or tungstates

C04B 35/495 and subgroups

Refractory metal carbide ceramics

C04B 35/5607 and subgroups

Refractory metal nitride ceramics

C04B 35/58007 and subgroups

Refractory metal boride ceramics

C04B 35/58064 and subgroups

Refractory mortars or monolithic refractories

C04B 35/66

Metal-insulator-semiconductor electrodes the conductor material next to the insulator being a silicide layer, e.g. TiSi2

H01L 29/4975

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed silicides, e.g. MoFeSix both C04B 35/58092 (for the Mo) and C04B 35/58085 (for the Fe) are added, since the amount of Mo and Fe is the same. Fe0.9Mo1.1Six is only classified in C04B 35/58092.

based on aluminium nitride
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on aluminium nitrides or aluminium oxynitrides or aluminium carbonitrides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ceramics based on aluminium silicon oxynitride (Sialon)

C04B 35/597

Nitrides containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of inorganic materials as fillers, e.g. pigments, for mortars, concrete or artificial stone; Treatment of inorganic materials specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: granular materials, Aluminium nitride

C04B 14/326

Ceramics based on aluminium carbide

C04B 35/56

Ceramics based on aluminium boride

C04B 35/5805

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with aluminium nitride

C04B 41/5063

Aluminum nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3865 and subgroup

Aluminium as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/402

Aluminum nitride substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/366

Materials for prostheses based on aluminium nitride

A61F 2310/00311

Coatings for prostheses based on aluminium nitride

A61F 2310/00868

High pressure synthesis of aluminium nitrides

B01J 2203/067

The preparation of aluminium nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/072 and subgroups, C01B 21/0825 (oxy-nitrides)

Aluminium nitride ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0834

Special rules of classification

Silicon-aluminium-oxynitrides are all in C04B 35/597. Silicon-aluminium-nitrides are in C04B 35/581 if the amount of aluminium is larger and in C04B 35/584 and subgroups if the amount of silicon is larger.

based on boron nitride
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on boron nitrides or boron oxynitrides or boron carbonitrides, having for instant the hexagonal phase

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Nitrides containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics based on boron carbide

C04B 35/563

Making fibres based on boron nitride

C04B 35/6229

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with boron nitride

C04B 41/5064

Boron oxide or borate as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3409

Boron nitride starting material for making ceramics or secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/386

Boron as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/421

Boron-containing organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. borazine, borane or boranyl

C04B 2235/486

Boron nitride substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/361

Materials for prostheses based on boron nitride

A61F 2310/00305

Coatings for prostheses based on boron nitride

A61F 2310/00862

Presses for the formation of diamonds or boronitride

B01J 3/065 and subgroup

High pressure synthesis of boronitrides

B01J 2203/066

The preparation of boron nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/064 and subgroups

Alloys containing diamond or cubic or wurtzitic boron nitride, fullerenes or carbon nanotubes

C22C 26/00

Alloys based on nitrides

C22C 29/16

Boron nitride ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0839

Special rules of classification

Materials of silicon boron nitride are classified in C04B 35/583 if the amount of boron is larger than the amount of silicon and in C04B 35/584 and subgroups if the amount of silicon is larger. The same accounts for aluminium boron nitrides and other mixed boron nitrides.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

hBN

Hexagonal boron nitride

based on cubic boron nitrides {or Wurtzitic boron nitrides, including crystal structure transformation of powder}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on boron nitrides, boron oxynitrides or boron carbonitrides, having the cubic structure

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Nitrides containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/16

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

cBN

Cubic boron nitride

based on silicon nitride
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on silicon nitrides or silicon carbonitrides

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Silicon oxynitride

C04B 35/597

Nitrides containing a metallic binder

C22C 29/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics based on silicon oxide

C04B 35/14

Ceramics based on silicon carbide

C04B 35/565 and subgroups

Ceramics based on silicon boride

C04B 35/5805

Making fibres based on silicon nitrides

C04B 35/62295

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with silicon nitride

C04B 41/5066

Silicon nitrides as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Si3N4, silicon carbonitride or silicon oxynitride (SiON)

C04B 2235/3873 and subgroups

Si-containing organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. silicone resins, (poly)silanes, (poly)siloxanes or (poly)silazanes

C04B 2235/483

Silicon nitride substrate joined with another substrate or being part of a ceramic laminate

C04B 2237/368

Materials for prostheses based on silicon nitride

A61F 2310/00317

Coatings based on silicon nitride on prostheses

A61F 2310/00874

The preparation of silicon nitride powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/068 and subgroups, C01B 21/0823 (oxy-nitrides)

Silicon nitride ceramics in machines or engines in general (F01) or machines for liquids ( F04)

F05C 2203/0843

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof: forming insulating materials on a substrate the material being a silicon nitride not containing oxygen, e.g. SixNy or SixByNz

H01L 21/0217

Treatment of semiconductor bodies to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques composed of silicon nitrides

H01L 21/3185

Thin film transistors having a semiconductor body comprising semiconductor materials of the fourth group not being silicon, or alloys including an element of the group IV, e.g. Ge, SiN alloys, SiC alloys

H01L 29/78684 and subgroup

Special rules of classification

In the case of mixed nitrides, e.g. SiBN, both C04B 35/584 (for the Si) and C04B 35/583 are added, since the amount of B and Si is the same. Si0.9B1.1N is only classified in C04B 35/583 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of Si, e.g. C04B 2235/3873 or C04B 2235/428). B0.9Si1.1N is only classified in C04B 35/584 or subgroup of C04B 35/584 (possibly using an additional symbol (CCA) to indicate the presence of B, e.g. C04B 2235/386 or C04B 2235/421).

For all other mixed nitrides containing Si the reasoning is as with SiBN, classification is in the nitride group of the metal element that is most abundant.

If the main phase is alpha Si3N4, C04B 2235/766 (trigonal symmetry) is attributed, if the main phase is beta Si3N4, C04B 2235/767 (hexagonal symmetry) is attributed.

Fine ceramics
Definition statement

This place covers:

Silicon nitride ceramics having grains smaller than 100 microns.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Using particles of size 1-100 microns for making the ceramic

C04B 2235/5436

Special rules of classification

This class is not used in practice. All silicon nitride ceramics are either in C04B 35/584 or in C04B 35/589-C04B 35/5935.

obtained from {Si-containing} polymer precursors {or organosilicon monomers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Silicon nitride or carbonitride ceramics made by pyrolysing silicone resins, (poly)silanes, (poly)siloxanes, (poly)silazanes etc., or porous ceramics that are infiltrated with a silicon-containing resin and pyrolysed to a product that contains mainly silicon nitride or carbonitride

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Porous carbon is infiltrated with Si-containing polymer that is carbonised to form a product containing mainly carbon

C04B 35/521

Carbon and silicon containing polymers are carbonised, leading to a product that has as largest fraction a carbon phase

C04B 35/524

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ceramics based on carbon obtained from polymer or organic precursors

C04B 35/524

Ceramics based on silicon carbide obtained from polymer or organic precursors

C04B 35/571

Si-containing organic compounds, e.g. silicone resins, (poly)silanes, (poly)siloxanes or (poly)silazanes used for becoming part of a ceramic after heat-treatment, e.g. phenol resins

C04B 2235/483

Special rules of classification

The end-product of the pyrolysis needs to have as largest fraction a silicon nitride phase. If after pyrolysis the product is hot-pressed, C04B 35/593 is added as well.

obtained by reaction sintering
Definition statement

This place covers:

A nitrogen containing material and a silicon containing material are reacted to form in-situ a Si3N4 containing ceramics, e.g. a silicon body is infiltrated with gaseous N2 and reacted to Si3N4

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Infiltration of porous silicon product with nitrogen, with the end-product containing more unreacted silicon phase than Si3N4

C04B 41/45 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Reaction sintering to make silicon carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/571

Reaction sintering to make ceramics in general

C04B 35/65 and subgroups

Silicon as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/428

Gases other than oxygen used as reactant for making a ceramic phase, e.g. nitrogen used to make a nitride phase

C04B 2235/46 and subgroup

Treatment of semiconductor bodies to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques: deposition of non-insulating-, e.g. conductive- or resistive-, layers on insulating layers; after treatment: nitridation of silicon-containing layers

H01L 21/3211

Special rules of classification

The end-product of the reaction sintering needs to have as largest fraction a silicon nitride phase. If after reaction sintering the product is hot-pressed, C04B 35/593 is added as well. Silicon is not regarded as a metallic phase, thus silicon nitride materials that contain a large amount of silicon phase are not regarded as ceramics having a metallic binder, which are classified in C22C 29/00 and subgroups, but as a ceramic with a secondary phase.

When classifying in C04B 35/591, classification in C04B 35/65 is superfluous.

obtained by pressure sintering
Definition statement

This place covers:

A Si3N4-containing or forming material is densified under mechanical pressure, leading to a product having Si3N4 as the largest fraction.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressure sintering to make silicon carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/575

Pressure sintering to make ceramics in general

C04B 35/645

Special rules of classification

When classifying in C04B 35/593, classification in C04B 35/645 is superfluous. C04B 35/593 can be used in combination with C04B 35/589 or C04B 35/591, when pressure sintering a silicon containing polymer respectively when pressure sintering a reaction sintered Si3N4 based ceramic.

{obtained by gas pressure sintering}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A Si3N4-containing or forming material is densified under gas pressure, leading to a product having Si3N4 as the largest fraction.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gas pressure sintering to make silicon carbide based ceramics

C04B 35/5755

Hot isostatic pressing to make ceramics in general

C04B 35/6455

Special rules of classification

When classifying in C04B 35/5935, classification in C04B 35/6455 is superfluous. C04B 35/5935 can be used in combination with C04B 35/589 or C04B 35/591, when gas pressure sintering a silicon containing polymer respectively when gas pressure sintering a reaction sintered Si3N4 based ceramic.

based on silicon oxynitride, {e.g. SIALONS}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ceramics based on oxynitrides containing both aluminium and silicon, possibly further containing rare earths

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Aluminium oxynitride based ceramics

C04B 35/581

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Aluminium nitride based ceramics

C04B 35/581

Silicon nitride based ceramics

C04B 35/584 and subgroups

Coating or impregnating ceramic substrates with silicon oxynitrides, e.g. SIALON

C04B 41/5067

Aluminium oxide or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina

C04B 2235/3217 and subgroups

Silicon oxide, silicic acids, or oxide forming salts thereof as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. silica sol, fused silica, silica fume, cristobalite, quartz or flint (glass constituents C04B 2235/36), e.g. silicic acid H2Si2O5

C04B 2235/3418

Aluminum nitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/3865 and subgroup

Aluminum oxynitrides as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. AlON or sialon

C04B 2235/3869

Silicon nitrides as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic, e.g. Si3N4, silicon carbonitride or silicon oxynitride (SiON)

C04B 2235/3873 and subgroups

Aluminium as starting material for making ceramics or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/402

Silicon as starting material for making a ceramic or as secondary phase of a sintered ceramic

C04B 2235/428

The preparation of sion powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/0823

The preparation of sialon powders per se, not preparative to the making of nitride ceramics

C01B 21/0826

Silicon oxy-nitride glasses

C03B 2201/24, C03C 2201/24

Silicon oxycarbide, oxynitride or oxycarbonitride glasses

C03C 3/045

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof: forming insulating materials on a substrate: the material being a silicon oxynitride, e.g. SiON or SiON:H

H01L 21/0214

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof: forming insulating materials on a substrate the material being a nitride into which oxygen is introduced, e.g. changing SiN to SiON

H01L 21/02326

Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof: forming insulating materials on a substrate the material being an oxide into which nitrogen is introduced, e.g. changing SiO to SiON

H01L 21/02332

Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
Definition statement

This place covers:

All processes for producing and treating ceramic powders or powders that are used for making ceramics, where these powders subsequently are used to make shaped ceramics. Making and treating ceramic fibers. Additives used for shaping ceramics. The shaping of (pre)ceramic powders or slurries. Heat treatments of (pre)ceramic powders and shaped ceramic materials.

Relationships with other classification places

working by grinding or polishing B24

Mechanical features relating to the shaping of clay or other ceramic compositions, B28B

Preparing clay or like ceramic compositions; Producing mixtures containing clay or like ceramic compositions B28C

Working stone or stone-like materials B28D

Layered products B32B

Chemical preparations of powders of inorganic compounds C01

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

After- treatment of ceramics, e.g. coating or impregnation

C04B 41/00

Articles characterised by particular shape, e.g. linings for casting ladles, tundishes, cups or the like

B22D 41/02

Injection moulding of clay or other ceramic compositions

B28B 1/24

Slip-casting clay or other ceramic compositions

B28B 1/26

Applying clay or other ceramic compositions on to a core to form a layer thereon

B28B 1/30

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Aspects relating to the preparation, properties or mechanical treatment of green bodies or pre-forms

C04B 2235/60 and subgroups

Patterns for foundry moulding; Manufacture thereof so far as not provided for in other classes

B22C 7/00

Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of sintering by using electric current, laser radiation or plasma

B22F 3/105

Working by laser beam

B23K 26/00

Layered products essentially comprising ceramics, e.g. refractory products

B32B 18/00

Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces

G03F 7/00

Exposure, e.g. with laser beam

G03F 7/20

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Rapid Prototyping (RP)

RP is a forming method in which resin or powder material is used. RP devices build up a prototype body layer by layer, rapidly generating a three-dimensional free form. In the ceramic art, two kinds of RP are mainly applied. One is "3D Printing", the other is "Selective Laser Sintering" (see glossary of C04B 35/64).

3D Printing (3DP)

3DP is a general forming technique which is also used in the ceramic art, developed from stereolithography. Light-sensitive monomers are polymerised by a laser beam and solidified by gelation in this way. Through the gelation and solidification of aqueous ceramic slurry, which contains the light-sensitive monomer, a component is built up in layers.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "Rapid Prototyping technologies", "Solid Freeform Fabrication", "Layer Manufacturing technologies " and "Desktop Manufacturing"
{using waste materials or refuse (clay-wares containing waste materials C04B 33/132)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Waste material is mixed with ceramic or refractory material to be sintered into a ceramic or refractory product

Relationships with other classification places

Disposal of solid waste B09B

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Waste material is mixed with clay to make a fired clay product

C04B 33/132 and subgroups

Alumino-silicate products made by sintering waste materials, without adding any clay or ceramic material.

C04B 33/1328

Waste materials that are added to the ceramic material to create porosity after a heat treatment

C04B 38/065

Removing ash, clinker, or slag from combustion chamber

F23J 1/00 and subgroups

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cements containing slag

C04B 7/14 and subgroups

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 18/04 and subgroups

Use of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, or treatment of agglomerated or waste materials or refuse, specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone: waste material from metallurgical processes being silica fume

C04B 18/146 and subgroups

Use of inorganic materials as active ingredients for mortars, concrete or artificial stone, e.g. accelerators: waste inorganic materials

C04B 22/0006

Coating or impregnating of mortars, concrete, artificial stone or ceramics with waste materials

C04B 41/4598

Manufacture of articles from scrap or waste metal particles

B22F 8/00

Active carbon from waste materials, e.g. tyres, spent sulphite pulp liquor

C01B 32/324

Preparation of alkali metal aluminates; Aluminium oxide or hydroxide there from by treating aluminous minerals or waste-like raw materials with alkali hydroxide,

C01F 7/06

Melting in furnaces of glass-forming waste materials

C03B 5/005

Use of waste materials, e.g. slags as ingredients generally applicable to manufacture of glasses, glazes, or vitreous enamels

C03C 1/002

Devitrified glass ceramics containing waste materials, e.g. slags

C03C 10/0063

Foundations for pavings characterised by material or composition used, e.g. waste or recycled material

E01C 3/003

{using woody material, remaining in the ceramic products (to obtain porous material by burning out C04B 38/06)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wood materials are carbonised to make a carbon product, which could be further reacted with silicon to make silicon carbide, e.g. cellulose is carbonised and becomes part of a ceramic object.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Burning out woody material, e.g. cellulose, to obtain a porous ceramic

C04B 38/06

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: combustion residues from burning wood

C04B 18/068

Use of waste materials or refuse as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone: wood, e.g. sawdust, wood shaving

C04B 18/26 and subgroup

Using cellulose as additive for making ceramics

C04B 35/6365

Organic compounds becoming part of a ceramic after heat treatment, e.g. carbonising phenol resins

C04B 2235/48 and subgroups

Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, of wood waste

F23G 7/105

{using rice material, e.g. bran or hulls or husks}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Rice bran or rice hulls are pyrolysed into silicon oxide material or are treated in reducing atmosphere to make a silicon (oxy)carbide material.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of waste materials o