CPC Definition - Subclass G05B

Last Updated Version: 2019.01
CONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS (fluid-pressure actuators or systems acting by means of fluids in general F15B; valves per se F16K; characterised by mechanical features only G05G; sensitive elements, see the appropriate subclass, e.g. G12B, subclass of G01, H01; correcting units, see the appropriate subclass, e.g. H02K)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Features of control systems or elements for regulating specific variables, which are clearly more generally applicable to any system.

Relationships with other classification places

In this subclass, details or specific control systems are classified in the group relevant to that system, if not otherwise provided for.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Systems for controlling or regulating non-electric variables

G05D

Systems for regulating electric or magnetic variables

G05F

Control systems characterised by mechanical features only

G05G

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

adjustable operating tables, operating chairs or dental chairs

A61G 15/02

positioning tool carriers for forging, pressing or hammering

B21K 31/00

pressure or injection die casting of metals

B22D 17/32

tool or work positioning for boring or drilling

B23B 39/26

machines for shearing or similar cutting stock travelling otherwise than in the direction of the cut

B23D 36/00

driving or feeding mechanisms of machine tools

B23Q 5/00

feed movement, cutting velocity or position of machine tools

B23Q 15/00

position of grinding tool or work

B24B 47/22

manipulators

B25J 13/00

copying from a pattern or master model for machine tools

B25Q35/00

position of cutters in cutting machines

B26D 5/02

shaping techniques for plastic substances

B29C 51/00

presses

B30B 15/16

composing machines

B41B 27/00

printing machines or presses

B41F 33/00

feeding sheets or webs in typewriters

B41J 11/42

apparatus or devices for manifolding, duplicating or printing for commercial purposes

B41L 39/00

addressing machines

B41L 47/56

vehicle suspension

B60G 21/00

vehicle brakes

B60T 15/00

conjoint control of vehicle sub-units

B60W

machines for packaging

B65B 57/00

conveyors

B65G 43/00

sequence of drive operations for dredging or soil-shifting

E02F 3/43

earth drilling operations

E21B 44/00

steam accumulators

F01K 1/16

steam engine plants

F01K 13/02

air intakes for gas-turbine or jet-propulsion plants

F02C 7/05

gas-turbine plants; fuel supply in air-breathing jet-propulsion plants

F02C 9/00

combustion engines

F02D

jet pipes or nozzles in jet-propulsion plants

F02K 1/76

jet-propulsion plants

F02K 9/00

positive-displacement machines

F04B 49/00

non-positive displacement pumps, pumping installations or systems

F04D 27/00

external control of clutches

F16D 48/00

suppression of vibrations using fluid means

F16F 15/02

control of gearings

F16H 61/00

steam boilers

F22B 35/00

incineration of waste

F23G 5/50

combustion in combustion apparatus

F23N

combustion in open fires using solid fuel

F24B 1/18

solar heating

F24S 50/00

drying processes of solid materials or objects

F26B 25/22

steam or vapour condensers

F28B 11/00

heat-exchange apparatus with intermediate heat-transfer medium in closed tubes passing into or through conduit walls, in which the medium condenses and evaporates

F28D 15/06

heat-exchanges or heat-transfer apparatus in general

F28F 27/00

measurement in general

G01

computers

G06F 11/00

traffic

G08G

indicating devices using static means to present variable information

G09G

driving, starting or stopping of record carriers

G11B 19/00

nuclear reaction

G21C 7/00

nuclear-power plant

G21D 3/00

electron-beam or ion-beam tubes used for localised treatment of objects

H01J 37/30

Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices

H01L 21/00

Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks

H02J 3/00

electric motors, generators, or dynamo-electric converters

H02P

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fluid-pressure actuators or systems acting by means of fluids in general

F15B

Valves per se

F16K

Characterised by mechanical features only

G05G

Sensitive elements, see the appropriate subclass, e.g.

G12B

Correcting units, see the appropriate subclass, e.g.

H02K

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

automatic controller

means a system, circuit, or device in which a signal from the detecting element is compared with a signal representing the desired value and which operates in such a way as to reduce the deviation. The automatic controller generally does not include the sensitive element, i.e. that element which measures the value of the condition to be corrected, or the correcting element, i.e. that element which adjusts the condition to be corrected

electric

includes "electromechanical", "electrohydraulic" or "electropneumatic"

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

NC

Numerical Controller

PLC

Programmable Logic Controller

Comparing elements, i.e. elements for effecting comparison directly or indirectly between a desired value and existing or anticipated values (comparing phase or frequency of two electric signals H03D 13/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Structural elements used to compare the actual with the desired value of a variable that needs to be controlled in a control or regulation system.

Relationships with other classification places

The actual measurement of a signal should be classified in the appropriate class of G01.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

comparing phase or frequency of two electric signals

H03D 13/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

actual value

the measured or estimated value of the variable to be controlled

reference

the desired value of the variable being controlled

error

the difference between the actual value of a variable and the reference

Anti-hunting arrangements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements in a control or regulation system to avoid a "hunting" effect.

The "hunting" effect appears when a lag between the actual value and the reference of a variable to be controlled leads to overcompensation of the error and/or unstable behaviour of the system being controlled.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

overswing, overshoot

situation in which the error between the actual and desired values of a variable is overcompensated

damping

technique used to reduce or eliminate the overcompensation of an error

Internal feedback arrangements for obtaining particular characteristics, e.g. proportional, integral, differential (in automatic controllers G05B 11/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Internal feed-back arrangements for obtaining particular characteristics, e.g. proportional, integral, differential

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

P, PI and PID responses in automatic controllers

G05B 11/00

Arrangements for obtaining smooth engagement or disengagement of automatic control
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems with several controller modes or phases, in which the problem is related to switching between controller modes without provoking unnecessary oscillations or instability in the response of the system.

One of these modes or phases could be the absence of control, and then the problem would be related to obtaining a smooth response of the system during a starting transition.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

smooth engagement of gears in automatic transmission systems

F16H 61/04

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

switchover

change from a first control mode to a second control mode

Safety arrangements (G05B 7/00 takes precedence; safety arrangements in programme-control systems G05B 19/048, G05B 19/406; safety valves F16K 17/00; emergency protective circuit arrangements in general H02H)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements to assure the correct working of a control system in case of failure, for example, redundant control systems.

Arrangements to prevent damage to personnel or to equipment as a result of the control action.

Relationships with other classification places

Group G05B 9/00 covers the safety aspects of the control of a system, not of the system as such. This means that aspects related to the safe use of a product or device should be classified in the corresponding application places, unless it involves decisions related to the control of the process, product or device, in which case this group would be the appropriate one.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

anti-hunting arrangements

G05B 5/00

arrangements for obtaining smooth engagement or disengagement of automatic control

G05B 7/00

safety arrangements in programme-control systems other than numerical control

G05B 19/0428

safety arrangements in programme-control systems

G05B 19/048

safety arrangements in programme-control systems using programmable logic controllers (PLC)

G05B 19/058

safety arrangements in numerical control systems (NC)

G05B 19/406

monitoring of control system, i.e. detection of failures in the control action and response to those failures

G05B 23/00

emergency protective circuit arrangements in general

H02H

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

safety for robotic manipulators

B25J 9/1674

safety valves

F16K 17/00

safety devices acting in conjunction with the control or operation of a machine

F16P 3/00

light barriers for detection of intrusion of a machine in a safety zone

G01V 8/10

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

intrinsic safety

safe operation of control in explosive or hazardous environments

Automatic controllers (G05B 13/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Non-adaptive automatic controllers, i.e., the controller does not adjust itself as a result of the system response to its control action.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

adaptive control systems

G05B 13/00

programme-control systems

G05B 19/00

Adaptive control systems, i.e. systems automatically adjusting themselves to have a performance which is optimum according to some preassigned criterion (G05B 19/00 takes precedence; machine learning G06N 20/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Adaptive automatic controllers, i.e. where the controller adjusts itself as a result of the system response to its control action, in order to obtain an optimum performance according to some criterion.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Programme-control systems

G05B 19/00

Machine learning

G06N 20/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Creation of a mathematical model of the system to be controlled

G05B 17/00

Neural networks

G06N 3/02

Neural networks using fuzzy logics

G06N 3/0436

Expert systems

G06N 5/04

Fuzzy inferencing

G06N 5/048

Fuzzy logics

G06N 7/02

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

knowledge base

a set of representations of facts about the system to be controlled and its environment

knowledge-based agent

a software module that uses a knowledge base to implement control decisions

expert system

a type of intelligent control system which can emulate the reasoning procedures of a human expert in order to generate the necessary control action

learning system

an automatic control in which the nature of control parameters and algorithms is modified by the actual experience of the system

involving the use of models or simulators
Special rules of classification

This subgroup should be used when the key concept stresses or deals with the adaptive part of the control, whereas G05B 17/00 should be used when the emphasis is on the control model.

Systems controlled by a computer (G05B 13/00, G05B 19/00 take precedence; automatic controllers with particular characteristics G05B 11/00; computers per se G06)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems controlled by a computer not provided by other classes.

Control of whole Building Automation Systems as e.g. domotics.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

If the control relates to a specific application, then it should be classified in the proper application or control classes

automatic controllers

G05B 11/00

adaptive control systems

G05B 13/00

programme-control systems

G05B 19/00

computers per se

G06

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

control of air-conditioning and HVACs

F24F 11/00

home automation networks

H04L 12/2803

control of lighting

H05B 37/02

Systems involving the use of models or simulators of said systems (G05B 13/00, G05B 15/00, G05B 19/00 take precedence; analogue computers for specific processes, systems, or devices, e.g. simulators G06G 7/48)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Use of a model or simulator to control a system.

Use of detailed representations of real systems to facilitate control of a system.

Creation and adaptation of the mathematical model used to control a system.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

analogue computers for specific processes, systems, or devices, e.g. simulators

G06G 7/48

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

adaptive control systems

G05B 13/00

systems controlled by a computer

G05B 15/00

programme-control systems

G05B 19/00

Special rules of classification

Documents to be classified in G05B 17/00 should be those in which the model of the controlled system is the key concept. For example, creating or adapting the model, and not the control of a system to be controlled, Hardware/Software-in-Loop systems, e.g. connection of a controller to a computer that simulates a machine such as a car, manufacturing machine. G05B 13/04 should be used when the key concept stresses or deals with the adaptive part of the control.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

first-principles knowledge

a fundamental understanding of the process or system to be controlled, expressed in the form of a mathematical model

Programme-control systems (specific applications see the relevant places, e.g. A47L 15/46; clocks with attached or built-in means operating any device at a preselected time interval G04C 23/00; marking or sensing record carriers with digital information G06K; information storage G11; time or time-programme switches which automatically terminate their operation after the programme is completed H01H 43/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Programme control in sequence or logic controllers, e.g. simulating logic interconnections of signals according to ladder diagrams or function charts.

Programme control in controllers using digital processors, or using logic state machines, or using cams, discs, rods, drums, or where the programme is defined in the fixed connection of electrical elements, e.g. potentiometers, counters, transistors, or using plugboards, cross-bar distributors, matrix switches, or using selector switches or using record carriers.

Numerical control (NC), i.e. automatically operating machines, in particular machine tools, e.g. in a manufacturing environment, so as to execute positioning, movement or co-ordinated operations by means of programme data in numerical form

Total factory control, i.e. centrally controlling a plurality of machines, e.g. direct or distributed numerical control (DNC), flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), integrated manufacturing systems (IMS), computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

Recording and playback systems, i.e. in which the programme is recorded from a cycle of operations, e.g. the cycle of operations being manually controlled, after which this record is played back on the same machine

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Programme-control of manipulators

B25J 9/16

CAD system

G06F 17/50

Control of speed of electric motors

H02P

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

domestic washing or cleaning

A47L 15/00

programmed medicine dispensers

A61J 7/04

disinfection or sterilising

A61L 2/24

heart pace-makers

A61N 1/36

centrifuges

B04B 13/00

thickness of work produced by metal-rolling mills

B21B 37/24

bending metal rods, profiles, or tubes

B21D 7/12

boring or drilling machines

B23B 39/08, B23B 39/24

electrical discharge or electromechanical machining

B23H 7/20

assembling of parts to compose units

B23P 21/00

series of individual steps in grinding a workpiece

B24B 51/00

manipulators

B25J 9/00

presses

B30B 15/26

sequence of operations in printing machines or presses

B41F 33/16

feeding sheets or webs in typewriters

B41J 11/44

sequence of operations in apparatus or devices for manifolding, duplicating or printing for commercial purposes

B41L 39/16

selecting text or image to be printed in addressing machines

B41L 47/64

traction motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles

B60L 15/20

piling articles

B65H 31/24

crane drives

B66C 13/48, B66C 23/58

dispensing, delivering or transferring liquids

B67D 7/14

sewing machines

D05B 19/00, D05B 21/00

embroidering machines

D05C 5/04

operations in washing machines

D06F 33/00

combustion engines

F02D 27/02, F02D 28/00

supply of combustible mixture or its constituents to combustion engines

F02D 41/26

fluid-pressure actuator systems

F15B 21/02

combustion in combustion apparatus

F23N 5/20, F23N 5/22

weighing apparatus

G01G 19/38

electromechanical clocks or watches

G04C 23/08, G04C 23/34

mechanically operating digital computers

G06C 21/00

control units for electric digital data processing

G06F 9/00

peripheral devices for electric digital data processing

G06F 13/10

electrically operating digital computers

G06F 15/00

electrically or magnetically operating analogue computers

G06G 7/06

Marking or sensing record carriers with digital information

G06K

electrically-operated teaching apparatus or devices

G09B 7/04, G09B 7/08, G09B 7/12

Information storage

G11

Clocks with attached or built-in means operating any device at a preselected time interval 

H01H 43/00

electron-beam or ion-beam tubes used for localised treatment of objects

H01J 37/30

electronic switching or gating

H03K 17/296

selecting arrangements in electric communication technique

H04Q 3/54

Special rules of classification

The classification must be done using also the associated Indexing Code scheme.

Indexing Code orthogonal classification:

In addition to one or more symbols relating to the invention information, where appropriate, one or more Indexing Code symbols relating to orthogonal classification, i.e. covering aspects which are spanning over one or more groups, should be allocated. Classification in these indexing groups is optional but advisable.

G05B 2219/00 Program-control systems

relates to problems specific to groups from G05B 19/04 till G05B 19/42

G05B 2219/10 . Plc systems

relates to problems specific to programmable logic controllers only (G05B 19/05)

G05B 2219/11 . . Plc I-O input output

G05B 2219/12 . . Plc mp multi processor system

G05B 2219/13 . . Plc programming

G05B 2219/14 . . Plc safety

G05B 2219/15 . . Plc structure of the system

G05B 2219/16 . . Plc to applications

G05B 2219/20 . Pc systems

relates to problems specific to microprocessor-based controllers (except PLC), i.e. specific to groups from G05B 19/04 till G05B 19/16 (except G05B 19/05)

G05B 2219/11 . . Pc I-O input output

G05B 2219/12 . . Pc mp multi processor system

G05B 2219/13 . . Pc programming

G05B 2219/14 . . Pc safety

G05B 2219/15 . . Pc structure of the system

G05B 2219/16 . . Pc to applications

G05B 2219/30 . Nc systems

relates to problems specific to Numerical Control of machines (G05B 19/18 till G05B 19/42)

G05B 2219/31 . . Computer integrated manufacturing (G05B 19/418)

G05B 2219/33 . . NC Controller

G05B 2219/35 . . Input / Output

G05B 2219/37 . . Measuring problems

G05B 2219/39 . . Numerical Control of manipulators

G05B 2219/41 . . Servo-Controller

G05B 2219/43 . . Control of Speed in NC systems

G05B 2219/45 . . Special applications

Systems involving sampling of the variable controlled (G05B 13/00 - G05B 19/00 take precedence; transmission systems for measured values G08C; electronic switching or gating H03K 17/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Decision on the rate of sampling of the variable to be controlled.

Accurate sampling of the variable to be controlled by, for example, adding a timestamp to the signal.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

electronic switching or gating

H03K 17/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

adaptive control systems

G05B 13/00

systems controlled by a computer

G05B 15/00

programme-control systems

G05B 19/00

transmission systems of control signals

G08C

Testing or monitoring of control systems or parts thereof (monitoring of programme-control systems G05B 19/048, G05B 19/406)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Detection of faults in the control of a process or device. A fault is a departure from an acceptable range of an observed variable or a calculated parameter associated with a process. Process fault detection comprises three main steps:

A. Configuration of a monitoring or supervisory system, when this system is used to monitor or test the control of a system.

B. Detection of an existing (usually called "diagnostics") or incipient (usually called "prognostics") fault in the control of a system.

C. Reaction to the detection of an existing or incipient fault in the control of a system.

Relationships with other classification places

Group G05B 23/00 covers the monitoring (or testing) of the control of a system, not of the system as such. This means that testing the quality of a process, product or device should be classified in the corresponding application places, unless it involves decisions related to the control or monitoring of the process, product or device, in which case G05B 23/00 should be attributed.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Monitoring of programme-control systems

G05B 19/048, G05B 19/406

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adaptation of model in model-based fault detection systems

G05B 17/02

Monitoring tool breakage, life or condition, including wear of a machine tool

G05B 19/4065

Data acquisition during manufacturing

G05B 19/4183

Control of the quality of the end product in a manufacturing process

G05B 19/41875

Systems involving sampling of the variable controlled

G05B 21/02

Process diagnostics in road vehicle drive control systems

B60W 50/00

Safety or indicating devices for abnormal conditions

F02D 41/22

Testing vehicle engines

G01M 15/00

Testing of electronic circuits

G01R 31/28

Testing dynamo-electric machines

G01R 31/34

Generation of clock signal, power supply for computers (including related diagnostics and monitoring aspects)

G06F 1/00

Detecting defective computer hardware, usually applied to computers used in an office, non-industrial environment

G06F 11/267

Error detection concerning software (i.e. debugging) usually applied to computers used in an office, non-industrial environment

G06F 11/36

Image analysis for industrial inspection or for determining position or orientation of objects

G06T 7/0002, G06T 7/70

Registering or indicating the condition of working machines or other apparatus, i.e. testing whether the machine is in good condition

G07C 3/00

Error checking in memories

G11C 29/00

Communication of monitoring information, if the problem is related only to the communication of that information

H04L 29/00

Fault management of packet-switched data network or network elements

H04L 41/06

Monitoring/testing of packet-switched data network or network elements

H04L 43/00, H04L 43/50

Special rules of classification

Further classification is made in the indexing codes G05B 2223/00 whenever appropriate.

When classifying a document in group G05B 23/00, each of the branches G05B 23/0208, G05B 23/0218, and G05B 23/0259 should be considered for classification.

Each of the above-mentioned steps A-C should be considered for classification.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

based on process history

in this methods, only the availability of large amount of historical process data is assumed, i.e. no fundamental understanding of the process is assumed.

diagnostics

this term can be ambiguous, as sometimes it will mean detection of a failure, and sometimes it will mean detection of cause or root of failure

fault detection

detection of both existing and incipient failures

fault isolation

estimation of cause or root of failure

model-based

a fundamental understanding of the process using first-principles knowledge, that is, an explicit or implicit relationship between the observations (symptoms) of a process and the faults.

prognostics

detection of an incipient failure

qualitative

rule based decisions; if-then relations between variables

quantitative

only mathematical relationships between the variables used in the fault detection and isolation

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PCA

Principal Component Analysis

PLS

Partial Least Square

abnormal, failure, malfunction

fault

{characterized by the configuration of the monitoring system}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Problems that deal with the configuration of a fault detection system previous to its application for detecting faults.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

An important exception in this sub-group is the generation of a model of a system. As such a model is important for both control and monitoring, this kind of documents should be classified in G05B 17/02 (for general controls) or in G05B 13/04 (in case of adaptive controls).

{characterised by the fault detection method dealing with either existing or incipient faults}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Preprocessing and preparation of observation values so that they may be used in the fault detection process.

Model based fault detection.

Process history based fault detection.

Injection of test monitoring signals and analysis of the control response.

Special rules of classification

This is the main problem dealt with in group G05B 23/00.

In case of doubt, i.e. a document so general that it does not give much detail about any problem, and if we are confident that the document belongs to G05B 23/00, then at least one class of this subgroup should be assigned to the document, preferably G05B 23/0224 or G05B 23/0243, as deciding whether the document deals with fault detection using a model of the system being monitored or process history of that system should be obvious.

{characterized by the response to fault detection}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Confirmation of fault detection

Control of logging system used to store observation and/or fault values.

Communication of fault detection results to operators.

Fault Isolation and Identification.

Predictive Maintenance. This means monitoring the control of a system and, based on the results of this monitoring, adapting the maintenance schedule of the monitored process or device.

Modifications of the monitored process or device to prevent an incipient fault or to reduce the severity of an occurring fault.

Modifications of the monitoring system as a result of the fault detection.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

repair maintenance, i.e. repairing a broken or failed process or system

appropriate application groups, such as:A47L 15/00, B23B 39/08, B23B 39/24, B25J 9/16, B60W 50/00, F02D 27/02, F02D 41/22, G01M 15/00, G01R 31/00, G05B 19/406, G06F 11/00

preventive maintenance, i.e. planning maintenance according to the available resources without monitoring the system

G06Q 10/06

Open-loop automatic control systems not otherwise provided for
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

open loop control of positioning, e.g. using step motors

G05B 19/40

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass.