Cooperative Patent Classification


CPC Definition - Subclass G05B

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Last Updated Version: 2018.05
CONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS (fluid-pressure actuators or systems acting by means of fluids in general F15B; valves per se F16K; characterised by mechanical features only G05G; sensitive elements, see the appropriate subclass, e.g. G12B, subclass of G01, H01; correcting units, see the appropriate subclass, e.g. H02K)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Features of control systems or elements for regulating specific variables, which are clearly more generally applicable to any system.

Relationships with other classification places

In this subclass, details or specific control systems are classified in the group relevant to that system, if not otherwise provided for.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Systems for controlling or regulating non-electric variables

Systems for regulating electric or magnetic variables

Control systems characterised by mechanical features only

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

adjustable operating tables, operating chairs or dental chairs

positioning tool carriers for forging, pressing or hammering

pressure or injection die casting of metals

tool or work positioning for boring or drilling

machines for shearing or similar cutting stock travelling otherwise than in the direction of the cut

driving or feeding mechanisms of machine tools

feed movement, cutting velocity or position of machine tools

position of grinding tool or work

manipulators

copying from a pattern or master model for machine tools

B25Q35/00

position of cutters in cutting machines

shaping techniques for plastic substances

presses

composing machines

printing machines or presses

feeding sheets or webs in typewriters

apparatus or devices for manifolding, duplicating or printing for commercial purposes

addressing machines

vehicle suspension

vehicle brakes

conjoint control of vehicle sub-units

machines for packaging

conveyors

sequence of drive operations for dredging or soil-shifting

earth drilling operations

steam accumulators

steam engine plants

air intakes for gas-turbine or jet-propulsion plants

gas-turbine plants; fuel supply in air-breathing jet-propulsion plants

combustion engines

jet pipes or nozzles in jet-propulsion plants

jet-propulsion plants

positive-displacement machines

non-positive displacement pumps, pumping installations or systems

external control of clutches

suppression of vibrations using fluid means

control of gearings

steam boilers

incineration of waste

combustion in combustion apparatus

combustion in open fires using solid fuel

solar heating

drying processes of solid materials or objects

steam or vapour condensers

heat-exchange apparatus with intermediate heat-transfer medium in closed tubes passing into or through conduit walls, in which the medium condenses and evaporates

heat-exchanges or heat-transfer apparatus in general

measurement in general

computers

traffic

indicating devices using static means to present variable information

driving, starting or stopping of record carriers

nuclear reaction

nuclear-power plant

electron-beam or ion-beam tubes used for localised treatment of objects

Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices

Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks

electric motors, generators, or dynamo-electric converters

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fluid-pressure actuators or systems acting by means of fluids in general

Valves per se

Characterised by mechanical features only

Sensitive elements, see the appropriate subclass, e.g.

Correcting units, see the appropriate subclass, e.g.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

automatic controller

means a system, circuit, or device in which a signal from the detecting element is compared with a signal representing the desired value and which operates in such a way as to reduce the deviation. The automatic controller generally does not include the sensitive element, i.e. that element which measures the value of the condition to be corrected, or the correcting element, i.e. that element which adjusts the condition to be corrected

electric

includes "electromechanical", "electrohydraulic" or "electropneumatic"

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

NC

Numerical Controller

PLC

Programmable Logic Controller

Comparing elements, i.e. elements for effecting comparison directly or indirectly between a desired value and existing or anticipated values (comparing phase or frequency of two electric signals H03D 13/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Structural elements used to compare the actual with the desired value of a variable that needs to be controlled in a control or regulation system.

Relationships with other classification places

The actual measurement of a signal should be classified in the appropriate class of G01.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

comparing phase or frequency of two electric signals

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

actual value

the measured or estimated value of the variable to be controlled

reference

the desired value of the variable being controlled

error

the difference between the actual value of a variable and the reference

Anti-hunting arrangements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements in a control or regulation system to avoid a "hunting" effect.

The "hunting" effect appears when a lag between the actual value and the reference of a variable to be controlled leads to overcompensation of the error and/or unstable behaviour of the system being controlled.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

overswing, overshoot

situation in which the error between the actual and desired values of a variable is overcompensated

damping

technique used to reduce or eliminate the overcompensation of an error

Internal feedback arrangements for obtaining particular characteristics, e.g. proportional, integral, differential (in automatic controllers G05B 11/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Internal feed-back arrangements for obtaining particular characteristics, e.g. proportional, integral, differential

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

P, PI and PID responses in automatic controllers

Arrangements for obtaining smooth engagement or disengagement of automatic control
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems with several controller modes or phases, in which the problem is related to switching between controller modes without provoking unnecessary oscillations or instability in the response of the system.

One of these modes or phases could be the absence of control, and then the problem would be related to obtaining a smooth response of the system during a starting transition.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

smooth engagement of gears in automatic transmission systems

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

switchover

change from a first control mode to a second control mode

Safety arrangements (G05B 7/00 takes precedence; safety arrangements in programme-control systems G05B 19/048, G05B 19/406; safety valves F16K 17/00; emergency protective circuit arrangements in general H02H)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements to assure the correct working of a control system in case of failure, for example, redundant control systems.

Arrangements to prevent damage to personnel or to equipment as a result of the control action.

Relationships with other classification places

Group G05B 9/00 covers the safety aspects of the control of a system, not of the system as such. This means that aspects related to the safe use of a product or device should be classified in the corresponding application places, unless it involves decisions related to the control of the process, product or device, in which case this group would be the appropriate one.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

anti-hunting arrangements

arrangements for obtaining smooth engagement or disengagement of automatic control

safety arrangements in programme-control systems other than numerical control

safety arrangements in programme-control systems

safety arrangements in programme-control systems using programmable logic controllers (PLC)

safety arrangements in numerical control systems (NC)

monitoring of control system, i.e. detection of failures in the control action and response to those failures

emergency protective circuit arrangements in general

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

safety for robotic manipulators

safety valves

safety devices acting in conjunction with the control or operation of a machine

light barriers for detection of intrusion of a machine in a safety zone

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

intrinsic safety

safe operation of control in explosive or hazardous environments

Automatic controllers (G05B 13/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Non-adaptive automatic controllers, i.e., the controller does not adjust itself as a result of the system response to its control action.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

adaptive control systems

programme-control systems

Adaptive control systems, i.e. systems automatically adjusting themselves to have a performance which is optimum according to some preassigned criterion (G05B 19/00 takes precedence; details of the computer G06F 15/18)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Adaptive automatic controllers, i.e., the controller adjusts itself as a result of the system response to its control action, in order to obtain an optimum performance according to some criterion.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

programme-control systems

learning machines in digital computing systems when not applied to control

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

creation of a mathematical model of the system to be controlled

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

knowledge base

a set of representations of facts about the system to be controlled and its environment

knowledge-based agent

a software module that uses a knowledge base to implement control decisions

expert system

a type of intelligent control system which can emulate the reasoning procedures of a human expert in order to generate the necessary control action

learning sytem

an automatic control in which the nature of control parameters and algorithms is modified by the actual experience of the system

involving the use of models or simulators
Special rules of classification

This subgroup should be used when the key concept stresses or deals with the adaptive part of the control, whereas G05B 17/00 should be used when the emphasis is on the control model.

Systems controlled by a computer (G05B 13/00, G05B 19/00 take precedence; automatic controllers with particular characteristics G05B 11/00; computers per se G06)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems controlled by a computer not provided by other classes.

Control of whole Building Automation Systems as e.g. domotics.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

If the control relates to a specific application, then it should be classified in the proper application or control classes

automatic controllers

adaptive control systems

programme-control systems

computers per se

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

control of air-conditioning and HVACs

home automation networks

control of lighting

Systems involving the use of models or simulators of said systems (G05B 13/00, G05B 15/00, G05B 19/00 take precedence; analogue computers for specific processes, systems, or devices, e.g. simulators G06G 7/48)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Use of a model or simulator to control a system.

Use of detailed representations of real systems to facilitate control of a system.

Creation and adaptation of the mathematical model used to control a system.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

analogue computers for specific processes, systems, or devices, e.g. simulators

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

adaptive control systems

systems controlled by a computer

programme-control systems

Special rules of classification

Documents to be classified in G05B 17/00 should be those in which the model of the controlled system is the key concept. For example, creating or adapting the model, and not the control of a system to be controlled, Hardware/Software-in-Loop systems, e.g. connection of a controller to a computer that simulates a machine such as a car, manufacturing machine. G05B 13/04 should be used when the key concept stresses or deals with the adaptive part of the control.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

first-principles knowledge

a fundamental understanding of the process or system to be controlled, expressed in the form of a mathematical model

Programme-control systems (specific applications see the relevant places, e.g. A47L 15/46; clocks with attached or built-in means operating any device at a preselected time interval G04C 23/00; marking or sensing record carriers with digital information G06K; information storage G11; time or time-programme switches which automatically terminate their operation after the programme is completed H01H 43/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Programme control in sequence or logic controllers, e.g. simulating logic interconnections of signals according to ladder diagrams or function charts.

Programme control in controllers using digital processors, or using logic state machines, or using cams, discs, rods, drums, or where the programme is defined in the fixed connection of electrical elements, e.g. potentiometers, counters, transistors, or using plugboards, cross-bar distributors, matrix switches, or using selector switches or using record carriers.

Numerical control (NC), i.e. automatically operating machines, in particular machine tools, e.g. in a manufacturing environment, so as to execute positioning, movement or co-ordinated operations by means of programme data in numerical form

Total factory control, i.e. centrally controlling a plurality of machines, e.g. direct or distributed numerical control (DNC), flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), integrated manufacturing systems (IMS), computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)

Recording and playback systems, i.e. in which the programme is recorded from a cycle of operations, e.g. the cycle of operations being manually controlled, after which this record is played back on the same machine

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Programme-control of manipulators

CAD system

Control of speed of electric motors

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

domestic washing or cleaning

programmed medicine dispensers

disinfection or sterilising

heart pace-makers

centrifuges

thickness of work produced by metal-rolling mills

bending metal rods, profiles, or tubes

boring or drilling machines

electrical discharge or electromechanical machining

assembling of parts to compose units

series of individual steps in grinding a workpiece

manipulators

presses

sequence of operations in printing machines or presses

feeding sheets or webs in typewriters

sequence of operations in apparatus or devices for manifolding, duplicating or printing for commercial purposes

selecting text or image to be printed in addressing machines

traction motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles

piling articles

crane drives

dispensing, delivering or transferring liquids

sewing machines

embroidering machines

operations in washing machines

combustion engines

supply of combustible mixture or its constituents to combustion engines

fluid-pressure actuator systems

combustion in combustion apparatus

weighing apparatus

electromechanical clocks or watches

mechanically operating digital computers

control units for electric digital data processing

peripheral devices for electric digital data processing

electrically operating digital computers

electrically or magnetically operating analogue computers

Marking or sensing record carriers with digital information

electrically-operated teaching apparatus or devices

Information storage

Clocks with attached or built-in means operating any device at a preselected time interval 

electron-beam or ion-beam tubes used for localised treatment of objects

electronic switching or gating

selecting arrangements in electric communication technique

Special rules of classification

The classification must be done using also the associated Indexing Code scheme.

Indexing Code orthogonal classification:

In addition to one or more symbols relating to the invention information, where appropriate, one or more Indexing Code symbols relating to orthogonal classification, i.e. covering aspects which are spanning over one or more groups, should be allocated. Classification in these indexing groups is optional but advisable.

G05B 2219/00 Program-control systems

relates to problems specific to groups from G05B 19/04 till G05B 19/42

G05B 2219/10 . Plc systems

relates to problems specific to programmable logic controllers only (G05B 19/05)

G05B 2219/11 . . Plc I-O input output

G05B 2219/12 . . Plc mp multi processor system

G05B 2219/13 . . Plc programming

G05B 2219/14 . . Plc safety

G05B 2219/15 . . Plc structure of the system

G05B 2219/16 . . Plc to applications

G05B 2219/20 . Pc systems

relates to problems specific to microprocessor-based controllers (except PLC), i.e. specific to groups from G05B 19/04 till G05B 19/16 (except G05B 19/05)

G05B 2219/11 . . Pc I-O input output

G05B 2219/12 . . Pc mp multi processor system

G05B 2219/13 . . Pc programming

G05B 2219/14 . . Pc safety

G05B 2219/15 . . Pc structure of the system

G05B 2219/16 . . Pc to applications

G05B 2219/30 . Nc systems

relates to problems specific to Numerical Control of machines (G05B 19/18 till G05B 19/42)

G05B 2219/31 . . Computer integrated manufacturing (G05B 19/418)

G05B 2219/33 . . NC Controller

G05B 2219/35 . . Input / Output

G05B 2219/37 . . Measuring problems

G05B 2219/39 . . Numerical Control of manipulators

G05B 2219/41 . . Servo-Controller

G05B 2219/43 . . Control of Speed in NC systems

G05B 2219/45 . . Special applications

Systems involving sampling of the variable controlled (G05B 13/00¬†-¬†G05B 19/00 take precedence; transmission systems for measured values G08C; electronic switching or gating H03K 17/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Decision on the rate of sampling of the variable to be controlled.

Accurate sampling of the variable to be controlled by, for example, adding a timestamp to the signal.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

electronic switching or gating

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

adaptive control systems

systems controlled by a computer

programme-control systems

transmission systems of control signals

Testing or monitoring of control systems or parts thereof (monitoring of programme-control systems G05B 19/048, G05B 19/406)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Detection of faults in the control of a process or device. A fault is a departure from an acceptable range of an observed variable or a calculated parameter associated with a process. Process fault detection comprises three main steps:

A. Configuration of a monitoring or supervisory system, when this system is used to monitor or test the control of a system.

B. Detection of an existing (usually called "diagnostics") or incipient (usually called "prognostics") fault in the control of a system.

C. Reaction to the detection of an existing or incipient fault in the control of a system.

Relationships with other classification places

Group G05B 23/00 covers the monitoring (or testing) of the control of a system, not of the system as such. This means that testing the quality of a process, product or device should be classified in the corresponding application classes, unless it involves decisions related to the control or monitoring of the process, product or device, in which case this group would be the appropriate one.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Monitoring of programme-control systems

Monitoring tool breakage, life or condition, including wear of a machine tool

Data acquisition during manufacturing

Control of the quality of the end product in a manufacturing process

Process diagnostics in road vehicle drive control systems

Safety or indicating devices for abnormal conditions

Testing vehicle engines

Testing of electronic circuits

Testing dynamo-electric machines

Generation of clock signal, power supply for computers (including related diagnostics and monitoring aspects)

Detecting defective computer hardware, usually applied to computers used in an office, non-industrial environment

Error detection concerning software (i.e. debugging) usually applied to computers used in an office, non-industrial environment

Image analysis for industrial inspection or for determining position or orientation of objects

Error checking in memories

Fault management of packet-switched data network or network elements

Monitoring/testing of packet-switched data network or network elements

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adaptation of model in model-based fault detection systems

Systems involving sampling of the variable controlled

Registering or indicating the condition of working machines or other apparatus, i.e. testing whether the machine is in good condition

Communication of monitoring information, if the problem is related only to the communication of that information

Special rules of classification

When classifying a document in group G05B 23/00, one should, as a general rule, avoid giving more than one classification in each subgroup; i.e. a maximum of one classification under G05B 23/0208, one classification under G05B 23/0218, and one classification under G05B 23/0259 should be assigned. Attention should be paid to which of the above-mentioned steps A-C is given detail and appropriate classification should be assigned for that step.

Only if the document deals with several aspects of a sub-group, then more than one class could be assigned, although in that case the classifier should consider whether assigning a more general class (even the sub-group) would better describe the document being classified.

Groups G05B 23/02 and G05B 23/0202 should no longer be used (these groups stopped being used on June 1st, 2011).

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

based on process history

in this methods, only the availability of large amount of historical process data is assumed, i.e. no fundamental understanding of the process is assumed.

diagnostics

this term can be ambiguous, as sometimes it will mean detection of a failure, and sometimes it will mean detection of cause or root of failure

fault detection

detection of both existing and incipient failures

fault isolation

estimation of cause or root of failure

model-based

a fundamental understanding of the process using first-principles knowledge, that is, an explicit or implicit relationship between the observations (symptoms) of a process and the faults.

prognostics

detection of an incipient failure

qualitative

rule based decisions; if-then relations between variables

quantitative

only mathematical relationships between the variables used in the fault detection and isolation

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PCA

Principal Component Analysis

PLS

Partial Least Square

abnormal, failure, malfunction

fault

{characterized by the configuration of the monitoring system}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Problems that deal with the configuration of a fault detection system previous to its application for detecting faults.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

An important exception in this sub-group is the generation of a model of a system. As such a model is important for both control and monitoring, this kind of documents should be classified in G05B 17/02 (for general controls) or in G05B 13/04 (in case of adaptive controls).

{characterised by the fault detection method dealing with either existing or incipient faults}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Preprocessing and preparation of observation values so that they may be used in the fault detection process.

Model based fault detection.

Process history based fault detection.

Injection of test monitoring signals and analysis of the control response.

Special rules of classification

This is the main problem dealt with in group G05B 23/00.

In case of doubt, i.e. a document so general that it does not give much detail about any problem, and if we are confident that the document belongs to G05B 23/00, then at least one class of this subgroup should be assigned to the document, preferably G05B 23/0224 or G05B 23/0243, as deciding whether the document deals with fault detection using a model of the system being monitored or process history of that system should be obvious.

{characterized by the response to fault detection}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Confirmation of fault detection

Control of logging system used to store observation and/or fault values.

Communication of fault detection results to operators.

Fault Isolation and Identification.

Predictive Maintenance. This means monitoring the control of a system and, based on the results of this monitoring, adapting the maintenance schedule of the monitored process or device.

Modifications of the monitored process or device to prevent an incipient fault or to reduce the severity of an occurring fault.

Modifications of the monitoring system as a result of the fault detection.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

repair maintenance, i.e. repairing a broken or failed process or system

preventive maintenance, i.e. planning maintenance according to the available resources without monitoring the system

Open-loop automatic control systems not otherwise provided for
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

open loop control of positioning, e.g. using step motors

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass.