CPC Definition - Subclass F16C

Last Updated Version: 2019.05
SHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
Definition statement

This place covers:

The elements of Subclass F16C are various general mechanical engineering elements or units which have in common that they all relate to:

conducting (transmitting) or supporting (guiding) load (force, torque) in combination with

controlled relative movement.

In general Subclass F16C it encompasses:

  • elongated mechanical engineering elements for transmitting rotary or linear or combined movement in combination with actuating or driving;
  • mechanical engineering elements to support relatively moving elements (rotating, pivoting or linear movement);
  • construction of rotating bodies in view of load due to movement (centrifugal load).

The elongated elements to transmit linear, rotary or combined movement, e.g. push-pull type movement, comprise:

  • Flexible shafts conveying rotary movement (torque);
  • Shafts (torque), telescopic shafts, crankshafts;
  • Cranks, eccentrics;
  • Mechanical means for transmitting movement in a flexible sheathing, e.g. Bowden cables;
  • Connecting-rods or links pivoted at both ends with similar function.

The supporting elements allowing relative rotary, linear or combined motion comprise:

  • Axles (to support a rotating body)
  • Crossheads
  • Crankshaft bearings
  • Connecting rod bearings
  • Pivots
  • Rolls, drums, discs
  • Bearings

Since the individual mechanical engineering elements of Subclass F16C are not a coherent group they will be defined individually in more detail below.

General distribution of subject-matter in Subclass F16C (index):

Flexible Mechanical elements for transmitting movement / force F16C 1/00

Rotary / Torque

Linear - Push/Pull

Flexible shafts F16C 1/02 ff.

mechanical in a flexible sheathing: F16C 1/10 ff.

Shafts, Axles, Cranks, Eccentrics:

F16C 3/00

Shafts, Axles, Cranks, Eccentrics:

Crossheads

F16C 5/00

Connecting rods

F16C 7/00

Resisting rotary force

F16C 15/00

Support elements allowing relative displacement between parts

Bearings for crankshafts / connecting rods, F16C 9/00

Pivots: F16C 11/00

Bearings for rolls, drums discs: F16C 13/02

Rolls, discs: F16C 13/00

Bearings

Bearings with sliding or rolling contact

for rotary parts F16C 17/00 - F16C 27/08

for parts moving only linearly F16C 29/00

Aligning, Positioning

F16C 23/00; F16C 29/001

Wear / Play

F16C 25/00; F16C 29/12

Resilient

F16C 27/00; F16C 29/002

for parts which both rotate and move linearly, F16C 31/00

Other bearings (F16C 32/00)

Details or accessories of bearings

Details orparts thereof

F16C 33/00

Lubrication

F16C 33/10; F16C 33/66

Sealing

F16C 33/72 ff.; F16C 29/08

Resilient support

F16C 27/00; F16C 29/002

Rigid Mounting; Housings

F16C 35/00; F16C 29/004

Cooling

F16C 37/00

Relieving load

F16C 39/00

Accessories

F16C 41/00

Assembling

F16C 43/00

Bearings are general mechanical engineering elements which support or guide and are adapted to position one part moving with respect to another part of an arrangement, i.e. to allow constrained relative motion between the two parts. One of the parts supports the load imposed thereon by the other part. The bearing is intended to reduce friction between the two relatively moving parts, which are typically larger than the bearing itself.

It is noted that apart from bearings many other objects, such as vehicle wheels, conveyor rollers etc., also meet the above criteria. These objects are classified elsewhere.

Further it is noted here that in general the expression "bearing" is also used for supports between parts which are (quasi) stationary.

Due to the lack of relative movement such bearing are not bearings in the sense of this section of Subclass F16C.

Apart from the bearings per se the section "bearings" also covers:

  • the direct surrounding of the bearing, i.e. the interaction of the bearing with the two relatively moving parts;
  • the individual parts of the bearing, such as sleeves, rolling elements, races, separators, cages;
  • materials suited for these parts,
  • methods specific for making the parts, as far as they are not covered by other groups,
  • details involving the proper functioning of the bearing such as sealings, lubrication, cooling, damping means, monitoring
  • parts, although not required for the bearing function, which are integrated in the bearing as far as the way they are integrated is of relevance.

Bearings are distinguished and classified in the respective groups and groups according to

  • the type of movement they allow
  • principle of operation
  • suitability for load direction.

Movement between the two parts:

  • rotary motion (e.g. of a shaft or axle)
  • linear motion (e.g. cross head, linear bearing)
  • oscillating respectively spherical movement
  • combined movements, e.g. helical

Principle of operation, i.e. the means to reduce friction:

  • sliding contact, e.g. plain bearings (bushings, journal bearings, sleeve bearings) including:
  • - dry operated sliding bearings relying on material selected to reduce friction (rubbing contact, solid lubricants);
  • - lubricated sliding bearings with lubricant separating parts;
  • - more particular bearings with pressurised fluid (gas or liquid) in the gap between the parts, i.e. making use of low viscosity:
  • -- pressurised by hydrodynamic effect (wedges, pressure generating grooves);
  • -- hydrostatically pressurised by external means;
  • rolling contact, e.g. with rolling elements such as balls or rollers rolling between the parts or rocking motion;
  • fields such as electromagnetic field, magnetic bearings.

Loads:

  • radial load
  • axial load
  • combined radial and axial load
  • lateral loads (linear bearings)

Combination of principles can be used within a bearing or bearing arrangement, e.g. to support different load directions or to take account of various operating conditions, e.g. speed.

Relationships with other classification places

Subclass F16C is a general function-orientated place.

The elements defined in F16C (shafts, connecting rods, pivots, rolls, bearings) are typical examples of function-oriented elements which are used in a wide variety of applications throughout all sections of the IPC.

Subclass F16C as part of Class F16 relates to "Engineering Elements or units". This limits the elements classified in F16C.

Further the elements in F16C are also strongly correlated to:

  • the materials or the half-products (Section C, Chemistry; Metallurgy) from which they are made, respectively
  • the processes used in their manufacture (Section B, Performing Operations).

Further it is noted that there is a strong correlation with the neighbouring Subclasses in Class F16 relating to other mechanical engineering elements.

Accordingly:

  • First it has to be established whether the relevant technical information relates to an engineering element or unit as defined in F16C.
  • Further, whether the relevant technical information is or could (also) be relevant for another Subclass.
  • Forwarding the document to one or more other technical fields, when the relevant technical information could be relevant for that field.
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Bearings for rotary parts ( groups F16C 17/00-F16C 27/00)

Bearings of rotating parts specially adapted for agricultural purposes

A01B 71/04

Bearings for threshing machines

A01F 12/58

Tomographs

A61B 6/03

Mounting or supporting mixing devices

B01F 15/00662

Adaptation of roll bearings for rolling mills

B21B 31/07

Movable or adjustable work or tool supports with a mechanism with rotating pairs only

B23Q 1/50

Swash plate in percussive tool

B25D 11/062

Portable power tools

B25F 5/00

Vehicle wheel hubs with ball or roller bearings

B60B 27/00

Arrangement of bearings of torque transmitting axles in axle units

B60B 35/18

MacPherson strut

B60G 15/068

Arrangements of mountings for shafting of transmissions in vehicles

B60K 17/24

Bearings for connecting-rods for driving wheels of railway locomotives

B61C 17/10

Axle boxes with bearings of rail vehicles

B61F 15/00

Bearings specially adapted for steering heads

B62K 21/06

Bearings for mounting spindles in spinning arrangements for imparting permanent twist

D01H 7/12

Bearings of bridges

E01D 19/04

Turntables in dredgers for soil-shifting

E02F 9/121

Bearings specially adapted for roller shutters or for roller blinds

E06B 9/174, E06B 9/50

Bearing, sealing, lubricating of drives used in bore holes (in earth drilling)

E21B 4/003

Details of bearings or lubricating of roller bits (drill bits in earth drilling)

E21B 10/22

Arrangement of bearings in rotary-piston machines or engines

F01C 21/02

Arrangement of bearings in non-positive displacement Machines or engines (turbines)

F01D 25/16

Turbochargers (gas turbines)

F02C 6/12

Arrangement of bearings in gas-turbine plants

F02C 7/06

Bearings in wind motors

F03D 80/70

Bearings in pumps (non-positive displacement),

F04D 29/04

Shaft support structure in gearing

F16H 57/022

Refrigeration machines

F25B 9/00

Bearings for gyroscopes

G01C 19/16

Bearings or suspensions for moving parts of measuring arrangements

G01D 11/02

Arrangements of bearings in weighing apparatus

G01G 21/02

Arrangements of bearings in instruments for measuring electric variables

G01R 1/10

Arrangements of bearings for apparatus for measuring time integral of electric power or current

G01R 11/12

Bearings in horology

G04B 31/00

Bearings for HDD (storage discs)

G11B 19/2009

Mounting arrangements for bearing-shields or end plates in electro-dynamic machines

H02K 5/15

Means for supporting bearings or for fitting them in the bearing-shield in electro-dynamic machines

H02K 5/16

Structural association with bearings of dynamo-electric machines

H02K 7/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials or half products used in F16C

Layered products essentially comprising metal

B32B 15/00

Shaped ceramic products

C04B 35/00

Organic macromolecular compounds (plastics, resins)

C08L

Lubricating compositions

C10M

Alloys in general

C22C

Methods used in making parts in F16C

Manufacture by compacting/sintering metallic powder;

B22F 3/00

Composite articles of metallic powder (at least partly)

B22F 7/00

Build-up welding of surfaces

B23K 9/044

Build-up welding using laser beam

B23K 26/34

Connecting metal parts;

B23P 11/00

Grinding and polishing

B24

Injection moulding plastics;

B29C 45/00

Composites with reinforcements

B29C 70/00

Coating metallic material;Coating with metallic material

C23C

Electroplating

C25D 7/00

Parts or elements used in F16C

Rivets

F16B 19/00

Circlips

F16B 21/10

Screws

F16B 35/00

Springs

F16F 1/00

Suppression of vibration in rotating systems

F16F 15/00

Sealings between relatively-moving surfaces

F16J 15/16

Lubricating

F16N

Special rules of classification

Relation with IPC classification rules

Reference is made to the paper copy of Volume 5 of the Eighth Edition (2006) of the International Patent Classification "Guide to the IPC" respectively the version of 2009 available as PDF-file on the site of the WIPO.

(http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/classifications/ipc/en/guide/guide_ipc_2009.pdf)

Chapters VIII to XI (paragraphs 75. to 155.) of this publication deal with the general classification rules of the IPC.

Predominant IPC classification rules in F16C

The IPC-guide refers to "invention information" (cf. paragraphs 77. and 78.).This definition is not followed, since "the addition to the prior art" of most documents at the time of publication is not clear. In Subclass F16C the criteria for classification derive from the following rules (cf. paragraphs 102. and 133. of the IPC-Guide):

  • Establishing relevant technical information from the document classified
  • Classifying this information in a way allowing efficient retrieval.

They apply to the classification of new documents as well as documents reclassified during reorganisation.

Warning: A large number of documents from the back file do not comply with the present criteria.

For efficient retrieval:

Most documents should preferably have two or more classification symbols (EC, Indexing Code not necessarily all in F16C):

  • one symbol to describe the general configuration (preamble type information, field of use), particular of the example(s) given and
  • one or more further symbols are used to identify the special technical features described in the document.

In exceptional cases one symbol could be sufficient, e.g. in small groups specifying both types of information or when the general configuration is defined too broad. In this context reference is made to Chapter IX of the IPC-guide.

The technical information is to be classified as specific as possible, i.e. as close as possible to the embodiments described.

For large documents, e.g. WO-publications based on multiple priorities, multiple symbols would be required particularly in view of non-unitary technical content.

However, when too many examples are given a more general classification symbol could be expedient.

Apart from the configuration of the subject to be classified per se, particular attention should be paid to the following topics:

  • the materials used,
  • the methods and processes used in making,
  • the half products and parts used and
  • the field of application.

These topics could, apart from classification in an appropriate F16C- group, also be made retrievable by a symbol in the corresponding Subclass when the technical content is considered relevant enough therefore. References to other Subclasses and groups are given below as relationships to other subject matter areas, limiting references relevant for classification and informative references.

Further since a major part of documents to be classified have no search report the corresponding sections of the IPC-guide are particular relevant, i.e. IPC-guide paragraphs 124. to 130. combined with the observations in paragraphs 131. to 134.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Rotary engineering element

Any engineering element, other than a rotating element used in gearing, clutches, couplings or brakes, which rotates so far as its features are affected only by the fact that it rotates.

Bearing

A component of a machine or mechanism that is positioned between two relatively movable elements of the machine or mechanism and that has a surface formed for sliding or rolling contact with these elements when they move relative to each other for the sole function of reducing the friction that would otherwise result from their relative movement.

Connecting-rodlink pivoted at both ends

A reciprocating or oscillating elongated member of a machine or mechanism that is intended to be pivotally connected to and positioned between two relatively movable elements of the machine or mechanism for the purpose of transmitting force or conveying motion between the elements when it reciprocates or oscillates.

Axle

An elongated element to support a rotating part, e.g. a wheel or roll. loads are bending moments and radial load. It may be stationary or rotating with the part fixed thereto.

Shaft

An elongated element, normally a rod of circular cross-section, that rotates about its longitudinal axis to transmit torque, e.g. by conveying motion from a gear wheel supported by it to another part of a machine or mechanism.

Crankshaft

A shaft with one or more cranks for turning reciprocating or oscillating motion into rotary motion.

Flexible shaft

An elongated element, that is bendable along its length and rotates about its longitudinal axis to transmit torque or convey rotary motion.

Bowden cable

A control cable consisting of an elongated member enclosed within a housing bendable along its length and shiftable along its longitudinal axis relative to its housing to transmit motion or force.

Roll, drum, disc

An element of a machine or mechanism in the form of a roller that has a generally curved surface that contacts work or (linear) moving part and revolves about its axis when the work shifts relative to it.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "sliding bearing", "sliding contact bearing", "slide bearing", "plain bearing", "gliding bearing", "friction bearing", "hydrodynamic bearing", and "fluid dynamic bearing"
  • "rolling bearing", "antifriction bearing", "roller bearing", "rolling bearing", "rolling contact bearing", "ball bearing", "needle bearing" and "rolling element bearing"
  • "linear bearing" and "linear motion guide"
Flexible shafts (flexible shafts in dental machines for boring or cutting A61C 1/18); Mechanical means for transmitting movement in a flexible sheathing
Definition statement

This place covers:

There are two distinct groups of elements which, apart from being elongated and flexible, have a different function:

  • Flexible shafts conveying rotary motion, respectively
  • Flexible means to transmit push-pull movement.

The shaft itself or the transmitting means themselves provide flexibility.

It is noted that:

  • flexible shafts are functionally related to shafts (cf. F16C 3/00) which also convey rotary motion, i.e. are used as drive shaft, whereas
  • "Bowden mechanisms" are functionally related to connecting rods (cf. F16C 9/00) which are also built to transmit push-pull movements, i.e. they are typically used for control-movements.

The two groups of elements are thus related to different fields (see limiting and informative references below).

for conveying rotary movements
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Control cables for flexible medical endoscopes

A61B 1/005

Flexible shafts (in surgery instruments)

A61B 17/1631

Endoscopic instruments

A61B 17/320016

Flexible shaft in dental machines

A61C 1/18

Control cables for flexible technical endoscopes

G02B 23/24

Means for transmitting linear movement in a flexible sheathing, e.g. "Bowden-mechanisms" (guiding-sheathings F16C 1/26)
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Control cables for change-speed gearing control

B60K 20/02

Adjusting rear mirror by cables

B60R 1/068

Control cables for actuating brakes

B60T 7/08

Transmitting braking action using cables

B60T 11/046

Control cables for brake-actuating mechanisms specially adapted for cycles

B62L 3/02

Control cables for gearing speed-change mechanisms specially adapted for cycles

B62M 25/02

Operation of locks by Bowden cable

E05B 53/005

Movement transmitted by a cable in actuating mechanism of change speed or reversing-gearings

F16H 61/36

Control devices or systems insofar as characterised by mechanical features only

G05G

Synonyms and Keywords

Bowden cable

Control cable

Construction of flexible members moved to and fro in the sheathing
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Constructional features of ropes and cables

D07B 1/00

Means for fastening cables or ropes to one another or to other objects

F16G 11/00

Construction of guiding-sheathings or guiding-tubes
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Supports for pipes and tubes

F16L 3/00

Tubes and pipes passing through walls

F16L 5/00

Shafts (flexible shafts F16C 1/00; marine propeller shafts, paddle wheel shafts B63H 23/34); Axles; Cranks; Eccentrics
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Flexible shafts

F16C 1/02

Camshafts

F16H 53/02

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Axle units; Parts thereof; Arrangements for lubrification of axles

B60B 35/00

Arrangement or mounting of transmissions in vehicles characterised by arrangement, location, or type of drive shafting, e.g. cardan shaft

B60K 17/22

Propeller shafts or paddle-wheel shafts for ships

B63H 23/34

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Forged or pressed shafts

B21K 1/06

Balancing shafts

F16F 15/322

telescopic (axially displaceable couplings F16D 3/06)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Axially displaceable couplings

F16D 3/06

Crankshafts, eccentric-shafts; Cranks, eccentrics
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Crank gearings

F16H 21/18

Crank gearings with adjustment of throw

F16H 21/20

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Using cranks in rotary pistons

F01C 17/063

Shape of crankshafts or eccentric-shafts having regard to balancing
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compensation of inertia forces of crankshafts

F16F 15/26

Elastic crank-webs; Resiliently-mounted crank-pins
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Elastic connecting-rods

F16C 7/04

Adjustable cranks or eccentrics
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adjustable crank mechanisms

F16H 21/20

Connecting-rods or like links pivoted at both ends (coupling-rods for locomotive driving-wheels B61C 17/10); Construction of connecting-rod heads (heads rigid with crossheads F16C 5/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Heads rigid with cross heads

F16C 5/00

Inhibiting shift in gearing during unfavourable conditions

F16H 61/16

Pivotal connection of pistons with connecting-rods

F16J 1/14

Piston-rods, i.e. rods rigidly connected to the piston

F16J 7/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Coupling-rods for locomotive driving wheels

B61C 17/10

Variable connecting rods in internal combustion engines

F02B 75/045

Varying compression ratio by alteration of piston stroke

F02D 15/02

Piston drive of fuel pumps

F02M 59/10

Actuating brakes by pistons

F16D 65/14

Gearing with links and levers

F16H 21/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Forged or pressed connecting rods

B21K 1/766

Synonyms and Keywords

Connecting-rod

conrod, con rod, piston rod

Crankshaft bearings
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Crankshaft bearings fitted in the crankcase

F02F 7/0053

{the bearing cap of the connecting rod being split by fracturing}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Breaking machines for rings, i.e. pre-cutting and subsequent breaking

B23D 31/003

Arrangements for adjusting play in bearings, operating either automatically or not
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bearings adjustable for play in general

F16C 25/00

Trunnions; Crank-pins (fastening crank-pins to webs, crank-pins integral with cranks F16C 3/06, F16C 3/22)
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Fastening crank-pins to webs of crankshafts

F16C 3/06

Crank-pins integral with cranks

F16C 3/22

Pivotal connections (hinges for doors, windows or wings E05D)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Articulated joints which are primarily designed to introduce push-pull movements to an elongated mechanical engineering element, such as connecting rods (cf. F16C 7/00) and "Bowden-cables" (cf. F16C 1/10).

Relationships with other classification places

Hinges (for mounting plate like objects such as lids) are not pivotal connections as part of Subclass F16C (to mount end parts of rods or push-pull cables). Joints for transmitting torque are to be classified in F16D.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hinges for doors, windows, or wings

E05D

Devices for moving wings into open or closed position

E05F

Yielding couplings, i.e. with means permitting movement between the connected parts during the drive

F16D 3/00

Rubber springs with stiff outer sleeve and inner sleeve or pin

F16F 1/38

Hinges of laptops

G06F 1/1616

Hinges of mobile phones

H04M 1/0206

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Joints in manipulators

B25J 17/00

Pivoted suspension arms

B60G 7/00

Arrangement of steering linkage connections

B62D 7/16

Pivots in dredgers for soil-shifting

E02F 9/006

Centre pivot of rocking arms

F01L 1/18

Pipe joints with hinge

F16L 27/0849

Stands with attachment allowing pivoting

F16M 11/06

Hinges for spectacles

G02C 5/22

Ball-joints; Other joints having more than one degree of angular freedom, i.e. universal joints (universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts F16D 3/16)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Universal joints in which flexibility is produced by means of pivots or sliding or rolling connecting parts

F16D 3/16

Supports for apparatus with ball-joint heads

F16M 11/14

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rolls, drums, discs, or the like (guide rollers in feeding webs B65H 27/00; calender rolls, bearings therefor D21G 1/02; rotary drums or rollers for heat-exchange or heat-transfer apparatus F28F 5/02; special adaptations, see the relevant classes); Bearings or mountings therefor
Definition statement

This place covers:

Rotary bodies shaped substantially as a body of revolution, i.e. axisymmetrical bodies respectively bodies having rotational symmetry, with an outer or inner functional surface such as:

  • rolls
  • drums
  • discs.

The rotary body allows relative movement of another part or product tangentially along the rotary body, particularly along a linear path, i.e. it is used to support, transport and/or treat another part or product which moves relatively along the functional surface.

Relationships with other classification places

Rolls are only classified in group F16C 13/00 when the general built up of the roll itself is of relevance.

Most rolls, particularly those for treating material, are specifically designed for that purpose and are therefore to be classified in the appropriate field of application (see the references relevant to classification below).

Wheels which support vehicles to move along a path come within the ambit of the above definition of rolls, discs or the like in group F16C 13/00. However, wheels as dedicated complete systems, do not qualify as "engineering elements or units" in the sense of F16.

Vehicle wheels and castors are to be classified in Subclass B60B.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Treatment of products moving tangentially relatively to a roll

Shape or construction of rollers of roller mills

B02C 4/30

Rollers or balls co-operating with rings or discs for disintegrating

B02C 15/00

Using rollers to apply liquids

B05C 1/08

Rollers for hand tools for applying liquids

B05C 17/02

Rolls used in rolling of metal

B21B 27/00

Backing rolls acting on rolls to inhibit deflection of same under load

B21B 29/00

Adaptation of roll neck bearings of rolls used in rolling of metal

B21B 31/07

Deflection control of rolls used in rolling of metal

B21B 37/30

Bending sheet metal by drawing procedure making use of forming-rollers

B21D 5/08

Making tubes by bending sheet metal making use of forming-rollers

B21D 5/12

Rolls used in continuous casting of metals

B22D 11/1287

Rollers for making articles of indefinite length in compression moulding

B29C 43/46

Rollers used in pressing for surface shaping

B29C 59/04

Producing rollers or cylinders

B29D 99/0035

Presses characterised by the use of rotary pressing members, e.g. rollers, rings, discs

B30B 3/00

Embossing paper

B31F 1/07

Cylinders of printing machines

B41F 13/08

Construction of inking rollers in printing machines

B41F 31/26

Shells for rollers of printing machines

B41N 7/00

Rollers in drafting machines or arrangements (spinning or twisting)

D01H 5/74

Roll for heating or cooling yarn, thread, cord, rope, or the like

D02J 13/00

Rolls for calendering, pressing, ironing, glossing or glazing textile fabrics

D06C 15/08

Rolls, e.g. as guiding mechanism, in wet end of machines for making continuous webs of paper

D21F 1/00

Rolls, e.g. pressure rolls or suction rolls, in wet presses of the press section of paper making machines

D21F 3/00

Cylinders in dryer section of paper making machines

D21F 5/00

Rolls or their bearings in calenders

D21G 1/02

Rolls, e.g. for developing or fixing, in apparatus for electrographic processes

G03G 15/00

Rollers as part of ohmic resistance heating devices

H05B 3/00

Heated rollers with induction heating apparatus

H05B 6/14

Rollers used in supporting, transporting, respectively feeding or conveying

Balls as rolling elements in ball bearings

F16C 33/32

Rollers or needles as rolling elements in roller bearings

F16C 33/34

Rollers or wheels for sliding drawers

A47B 88/487, A47B 88/493, A47B 88/497

Wheels for roller skates

A63C 17/22

Rollers for supporting or handling sheets in typewriters or printers

B41J 13/02

Rolls used in conveying

B65G 39/00

Rollers for feeding articles separated from piles;Feeding articles to machines

B65H 5/06

Feed or guide rollers for handling thin or filamentary material

B65H 27/00

Construction of conveyor rollers for transporting hot glass sheets or ribbons

C03B 35/18

Rollers or pulleys in means for varying tension of belts, ropes, or chains

F16H 7/08

Rollers as cam followers

F16H 53/06

Toothed wheels

F16H 55/17

Chain wheels

F16H 55/30

Pulleys

F16H 55/36

Conveyor rollers in furnaces

F27D 3/02

Application oriented places for drums

Closed drums for drying solid material

F26B 11/02

Rolls, drums, cylinders of long length for drying material with progressive movement

F26B 13/14

Rotary drum furnaces

F27B 7/00

Rotary drums or rollers for heat-exchange or heat-transfer apparatus

F28F 5/02

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making wheels or the like from sheet metal

B21D 53/26

Construction of rotary bodies to resist centrifugal force (flywheels, correction weights F16F 15/30, F16F 15/32)
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Flywheels

F16F 15/30

Sliding-contact bearings for exclusively rotary movement (F16C 32/06 takes precedence; adjustable bearings F16C 23/00, F16C 25/00)
Relationships with other classification places

Hydrostatic bearings are to be classified in F16C 32/06.

Other fluid bearings (hydrodynamic ) are to be classified in the appropriate place in F16C 17/00 and/or F16C 33/10.

Not all sliding elements are part of a sliding-contact bearing.

Also other sliding parts, e.g. parts of pistons and cylinders (cf. groups F16J 1/00 - F16J 10/00), sliding-seals (cf. group F16J 15/34+), valves (cf. subclass F16K) and toothed gear wheels (cf. subclass F16H) are sometimes referred to in a generalised way as sliding element, e.g. in the claims.

In such cases the description is to be checked to apply the correct subclass.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Bearing surfaces of pistons

F16J 1/02

Particular materials of piston rings

F16J 9/26

with bearing balls essentially of the same size in one or more circular rows
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ball bearings whereby all of the following requirements are met:

  • only balls are provided as load supporting rolling elements,
  • the balls are of essentially the same size,
  • the balls are provided in rows, and
  • the row(s) of balls are circular, i.e. the balls move along a full circle.
with bearing rollers essentially of the same size in one or more circular rows, e.g. needle bearings
Definition statement

This place covers:

Roller bearings whereby all of the following requirements are met:

  • only rollers are provided as load supporting rolling elements,
  • the rollers are of essentially the same size,
  • the rollers are provided in rows, and
  • the row(s) of rollers are circular, i.e. the rollers move along a full circle.
Other types of ball or roller bearings
Definition statement

This place covers:

Other types of rolling bearings include e.g. rolling bearings whereby:

  • the size of balls or rollers of one row differ substantially in size with respect to those of another row,
  • the balls or rollers are provided in an irregular array,
  • the balls or rollers are stationary but rotatable with respect to one of the relatively moving members, e.g. rollers giving local support at two or more points (cf. F16C 13/04),
  • the balls or rollers are provided in a partial circular row, i.e. with only partial enclosure of the member to be borne, e.g. with recirculation
  • the balls or rollers move along a helical path.

The other types of ball and roller bearings have in common that the following requirements of groups F16C 19/02 and F16C 19/22 (cf. corresponding definition statements above) do not apply, i.e. that:

  • the rolling elements are of essentially the same size,
  • the rolling elements are provided in rows,
  • the rows are circular, i.e. the rolling elements run in a full circle.
with devices affected by abnormal or undesired conditions
Definition statement

This place covers:

Measures taken in view of conditions which are not normal, i.e. not relating to the proper functioning of the bearing at its operating speed, and which are not already covered by other groups. A few examples are:

  • starting or stopping
  • Brinelling;
  • creeping of rings, fretting;
  • corrosion.

Examples of groups dealing with a variety of undesired conditions:

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Force sensors associated with a bearing

G01L 5/0009

Testing of bearings

G01M 13/04

Combinations of sliding-contact bearings with ball or roller bearings, for exclusively rotary movement (F16C 17/24, F16C 19/52 take precedence)
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Hooke's joint with ball or roller bearings

F16D 3/41

Bearings for exclusively rotary movement adjustable for aligning or positioning (F16C 27/00 takes precedence {; hydrostatic bearings F16C 32/067})
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Arrangements for adjusting play in crankshaft bearings

F16C 9/03

Arrangements for adjusting play in connecting-rod bearings

F16C 9/06

Bearings for exclusively rotary movement adjustable for wear or play (F16C 27/00 takes precedence)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring play on bearings

G01B 7/144

Elastic or yielding bearings or bearing supports, for exclusively rotary movement (shock-damping bearings for watches or clocks G04B 31/02)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Elastic hydrostatic bearings

F16C 32/067

Shock-damping bearings for watches or clocks

G04B 31/02

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Centrifuges

B04B 9/12

Squeeze film damping

F16F 15/0237

by means of parts of rubber or like materials (F16C 27/08 takes precedence; with sliding surfaces of rubber or synthetic rubber F16C 33/22)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Bearings with sliding surfaces of rubber or synthetic rubber

F16C 33/22

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Construction of units comprising rigid inner and outer members with rubber or the like between them

F16F 1/38

Bearings for parts moving only linearly (F16C 32/06 takes precedence; incorporated in flexible shafts F16C 1/28 {; parts of bearings in general and special methods for making bearings or parts thereof in general F16C 33/00})
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Complete systems such as railways and conveyor systems are similar to linear bearings (F16C 29/00) but do not qualify as "engineering elements or units" in the sense of Class F16. They are dealt with in the appropriate parts of "Transporting" in Section B, particularly in Subclass B61 ("Railways") and B65 ("Conveying; ... ").

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Slides or guides for drawers in furniture

A47B 88/40

Arrangement of ways in the general build-up of a machine tools

B23Q 1/017

Movable or adjustable work or tool supports

B23Q 1/25

With sliding pairs only

B23Q 1/56

Slide constructions in car seats

B60N 2/07

Fluid actuated devices

F15B 15/00

Optics

G02B 7/003

Apparatus for microlithography

G03F 2007/2067

Positioning in chip manufacture

H01L 21/68

Arrangements for covering or protecting the ways {(protective coverings for parts of machine tools B23Q 11/08)}
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Protective coverings for parts of machine tools

B23Q 11/08

Arrangements for locking the bearings
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Means for securing sliding members in any desired position

B23Q 1/28

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preventing relative movement between machine parts in general

F16B

Bearings for parts which both rotate and move linearly
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Screw mechanisms, e.g. with balls or rollers

F16H 25/20

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Movable tool or work supports with sliding pairs and rotating pairs

B23Q 1/48

Bearings not otherwise provided for
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details for all types of bearings, i.e. they are not limited to rotary sliding contact or rolling element bearings but, as far as applicable, they also cover the other bearing types (e.g. linear, magnetic, hydrostatic etc.).

using magnetic or electric supporting means
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Magnetic levitation devices

H02N 15/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Blood pumps

A61M 1/10

Magnetic suspension or levitation of vehicles

B60L 13/04

Railway systems with sliding or levitation systems

B61B 13/08

Vacuum pumps

F04D 19/04

Fluid pumps with magnetic bearings

F04D 29/048

Pumps for elastic fluid with magnetic bearings

F04D 29/058

Flywheel systems;

F16F 15/30

Electro-motor with magnetic bearings

H02K 7/09

Parts of bearings; Special methods for making bearings or parts thereof (metal-working or like operations, see the relevant classes)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Materials

Making alloys by powder metallurgy

C22C 1/04

Alloys based on copper

C22C 9/00

Alloys based on tin

C22C 13/00

Alloys based on nickel or cobalt

C22C 19/00

Alloys based on aluminium

C22C 21/00

Making ferrous alloys by powder metallurgy

C22C 33/02

Ferrous alloys (steel)

C22C 38/00

Methods used in making parts of bearings

Flanging or other edge treatment, e.g. of tubes by action of pressing tools

B21D 19/08

Making parts of bearings by working or processing of sheet metal or metal tubes, rods or profiles without essentially removing material or punching

B21D 53/10

Making cages for bearings by working or processing of sheet metal or metal tubes, rods or profiles without essentially removing material or punching

B21D 53/12

Making rings for balls or roller bearings by rolling metal

B21H 1/12

Making balls, rollers, cone rollers, or like bodies for bearings by rolling metal

B21H 1/16

Upsetting (working sheet metal);

B21J 5/08

Riveting (working sheet metal)

B21J 15/00

Making balls or rollers for bearings by forging or pressing

B21K 1/02

Making ball races by forging or pressing

B21K 1/04

Making cages by forging or pressing

B21K 1/05

Casting using a mould or core of bearing shells

B22D 15/02

Treating or finishing surfaces mechanically, e.g. smoothing or roughening of bearings

B23P 9/00

Producing bushes for bearings from plastics or from substances in a plastic state

B29D 33/00

Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching, tempering, adapted for rings or bearing races

C21D 9/36

Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching, tempering, adapted for rings or bearing races

C21D 9/40

Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working

C22F 1/00

Electroplating of bearings

C25D 7/10

Other

Lubrication in general

F16N

Sliding surface consisting mainly of rubber or synthetic rubber (F16C 33/24 - F16C 33/28 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Elastic or yielding bearings whereby rubber is of interest apart from the surface itself

F16C 27/063

Sealings
Definition statement

This place covers:

Bearings with details of the sealing arrangements.

Seals specifically constructed to be incorporated in or which are directly associated with bearings.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sealings in general

F16J 15/00

Rigid support of bearing units; Housings, e.g. caps, covers (F16C 23/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mounting of a bearing to surrounding parts in a fixed way.

Housings such as bearings shields which can be handled as a unit together with the bearing.

Relationships with other classification places

Mounting of bearings which is not rigid, i.e. in such a way that they are adjustable for position, alignment, wear or play with respect to the housing or with resilient support, are to be classified in the appropriate places for rotary bearings in groups F16C 23/00, F16C 25/00 and F16C 27/00 respectively for linear bearings in F16C 29/00.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hand tools for inserting or withdrawing sleeves or bearing races

B25B 27/06

Devices for fastening in general

F16B

Attachment of a member on a shaft

F16D 1/06

Cooling of bearings
Definition statement

This place covers:

Means to remove heat from the bearing area, i.e. by radiation, conduction or heat exchange, excluding cooling lubricant or by means of lubricant (cf. groups F16C 33/10 and F16C 33/66).

Relieving load on bearings
Definition statement

This place covers:

Means exerting a force on the relative moving part directed against the load and cooperating in the load direction with the actual bearing which attains the desired position.

Means providing a preload on the bearing, which could be considered as negative relief, actually serve to reduce play and are e.g. to be classified in the appropriate groups (e.g. F16C 25/00, F16C 29/12, F16C 32/067 ).

Other accessories, {e.g. devices integrated in the bearing not relating to the bearing function as such}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Elements which are not directly related to the bearing function, i.e. parts mounted to or integrated with the bearing but providing an additional functionality such as speed sensors, as far as there integration in the bearing is of relevance.

Load-equalizing elements.

Elements involved in protecting the bearing when not in use.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means for measuring angular speed mounted in bearings

G01P 3/443

Assembling bearings
Definition statement

This place covers:

Joining of the parts of a bearing, optionally simultaneously with mounting. It also embraces joining bearing parts which are split.

For a slide bearing this involves typically joining bearing bushes, shells and washers; optionally providing other parts such as seals.

For a rolling element bearing this involves typically providing rolling elements between the races, optionally providing other parts such as cages and seals.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Machines or tools for assembling parts

B23P 19/04

Devices for fastening in general

F16B