CPC Definition - Subclass B23K

Last Updated Version: 2020.01
SOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM (making metal-coated products by extruding metal B21C 23/22; building up linings or coverings by casting B22D 19/08; casting by dipping B22D 23/04; manufacture of composite layers by sintering metal powder B22F 7/00; arrangements on machine tools for copying or controlling B23Q; covering metals or covering materials with metals, not otherwise provided for C23C; burners F23D)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Machines, devices or processes for specific methods of soldering, welding, cladding or plating by soldering or welding, cutting by applying heat locally or working by laser beam (B23K 1/00-B23K 26/00).

Welding or cutting machines, devices or processes not covered by any of the preceding groups (B23K 28/00).

Soldering, welding or cutting processes specially adapted for particular articles or purposes (B23K 31/00).

Specially-profiled edge portions of workpieces for making soldering or welding connections and filling the seams formed thereby (B23K 33/00).

Rods, electrodes, materials or media for use in soldering, welding or cutting (B23K 35/00).

Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a soldering, welding or cutting procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups (B23K 37/00).

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making metal-coated products by extruding metal

B21C 23/22

Building up linings or coverings by casting

B22D 19/08

Casting by dipping

B22D 23/04

Manufacture of composite layers by sintering metal powder

B22F 7/00

Metal-working machines other than soldering, welding, or flame-cutting machines; Arrangements on machine tools other than tools for soldering, welding, or flame-cutting for copying or controlling; Guiding means applicable to metal-working machines other than soldering, welding, or flame-cutting machines.

B23Q

Cutting in general

B26D

Welding of plastics

B29C 65/00

Covering metals or covering materials with metals, not otherwise provided for

C23C

Burners

F23D

Special rules of classification

Upon classifying in B23K 31/00, B23K 33/00, B23K 35/00 or B23K 37/00, the appropriate classification in B23K 1/00-B23K 26/00 or subgroups should be added, if applicable. References B21C 23/22, B22D 19/08, B22D 23/04, B22F 7/00, B23Q, C23C and F23D are non-limiting in the subclass B23K. CPC will be updated/corrected once this inconsistency is resolved in IPC.

Soldering, e.g. brazing, or unsoldering (B23K 3/00 takes precedence; characterised only by the use of special materials or media B23K 35/00; dip or wave soldering in the manufacture of printed circuits H05K 3/34)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Soldering and brazing, which are processes in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the workpiece. Brazing is a form of soldering, wherein the temperatures used to melt the filler metal are above 450 °C.

Unsoldering, wherein solder is removed from a joint prior to resoldering.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arc brazing apparatuses

B23K 3/0384

Dip or wave soldering in the manufacture of printed circuits

H05K 3/34

Special rules of classification

Arc soldering or brazing to be classified in B23K 9/16 and B23K 1/00.

MIG soldering or brazing to be classified in B23K 9/173 and B23K 1/00.

TIG soldering or brazing to be classified in B23K 9/167 and B23K 1/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "braze welding" and "arc brazing"
Tools, devices, or special appurtenances for soldering, e.g. brazing, or unsoldering, not specially adapted for particular methods (materials used for soldering B23K 35/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Tools, devices for soldering, brazing or unsoldering.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Soldering lamps or bloworkpieceipes

F23D

Electric heating in general

H05B

Gas flame welding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Welding, where a flame is applied to the base metal and held until a small puddle of molten metal is formed with or without addition of more metal from a welding rod or filler rod into the molten metal puddle.

Cutting, scarfing, or desurfacing by applying flames {(thermal deburring B23D 79/005)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cutting where the flame is not intended to melt the metal, but to bring it to its ignition temperature.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Thermal deburring

B23D 79/005

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Scarfing

Also termed deseaming. It is a process for burning out defective areas on the surface of ingots or semi-finished products such as billets so that the product is suitable for subsequent rolling or forging

Desurfacing

removing surface metal by means of oxidizing gas jets

Arc welding or cutting (electro-slag welding B23K 25/00; welding transformers H01F; welding generators H02K)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Welding methods and apparatus, wherein a welding power supply is used to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point.

Arc welding and cutting with direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current.

Arc welding with consumable or non-consumable electrodes.

Arc welding with or without shielding means.

Underwater arc welding.

Backing means for arc welding.

Inserts between the pieces to be joined through arc welding.

Power supply for arc welding.

Drag welding.

Submerged arc welding.

Stud welding.

Percussion welding.

Protecting means used during arc welding.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electro-slag welding

B23K 25/00

Form or composition of electrodes

B23K 35/00

Welding studs

B23K 35/0288

Media used during welding or cutting

B23K 35/38

Masks, shields or hoods for welders

A61F 9/06

Copying in general

B23Q 35/00

Protective means in general

F16P 1/06

Welding transformers

H01F

Electrical coupling means

H01R

Earthing connections

H01R

Welding generators

H02K

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

TIG welding

Tungsten inert gas welding

MIG/MAG welding

Metal inert gas/metal active gas welding

SAW

Submerged arc welding

SMAW

Shielded metal arc welding

MMA

Manual metal arc welding

Stud welding

Stud welding is a form of spot welding where a bolt or specially formed nut is welded onto another metal part.

Percussion welding

Percussion welding (PEW) is a type of resistance welding that blends dissimilar metals together. Percussion welding creates a high temperature arc that is formed from a short quick electrical discharge. Immediately following the electrical discharge, pressure is applied which forges the materials together. This type of joining brings the materials together in a percussive manner.

Drag welding

known as gravity welding or gravity arc welding. It employs an electrode holder attached to an inclined bar along the length of the weld. Once started, the process continues until the electrode is spent.

Welding or cutting by means of a plasma
Definition statement

This place covers:

Plasma arc welding (PAW), wherein heat is produced between an electrode and a constricting orifice (nontransferred arc). Shielding is generally obtained from the hot, ionized gas issuing from the orifice of the constricting nozzle, which may be supplemented by an auxiliary source of shielding gas. Shielding gas may be an inert gas or a mixture of gases.

Plasma arc cutting (PAC), wherein a pilot arc is first generated between the electrode (cathode) and the nozzle (anode). The pilot arc ionizes gas passing through the nozzle exit orifice. After the ionized gas reduces the electrical resistance between the electrode and the workpiece, the arc transfers from the nozzle to the workpiece. The torch is operated in this transferred plasma arc mode, which is characterized by the conductive flow of ionized gas from the electrode to the workpiece, for the cutting of the workpiece.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuits for plasma torches

H05H 1/36

Resistance welding; Severing by resistance heating
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric resistance welding, where heat to form the weld is generated by the electrical resistance (Joule effect) of material vs the time and the force used to hold the materials together during welding.

Spot and seam welding.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Brazing of honeycomb sandwich structure

B23K 1/0014

Stud welding with an arc

B23K 9/20

Form or composition of electrodes

B23K 35/00

Electromagnetic counters

G06M

Welding by high-frequency current heating
Definition statement

This place covers:

Welding by conduction heating, wherein a high frequency current produces heat in a tool contacting the workpiece.

Welding by induction heating, high frequency current (called eddy current or Foucault current) is produced by induction in the workpiece and is used to heat the same.

Electron-beam welding or cutting (electron- or ion- beam tubes H01J 37/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electron beam welding wherein a beam of high-velocity electrons is applied to the materials being joined.

Electron beam cutting wherein high-velocity electrons concentrated into a narrow beam are directed toward the work piece, creating heat and vaporizing the material.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electron- or ion- beam tubes

H01J 37/00

Use of the energy of nuclear particles in welding or related techniques
Definition statement

This place covers:

Welding, micromachining using an ion beam.

Non-electric welding by applying impact or other pressure, with or without the application of heat, e.g. cladding or plating
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wire welding; Capillary welding; Ball bonding.

Isostatic pressure welding.

Thermo-compression bonding, bonding tips therefore.

Explosive welding.

Ultrasonic welding.

Friction welding; friction stir welding.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge e.g. Cold spray coating

C23C 4/00

Alumino-thermic welding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alumino-thermic welding during which a reacting composition of iron oxide red (rust) powder and aluminium powder is ignited at high temperatures and a strongly exothermic (heat-generating) reaction occurs that produces through reduction and oxidation a white hot mass of molten iron and a slag of refractory aluminium oxide.

Welding, wherein heat is generated by an exothermic reaction other than alumino-thermic (e.g. US2007/0295782).

Slag welding, i.e. using a heated layer or mass of powder, slag, or the like in contact with the material to be joined (B23K 23/00 takes precedence; submerged-arc welding B23K 9/18)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electroslag welding (ESW) which is a single pass welding process for thick materials in a vertical or close to vertical position wherein an electric arc is initially struck by a wire that is fed into the desired weld location, flux is added until the molten slag, reaching the tip of the electrode, extinguishes the arc upon which the wire is then continually fed through a consumable guide tube into the surfaces of the metal workpieces and the filler metal are then melted using the electrical resistance of the molten slag to cause coalescence.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Submerged arc welding (SAW)

B23K 9/18

Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
Definition statement

This place covers:

Laser scribing for making a weakened layer, even without notching.

Laser shock processing.

Apparatuses for laser surface treatment.

Laser ablation.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Photomechanical production of textured or patterned surfaces

G03F 7/00

Recording or reproducing by laser

G11B 7/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Laser lift-off by applying laser at an interface through the front layer

B23K 26/402

Laser sintering of metallic powder

B22F 3/105

Rapid manufacturing and prototyping of 3D objects by additivedepositing, agglomerating or laminating of plastics material, e.g. byselective laser sintering

B29C 64/00

Laser sintering of plastics

B29C 67/04

Laser marking for applying identification marks

B41M 5/24

Laser sintering of glass

C03B 19/06

Laser sintering of ceramics

C04B 35/64

Re-melting metals

C22B 9/00

Laser assisted deposition

C23C

Laser assisted chemical etching

C23F 1/00

Electroplating using locally applied laser (e.g. galvano)

C25D 5/024

Measuring length, thickness, angles, areas, irregularities of surfacesusing laser

G01B

Originals for photomechanical production of textured or patternedsurfaces, e.g., masks, photo-masks, reticles; Mask blanks or pelliclestherefor

G03F 1/00

Lasers per se

H01S 3/00, H01S 5/00

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "multiphoton lithograph", "direct laser lithography" and "direct laser writing (DLW)"

In patent documents, the word/expression in the first column is often used instead of the word/expression in the second column, which is used in the classification scheme of this place:

"Masers, X-ray lasers, gamma lasers, optical amplifiers"

"Laser"

{taking account of the properties of the material involved (B23K 26/32, B23K 26/40 take precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Bonding taking account of the properties of the material involved

B23K 26/32

Removing material taking account of the properties of the material involved

B23K 26/40

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Surgical instruments, devices or methods for applying laser energy to the body

A61B 18/20

Dental laser

A61C 1/0046

Eye surgery using laser

A61F 9/008

Laser surface treatment of glass not in the form of fibres or filaments

C03C 23/0025

Laser surface treatment of glass in the form of fibres or filaments

C03C 25/6208

Special rules of classification

In this group, the involved material should be identified by allocating the appropriate indexing codes as foreseen in B23K 2103/00 and subgroups

Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
Definition statement

This place covers:

Method and devices for positioning or observing the workpiece.

Aligning, aiming or focussing the laser beam by exchanging the focussing optics.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interchange of lenses in general

G02B 7/14

Automatic generation of focusing signals for optical elements

G02B 7/28

Optical focussing aids

G02B 7/40

{Energy control of the laser beam (B23K 26/0622 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Shaping laser beam by shaping pulses

B23K 26/0622

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Temporal shaping of laser beams

H01S 3/0057

by using masks
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Masks for photomechanical production of textured or patterned surfaces

G03F 1/00

Devices involving relative movement between laser beam and workpiece
Special rules of classification

Features of workpiece holding or support member B23K 26/702 + B23K 26/08 or subgroup.

If the workpiece is immobile at the moment of being laser processed B23K 26/10.

{using multifaceted mirrors, e.g. polygonal mirror}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning devices using multifaceted mirrors, in general

G02B 26/12

in a special atmosphere, e.g. in an enclosure
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Features inside the nozzle for feeding the fluid stream through the nozzle

B23K 26/1476

Selection of media, e.g. special atmospheres for surrounding the working area for use in soldering, welding, or cutting

B23K 35/38

Reactive-ion etching

H01L 21/3065

{in an atmosphere of gases chemically reacting with the workpiece}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chemical etching of glass

C03C 15/00, C03C 25/68

Chemical etching of metallic material

C23F 1/00

Etching of crystallised non-metallic material with defined structure in gas atmosphere

C30B 33/12

using a fluid stream, e.g. a jet of gas, in conjunction with the laser beam; Nozzles therefor (B23K 26/12 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Working by laser in a special environment or atmosphere

B23K 26/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ionisation of the arc gap by radiation

B23K 9/0675

Removal of by-products, e.g. particles or vapours produced during treatment of a workpiece (by a fluid stream B23K 26/142)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Configurations for evacuating by-products between pieces.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Removal of by-products by a fluid stream

B23K 26/142

using absorbing layers on the workpiece, e.g. for marking or protecting purposes
Definition statement

This place covers:

Marking by way of material removal.

Feeding welding wire.

Elements for intercepting radiations at the end of boring a hole, even if not applied to the surface.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Observing devices provided with laser radiation protection devices

B23K 26/03

using masks on the workpiece for shaping the laser beam

B23K 26/0661

Interposition of material for facilitating bonding

B23K 26/211

Reactive-ion etching

H01L 21/3065

Laser anti-reflection devices, e.g. optical isolators

H01S 3/0064

Bonding (soldering by means of radiant energy B23K 1/005; joining of preformed plastics parts by heating using laser beam B29C 65/16)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Localised welding with special shaped welded area, e.g. button shaped.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Soldering by means of radiant energy

B23K 1/005

Joining of preformed plastics by heating using laser beam

B29C 65/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Welding light guides

G02B 6/4237

Joining of semiconductor bodies for junction formation by direct bonding

H01L 21/185

with interposition of special material to facilitate connection of the parts
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

with interposition of solder

B23K 1/0056

with interposition of adhesive being heated by laser

C09J 5/06

taking account of the properties of the material involved
Special rules of classification

In this group, the involved material should be identified by allocating the appropriate indexing codes as foreseen in B23K 2103/00 and subgroups

involving coated metal parts (using absorbing layers on the workpiece B23K 26/18)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Using absorbing layers on the workpiece

B23K 26/18

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coated articles, e.g. plated or painted or surface treated articles made by soldering, welding or cutting

B23K 2101/34

involving non-metallic parts
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices or method using laser on the body

A61B 18/20

Dental laser

A61C 1/0046

Eye laser surgery

A61F 9/008

Joining glass to glass by fusing with laser

C03B 23/20

Joining glass to glass by processes other than by fusing using laser

C03C 27/06

Joining ceramics

C04B 37/00

Treatment of microorganisms with electric or wave energy

C12N 13/00

Laser welding for purposes other than joining
Definition statement

This place covers:

Laser Cladding.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Shaped metal deposition (SMD)

B22F 3/1055

Sintering Glass

C03B 19/06

Sintering ceramics

C04B 7/4461

Diffusion treatment of metallic material (e.g. surface alloying); coating of metallic or coating material with metallic material by chemical coating or vacuum evaporation, e.g. sputtering

C23C 14/00

Manufacturing by laser welding of machines or engines other than non-positive-displacement machines or engines, wind motors, non-positive displacement pumps

F05B 2230/234

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Laser net shape manufacturing

Laser net shape manufacturing refers to laser cladding or laser consolidation. In laser cladding as well as laser consolidation, a laser beam creates a molten pool on a substrate into which powder is deposited in a beam/powder interaction zone. Concurrently, the substrate on which the deposition is occurring is moving with respect to the beam/powder interaction zone to fabricate the desired cross-sectional geometry. Consecutive layers may be additively deposited, thereby producing a three-dimensional part. Laser cladding is applied to enhance the surface properties of machine parts locally with powder or wires melted via a laser beam. Laser consolidation involves the manufacturing of parts through depositing multiple layers of material

for surface treatment
Definition statement

This place covers:

Glazing.

Nanostructuring, e.g. colouring metal.

Melting.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For changing the physical structure of ferrous metals or alloys; Annealing metallic materials

C21D

For changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys

C22F

Chemical coating, alloying or chemical coating of metallic materials

C23C

Annealing crystalline material

C30B 33/02

Laser treatment of semiconductor

H01L 21/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Annealing

Process that produces conditions by heating to above the recrystallization temperature, maintaining a suitable temperature, and then cooling.

by melting
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Laser melting or welding of glass; Surface treatment of glass

C03C

Laser re-melting of metals by wave energy

C22B 9/22

Laser melting for crystal growth

C30B

Removing material (B23K 26/55, B23K 26/57 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Removing material e.g. ablating, without cutting or boring.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

for creating voids inside the workpiece, e.g. for forming flow passages of flow patterns

B23K 26/55

with laser beam entering a face of the workpiece form which it is transmitted through the workpiece material to work on a different workpiece face

B23K 26/57

Cleaning by laser treatment

B08B 7/0042

Laser assisted chemical etching

C23F 1/00

Severing conductive links on memory integrated circuits

H01L 23/5258

Laser wire stripping

H02G 1/128

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Processing photosensitive materials by stripping

G03F 7/42

Ablation for laser recording

G11B 7/00

Laser etching of printed circuit substrate

H05K 3/0026

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Laser removal of surface material for decorative purpose

B44C 1/228

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Engraving

Incising a design on to a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it

Etching

Cutting superficially or partially through the workpiece, e.g. engraving

Scribing

Cutting deep grooves by laser light on workpieces to separate them mechanically; e.g. perforating semiconductor wafers or ceramic substrates by laser processing, and subsequentially dividing them into separate elements to manufacture integrated circuits

taking account of the properties of the material involved
Special rules of classification

In this group, the involved material should be identified by allocating the appropriate indexing codes as foreseen in B23K 2103/00 and subgroups.

involving non-metallic material, e.g. isolators
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices or method using laser on the body

A61B 18/20

Dental laser

A61C 1/0046

Eye laser surgery

A61F 9/008

Working or preserving wood or similar material

B27B - B27M

Severing glass using laser

C03B 33/0222, C03B 33/091

Joining ceramics

C04B 37/00

Treatment of microorganisms with electric or wave energy

C12N 13/00

Introduction of foreign genetic material into plant cells by physical or non-biological means

C12N 15/8206

Clicking, perforating, or cutting leather

C14B 5/00

{Beam measuring device}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Beam monitoring per se

G01J 1/4257

{Protective screens}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Goggles or eye-masks for welders carried on the body or in the hand

A61F 9/02, A61F 9/06

Welding or cutting not covered by any of the preceding groups, e.g. electrolytic welding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Welding in a furnace.

Welding by means of an electrolyte.

Combined welding or cutting procedures or apparatus.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arc sustained laser working

B23K 26/1423

Cutting by means of an electrolyte

B23H

Processes relevant to this subclass, specially adapted for particular articles or purposes, but not covered by only one of the preceding main groups (making tubes or profiled bars involving operations other than soldering or welding B21C 37/04, B21C 37/08)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Making of profiled bars.

Connecting cutting edges or the like to tools.

Attaching reinforcements to workpieces, e.g. wear-resisting zones to tableware.

Making tubes with soldering or welding.

Processes specially adapted for particular articles or purposes relating to cutting or desurfacing.

Investigating the properties, e.g. the weldability of materials.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making tubes or profiled bars involving operations other than soldering or welding

B21C 37/04, B21C 37/08

Specially-profiled edge portions of workpieces for making soldering or welding connections; Filling the seams formed thereby {(B23K 11/14 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Filling of continuous seams of cylindrical workpieces.

Filling of continuous seams for automotive applications.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Edge treatment flanging

B21D 19/00

Rods, electrodes, materials, or media, for use in soldering, welding, or cutting
Definition statement

This place covers:

Interlayers, electrodes, rods, wires, welding studs for metallurgical bonding of workpieces, for soldering, brazing, welding techniques, characterised by their mechanical features, composition, media

Relationships with other classification places

B22F provides for processes of making and working metallic powders. B23K provides for processes of soldering or unsoldering, welding, cladding or plating by soldering or welding, cutting by applying heat locally e.g. flame cutting, working by laser beam. When the method is intended for providing a particular use/product then the use/ product is classified as well (see informative references for some of them). When the composition of the alloy is disclosed, either in claims or description, this one is classified in C22C.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Methods of soldering or unsoldering, welding, brazing, cladding or plating by soldering or welding, cutting

B23K 1/00 - B23K 33/00, B23K 37/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes of soldering or unsoldering, welding, cladding or plating by soldering or welding, cutting by applying heat locally

B23K

Catalysts

B01J

Manufacture of metal sheets, wire, rods, tubes or profiles, otherwise than by rolling

B21C

Working metallic powder, powder Metallurgical apparatus or processes

B22F, C22C 1/04

Layered products

B32B

Vehicle, vehicle fitting, vehicle parts

B60R, B62D

Ceramics, refractories

C04B

Acyclic or carbocyclic coumpounds

C07C

Macromolecular compounds

C08F, C08G, C08K, C09D

Heat treatments of welded joints

C21D 9/50

Alloys

C22C

Heat exchangers

F28F

Electrical wires

H01B

Contacts

H01H

Bonding wires, semiconductor devices/details

H01L

Electrical connectors

H01R

Electronic components

H05K

Special rules of classification

Under B23K 35/00 the last place rule is followed (classification in the last appropriate place) combined with multiple classifications for classifying a 100% disclosed alloy composition. When classifying under B23K 35/00 all essential features disclosed should be classified as invention information while all other special features disclosed in claims, description, examples and figures/diagrams should be classified as additional information.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Soldering

process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the workpiece;

Brazing

metal-joining process whereby a filler metal is heated above and distributed between two or more close-fitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal is brought slightly above its melting (liquidus) temperature while protected by a suitable atmosphere, usually a flux. It then flows over the base metal (known as wetting) and is then cooled to join the workpieces together; similar to soldering except using higher temperatures to melt the filler.

Welding

metal-joining process causing coalescence, usually by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld

Flux.

a chemical cleaning agent; fluxes facilitate soldering, brazing, and welding by removing oxidation from the metals to be joined

Welding electrode

Electrical conductor used to conduct current through a workpiece to fuse two pieces together

Consumable electrodes

Electrodes used in gas metal arc welding or shielded metal

Non-consumable electrodes

Electrodes used in gas tungsten arc welding

{Interlayers, transition pieces for metallurgical bonding of workpieces}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transition pieces for metallurgical bonding of workpieces

Special rules of classification

If a composition is given it should also be classified in the relevant groups under C22C. For example, a process for producing composite body consisting of soldering at least a part of a high-temperature-resistant, metallic or nonmetallic component and at least a part of a high-temperature-resistant, nonmetallic component, where prior to soldering, a metallic barrier layer, which is impervious to the solder melt, of one or more elements selected from the group consisting of V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Ti, Zr, Hf and alloys thereof, is deposited on that surface of each nonmetallic component which is to be soldered will be classified in B23K 35/005 ,B23K 35/001 . Documents should also be considered for classification in the following fields: soldering methods B23K 1/19; layered products B32B 7/04B32B 18/00; ceramics C04B 37/003C04B 37/026 alloys C22C 14/00, C22C 16/00.

characterised by mechanical features, e.g. shape
Definition statement

This place covers:

Rods, electrodes, materials for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterized by mechanical feature

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Powder metallurgy

B22F

Special rules of classification

If a composition is given it should also be classified in the relevant groups under C22C. For example, a bonding wire for semiconductor, comprising a core and an outer peripheral part formed of a conductive metal and the alloy thereof formed mainly of the same type of elements, respectively, and a diffusion layer and/or an intermetallic compound layer formed of the elements forming the core and the outer peripheral part disposed between the core and the outer peripheral part or comprising a core formed of a first metal having a conductivity or an alloy formed mainly of the first metal, an outer peripheral part formed of a second metal having a conductivity different from that of the first metal of the core or an alloy formed mainly of the second metal, and a diffusion layer and/or an intermetallic compound layer disposed between the core and the outer peripheral part (metals, alloy disclosed) will be classified in B23K 35/0272 . Documents should also be considered for classification in the following fields: manufacture of wires otherwise than by rolling B21C 37/042 ; layered products B32B 15/018 ; semiconductors H01L 24/43H01L 24/45; and the relevant groups for alloys in C22C.

characterised by the composition or nature of the material
Definition statement

This place covers:

Rods, electrodes, materials for use in soldering, welding, or cutting characterized by the composition or nature of the material, composition of soldering/brazing/welding materials

Relationships with other classification places

Macromolecular compounds classified in C08F, C08G, C09D.

Special rules of classification

B23K 35/34 takes precedence. If a composition is given it should also be classified in the relevant groups under C22C For example, a mixture for applying a polymer, non-corrosive, electroconductive coating which can be shaped in a low-abrasive manner, to a base, method for producing a non-corrosive, viscoplastic coating on a base, said coating containing polymer and inorganic particles, and to an electroconductive coating containing polymer and inorganic particles will be classified in B23K 35/226 . Documents should also be considered for classification in the following fields: inorganic substances /macromolecular as compounding ingredients C08K 5/0008 , C09D 5/082 , C09D 5/084 , C09D 5/10, C09D 5/24; H01B 1/22 (use as a cable/conductor). For example, a flux cored wire for welding duplex stainless steel consisting of, by mass% with respect to the mass of the wire as a whole, C: 0.001 to 0.1%, Si: 0.01 to 1.0%, Mn: 2.0 to 6.0%, Cr: 17.0 to 27.0%, Ni: 1.0 to 10.0%, Mo: 0.1 to 3.0%, Al: 0.002 to 0.05%, Mg: 0.0005 to 0.01%, Ti: 0.001 to 0.5%, and N: 0.10 to 0.30%, further limiting P to 0.03% or less and S to 0.01% or less, satisfying 0.73 Cr equivalents - Ni equivalents 4.0 and Ti(mass%) N(mass%) 0.0004, and having a balance of iron and unavoidable impurities will be classified in B23K 35/0266 , B23K 35/3086 , B23K 35/3053 , B23K 35/308 . Documents should be considered for classification in the following field: alloys C22C 38/22, C22C 38/38, C22C 38/40. Similarly, a process of assembling two silicon carbide pieces by non-reactive, moderate refractory welding, comprises contacting the pieces with a non-reactive welding composition respectively a binary alloy formed, as mass percentages, from 56% to 70% silicon and 44% to 30% yttrium, and heating an assembly formed by the pieces and the composition to a sufficient temperature for melting the composition and to form a moderate refractory joint will be classified in B23K 35/327 , B23K 35/025 , B23K 35/24. Documents should be considered for classification purposes in the following fields: welding techniques B23K 1/19, B23K 1/20, B23K 1/0008 , alloys C22C 28/00, ceramics C04B 37/006 .

Selection of non-metallic compositions, e.g. coatings, fluxes (B23K 35/34 takes precedence); Selection of soldering or welding materials, conjoint with selection of non-metallic compositions, both selections being of interest (selection of soldering or welding materials proper B23K 35/24)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coatings, fluxes compositions, as well as soldering/brazing/welding materials conjoint with non-metallic compositions

Relationships with other classification places

Macromolecular compounds classified in C08F, C08G, C08K, C09D

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

selection of solderin or welding materials proper

B23K 35/24

Special rules of classification

B23K 35/34 takes precedence. If a composition is given it should also be classified in the relevant groups under C22C. For example a cream solder comprising a nitrogen - containing base hydroborofluorate is included by 1x10-3 - 7x10-2 mol. to 100 gr. of flux for solder powder, the nitrogen-containing base being from e.g. propylamine, dipropylamine, allylamine, diallylamine, isobutyl-amine, sec-butylamine, tert-butylamine, etc and the cream solder being for Ag/Pd, Ag/Pt or Ag/Pd/Pt fired body or electrode and also includes a hydrofluorate, hydrochlorate, hydrobrcmate and/or hydroiodate will be classified in B23K 35/3617 ,B23K 35/3612 , B23K 35/025 , B23K 35/22 and will be circulated to organic chemistry field C08. Similarly, a stainless steel flux-cored welding wire for the welding of galvanized steel sheets where the sheath and the flux contain, as metal or alloying components and in a total amount based on the total mass of the wire, C: 0.01 to 0.05%, Si: 0.1 to 1.5%, Mn: 0.5 to 3%, Ni: 7 to 10% and Cr: 26 to 30% with the F value falling within the range of 30 to 50, that the flux contains, as slag formers, TiO2: 3.8 to 6.8%, SiO2: 1.8 to 3.2%, ZrO2: 1.3% or below, and Al2O3: 0.5% or below, that the total amount of these slag formers and the other slag formers is 7.5 to 10.5%, that TiO2 accounts for 50 to 65% of the total amount of all the slag formers, and that the balance of the sheath and the flux consists of Fe and unavoidable impurities will be classified in B23K 35/0266 , B23K 35/308 , B23K 35/362, B23K 35/368. Documents should also be considered for classification in the following fields: Welding techniques B23K 9/00; Alloys C22C 38/02, C22C 38/04C22C38/40A, C22C 18/04.

Selection of media, e.g. special atmospheres for surrounding the working area
Definition statement

This place covers:

Selection of media in soldering/welding

Special rules of classification

If a composition is given it should also be classified in the relevant groups under C22C. For example a perfluoro-heptaglyme, improved vapour-phase soldering fluid - prepares by perfluorination of heptaglyme and method of vapor-phase soldering employing perfluoroheptaglyme as vapor phase soldering fluid is classified in B23K38/F, B23K 35/38.

Making wire or rods for soldering or welding (processes involving a single technical art, see the relevant subclasses, e.g. B05D, B21C)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Processes of making soldering/welding wire/rods/electrodes

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Applying liquids or other materials to surfaces

B05D

Powder metallurgy

B22F

Special rules of classification

If a composition is given it should also be classified in the relevant groups under C22C For example a tungsten electrode (alloy composition disclosed) and its method of manufacture will be classified in B23K 35/402 ,C22C 1/04, C22C 27/04, B23K 9/24. Similarly, a seamless tube compound welding electrode made by filling of a pre-formed tube closed at the bottom with a mixt. consisting of several granulated materials such as flux, de-oxidisers, carbides, which are periodically compacted by means of a punch introduced from the top, following which the tube is size reduced by rolling and/or drawing, which also further compacts the filling will be classified in B23K 35/406 , B23K 35/327 , B23K 35/0272 , B23K 35/302 . Documents should be considered for classification purposes in the following fields: Manufacture of metal sheets, wire, rods, tubes or profiles, otherwise than by rolling B21C.

Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups (eye-shields for welders worn on the operator's body or carried in the hand A61F 9/00 {, i.e. A61F 9/02}; applicable to metal-working machines other than soldering, welding, or flame-cutting machines B23Q; {laser protective screens B23K 26/706; } protective shields for other welding methods F16P 1/06)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Cooling means for welding or cutting.

Safety devices for welding or cutting.

Carriages supporting the welding or cutting element.

Devices or processes for holding or positioning work.

Devices or processes for aligning cylindrical work; clamping devices therefore.

Devices or processes for positioning molten material, e.g. confining it to a desired area.

Devices or processes for flash removal.