CPC Definition - Subclass G01C

Last Updated Version: 2019.02
MEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY (measuring dimensions or angles of objects G01B; measuring liquid level G01F; measuring intensity or direction of magnetic fields, other than the earth's field, in general G01R; radio navigation, determining distance or velocity by use of propagation effects, e.g. Doppler effects, propagation time, of radio waves, analogous arrangements using other waves G01S; optical systems therefor G02B; maps, globes G09B)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices, systems and methods for measuring distances, levels or bearings, for surveying, for photogrammety or videogrammetry, for navigation; Gyroscopes and other turn-sensitive devices used as sensors. The subclass coverage includes:

  • Compasses in general;
  • Gyroscopes and other turn-sensitive devices used as sensors, e.g. optical gyrometers using the Sagnac effect;
  • Optical rangefinders;
  • Instruments, systems and methods for tracing profiles, for photogrammetry, for surveying, for nautical, aeronautical, cosmonautical, or geodetical measuring of distances, levels, heights, angles, inclinations and bearings, for land, sea, air or cosmonautical navigation, for measuring two or more variables of movement, e.g. distance, speed, acceleration;
  • Manufacturing, calibrating, maintaining the previously listed elements.
Relationships with other classification places

The general subject matters of determining length, distance, height, level, direction, movement or angle is covered by several subclasses besides G01C:

  • G01B measuring length, thickness, or similar linear dimensions, measuring angles; measuring areas; measuring irregularities of surfaces or contours (of individual objects)
  • G01P measuring linear or angular speed, acceleration, deceleration, or shock; indicating presence, absence, or direction, of movement
  • G01S radio direction finding; radio navigation; determining distance or velocity by use of radio waves; locating or presence detecting by use of the reflection or reradiation of radio waves; analogous arrangements using other waves (by use of propagation effects - e.g. Doppler effect, propagation time -)
  • When propagation effects of waves are relevant for such measurements G01S is in general the appropriate subclass.

For measuring ground distance between points in geodesy, surveying, and navigation or for measuring distance traversed on the ground by any moving objects including e. g. vehicles, or persons G01C is the appropriate subclass when no radio waves are used or when propagation effects of waves other than radio waves are not relevant.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Measuring liquid level

G01F

Traffic control systems

G08G

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements of nautical instruments or navigational aids for ships

B63B 49/00

Marking of navigation routes for ships other than with buoys

B63B 51/00

Arrangements or adaptations of instruments for aircrafts

B64D 43/00

Aiming means with range finders

F41G 3/00

Measuring speed by using the gyroscopic effect

G01P 9/00

Measuring acceleration, deceleration, shock by making use of gyroscopes

G01P 15/14

Arrangements or instruments for measuring magnetic variables (Measuring intensity or direction of magnetic fields, other than the earth's field, in general)

G01R 33/00

Measuring magnetic field characteristics of the earth, e.g. declination, deviation for purposes other than navigation, surveying

G01V 3/00

Rangefinders coupled with focussing arrangements of cameras

G03B 13/20

Stereoscopic photography

G03B 35/00

Photographing extended surfaces, e.g. Surveying cameras

G03B 37/00

Taximeter

G07B 13/00

Registering or indicating the working of vehicles

G07C 5/00

Traffic control systems for road vehicles involving transmission of navigation instructions to the vehicle

G08G 1/0968

Maps, globes

G09B

Models or demonstration devices for surveying

G09B 25/06

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Navigation

means determining the position and course of humans, land vehicles, ships, aircraft, and space vehicles

Propagation effects

are relevant if the outcome of a measurement depends on the actual value of a physical quantity characterising the propagation of the wave, i.e. its wavelength, frequency, velocity, or phase. The mere presence or direction of a wave are not considered a propagation effect or to contribute to a propagation effect. To put it in another way, propagation effects are irrelevant, if the radiation may be looked upon as a beam of radiation whose wave nature can be ignored. Examples of measurements where propagation effects are relevant include e.g. measurements of propagation time, phase difference, phase delay, measurements using the Doppler effect, or interference.

Measuring angles (in compasses G01C 17/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for measuring angles using theodolites and sextants, for surveying or navigation

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Measuring angles or tapers of objects

G01B

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Measuring angles in compasses

G01C 17/00

Theodolites
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Imaging systems using optical elements for stabilisation of the lateral and angular position of the image, compensating for small deviations, e.g. due to vibration or shake, for automatically maintaining a reference alignment, e.g. in self-levelling surveying instruments

G02B 27/648

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Transit

Theodolite which has a telescope which can be rotated 180 degrees around the horizontal (trunnion) axis

Arrangements for reading scales (in general G01D)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for reading scales in general

G01D

including an artificial horizon (G01C 1/14 takes precedence; artificial horizons per se G01C 15/14)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Periscopic sextants

G01C 1/14

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Artificial horizons per se

G01C 15/14

Measuring distances in line of sight; Optical rangefinders (tapes, chains or wheels for measuring length G01B; coupling rangefinders with operating parts of photographic apparatus G03B)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices and methods for measuring distances in line of sight and optical rangefinders.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Tapes, chains or wheels for measuring length

G01B

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

G01S 17/48

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inter car distance or car rail distance

G01C 3/22

Anti-slumber devices for car drivers

B60K

Pulsed systems

G01S 17/10

Measuring distances using phase differences

G01S 17/36

Range finding by comparing magnitude of image of object to fiducial mark

G02B 27/32

Coupling rangefinders with operating parts of photographic apparatus

G03B

Range finding by image processing

G06F15/70

Adaptation of rangefinders for combination with telescopes or binoculars (rangefinders coupled with focussing arrangements of cameras G03B 13/20)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rangefinders coupled with focussing arrangements of cameras

G03B 13/20

{with electronic parallax measurement}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scene trackers using image correlation

G01S 3/7865

Ranging using stereo images

G01S 11/12

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Parallax

the angle subtended at an observation point by the two ends of a line section

using a parallactic triangle with variable angles and a base of fixed length in the observation station, e.g. in the instrument (active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, G01S 17/48)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

G01S 17/48

using a parallactic triangle with variable angles and a base of fixed length at, near, or formed by the object (active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, G01S 17/48)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

G01S 17/48

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical viewing arrangements for vehicles

B60R 1/00

using a parallactic triangle with fixed angles and a base of variable length in the observation station, e.g. in the instrument (active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, G01S 17/48)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

G01S 17/48

using a parallactic triangle with fixed angles and a base of variable length, at, near, or formed by the object (active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, G01S 17/48)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Active triangulation systems, i.e. using the transmission and reflection of electromagnetic waves other than radio waves

G01S 17/48

Measuring height; Measuring distances transverse to line of sight; Levelling between separated points; Surveyors' levels (G01C 3/20, G01C 3/30 take precedence; tracing profiles G01C 7/00; levels indicating inclination at a single point G01C 9/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for measuring height, measuring distances transverse to line of sight, levelling between separated points and surveyor's levels for navigational or surveying purposes

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Measuring of distances to an object using a parallactic triangle with variable angles and a base of fixed length in the observation station, with adaptation to the measurement of the height of an object

G01C 3/20

Measuring of distances to an object using a parallactic triangle with fixed angles and a base of variable length at or near the object, with adaptation to the measurement of the height of an object, e.g. tacheometers

G01C 3/30

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tracing profiles

G01C 7/00

Levels indicating inclination at a single point

G01C 9/00

{altimeters for aircraft (G01C 5/02, G01C 5/06 take precedence)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ground Proximity Warning Systems

B64D 45/04

Devices characterised by the determination of the variation of atmospheric pressure with height to measure the vertical components of speed (variometer)

G01P 3/62

involving automatic stabilisation of the line of sight; (tilt compensation in general G12B; regulation of direction in general G05D 3/00)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Regulation of direction in general

G05D 3/00

Tilt compensation in general

G12B 5/00

by using barometric means (barometers per se G01L)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for measuring height or distances transverse to line of sight, levelling between separated points and surveyors' levels using barometric means, e.g. depth gauges for divers of e.g the wrist-watch type.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Divers' equipment in general

B63C 11/00

Barometers per se

G01L

Wrist watches with external data detectors

G04G1/04

Tracing profiles (by photogrammetry G01C 11/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices and methods for tracing profiles of large surfaces such as land surfaces or underground surfaces.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Tracing profiles using photogrammetry

G01C 11/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring irregularity or unevenness of surfaces on a small scale

G01B

of land surfaces
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Checking of the level of roads

E01C 23/01

of cavities, e.g. tunnels (survey of wells E21B 47/00)
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Survey of wells

E21B 47/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring apparatus or devices for track building purposes

E01B 35/00

Arrangement of measuring or indicating devices for use during driving of tunnels, using light beams for direction or position control

E21D 9/004

Measuring inclination, e.g. by clinometers, by levels {(switches operated by inclination or orientation H01H 35/02)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Switches operated by inclination or orientation

H01H 35/02

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Spirit levels combined with laser plumbing or levelling

G01C 15/008

Devices for positioning picture hooks on a wall

A47G 1/205

Circuits for registering vehicle tilting or roll over

B60R 16/0233

Inclinometers for ladders

E06C 7/003

by using rolling bodies {, e.g. spheres, cylinders, mercury droplets (tilting mercury container switches H01H 29/20)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices and methods for measuring inclination by using rolling bodies, also including sliding bodies.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Tilting mercury container switches

H01H 29/20

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Spirit levels combined with laser plumbing or levelling

G01C 15/008

Devices for positioning picture hooks on a wall

A47G 1/205

Circuits for registering vehicle tilting or roll over

B60R 16/0233

Tell tale tilt indicators for proving inversion of goods during transport

B65D 79/02

Inclinometers for ladders

E06C 7/003

by using a single pendulum (plumb lines G01C 15/10)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Plumb lines

G01C 15/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicle anti theft means

B60R 25/1006

Tell tale tilt indicators for proving inversion of goods during transport

B65D 79/02

the indication being based on the inclination of the surface of a liquid relative to its container
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Liquid level measurements

G01F 23/00

Mountings
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inclinometers mounted to golf clubs for driving or putting

A63B 69/3632, A63B 69/3685

Guiding hand tools by means of levels

B25H 1/0085

Means for facilitating the observation of the position of the bubble, e.g. illuminating means
Definition statement

This place covers:

Means for facilitating the observation of the position of the bubble by human observers.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inclinometers mounted to golf clubs for driving or putting

A63B 69/3632, A63B 69/3685

Guiding hand tools by means of levels

B25H 1/0085

Photogrammetry or videogrammetry, e.g. stereogrammetry; Photographic surveying (cameras combined with surveying instruments, e.g. with theodolites, G01C 1/00, G01C 3/00, G01C 5/00, G01C 9/00; surveying cameras G03B 37/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for photogrammetry or videogrammetry and photographic surveying

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Earth observation satellites

B64G 1/1021

Cameras combined with surveying instruments

G01C 1/00, G01C 3/00, G01C 5/00, G01C 9/00

SAR imaging

G01S 13/90

Photographic aspects also

G03B 35/00, G03B 15/00

Surveying cameras

G03B 37/00

Mosaicking of surveyed images

G06K 9/00

3D Geographic Models

G06T 17/05

Depth or shape recovery using image analysis

G06T 7/50

Special rules of classification

IPC group G01C11/36 is not used. Subject matter covered by this group is classified in G01C 11/00-G01C 11/34.

Picture taking arrangements specially adapted for photogrammetry or photographic surveying, e.g. controlling overlapping of pictures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Special picture taking arrangements adapted to methods and devices for photogrammetry or videogrammetry and photographic surveying, including orthorectification.

Interpretation of pictures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject-matter related to the interpretation of pictures in methods and devices for photogrammetry or videogrammetry and photographic surveying, including means for interpretation, such as mensuration tables or reseaux.

by comparison of two or more pictures of the same area
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject-matter related to the interpretation of pictures by comparison of two or more pictures of the same area in methods and devices for photogrammetry or videogrammetry and photographic surveying, e.g. stereo-photogrammetry

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ranging using stereo images

G01S 11/12

Depth from stereo vision

G06T 7/593

Surveying specially adapted to open water, e.g. sea, lake, river, canal (liquid level metering G01F; measuring liquid velocity G01P; determining existence of flow of underground water G01V)
Definition statement

This place covers:

All kinds of surveying instruments or accessories which are not provided for in the preceding groups G01C 1/00 - G01C 13/00.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Liquid level metering

G01F

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Buoys

B63B 22/00

Oceanography

B63B 2211/02

Measuring liquid velocity

G01P

Determining existence of flow of underground water

G01V 9/02

{measuring depth of open water}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Measuring the distance between the water surface and the water bed.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Measuring instantaneous depth of diver

G01C 5/06

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Buoys

B63B 22/00

Oceanography

B63B 2211/02

Surveying instruments or accessories not provided for in groups G01C 1/00 - G01C 13/00
Definition statement

This place covers:

All kinds of surveying instruments or accessories which are not provided for in the preceding groups G01C 1/00 - G01C 13/00.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Measuring angles

G01C 1/00

Surveying specially adapted to open water, e.g. sea, lake, river, canal

G01C 13/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Marking of work pieces

B25H 7/00

Surveying of railway tracks

E01B 35/00

Paving machines

E01C 19/00

Guiding the machines along a predetermined path

E01C 19/004

By laser or ultrasound

E01C 19/006

By reference lines placed along the road, e.g. wires

E01C 19/008

Finishing floors or ceilings

E04F 15/00, E04F 21/00

Holders for bricklayers' lines

E04G 21/1808

Tripods

F16M 11/32

Models for surveying

G09B 25/06

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Optical plumbing

determining the vertical (plumb) using optical means

{Active optical surveying means (optical plumbing G01C 15/105)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Optical plumbing

G01C 15/105

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Marking of work pieces

B25H 7/00

Surveying of railway tracks

E01B 35/00

Paving machines

E01C 19/00

Guiding the machines along a predetermined path

E01C 19/004

By laser or ultrasound

E01C 19/006

By reference lines placed along the road, e.g. wires

E01C 19/008

Finishing floors or ceilings

E04F 15/00, E04F 21/00

Holders for bricklayers' lines

E04G 21/1808

Tripods

F16M 11/32

Models for surveying

G09B 25/06

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Active optical surveying means

surveying means using at least one propagation property of at least one light source

Total stations

theodolites with an electronic distance measuring capability, usually in the form of a laser ranging device

{Reference lines, planes or sectors}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Generating a reference line, plane or sector by active optical means.

Measuring or comparing shortest distance (i.e. along the perpendicular) to the reference line, plane or sector.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Earth moving equipment using laser planes

E02F 3/847

Beam shaping

G02B 27/09

Self levelling surveying instruments

G02B 27/648

{combined with inclination sensor}
Relationships with other classification places

G01C 15/008 covers surveying means whereby the inclination sensors are intended to be used as such; Surveying means having inclination sensors inside, merely to define the inclination of the reference plane, are covered by G01C 15/004.

Means for marking measuring points
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for positioning picture hooks on a wall

A47G 1/205

Means for marking work

B25H 7/04

Markings on roads, e.g. paint

E01C 23/16

Bollards

E01F 9/60, E01F 15/0469

Transponders for markers

G06K 7/08, G01S 13/02, G08B 13/24

Surveyors' staffs; Movable markers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Surveyor's staffs or movable markers as means for marking measuring points in surveying methods.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plumb lines
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chalk lines also

B44D 3/38

Cable pay-out

B65H 75/44

{Optical plumbing}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chalk lines also

B44D 3/38

Cable pay-out

B65H 75/44

Compasses; Devices for ascertaining true or magnetic north for navigation or surveying purposes (using gyroscopic effect G01C 19/00; for geophysical or prospecting purposes G01V 3/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compasses and devices for ascertaining true or magnetic North for the purpose of navigation or surveying, including magnetic compasses, sun and astro compasses, methods and arrangements for testing, calibrating or compensating of such compasses and devices and repeaters for remote indication of readings of a master compass.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Devices for finding North using gyroscopic effect

G01C 19/34, G01C 19/36, G01C 19/38

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For geophysical or prospecting purposes

G01V 3/00

Electromagnetic compasses (with north seeking magnetic elements and having electric pick-offs G01C 17/26)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

With north seeking magnetic elements and having electric pick-offs

G01C 17/26

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

HALL effect sensors

G01R 33/07

Earth-inductor compasses
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fluxgates, these being instruments in which a core is saturated by the strong flux of an ac driving coil, the bias of the saturation being set by the earth' s magnetic field.

Rotating induction coils.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Prayer rugs

A47G 27/0237, A47G 33/00

HALL effect sensors

G01R 33/07

Sun- and astro-compasses
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time-pieces using the position of the sun, moon or stars

G04B 49/00

Gyroscopes; Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses; Turn-sensitive devices without moving masses; Measuring angular rate using gyroscopic effects
Definition statement

This place covers:

Gyroscopic sensors, i.e gyroscopes, turn-sensitive devices with or without vibrating/moving masses that are intended for sensing and outputting inertial rotation angles, angular velocity or bearings.

Relationships with other classification places

Gyroscopes for sensing are covered here.

Gyroscopes, used as actuators for stabilisation or movement purposes by means of their angular momentum are not covered in G01C 19/00 but in their particular fields, e.g:

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gimbals, not especially for gyroscopes

F16M 11/12

Educational demonstration models of gyroscopes

G09B 23/00, G09B 25/00

{Special arrangements for gyros functioning during a short period}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details about particular arrangements for rotary gyroscopes functioning during a short period, e.g. in guided missiles, torpedoes, etc., wherein the gyro rotor must be brought up to operational speed in a very short time.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Target seeking gyro

F41G 7/2213

{Measurement or control of angular velocity, specifically adapted to gyrorotors (measuring angular speed in general G01P; controlling angular speed G05D 13/00; controlling electrical motors H02P)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details about particular devices or methods for measuring and/or controlling the angular speed of rotors of rotary gyroscopes for specific purposes.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring angular speed in general

G01P

Controlling angular speed

G05D 13/00

Controlling electrical motors

H02P

electrically driven (G01C 19/14 takes precedence; dynamoelectric machines H02K)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Fluid rotors

G01C 19/14

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dynamoelectric machines

H02K

Suspensions; Bearings (bearings in general F16C; balancing rotors G01M)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bearings in general

F16C

Balancing rotors

G01M

torsional
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details about suspensions of elements of rotary gyroscopes, wherein the suspensions are of the torsional type.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Flexure pivots

F16C 11/12

Erection devices, i.e. devices for restoring rotor axis to a desired position (for instrument indicating the vertical G01C 19/46)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Erection devices for instruments indicating the vertical

G01C 19/46

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression/word "Torquer" is often used with the meaning erection devices, i.e. devices for restoring rotor axis to a desired position.

The term "Rebalance" is also often used instead of "Erection"

Indicating or recording means specially adapted for rotary gyroscopes (in general G01D)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring not specially adapted for a specific variable; arrangements for measuring two or more variables not covered in a single other subclass; tariff metering apparatus; measuring or testing not otherwise provided for

G01D

with north-seeking action by magnetic means, e.g. gyromagnetic compasses
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • " Meridian- seeking ", and " north-seeking "
Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses, e.g. vibratory angular rate sensors based on Coriolis forces
Definition statement

This place covers:

Turn-sensitive devices using one or more vibrating masses, e.g. vibrating gyros based on Coriolis forces, surface acoustic waves based gyros, sonic or acoustic gyros.

References
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Microstructural devices or systems

B81B

Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of microstructural devices or systems

B81C

Piezoelectric devices per se

H01L 41/00

Electromechanical resonators

H03H 9/00

using vibrating tuning forks (double-ended tuning forks using planar vibrating masses suspended at opposite ends G01C 19/5719)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Double-ended tuning forks using planar vibrating masses suspended at opposite ends

G01C 19/5719

using vibrating bars or beams
Definition statement

This place covers:

Turn-sensitive devices using one or more vibrating bars or beams undergoing deformations.

of essentially two-dimensional vibrators, e.g. ring-shaped vibrators
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vibrators having their main extension in a plane, i.e with an essentially two-dimensional geometrical structure and using the phase shift of a vibration node or anti-node. The vibrations cover both deformations in the radial direction of the two-dimensional vibrator and deformations perpendicular to the plane of the two-dimensional vibrator.

using acoustic waves, e.g. surface acoustic wave gyros
Definition statement

This place covers:

Both bulk and surface acoustic wave gyros.

Turn-sensitive devices without moving masses
Definition statement

This place covers:

All the turn-sensitive devices that do not operate on the basis of vibrating or deforming elements, e.g. gyroscopes using matter-wave interferometers.

Electronic or nuclear magnetic resonance gyrometers (magnetic resonance arrangements in general G01R 33/20)
References
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Magnetic resonance arrangements in general

G01R 33/20

Ring laser gyrometers (ring lasers in general H01S 3/083)
References
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Ring lasers in general

H01S 3/083

{signal readout; dither compensators}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ring laser gyrometers having special arrangements for the signal readout or the dither compensation (dither compensators).

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Dither compensators

passive optical components placed on the body in a position where the dither signal is cancelled fortuitously

{means for removing the dither signal}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electronic removal of the dither signal.

{control of the cavity (of lasers in general H01S 3/10)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ring laser gyrometers having special arrangements for controlling the cavity, e.g. by use of piezoelectric mirrors.

References
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Lasers in general

H01S 3/10

with counter-rotating light beams in a passive ring, e.g. fibre laser gyrometers
References
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Interferometers per se

G01B 9/02

Faraday effect Sagnac interferometers for measuring electrical current

G01R 15/246

Fibre laser emission sources for gyros

H01S 3/06795

Brillouin lasers

H01S 3/30

{Details}
References
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Amplified spontaneous emission sources

H01S3/079 and H01S 3/06795

{of the mechanical construction}
References
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General winding techniques

B65H

Bobbin-type optical phase modulators

G02B 26/06

Winding of electrical cable

H02G

{using nxn optical couplers, e.g. 3x3 couplers}
References
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Optical couplers

G02B 6/00

{using a passive ring resonator}
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

RFOG

Resonant Fibre Optical Gyroscope

Navigation; Navigational instruments not provided for in preceding groups (measuring distance traversed on the ground by a vehicle G01C 22/00; measuring linear or angular speed or acceleration G01P; control of position, course, altitude or attitude of vehicles G05D 1/00; traffic control systems G08G)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Navigation devices, systems and methods

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Measuring distance traversed on the ground by a vehicle

G01C 22/00

Measuring linear or angular speed or acceleration

G01P

Control of position, course, altitude or attitude of vehicles

G05D 1/00

Traffic control systems

G08G 1/00

{with correlation of navigation data from several sources, e.g. map or contour matching (G01C 21/30 takes precedence)}
References
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Combined GPS/INS

G01C 21/165

Segmentation of images

G06K 9/34

by astronomical means (G01C 21/24, G01C 21/26 take precedence; measuring time by using position of the sun, moon, or stars G04B 49/00)
References
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This place does not cover:

Specially adapted for cosmonautical navigation

G01C 21/24

Specially adapted for navigation in a road network

G01C 21/26

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Time-pieces using the position of the sun, moon or stars

G04B 49/00

by terrestrial means (G01C 21/24, G01C 21/26 take precedence; marking of navigation route for ships B63B 51/00)
References
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This place does not cover:

Specially adapted for cosmonautical navigation

G01C 21/24

Specially adapted for navigation in a road network

G01C 21/26

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Marking of navigation route for ships

B63B 51/00

by using measurements of speed or acceleration (G01C 21/24, G01C 21/26 take precedence)
References
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This place does not cover:

Specially adapted for cosmonautical navigation

G01C 21/24

Specially adapted for navigation in a road network

G01C 21/26

by recording the course traversed by the object (G01C 21/16 takes precedence)
References
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This place does not cover:

By integrating acceleration or speed, i.e. inertial navigation

G01C 21/16

by integrating acceleration or speed, i.e. inertial navigation
References
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Vibration damping or isolation

F16F 15/08

{combined with non-inertial navigation instruments}
References
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Determining position by combining measurements of signals from the satellite radio beacon positioning system with an inertial measurement

G01S 19/47, G01S 19/49

Stabilised platforms, e.g. by gyroscope
References
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Stabilisation of surveying instruments

G02B 27/648

Stabilisation of antennae

H01Q 1/18

Instruments for performing navigational calculations (G01C 21/24, G01C 21/26 take precedence)
References
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This place does not cover:

Specially adapted for cosmonautical navigation

G01C 21/24

Specially adapted for navigation in a road network

G01C 21/26

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Marking of navigation route for ships

B63B 51/00

Hand-held measuring wheels for measuring distances on maps

G01B 3/12

Digital data processing

G06F

Hand manipulated computing devices for air or sea navigation

G06G 1/0052

Emergency signalling and personal security systems

G08B 25/016

{Specially adapted for sailing ships}
References
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Control of position or course in two dimensions specially adapted to water vehicles

G05D 1/0206

Plotting boards (in general B43L)
References
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Plotting boards in general

B43L

specially adapted for navigation in a road network
Definition statement

This place covers:

Navigation specially adapted for navigation in a road network, whereby the means of transportation is not relevant: the user may be moving on foot, on horseback, on a bicycle, or in or on a motor vehicle of any kind.

References
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Precision agriculture

A01B 79/005

Navigation assistance for the blind or visually impaired

A61H 3/061

Display devices for vehicle air conditioning

B60H 1/00985

Speed or cruise control depending on curves

B60K 31/0066

Headlights adjustable depending on position, curves etc.

B60Q 1/06

Parking assistance

B60Q 1/48

Mechanical construction of the navigation device mounting in a vehicle

B60R 11/0258

Circuits for registering vehicle tilting or roll over

B60R 16/0233

Control of driving parameters

B60T 8/00, B60K 28/10, B62D 6/00

Adaptive cruise control

B60W 30/16

Estimation or calculation of driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems related to road conditions

B60W 40/06

Lane keeping

B62D 1/28, B60W 30/10

Gear shifting depending on position as determined by navigation system

F16H 61/0213

Hand-held measuring wheels for measuring distances on maps

G01B 3/12

Hand manipulated computing devices for air or sea navigation

G06G 1/0052

GIS Geographic 3D models

G06T 17/05

Taximeters

G07B 13/00

Toll collection

G07B 15/00

Service reminders

G07C 5/006, B60R 16/0234

Data recorders

G07C 5/08

Emergency signalling and personal security systems

G08B 25/016

Traffic information including RDS/TMC

H04H 20/55, G08G 1/091, G08G 1/0968

Locating mobile subscriber using cellular telephony

H04Q7/3855, H04W 64/00

Location based services in a mobile phone network

H04W 4/02

with correlation of data from several navigational instruments
Definition statement

This place covers:

Whereby the several navigational instruments may be similar (simple redundancy) or dissimilar.

Map- or contour-matching
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "Contours" and "elevation data/profile"
Structuring or formatting of map data
References
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Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases

G06F 16/29

Automatic recognition/extraction of roads or features from maps

G06K 9/00476

Route searching; Route guidance
References
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Optimisation of energy usage for electrical vehicles

B60L 15/2045

Optimisation of routes, e.g. travelling salesman problem

G06Q 10/047, G06Q 10/109

{specially adapted for specific applications}
References
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Fleet management, taxi dispatching

G08G 1/202

{Dynamic re-routing, e.g. recalculating the route when the user deviates from calculated route or after detecting real-time traffic data or accidents}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The use of route searching in navigation devices, systems or methods for dynamic re-routing, including predictive systems in which alternative routes are calculated even before the user has actually deviated and also routing from a predicted future starting point.

References
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The complete route is dynamically recomputed based on new data

G08G 1/096844

{Preferred or disfavoured areas, e.g. dangerous zones, toll or emission zones, intersections, manoeuvre types, segments such as motorways, toll roads, ferries}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Areas disfavoured because of weather conditions, (dis)favouring certain roads because of curves, e.g. for motorcycle (favoured) or towing vehicle (disfavoured), or because of physical requirements (e.g., weight, length, height, width) of non-standard vehicles.

Carpooling/High Occupancy Vehicle restrictions.

Also taking into account whether the user is entitled to use a road or road type (Vignette).

{using point of interest [POI] information, e.g. a route passing visible POIs}
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

POI

point of interest

{Personalized, e.g. from learned user behaviour or user-defined profiles}
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User preferences are taken into account or the user selects one route out of a plurality

G08G 1/096838

{employing speed data or traffic data, e.g. real-time or historical (traffic control systems for road vehicles involving transmission of navigation instructions to the vehicle G08G 1/0968)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Employing traffic data whereby those traffic data may relate either to the vehicle traffic of the physical vehicle or to the data traffic in mobile communication networks.

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Traffic control systems for road vehicles involving transmission of navigation instructions to the vehicle

G08G 1/0968

Input/output arrangements of navigation systems; {(input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer, and output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements G06F 3/00; pointing devices displaced or positioned by the user, e.g. mice, trackballs, pens or joysticks, and accessories therefor G06F 3/033; interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces, e.g. interaction with windows, icons or menus G06F 3/048; manipulating 3D models or images for computer graphics G06T 19/00)}
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Arrangements of vehicle instruments on dashboard

B60K 35/00, B60K 37/02

Mechanical construction of the display mounting in a vehicle

B60R 11/0235

Electric circuits for voice control

B60R 16/0373

Audible indication of meter readings

G01D 7/12

Input arrangements for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by the computer; Output arrangements for transferring data from processing unit to output unit, e.g. interface arrangements

G06F 3/00

I/O for computers in general

G06F 3/033

Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces, e.g. interaction with windows, icons or menus

G06F 3/048

Manipulating 3D models or images for computer graphics

G06T 19/00

Voice analysis, synthesis

G10L, G10L 15/265

{Input other than that of destination using image analysis, e.g. detection of road signs, lanes, buildings, real preceding vehicles using a camera (image data processing per se G06T)}
References
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Image data processing per se

G06T

{Destination input or retrieval}
References
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Gesture based interaction between user and computer

G06F 3/017

{using speech input, e.g. using speech recognition (speech recognition per se G10L 15/00)}
References
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Speech recognition

G10L 15/00

{using character input or menus, e.g. menus of POIs (character input methods in general G06F 3/0233)}
References
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Character input methods

G06F 3/0233

Input is assisted by the navigation device, i.e. the user does not type the complete name of the destination, e.g. using zip codes, telephone numbers, progressively selecting from initial letters

G08G 1/096894

{using user history, behaviour, conditions or preferences, e.g. predicted or inferred from previous use or current movement}
References
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Input information is obtained using learning systems, e.g. history databases

G08G 1/096888

{received from an external device or application, e.g. PDA, mobile phone or calendar application}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Destinations derived from radio or TV broadcasts.

Destination being the (dynamic) position of a mobile device and received therefrom.

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Input information is obtained using a mobile device, e.g. a mobile phone, a PDA

G08G 1/096883

{Details of the output of route guidance instructions (traffic control systems for road vehicles involving transmission of navigation instructions to the vehicle G08G 1/0968)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Instructions to assist the user to follow the calculated route as well as to warn the user in order to prevent the user from leaving the calculated route.

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Traffic control systems for road vehicles involving transmission of navigation instructions to the vehicle

G08G 1/0968

{Guidance using speech or audio output, e.g. text-to-speech (text to speech systems per se G10L 13/00)}
References
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Instructions are given by voice

G08G 1/096872

Speech systems per se

G10L 13/00

{Guidance using simplified or iconic instructions, e.g. using arrows (G01C 21/365 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details on guidance in navigation devices, systems or methods, wherein the guidance uses simplified or iconic instructions, e.g. directional arrows or other symbols, textual instructions.

References
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This place does not cover:

Guidance using head up displays or projectors, e.g. virtual vehicles or arrows projected on the windscreen or on the road itself

G01C 21/365

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The immediate route instructions are output to the driver, e.g. arrow signs for next turn

G08G 1/096861

{including 3D objects and buildings (three dimensional [3D] modelling, e.g. data description of 3D objects G06T 17/00; geographic models G06T 17/05)}
References
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Three dimensional [3D] modelling, e.g. data description of 3D objects

G06T 17/00

Geographic models

G06T 17/05

{Personalized guidance, e.g. limited guidance on previously travelled routes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details on guidance in navigation devices, systems or methods, wherein specific guidance adapted to the user is used, including user-defined guidance preferences relating to the manner of guidance, e.g. language, 2D/3D and guidance adapted to the instantaneous workload of the driver, considering also his mental and/or physical health.

{Guidance involving output of stored or live camera images or video streams}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details on guidance in navigation devices, systems or methods, wherein the guidance involves camera images, including images taken by a camera in the vehicle itself, by a camera in another vehicle, by a roadside camera, or by a camera in an aircraft or in a satellite.

{Lane guidance}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details on guidance in navigation devices, systems or methods, wherein the guidance takes road lanes into account, including showing a representation of an upcoming intersection including the pattern of the lanes.

{Details of the user input interface, e.g. buttons, knobs or sliders, including those provided on a touch screen; remote controllers; input using gestures}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details on the user-input interface in navigation devices, systems or methods, including e.g. touch-screen interfaces, remote controllers, gesture-based input, interfaces which disallow the driver to access certain functions, e.g. while driving, input using handwriting.

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Gesture based interaction

G06F 3/017

Interaction techniques for image manipulation, e.g. dragging, rotation

G06F 3/04845

Interaction techniques involving entering handwritten data on touch screens

G06F 3/04883

{Display of a road map (G01C 21/3614 takes precedence; guidance using 3D or perspective road maps G01C 21/3635)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Input/output arrangements in navigation devices, systems or methods focusing on the display of a road map, including also simplified map representing connections between nodes.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Through interaction with a road map, e.g. selecting a POI icon on a road map

G01C 21/3614

Guidance using 3D or perspective road maps

G01C 21/3635

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Map spot or coordinate position indicators or map reading aids, using electronic means

G09B 29/106

{Details, e.g. road map scale, orientation, zooming, illumination, level of detail, scrolling of road map or positioning of current position marker}
References
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Interaction techniques for image manipulation, e.g. dragging, rotation

G06F 3/04845

{Labelling using text of road map data items, e.g. road names, POI names}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Input/output arrangements in navigation devices, systems or methods focusing on the labelling using text on road map displays, including also the displaying of house numbers.

{Overview of the route on the road map}
References
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The complete route is shown to the driver

G08G 1/096866

{Retrieval, searching and output of POI information, e.g. hotels, restaurants, shops, filling stations, parking facilities (G01C 21/3611 takes precedence)}
References
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This place does not cover:

Destination input or retrieval

G01C 21/3605

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Location based services in a mobile phone network

H04W 4/02, H04L 29/08657, H04M 3/42348

{output of POI information on a road map (G01C 21/3614, G01C 21/3685 take precedence)}
References
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This place does not cover:

Through interaction with a road map, e.g. selecting a POI icon on a road map

G01C 21/3614

{Systems comprising multiple parts or multiple output devices (not client-server), e.g. detachable faceplates, key fobs or multiple output screens}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems where multiple parts show a functional relationship (cooperation, synergy) between the part which remains in the vehicle and the portable part; this is different from the mechanical mounting of a mobile part to some part of a vehicle. The portable part must perform some navigation-related function on its own when taken out of the vehicle.

{Retrieval, searching and output of information related to real-time traffic, weather, or environmental conditions (arrangements for giving variable traffic instructions G08G 1/09)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Input/output arrangements in navigation devices, systems or methods focusing on the processing of real-time traffic or weather information, including also traffic information sent from the vehicle to a server.

References
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Arrangements for giving variable traffic instructions

G08G 1/09

Arrangements for broadcast of traffic information

H04H 20/55

{output of additional, non-guidance related information, e.g. low fuel level, fuel efficient driving, gear change, speeding, dangerous curve ahead, slippery road, school zone, speed traps, driving behaviour feedback, advertising, virtual billboards or road signs (G01C 21/3679 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Output arrangements in navigation devices, systems or methods focusing on the output of specific information not related to guidance, e.g. low remaining fuel, fuel efficient driving, gear change, speeding, dangerous curve ahead, slippery road, traffic incident ahead, school zone, traffic cameras or road signs and including also advertisements displayed on maps or projected onto the landscape; providing information to the driver concerning his driving behaviour; warnings for speed traps.

References
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Commerce, e.g. advertising

G06Q 30/02

Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals, or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using odometers, using pedometers (counting mechanisms per se G06M)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices and methods for measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, persons, animals or other moving solid bodies, e.g. using pedometers, odometers including mechanical odometers.

References
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Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Golf carts

A63B 55/60

Tyres

B60C 23/00

Indicating or recording positions or identities of vehicles or vehicle trains

B61L 25/02

Hand-held measuring wheels for measuring distances on maps

G01B 3/12

Resetting mechanisms

G01D 4/04

Measuring tyre performance on wheel stands

G01M 17/00

Anti tamper counters

G06M 3/12

Taximeters

G07B 13/00

Service reminders

G07C 5/006, B60R 16/0234

Stepping motors

H02P 8/00

{for cycles}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The cycles can be monocycles, bicycles, tricycles or motorcycles.

{for golf carts (wheeled carriers for golf bags A63B 55/60)}
References
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Wheeled carriers for golf bags

A63B 55/60

{Pedometers}
References
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Footwear

A43B 3/00

Portable device for measuring pulse or heart rate

A61B 5/02438

Electronic controls for exercising apparatus

A63B 24/00

{for skates}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices and methods for measuring distance traversed on the ground, specially adapted for skates, including roller skates, in-line skates, ice skates, and skis.

by conversion into electric waveforms and subsequent integration, e.g. using tachometer generator {(G01C 22/002, G01C 22/004, G01C 22/006 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Odometers involving electrical or electronic components.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

For cycles

G01C 22/002

For golf carts

G01C 22/004

Pedometers

G01C 22/006

For skates

G01C 22/008

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wheel hubs

B60B 27/00

{Differential odometers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems in which direction (orientation, azimuth) is determined by measuring the distances traversed by wheels on either side of the vehicle, and taking the difference of these distances.

Combined instruments indicating more than one navigational value, e.g. for aircraft; Combined measuring devices for measuring two or more variables of movement, e.g. distance, speed, acceleration
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices, systems and methods for indicating more than one navigational value, e.g position and azimuth, devices, systems and methods for measuring two or more variables of movement, e.g. distance, speed and acceleration

References
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Artificial horizons for aircraft

G01C 19/44, G01C 19/32

Arrangements for passenger entertainment, including display of navigation data using TV screens

B64D 11/0015

Flight simulators

G09B 9/42

{Flight directors (indicating arrangements specially adapted for rotary gyroscopes G01C 19/32; indicating or recording in connection with measuring, in general G01D; control of course of land or air vehicles by controlling or regulating non-electric variables G05D 1/00; arrangements or adaptations of instruments for aircraft B64D 43/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Flight directors, i.e. devices which provide visual steering cues to the pilot for e.g. pitch , roll, yaw attitude controls to allow a pilot to manipulate the aircraft controls in a manner to keep the steering cues aligned with corresponding fixed symbols, in order to satisfy the pitch and roll attitude control laws so that the aircraft is maintained on a predetermined flight path.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Indicating arrangements specially adapted for rotary gyroscopes

G01C 19/32

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements or adaptations of instruments for aircraft

B64D 43/00

Indicating or recording in connection with measuring, in general

G01D

Control of course of land or air vehicles by controlling or regulating non-electric variables

G05D 1/00

Navigation or guidance aids for a single aircraft

G08G 5/0047

Anti-collision systems for aircraft

G08G 5/04

Manufacturing, calibrating, cleaning, or repairing instruments and devices referred to in the preceding groups (testing, calibrating and compensating compasses G01C 17/38)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices and methods for manufacturing, calibrating, cleaning or repairing instruments and devices referred to in the preceding groups.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Testing, calibrating and compensating compasses

G01C 17/38