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RECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
Definition statement
This subclass covers:

Methods or arrangements for reading or recognizing printed or written characters or for recognizing patterns, e.g. fingerprints; for graph-reading or for converting the pattern of mechanical parameters into electrical signals; for printing of data in the shape of alphanumeric or other characters from a record carrier; for verifying the correctness of markings on a record carrier; for sensing record carriers; and for marking the record carrier in digital fashion.

Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data.

Column-detection devices.

Conveying record carriers from one station to another, e.g. from stack to punching mechanism.

Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings.

Information retrieval from punched cards designed for manual use or handling by machine, and apparatus for handling such cards, e.g. marking or correcting.

Arrangements for preparing the data output from a computer for printing, e.g. computer or network printers insofar as they are involved in outputting the result of a computation, like a document.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass does not cover:

Printing per se

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Postal sorting

Hand-held input or output devices for transferring data to be processed into a form capable of being handled by a digital computer, e.g. light-pens, joysticks, mice or trackballs

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transponders powered by received radio waves, e.g. passive transponders

Tags attached to, or associated with, an object, in order to enable detection of the object

Magnetic head applications

Magnetic alloy thin films, such as used in magnetoresistive applications in magnetic heads

Magnetic alloy thin films, such as used in magnetic thin film media applications

Magnetic alloy thin films, such as used in static memory applications

Responders; Transponders

Near-field transmission systems using transceiver

Special rules of classification within this subclass

G06K 17/00 covers methods or arrangements for effecting co-operative working between equipments covered by two or more main groups G06K 1/00-G06K 15/00.

G06K 9/00 takes precedence over G06K 7/00.

G06K 19/00 takes precedence over G06K 21/00.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Record carrier

means a body, such as a cylinder, disc, card, tape, or wire, capable of permanently holding information, which can be read-off by a sensing element movable relative to the recorded information or by electrical contacting or non-contacting means

Data

is a synonym for information

Methods or arrangements for marking the record carrier in digital fashion (interpreting G06K 3/02)
Definition statement
This group covers:

This groups covers details of card punching machines and methods using such machines as well as the printing of optically readable codes, such as barcodes, in particular in relation to the difficulties of said printing on the material being printed on.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

G06K 1/121 is related to B41J (printing in general). G06K 1/126 is related to B23K 26/00(laser marking of workpieces, e.g. metal workpieces)

Reading and writing of magnetic stripes, RFIDs, and of smart cards is classified in G06K 7/00.

Special rules of classification within this group

Methods of marking or printing of barcodes and other optically detectable digital codes should be classified in G06K 1/12 and lower

Only G06K 1/12 is presently active as the methods of card punching are practically obsolete.

Typically G06K 1/121, problems associated to the difference between the theoretically desirable bar code and the real printed barcode and how this has its effect on the quality (readability) of the barcode:

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and G06K 1/126 typically is related to laser marking of optical codes, e.g. on workpieces:

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This group was originally created for classification of various card punching systems and methods. With these systems being nowadays obsolete, the only relevant group being in use is that of G06K 1/12 which focuses on methods and systems particular for marking machine readable codes such as bar codes on various substrates and the particular problems related thereto, e.g. to avoid bleeding in the printing process so that the bars constituting the barcode are "sharp".

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "barcode", "bar code", "optical code" and "marking" are often used as synonyms.

Methods or arrangements for verifying the correctness of markings on a record carrier; Column detection devices
Definition statement
This group covers:
  • Methods or arrangements for verifying the correctness of markings on a record carrier;
  • Column detection devices;
  • Correctness of marking may be assessed by detecting physical properties, check-digit, plausibility check or by comparing with stored data.
  • Examples:
  • Bar code data is compared with data in memory,
  • Spectral light of bar code is compared with predetermined spectrum;
  • Production line with a marking device, followed by a verification device to check correctness of the marking; see illustration herebelow:

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References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Devices for scanning or checking the printed matter for quality control

Error detection or correction by redundancy in data representation, e.g. by using checking codes.

Testing paper currency, securities, bonds or similar valuable papers for genuineness by testing patterns thereon, e.g. comparing to a reference in a memory

Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers,{e.g. for reading patterns}(G06K 9/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This group covers:

This group covers the arrangements for reading and writing of devices such as non-contact smart cards, contact smart cards, barcodes, magnetic stripes and other digitally records included on a handheld object, such as a card, or e.g. printed or otherwise included on a label for attachment to an object, for identification of the object.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Identification of animals

Marking of poultry and the like

Receptacle for credit cards, such as etuis

Check-out counters, e.g. including a barcode scanner

Implanted circuitry (for diagnostics)

Detecting for diagnostic purposes

Sorting of articles according to an identifier or destination marking

Sorting using a machine readable code

Printing of security markings

Card filing arrangements

Printed mater of special format, e.g. identity or credit cards

Indicating train identities using tags

Containers for laboratory use carrying an identifier, e.g. an RFID or barcode

Transponders fixed to bicycles

Labelling machines, e.g. fixing machines to fix a label with a bar code to a package

Refuse receptacles carrying identification means

Article conveyance distributing the articles according to bodily destination marks, e.g. in production lines

Stacking and de-stacking of flat articles, e.g. stacking plural card shaped objects

Marking arrangements for laundry purposes, e.g. to track laundry using RFID tags

Paper including security elements, e.g. methods to create a paper support carrying an RFID

Details of vessels, means for coding or identifying them

F17C123/00

Recording measures values, e.g. using sensors

Position detection of objects using reflection of radio waves on passive responders, e.g. with exchange of information between interrogator and responder

Tags for enabling detection of objects, e.g. to locate underground oil pipes or landmines

Scanning systems

Optical elements, such as lenses

G02B5/99

Computer security in general

Business methods using RFIDs or barcodes or the like

Tachographs using smart cards or the like for recording

Access control using an identification card, opening of card doors using a transponder

Payment using cards

Cash registers using barcode scanning

Partner search systems using transponders

Anti-theft systems using transponders or the like

Identification of vehicles

Labels, tags, tickets and security seals

Optical recording on CDs, DVDs and the like

CD's with transponders

Recording reproducing or erasing on magnetic carriers in general

Optical recording on flat record carriers other than barcode recording

Circuit means for protection against loss of information of semiconductor storage device, e.g. on cards against alpha rays inducing soft errors

Contactless power supplies for memory stores

Manufacturing coils not particular for non contact smart cards

Cards including details of the manufacturing of the semiconductor device

Antennas design details

SAW circuits not for record carriers

SIM card connection arrangements particular for mobile phones

Near field transmission systems not RFID type

Wireless local area networks

Mobile phones with a barcode reading functionality

Digital cameras combined with a further device (e.g. a mobile phone)

Wireless networks in general

Conductive patterns on PCBs other than on smart cards

Casings cabinets drawers for interchangeable modules

Faraday type of protections of electrical circuits

Special rules of classification within this group

G06K 7/0004 is for classification of combined arrangements, like a device incorporating a barcode reader and an RFID reader.

G06K 7/0013 is for classification of constructional details and functions of contact card readers, such may be the housing of the reader, the entry slots of the reader, the peculiarities of the contact arrangements for contacting the contacts on the smart card or memory card, protection arrangements for protecting the circuits of the card reader against intrusion or unwanted inspection.

G06K 7/084 is for classification of magnetic stripe reading arrangements. Typically these magnetic stripes are included on a card shaped object as the classical credit card.

G06K 7/10009 is for classification of arrangements for interogating wireless record carriers, such as RFIDs and non-contacts smart cards. Typically, the arrangements comprise arrangements to resolve collision between plural RFIDs that try communicating with an interrogator at the same time, arrangements for controlling the power of the interrogation field, arrangements allowing the interrogator to mimick an RFID or transponder or vice versa, protocols for RFID interrogators, protection arrangements and antenna arrangements adapted for RFID interrogation.

G06K 7/10544 is for classification of constructional aspects of barcode reading arrangements, such as arrangements for focalisation, cameras, mirrors, handheld readers.

G06K 7/1099 is for classification of arrangements using X-Rays to retrieve identification codes on objects.

G06K 7/12 is for classification of barcode reading systems where the color of the light that is used is of importance, e.g. using UV or IR to illuminate invisible fluorescent barcodes.

G06K 7/14 is primarily for classification of software for barcode readers in particular algorithms to locate or retrieve a barcode from an image.

G06K 7/01, G06K 7/02, G06K 7/04, G06K 7/06 are not used as the technology thereof is not in development anymore.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "smart card connector", "card connector", "card reader", "interrogator", "RFID", "transponders" and "tag reader" are often used as synonyms.

{Hybrid readers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Reader/writers capable of handling different information recording principles, either on respective data carriers or on data carriers having information recorded according to a plurality of recording principles.

Examples:

  • combined chip card / magnetic stripe card reader,
  • combined contactless / contact IC-card readers,
  • combined barcode / RFID readers.

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Special rules of classification within this group

In particular readers/writers that combine two types of readers in one and the same device and where a synergetic interaction between the two is present need to be classified inhere.

{by galvanic contacts, e.g. card connectors for ISO-7816 compliant smart cards or memory cards, e.g. SD card readers (connectors in general H01R 13/00 ; connectors for SIM cards used in mobile phones or the like H04B 1/3816)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

G06K 7/0013 deals with arrangements for connecting a smart card to a card reader, for example:

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or

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but also with arrangements for connecting a variety of memory cards, such as MMC, memory sticks, SD cards and the like; see illustration here below:

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{sensing by radiation using wavelengths larger than 0.1 mm, e.g. radio-waves or microwaves}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ancillary aspects of RFID interrogators such as collision resolution, energy usage, antenna arrangements and security of the interrogation process.

Example:

arrangement to interrogate a cloud of transponders.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems using the reflection or reradiation of radio waves, e.g. radar

Reading of smart cards, dongles, for authentication and access control in computer systems

G06F21/00N5A2D2

Communication between electronic keys and locks, e.g. car keys with transponders

Mutual authentication between data carrier and terminal or host

G07F7/10D4

Transmitter circuits

Near field transmission systems

Transmission power control in radio transmission systems

Wireless local area networks, home automation

H04L12/28W

Secure transmission, encryption, protection against differential power attacks (DPA)

Wireless communication networks

{by scanning of the records by radiation in the optical part of the electromagnetic spectrum}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

G06K 7/10544 is reserved mainly for barcode reader systems, e.g. construction of the typical checkout counter multi-window systems:

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{constructional details of hand-held scanners}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details of handheld barcode readers are to be classified herein.

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using a selected wavelength, e.g. to sense red marks and ignore blue marks
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Optical code readers, such as barcode readers, with special adaptations for reading barcodes in a selected predetermined wavelength range, e.g. barcode readers particularly adapted for colour barcodes or barcode readers for barcodes that are invisible under regular illumination conditions but become visible when illuminated by a special light source, such as UV light:

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Relationship between large subject matter areas

This is related to the Indexing Code G06K 2019/06225 where color and other wavelength specific optical codes are classified.

Special rules of classification within this group

Bar code and optical code readers adapted for reading and illuminating targets that emit specific wavelengths, e.g. fluorescent targets, invisible targets only visible in infrared or UV.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words are often use:

Infrared, UV, ultraviolet, fluorescence, color.

using light without selection of wavelength, e.g. sensing reflected white light{(G06K 7/10831 to G06K 7/1097 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Barcode decoding methods and algorithms that are applied after the raw barcode material, such as the 2D image of a barcode, resides in the memory of a computer system. For example this groups covers algorithms that are applied after the image of the barcode has been taken by a CCD or CMOS based imager and the image is in the memory of a computer system and can be subjected to image processing techniques for retrieving, correcting and decoding the bar code in the image.

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Special rules of classification within this group

Algorithms for decoding bar codes should be classified here, in addition to methods for detecting bar codes, for error correction of bar code images imaged by a CCD camera.

Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints (processing or analysis of tracks of nuclear particles G01T 5/02 ; { information retrieval G06F 17/30 ; medical diagnosis G06F 19/34 ; recognition of molecular sequences G06F 19/70 ; radio frequency identification G06K 7/00 ; recognition of barcodes and similar code images G06K 7/10 ; computer systems based on specific computational models G06N; image analysis, inspection, positioning or tracking G06T 7/00 ; recognition of acoustic speech signals G10L 15/00 ; acoustic speaker identification G10L 17/00})
Definition statement
This group covers:

The initial (IPC 1) scope of G06K 9/00 was:

"Methods or arrangements for reading or recognising printed or written characters or geometric figures" (OCR). From IPC 3 on, it also covers methods and arrangements for "recognising patterns" in general.

Recognising patterns means the labelling (categorisation, classification, identification) of a pattern, being measured data representing an object, with a meaningful label, based on the measured data from the object. It can also concern the detection of predetermined classes of patterns. The recognition function has tolerance to variability of objects within a class. The label is meaningful in the sense that it represents a group of objects which share common properties or features. The label can be one of multiple labels (e.g. OCR) or binary (e.g. authentication).

Methods or systems for recognising patterns include the following functions:

  • Acquisition of the pattern measurements, typically image acquisition. Acquisition includes stripping measured data not "belonging" to the pattern to be identified.
  • (optional): pre-processing of the measurements, which should reduce the raw acquired / measured data. Determining / measuring features of the pattern (e.g. components in a spectral transformation) is a typical pre-processing for pattern recognition, but also size normalisation,binarisation, etc can be involved.
  • decision on a class involving comparison with reference information.

G06K 9/00 covers all of the above functions as far as essentially related to pattern recognition based on images (also sequences of coordinates, e.g. gestures or handwriting, as these can be used to generate an image). The essential relationship usually concerns the explicit use of acquisition or pre-processing functions for recognising patterns, but could also be an inherent or implicit relationship, e.g. feature extraction of the iris of an eye.

G06K 9/00 further covers image feature extraction in general.

G06K 9/00 further covers the actual recognition (classification; decision making) processes that can be applied irrespective of the nature of the patterns (objects) or measured data, e.g. classification/ discriminant methods. Also clustering and Blind Source Separation are covered.

G06K 9/00 further covers the recognition of patterns in (one dimensional) signals, as far as the processing is of general applicability, i.e. not specific to the nature of the signal (e.g. not cardiac or seismic patterns).

The structure of the classification scheme comprises 4 main branches.

G06K 9/00006 ... G06K 9/00852: specific applications, where the nature of the above listed functions is specific for those applications (e.g. fingerprint, face, video).

G06K 9/20: image acquisition.

G06K 9/36: image preprocessing.

G06K 9/62: matching and classification using electronic means and further.

G06K 9/00973, G06K 9/00993 electronic hardware and software implementations; management of recognition tasks.

G06K 9/58, G06K 9/74, G06K 9/76 and G06K 9/82: optical hardware arrangements (holograms etc.).

G06K 9/03 error detection and correction.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

As functions originally provided in G06K 9/00 are less and less implemented on dedicated hardware but on general purpose computers (PC) instead, new related groups have been created outside G06K 9/00.

The most important of these is G06T 7/00: Image analysis. Most of G06K 9/00 deals with recognition based on images of objects, this part would logically be a subset of image analysis, G06T 7/00.

When no semantic label is obtained by the image analysis or processing, but rather some other information (position, size, motion vector, etc.), classes in G06T 7/00 apply.

Functions traditionally associated with pattern recognition can also be used for image analysis, enhancement or other transformations. When not essentially related to a recognition, classes in G06T (mostly G06T 3/00, G06T 5/00 and G06T 7/00) should apply. The particular relationships and exceptions to general rules will be treated below for the particular classes concerning such specific functions.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Processing images not necessarily for purpose or recognition

Feature extraction in relation to other image analysis than pattern recognition and image analysis in general

Industrial and biomedical image inspection

Reading and decoding (bar) codes

Recognition or classification of text

Neural networks not specially adapted for pattern recognition

Detecting, measuring and recording for medical diagnostic purposes

Identifications of persons by non automated means (e.g. latent fingerprint development)

Speech and voice recognition

Recognising patterns from RADAR signals

Geophysics

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system

The mere use of known pattern recognition techniques for particular applications should be classified in the appropriate technical field (application place) when provided, optionally with an Indexing Code in G06K 9/00 as additional information. These are referred to in the appropriate group definitions and in the below table:

Recognising banknotes

Content based data retrieval

Access control based on biometrics

Identity verification in commercial transactions

Burglar, theft or intruder alarm

Security arrangements for protecting computer systems against unauthorised activity

Arrangements for computer network security

Postal sorting

Image compression involving recognition of patterns in the image

Special rules of classification within this group

Generally speaking, function-related groups should be used except when application-specific processing details are disclosed, i.e. it would not be obvious to use the same process for another application, e.g. fingerprint scanners normally cannot be used to scan documents. In that case, application-related groups will be used in the first place.

If an application does not require specially adapted processing, an application group should not be used. The type of application becomes additional information can be indicated by a corresponding Indexing Code.

G06K 9/60, G06K 9/78 and G06K 9/80: Combination of functions from acquisition, preprocessing and/or matching/ classification. Other combination groups are G06K 9/54 and G06K 9/56 and G06K 9/82. Only combinations of functionally related concepts should be classified in combination groups, e.g. feedback from recognition scores to preprocessing function or a particular sequence of partially non-linear processes.

{Image acquisition (materials for developing fingerprints, means for visual identification A61B 5/1172)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Powders, films and other products for developing latent prints

{by using geometrical optics, e.g. using prisms (G06K 9/00033 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Sensors where a finger contacts an optical element, e.g. a prism and where the image creation is based on different behaviour (reflection) of light where skin does resp. does not touch the optical element.

{Matching; Classification}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aligning fingerprint patterns or features; Matching criteria;

Classifying fingerprint as match resp. no match to a reference fingerprint.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Classification of the type of the fingerprint

Matching consecutive images to detect spoofs

{Acquiring and recognising microscopic objects, e.g. biological cells and cellular parts (apparatus for measuring microbiological properties C12M 1/34 ; optical analysis of chemical or physical properties of particles, e.g. investigation of dimensions G01N 15/14 ; biomedical image inspection G06T 7/0012)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Classifying or recognising biological material or microscopic objects based on shape or pattern;

Acquisition as far as having a relation with an image analysis process.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Apparatus for measuring microbiological properties

Optical analysis of chemical or physical properties of particles, e.g. investigation of dimensions

Biomedical image inspection

{Reading or verifying signatures; Writer recognition}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The recognition/ authentication of persons by their signature or handwriting; both scanned and dynamic.

{Recognising patterns in signals and combinations thereof (signature verification G06K 9/00154 ; analysing specific medical signals, e.g. bioelectric signals, blood pressure A61B 5/00 ; processing radar and similar signals G01S ; analysis of chromatographic signals G01N 30/86 ; processing seismic signals G01V 1/28 , G01V 1/46 ; acoustic speech processing G10L ; transmission systems H04B 1/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Methods for analysis or recognition of patterns in signals not representing images, not specific to the nature or origin of the signal.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Signature verification

Analysing specific medical signals, e.g. bioelectric signals, blood pressure

Processing radar and similar signals G01S

Analysis of chromatographic signals

Processing seismic signals

Acoustic speech processing

Transmission systems

{Recognising whole cursive words}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Cursive handwriting, i.e. connected characters.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Recognition of "online" writing

Image acquisition
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All processes resulting in isolating and preparing the part of a signal corresponding to the pattern to be recognised, without discarding any measured signal content belonging to the pattern.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Scanners, cameras

Tablets, coordinate inputting stylus

{Construction of image pick-up using regular bi-dimensional dissection}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Scanning resulting in a two dimensional bitmap, as opposed to e.g. flying spot scanners. Only as far as essentially related to the recognition process.

using discrete sensing elements at predetermined points
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Using discrete sensing elements positioned at predetermined locations but not forming a regular grid pattern.

Aligning or centering of the image pick-up or image-field
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In Optical Character Recognition this means the normalisation of the position and /or orientation of the character image, e.g. based on centre of gravity, estimated baseline, etc. (not by matching with reference information). In general, the alignment or centering has a relationship with a reference position for which the reference information (template or other model) was obtained.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Camera calibration

Image analysis for determining position of objects

{Orientation detection or correction, e.g. rotation of multiples of 90 degrees}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

For inclination angles requiring a smaller correction than 90°

{Determination of region of interest (segmentation for general image processing G06T 7/0079)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The region of interest potentially containing patterns to be recognised.

{Inclination (skew) detection or correction of characters or of image to be recognised (determining orientation of objects in general G06T 7/004)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Rotations of 90°, 180° and mirroring:

Determining orientation of objects in general

Segmentation of touching or overlapping patterns in the image field{(segmentation by quantisation, e.g. thresholding, G06K 9/38 ; edge detection for image feature extraction G06K 9/4604 ; extraction of connected components or edge linking G06K 9/4638 ; segmentation or edge detection for general image processing G06T 7/0079)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In Optical Character Recognition this means the cutting out of characters from neighbouring or touching objects. Could also apply to other touching or overlapping objects, e.g. industrial parts or cell in a microscope slide.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Segmentation or edge detection for general image processing

Segmentation by quantisation, e.g. thresholding,

Edge detection for image feature extraction

Extraction of connected components or edge linking

Image preprocessing, i.e. processing the image information without deciding about the identity of the image (image data processing or generation, in general G06T)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All processes which reduce the raw acquired data belonging to the pattern to be recognised, with the aim of separating distinguishing information from relatively uninformative data, e.g., in OCR the outer shape or stroke pattern are more relevant for the character identity than the stroke thickness or character size.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Image processing not essentially for pattern recognition

Selecting subset of features

Extracting features by operating on the feature space:

Quantising the analogue image signal {e.g. histogram thresholding for discrimination between background and foreground patterns (region-based segmentation of touching or overlapping patterns G06K 9/342 ; image segmentation for general image processing G06T 7/0081)}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Image segmentation as such

Region-based segmentation of touching or overlapping patterns

Noise filtering{(restoration for general image processing G06T 5/001 ; morphologic operations for general image enhancement G06T 5/30)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Noise filtering only if essentially related to recognition.

Normalisation of the pattern dimensions
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Scaling of images

Smoothing or thinning of the pattern{(restoration for general image processing G06T 5/001 ; morphologic operations for general image enhancement G06T 5/30)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Thinning in the sense of reducing the pattern to the essential information, e.g. as a preprocessing step to find characteristic points of a skeleton pattern. Smoothing in the sense of separating of relevant from irrelevant shape features.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Smoothing for general image processing

Morphologic operations for general image enhancement

Extraction of features or characteristics of the image{(segmentation of touching or overlapping patterns G06K 9/34 ; edge detection for feature extraction G06K 9/4604 ; segmentation or edge detection for general image processing G06T 7/0079)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Measurements on patterns or detection of components of patterns essentially suitable for recognising the patterns.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Segmentation of touching or overlapping patterns

Eedge detection for feature extraction

Segmentation or edge detection for general image processing

{by performing operations within image blocks or by using histograms (G06K 9/4652 and G06K 9/4671 take precedence; matching image histograms G06K 9/6212)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Histograms also in the meaning of counts of foreground pixels, e.g. in columns for an x-axis histogram.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Matching image histograms

{analysing the spectrum of the contour, e.g. Fourier expansion}
Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In Fourier expansion, the coordinates of ordered points of a closed contour (x,y) are considered as complex numbers x+j.y, which can be considered as a repetitive one-dimensional sequence, which can be analysed with Fourier transform.

Methods or arrangements for graph-reading or for converting the pattern of mechanical parameters, e.g. force or presence, into electrical signal (combined with character or pattern recognition G06K 9/00 ; feelers for copying devices on machine tools B23Q 35/00 ; arrangements for measuring areas G01B; measuring force G01L; adapted as input devices to computers G06F 3/00 ; systems for transmitting the position of an object with respect to a predetermined reference system, e.g. tele-autographic system, G08C 21/00)
Special rules of classification within this group

This group and its groups are no longer used for the classification of new documents as from 1 January 2006. Documents relating to methods and arrangements for input to a computer are classified under G06F 3/033 and G06F 3/041.

Before 1 January 2006, groups G06K 11/00 to G06K 11/06 were already not used because of obsolence, whereas other groups under G06K 11/06, deleted in 2006, were used to classify costructional details of computer pointing devices now classified under G06F 3/033 and digitizers technologies now classified under G06F 3/041.

Conveying record carriers from one station to another, e.g. from stack to punching mechanism (transport devices in general B65G ; handling thin or filamentary material in general B65H)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Arrangements for moving data carriers, such a smart cards, into and out of a data carrier reader device

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Handling of coins or of paper currency of similar valuable papers

Special rules of classification within this group

G06K 13/06 is for classification of mechanisms that assist in correct guiding of the card in the card reader

G06K 13/08 is for classification of aspects for inserting and ejection of cards into and out from card readers.

G06K 13/08 contains in particular the arrangements for inserting and ejection of cards, like card ejectors using a spring and a heart shaped cam to arrive at a push-push card insertion-ejection arrangement.

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Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data{, e.g. computer output printers}(printing or plotting combined with another operation, e.g. with conveying, G06K 17/00){(construction of printing heads B41J 2/00 ; special arrangements for scanning and reproduction of pictures involving their transmission, e.g. facsimile H04N 1/00 ; for photocomposing B41B 19/00)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Digital data processing in printers and related to the printing of computer output data.

Control of digital printing means, not otherwise provided for.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Printing as such is covered by

B41

Printer drivers

Image processing

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Photocomposing

Special arrangements for scanning and reproduction of pictures, e.g. photographs, facsimile

Two-dimensional image generation

Control and analysis of mechanical parameters involving printing test patterns

Digital data processing in computers and related to printing

Construction of print heads

Light beam scanning systems using movable or deformable optical elements

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

To rip (verb)

to generate a pixel map of an image

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

PDL

Page Description Language

RIP

Raster Image Processing

Methods or arrangements for effecting co-operative working between equipments covered by two or more of the preceding main groups, e.g. automatic card files incorporating conveying and reading operations
Definition statement
This group covers:
  • Methods or arrangements for effecting co-operative working between equipments covered by two or more of the preceding main groups, e.g. automatic card files incorporating conveying and reading operations.
  • Methods or systems involving reading and writing of identification or authentication codes on record carriers, or reading of codes and transporting of carriers.

G06K 17/00 is nowadays used for classification of arrangements and methods where a plurality of objects is tagged with an identifier and some logistic process is carried out using the arrangement. Often, such documents nowadays need to be sent to G06Q for classification, particularly if the technical effect of the identifiers that are used is common knowledge.

Further classification information:

G06K 17/0022 e.g. contains inventory control systems:

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G06K 17/0025 is reserved for combined RFID - printing systems, like the typical RFID label writers:

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G06K 17/0029 is reserved for arrangements to deal with grouped articles with each article having an identifier:

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References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Pure business methods are not classified inhere but need to be classified in G06Q.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Medical information systems using digital record carriers such as smart cards

Logistics using RFIDs or barcodes

Inventory control using RFIDs or barcodes

Access-control involving the use of a pass, e.g. tag, transponder

Theft detection systems using tags

Correctness verifcation

Personalization of a card

Test tubes with identification means

Labelling machines using RFIDs

Collecting waste

Collecting milk

Medical systems in general photo orders

A61

Special rules of classification within this group

The particular use of a record carrier, if of importance to the invention, should be classified in the corresponding G06K 17/00 groups.

Examples of such uses are:

  • processing documents, checks, formulars;
  • personalising cards or checks, issuing personal tickets, passbooks or the like;
  • tracking objects or persons;
  • grouping, sorting, transporting, distributing documents or goods (waste, milk, photo orders, in libraries );
  • stock management ,inventory systems;
  • for fraud control purposes;
  • for transactions,payments,ordering, games;
  • checking, inspecting or history purposes, e.g. histograms;
  • generating labels; for automatic (e.g. process) control purposes;
  • for use in medical applications, Information recording and providing systems.

Under G06K 17/0025 can be found devices combining in a single entity printing and RFID writing

Under G06K 17/0029 can be found arrangements to interrogate grouped objects carrying identifiers, such as a carton with an RFID containing multiple cigarette packages each having an RFID.

G06K 17/0003, G06K 17/0016 and G06K 17/0032 are not active anymore

Record carriers for use with machines and with at least a part designed to carry digital markings (record carriers adapted for controlling specific machines, see the appropriate subclass for the machine, e.g. B23Q, D03C, G10F, H04L; form printing B41; file cards B42F 19/00 ; record carriers in general G11)
Definition statement
This group covers:

In this main group primarily hand holdable devices or artifacts are classified that contain at least one digital marking, such as RFIDs, smart cards, magnetic stripe cards, barcodes, optical codes, and non-intelligent resonating digital marks without.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plastic moulding techniques for card shaped objects, such as smart cards

Lamination suitable for card shaped articles

Printing or marking of cards not characterised by the kind of marking

Data input/out arrangements, such as buses, to transfer data from/to smart cards

General arrangements for computer security

Operating system software for smart cards

Arrangements on smart cards for sensing fingerprints

Cards for automatic acces control systems

Record carriers made e.g. of paper or other flexible material, suitable fo use as a banknote

Smart cards for payment

Antitheft arrangements using RFIDs

Labels for tamper secure fixing to objects

Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier

Details of memory layout in smart cards

Manufacturing of the integrated circuit in a smart card

Security software for smart cards and RFIDs using encryption

Manufacturing of printed circuits on a smart card

Special rules of classification within this group

Amongst the various groups under G06K 19/00, the following groups are the most important, in particular in that these groups are most frequently used:

Constructional details of optical codes, such as barcodes

Magnetic stripes as used on e.g. credit cards.

Functionality of contact based smart cards

Arrangements for protection the integrated circuit in smart card against intrusion

Constructional details for non-contact smart cards, RFIDs, transponders or wireless tags

Functionality of non-contact smart cards, RFIDs, transponders or wireless tags

Constructional details for contact-based smart cards

characterised by the selection of materials, e.g. to avoid wear during transport through the machine
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The selected material of the record carrier achieves an extra effect which is not directly related to the function as record carrier.

Examples:

  • record carrier made of a material that withstands gastric acids so that it may be brought in the stomach of cattle, or
  • a tag with special adaptations to the material to attach it to a garment, like

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or a metal data carrier

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Counterexample:

bar code printed in a colour material only visible under UV light: G06K 19/06046.

characterised by the shape
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Different peculiar form factors.

Examples:

  • circular RFID tag to be attached to a DVD
  • identification wrist band for newborn babies in hospitals
  • credit card with a non-standard shape (e.g. one rounded corner as a marketing gag)
  • casino chips with RFID

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{with optically detectable marking (G06K 19/063 , G06K 19/08 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Examples:

  • label coding data by spectral signatures
  • using characters having small modifications to code digital data in a text
  • printed data code
  • barcodes like a 2D barcode where each barcode pixel is a barcode itself:

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but also barcodes where the barcode is at the same time an antenna of an RFID like device (needs also a classification in G06K 19/07749):

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Special rules of classification within this group

Holographic, diffractive or retroreflective recording

Wavelength selection

Miniature code

{one-dimensional coding}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Digital optical markings arranged in one dimension in space, such as the well known 1D barcodes

{multi-dimensional coding}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Markings arranged in more than one dimension in space.

Examples: Code 49, DataMatrix, MaxiCode, PDF 471.

{Constructional details}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Constructional details of optically detectable markings (e.g. kind of material or physical properties).

Example: encoded optical identification elements including an optical substrate having a diffraction grating with refractive index variations (e.g. WO2005027031).

Special rules of classification within this group

See G06K 19/08 and lower if there is a combined effect with an other type of code.

{with magnetically detectable marking}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The marking codes at least one bit (e.g. present/not present), data carriers for magnetically detectable purely analog "signatures" or signals should not be classified here.

Examples:

  • classical banking/credit card with a magnetic stripe;
  • bar codes printed with magnetic ink;
  • security tags comprising magnetic elements coding digital information (security tags per se: see G08B).

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetic theft detection tags

Magnetic recording with relative movement between data carrier and transducer

Magnetic alloy thin films as used in magnetoresistive application in static memory applications

{Constructional details}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Constructional details of the magnetically detectable markings (e.g. kind of material or physical properties).

Special rules of classification within this group

Consider classifying in G06K 19/08 and groups if there is a combined effect with another type of code.

the carrier being marginally punched or notched, e.g. having elongated slots
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For example:

  • punched cards;
  • credit card with Braille characters.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Relief-type marking

Record carriers with conductive marks, printed circuits or semiconductor circuit elements, e.g. credit or identity cards {also with resonating or responding marks without active components}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For example:

  • bar codes printed with conductive ink;
  • card comprising pencil markings to be sensed by their conductivity;
  • cards carrying a passive LC circuit.
{with resonating marks}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Record carriers that do not comprise a logical or integrated circuit and that reflect a digital code upon interrogation by an electromagnetic field.

Examples:

record carrier comprising a plurality of resonating LC circuits

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or e.g.

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or surface acoustic wave (SAW) transponders

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with integrated circuit chips
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Data carriers, such as smart cards or RFID tags that comprise at least one integrated circuit.

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

EEPROM memories

Switched networks for telephone systems

H04Q7/00

{the record carrier comprising an arrangement for non-contact communication, e.g. wireless communication circuits on transponder cards, non-contact smart cards or RFIDs}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

data carriers with integrated circuits and with a wireless communication means.

Examples:

RFID tags and contactless chip cards (ISO 14443, 15693, 18000).

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References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

System using reflection of radio waves using passive responders radiating a codes signal

System with exchange of information between initiator and responder

Near-field transmission systems

Special arrangements for circuits, e.g. for protecting identification code in memory (protection against unauthorised use of computer memories G06F 12/14)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In this group security related aspects realized by means on the card or the RFID device are found, e.g. arrangements to protect the circuits on a smart card against intrusion.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

At least some of the measures for preventing access to the data in the integrated circuit should be hardware based, pure software solutions, e.g. encryption, should not be classified in G06K. In these cases the classes of the related fields mentioned below should be considered.

Security arrangements in computer systems

Smart cards for payment

Secure smart card communication using encryption

{Passive means, e.g. Faraday cages (Faraday-type protection of electric circuits in general H05K 9/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Arrangements that blcok electromagnetic fields that are used to attempt access to wireless record carriers, wherein the arrangements carry out the blocking without the use of logical and/or intelligent [circuits]

Examples: metallic screens around an RFID tag for blocking an interrogation field in order to make sure that the RFID tag cannot be interrogated without permission

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Screening of semiconductor devices

Screening against electric or magnetic fields

Special rules of classification within this group

Shielding measures intended to protect the stored data belong in this class. This class is not used if shielding measures are intended to minimize undesired effects of mounting on e.g. metal and other electromagnetically interfering objects/surfaces. In this case: use class G06K 19/07771.

{Active means, e.g. jamming or scrambling of the electromagnetic field}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Arrangements comprising logical circuits that are suitable to actively and intelligently, using logical operations, interfere with an electromagnetic field that is used in an attempt to access information in record carrier

Example:

Blocking chipcard which prevents communication of other cards by repeated response under violation of waiting times defined in the communication protocol.

{by activating or deactivating at least a part of the circuit on the record carrier, e.g. ON/OFF switches}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Arrangements on the record carrier that are suitable to switch at least a part of the logical circuit on the record carrier from an active to an inactive state or from an inactive to an active state in order to protect the contents of the record carrier or to provide priviliged access to contents or processes on the data carrier.

Example:

Chip card in which the antenna is only connected to the chip if a user presses a mechanical switch.

{by preventing analysis of the circuit, e.g. dynamic or static power analysis or current analysis}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Arrangements on the record carrier that are in place such that it is made difficult for a reerse engineer to anlayze the construction of the circuit on the record carrier using non-invasive techniques.

Example:

Chipcard IC writing to dummy cells even if no real write operation is required.

{with deactivation or otherwise incapacitation of at least a part of the circuit upon detected tampering}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Arrangements that deactivate temporarily or for good part of the logical circuit in the record carrier if a detection circuit on the same record carrier detects sings of attempted tampering with the record carrier. The "detection" may be an active process on the record carrier that continuously monitors if tampering is attempted, or the detection may be directly lead to destruction of a circuit that is being tampered.

Example:

For instance, a chip is covered by a conductive cage, wherein the integrity of the cage is being actively monitored. If one of the wires of the cage is broken this is seen as a voltage drop by the monitoring circuit and the chip is warned of this fact.

{the incapacitated circuit being part of an antenna}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Arrangements that deactivate temporarily or for good part of the logical circuit in the record carrier if a detection circuit on the same record carrier detects signs of attempted tampering with the record carrier, wherein the antenna is destructed upon the detected tampering. The detection in this case is directly also destruction of the circuit.

Example:

An RFID tag that is fixed to an object such that the RFID tag antenna will tear or break when detached from the object. In order to tamper with the RFID tag, the FRID tag needs to be detached from the object.

Constructional details, e.g. mounting of circuits in the carrier
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All kinds of constructional peculiarities related to manufacturing, materials, special devices included in the data carrier like displays, sensors, batteries, etc are to be classified and searched. Also MMC cards are found here when no special features clearly for other fields are under consideration.

Examples:

removable sim cards

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or special arrangements for avoiding breaking of the integrated circuit on a smart card:

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Holders, etuis, cases, for credit cards or the like

Injection molding for cards

Processes for making labels or tags

Interconnection between memories and computers

Acces protection for memory cards

Access control with a pass containing electronic elements

Memory

Connection arrangements for memory cards

Housings for electronic devices, such as memory sticks or other memory cards

{External electrical contacts}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Record carriers with an integrated circuit chip and with galvanic contacts at the surface of said record carriers, such as ISO 7816 smart cards.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sensing record carriers by galvanic contacts

G067K/00K

Arrangements for conducting current for flat cards

{Mounting details of integrated circuit chips}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Record carriers with an integrated circuit chip wherein the integrated circuit chip is mounted into a card body, or the like, as a module.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Semiconductor technology (in general)

H01L23/25

Encapsulation of chip modules

{the record carrier being capable of non-contact communication, e.g. constructional details of the antenna of a non-contact smart card}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

G06K 19/07749 is for constructional details particular for non-contact data carriers, such RFIDs, e.g. methods of placing the antenna wire on the data carrier:

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using markings of different kinds {or more than one marking of the same kind}in the same record carrier, e.g. one marking being sensed by optical and the other by magnetic means
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

G06K 19/08 and lower contains data carriers with two different types of markings, e.g., a bar code and a magnetic stripe on the same data carrier.

{Constructional details}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This head group is not used anymore to classify new documents. Please classify in its lower subgroup G06L19/086 instead.

{with markings consisting of randomly placed or oriented elements, the randomness of the elements being useable for generating a unique identifying signature of the record carrier, e.g. randomly placed magnetic fibers or magnetic particles in the body of a credit card}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Markings consisting of randomly placed or oriented elements, the randomness of the elements being for generating a unique identifying signature of the record carrier, e.g., randomly placed magnetic fibres or magnetic particles in the body of credit card.

Example:

A card comprising a pattern of random cracks from which a digital signature is derived.

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at least one kind of marking being used for authentication, e.g. of credit or identity cards ({identification cards not to be read by a machine B42D 25/00; }verification of coded identity or credit cards in mechanisms actuated by them G07F 7/12{; printed identity or similar identification-bearing cards not for use with a machine B42D 25/00})
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Record carriers that comprise a first type and a different second type of digital marking wherein one of these digital markings is particularly suited for authenticating the record carrier. Examples:

copy protected DVD comprising a required decoding key in an RFID transponder incorporated in the DVD body.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Card operated payment systems

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013