CPC Definition - Subclass B60L

Last Updated Version: 2019.05
PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES (arrangements or mounting of electrical propulsion units or of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion in vehicles B60K 1/00, B60K 6/20; arrangements or mounting of electrical gearing in vehicles B60K 17/12, B60K 17/14; preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles B61C 15/08; dynamo-electric machines H02K; control or regulation of electric motors H02P); SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES (electric coupling devices combined with mechanical couplings of vehicles B60D 1/64; electric heating for vehicles B60H 1/00); ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL (control or regulation of electric motors H02P); MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
Definition statement

This place covers:

Supply of electric power to auxiliary equipment of electrically-propelled vehicles, e.g. electric heating or lighting circuits.

Current-collectors and arrangements thereof on electrically-propelled vehicles, e.g. rollers in contact with trolley wire, pantographs or third-rail current-collectors.

Electro-dynamic brake systems for vehicles in general, e.g. electric resistor braking, electric regenerative braking or eddy-current braking.

Electric propulsion of vehicles with power supply external to the vehicle or supplied within the vehicle.

Charging or exchange of Batteries for electric vehicles whilst the car is stopped and details of charging stations including communication between vehicle and the charging station.

Electric propulsion of vehicles with power supply from force of nature, e.g. sun or wind.

Electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways.

Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles.

Methods, circuits or devices for controlling the propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles.

Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration or power consumption.

Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes, e.g. dead-man's devices, devices for limiting the current under mechanical overload conditions or for preventing excessive speed of the vehicle.

Adaptation of control equipment on electrically-propelled vehicles for remote actuation from a stationary place, from alternative parts of the vehicle or from alternative vehicles in the same vehicle train.

Relationships with other classification places

This subclass is the general place for subject-matter relating to the propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles, for control of the propulsion and for collecting electrical power therefor.

However conjoint control of two or more vehicle subunits, one of which may be an electrical propulsion unit, and subject-matter relating to control of hybrid vehicles comprising an internal-combustion motor and an electric motor, are covered in subclass B60W.

Further subject-matter relating to arrangements or mounting of electrical propulsion units, electric gearings or auxiliary drives in vehicles, are covered in subclass B60K. That includes also the transmission of drive from electric motors to the ultimate propulsive elements in vehicles and the disposition of electric propulsion equipment, other than current collectors.

This subclass is also the application-oriented place for subject-matter relating to electro-dynamic or dynamo-electric braking systems for vehicles. The function-oriented places for such systems are subclasses H02P and H02K.

Therefore, this subclass covers all vehicles except those restricted to one of the following types of vehicles: rail vehicles, waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles, hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles, and sledges, which are covered by the relevant subclasses of B61 - B64.

Thus, this subclass covers also:

  • vehicular characteristics which are common to more than one of the above listed types;
  • certain characteristics restricted to automobiles, road or cross-country trailers.

The following exceptions to the above should be noted:

  • Subclass B60B or B60C cover all vehicle wheels and tyres, except wheels for roller skates A63C 17/22, wheels for model railway vehicles A63H 19/22, and special adaptations of wheels or tyres for aircraft B64C 25/36.
  • Subclass B60C covers the connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies in general, and in this respect it is not limited to vehicles.
  • Subclass B60L covers certain electric equipment of all electrically-propelled vehicles.
  • Subclass B60M covers certain power supply for, but external to, any kind of electrically-propelled vehicle.
  • Subclass B60R covers safety belts or body harnesses used in all types of land vehicles.
  • Subclass B60S relates to all kinds of vehicles, except the servicing of rail locomotives B61K 11/00, ground equipment for aircraft B64F, or cleaning apparatus peculiar to waterborne vessels B63B 57/00, B63B 59/00.
  • Subclass B60T covers brake control systems of general applicability, and in this respect it is not limited to vehicles. It also covers rail-vehicle power-brake systems and some other features of rail-vehicle brake systems.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electric coupling devices combined with mechanical couplings of vehicles

B60D 1/64

Electric heating for vehicles

B60H 1/00

Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units

B60K 1/00

Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines

B60K 6/20

Arrangements or mounting of electric gearing in vehicles

B60K 17/12, B60K 17/14

Preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles

B61C 15/08

Dynamo-electric machines

H02K

Control or regulation of electric motors

H02P

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Motor driven wheel chairs

A61G 5/04

Auxiliary drives on vehicles

B60K 25/00

Power supply lines for supplying power to electrically-propelled vehicles

B60M

Arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits therefor, for vehicles in general

B60Q

Power-driven ground-engaging fittings for manoeuvring the vehicle

B60S 9/205

Vehicle brake control systems in general

B60T

Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function, including control of electrical propulsion units in case the vehicle is not purely electrically-propelled

B60W 10/00

Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles. i.e. vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, all used for propulsion of the vehicle

B60W 20/00

Electric locomotives or railcars

B61C 3/00

Preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles

B61C 15/08

Railway track circuits in general

B61L

Construction of cycles

B62K

Rider propulsion of wheeled vehicles

B62M

Construction of electrically-powered cycles

B62M 6/40

Lighting in general

F21, H05B 31/00H05B 41/00

Switches in general

H01H

Coupling devices for electric connections in general

H01R

Conversion of electric power

H02M

Electric heating in general

H05B 1/00H05B 11/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

electrodynamic braking system

An electric machine that acts as a brake. Braking is accomplished by reversing the electric fields on the machine, effectively turning it into a generator. The usage of the generated power, either in useful applications or as dissipation of heat, restrains the motor-generator and provides a braking action.As such, this term is virtually coterminous with "dynamo-electric braking system" (see below). However the term "electrodynamic" on its own is broader and less clear than the term "dynamo-electric". It means "pertaining to electric current, electricity in motion and the effects of magnetism and induction", and could theoretically encompass electrical devices other than dynamo-electric devices.

battery

generic term covering primary and secondary electrical cells.

dynamo-electric braking system

A dynamo-electric machine is a device for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy or mechanical energy into electrical energy or combinations thereof, which involve electromagnetic induction. In respect of brakes, a braking effect could be produced by converting the kinetic energy of a vehicle into electrical energy, for dissipation (e.g. by resistors or as eddy-currents) or for storage (e.g. by regenerative braking). Alternatively, electrical energy could be supplied to the device to drive it into reverse, thereby producing a braking effect.

electric vehicle

Vehicle propelled by electric motor(s), these motors being mechanically connected to the drive wheels. This definition embraces also vehicles with engine-driven generators, sometimes referred to a as serial hybrid vehicles.

hybrid vehicle

Vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type connected with the driven wheels, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, and that are either singularly or in combination used for propulsion of the vehicle.

plug-in hybrid vehicle

Hybrid vehicle which uses rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug or other connection means to an external electric power source.

primary cell

electrochemical generator in which the cell energy is present in chemical form and is not regenerated.

range extender

Devices to extend the range of an electric vehicles supplied by a traction battery. Most of the time the term refers to an engine driven generator. It can however also refer to fuel cells or additional energy storage for electrical energy. Range extenders have generally a lower power than the maximum output of the vehicle.

prime mover

A machine that transforms energy from thermal, electrical or pressure form to mechanical form, typically an engine or turbine

secondary cell

accumulator receiving and supplying electrical energy by means of reversible electrochemical reactions.

fuel cell

electrochemical generator wherein the reactants are supplied from outside.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Maglev

Magnetic levitation vehicle

Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles (circuit arrangements for charging batteries H02J 7/00)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric circuits for cars in general

B60R1/16

Lighting in general

F21, H05B

Installations of electric cables or lines in vehicles

H02G 3/00

Circuit arrangements for charging batteries

H02J 7/00

Special rules of classification

This sub-group is only applicable to electrically propelled vehicles.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

auxiliary equipment of vehicles

aggregates not directly used for propulsion, e.g. pumps, compressors, light, heating, air-conditioning, powered steering

{to auxiliary motors, e.g. for pumps, compressors}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The supply of electric energy to auxiliary motors. These auxiliary motors can be in form of actuators or used to drive all kind of equipment like pumps, compressors.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of vans in cars

B60H 1/00828

{to power outlets}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Supply of electric energy to power outlets or sockets in or at the vehicle. Power may be provided in form of 12 V DC supply or high volt AC. Providing power to charging ports for auxiliary vehicles is also covered.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sockets for charging electrical vehicles

B60L 53/16

Providing electrical energy to the grid (V4G)

B60L 55/00

to electric heating circuits
Definition statement

This place covers:

The provision of electric energy for the climatisation for electric cars. Climatisation covers heating, cooling and ventilation, e.g. cabin climate control.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of heating, cooling or ventilation in cars in general

B60H 1/00828

Electric heating in cars in general

B60H 1/2215

Heating or cooling of trains

B61D 27/00

Heating or cooling of batteries per se

H01M 10/60

Special rules of classification

Heating in this group is to be understood in the broader meaning of changing temperature including cooling and ventilating

fed by the power supply line
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicles supplied by overhead contact lines.

Provision of heating during charging of battery driven electrically propelled vehicles

using only one supply
Definition statement

This place covers:

The provision of electrical energy to heating devices that use only one kind of supply. The origin of this group are heating devices that run on electricity, steam or hot air e.g. in trains.

with provision for using different supplies
Definition statement

This place covers:

The provision of electrical energy to heating devices that use different supplies. This group covers not only heating devices that run on different forms of electric energy but also heating devices in trains that run additionally on steam, hot water or hot air.

to electric lighting circuits
Definition statement

This place covers:

Provision of electric energy to electric lighting circuits for electric cars.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric lighting systems for toy vehicles

A63H 17/28

Lighting in general

F21, H05B

fed by the power supply line
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicles supplied by overhead contact lines.

{Energy regeneration from auxiliary equipment}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Energy recovering from auxiliary equipment e.g. downward movement of fork lift fork is used to regenerate energy. This procedure can also be frequently found in working vehicles.

Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes; Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration or energy consumption (methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells B60L 58/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for crash or collision prevention;

Methods and devices for detection of failure in the drive train;

Dead-man's devices;

Methods and devices for cutting of power under fault conditions;

Methods and devices for limiting traction current under mechanical overload conditions;

Methods and devices for preventing excessive speed of the vehicle;

Methods and devices for indicating wheel slip;

Methods and devices for monitoring and recording operating variables.

Relationships with other classification places

Measuring in general G01

Emergency protective circuit arrangements H02H

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles

B60L 58/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing of electric installations on transport means

G01R 31/005

Testing dynamo electric machines

G01R 31/34

Testing dynamo electric machines in operation

G01R 31/343

Safety arrangements with redundant control systems

G05B 9/03

Sound generating devices

G10K 15/02

{Measures or means for preventing or attenuating collisions}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices dealing with the impact or the results of a crash or a collision. This includes the disconnection of the battery or the discharge of the smoothing capacitor.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Safety devices responsive to accident or emergency per se

B60K 28/14

{Prevention of collisions}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for preventing crashes or collisions.

{Detecting, eliminating, remedying or compensating for drive train abnormalities, e.g. failures within the drive train}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities in the drive train whilst the vehicle is in operation

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Avoiding failure by redundant parts

B60W 50/023

Arrangements for testing of electric apparatus, lines or components for short-circuits, leakage or ground faults

G01R 31/025

Testing dynamo electric machines in operation

G01R 31/343

{relating to inverters}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with the inverter systems e.g. semiconductor switch failure

{relating to sensors}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with sensors e.g. motor position senor, voltage sensors or wheel speed sensors

{relating to electric energy storage systems, e.g. batteries or capacitors}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with the electric energy storage e.g. battery or capacitor.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monitoring or controlling batteries in electric vehicles

B60L 58/10

Safety and protective circuits for charging batteries

H02J 7/0026

{relating to fuel cells}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with fuel cells

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monitoring or controlling fuel cells in electric vehicles

B60L 58/30

{relating to electrical machines}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with the electrical machines of the vehicle e.g. drive motors or generators

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing dynamo electric machines in operation

G01R 31/343

{relating to the isolation, e.g. ground fault or leak current}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with the electric isolation e.g. ground fault or leaking current

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for testing of electric apparatus, lines or components for short-circuits, leakage or ground faults

G01R 31/025

{relating to braking}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with brakes

{relating to control modules}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with control modules

{with use of redundant elements for safety purposes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Same or similar elements are used to replace a failed component of the drive train. This can be either a supernumerary part only foreseen for this purpose or an other devices that serves originally a different propose.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Avoiding failure by redundant parts

B60W 50/023

Dead-man's devices
Definition statement

This place covers:

Failsafe devices initiating appropriate safety measures in case that the human operator becomes incapacitated.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

dead-man's devices

Failsafe devices that are initiated by a type of human incapacitation

Cutting off the power supply under fault conditions (protective devices and circuit arrangements in general H01H; H02H)
Definition statement

This place covers:

This subclass also covers the discharge or isolation of elements with high energy content e.g. batteries under fault conditions in so far as specially adapted for electric vehicles

Relationships with other classification places

Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition are covered in H02H and H01H

Indicating wheel slip {; Correction of wheel slip}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles

B61C 15/08

{by indirect measurement of vehicle speed}
Definition statement

This place covers:

When all wheels are driving wheels, none of them can be relied on to give the true vehicle speed because all wheels could be spinning. Thus the vehicle speed can not be measured directly and has to be calculated, estimated or simulated. This established vehicle speed is then compared to the measured wheel speed to determine if the wheel is blocked or if it spins.

{for maintaining or recovering the adhesion of the drive wheels}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Traction control systems

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Safety devices responsive to or preventing skidding of wheels per se

B60K 28/16

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

TCS

Traction control system

ASR

Anti slip regulation/ German: Anti- Schlupf-Regelung

{whilst braking, i.e. ABS}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Anti-lock braking system (ABS = Antiblokiersystem) The braking torque is controlled to prevent the wheels from locking up (that is, ceasing rotation) and therefore avoiding slipping or skidding.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

ABS per se

B60T 8/00

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Gleitschutz

German synonym for ABS used only in connection with trains

Recording operating variables {; Monitoring of operating variables}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Recording, measuring and detecting operating variables of an electric vehicle

Current collectors for power supply lines of electrically-propelled vehicles (current collectors in general H01R 41/00)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Supply of electric current to toy vehicles through a track

A63H 18/12

Toy vehicles with overhead trolley-wire

A63H 19/26

Power supply lines for electrically propelled vehicles

B60M

Current collectors in general, e.g. non-rotary current collectors

H01R 41/00

using rollers or sliding shoes in contact with trolley wire (B60L 5/40 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Current collectors for collecting current from lines in slotted conduits

B60L 5/40

Devices for lifting and resetting the collector (B60L 5/34 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Current collectors with devices to enable one vehicle to pass another one using the same power supply line

B60L 5/34

for collecting current from conductor rails (B60L 5/40 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Current collectors for collecting current from lines in slotted conduits

B60L 5/40

from third rail
Definition statement

This place covers:

Current collectors for vehicles on a railway track comprising two rails. The third rail is the power supply rail.

for collecting current from individual contact pieces connected to the power supply line
Definition statement

This place covers:

Intermittent electrical power transfer to vehicle in motion.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Charging stations for electric vehicles when not moving

B60L 53/00

Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles in general
Definition statement

This place covers:

The electric traction motor is used as a generator and in this way slowing the vehicle. The energy produced can either be fed back into the supply, stored in a battery, dissipated in a braking resistors or used to power the engine driven generator that is used as a motor and dragging the combustion engine.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicle brake control systems

B60T

ABS-systems

B60T 8/00

Retarders, i.e. regenerative electric braking

B60T 13/586

Regenerative Braking

B60W 30/18127

Rail brakes

B61H 7/00

Actuating mechanisms for brakes

F16D 65/14

Stopping or slowing electric motors per se

H02P 3/00

{Dynamic electric braking by short circuiting the motor}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The electric traction motor is short circuited and produces a braking force. The energy is dissipated in the motor itself.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Braking electric DC-motors by short-circuit per se

H02P 3/12

Braking electric AC-motors by short-circuit per se

H02P 3/22

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Kurzschlussbremsen

German synonym

{Dynamic electric braking by reversing current, i.e. plugging}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric currents are applied to the motor in a way that induces a magnetic field that turns in an opposite direction to the one of the motor. The magnetic field serves to brake the motor. This method can still be applied if battery is fully charged. The main part of the energy is dissipated in the motor itself.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Gegenstrombremsen

German

Dynamic electric resistor braking (B60L 7/22 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Braking resistors are used to dissipate the energy regenerated by electrodynamic braking.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dynamic electric resistor braking combined with dynamic electric regenerative braking

B60L 7/22

for vehicles propelled by dc motors
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicles propelled by motors driven by a dc current

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Resistor braking for DC-motors per se

H02P 3/12

for vehicles propelled by ac motors
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicles propelled by motors driven by a ac current

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Resistor braking for AC-motors per se

H02P 3/22

Controlling the braking effect (B60L 7/04, B60L 7/06 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Vehicles propelled with dc motors

B60L 7/04

Vehicles propelled with ac motors

B60L 7/06

Dynamic electric regenerative braking (B60L 7/22 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

The traction battery is used to store the energy regenerated by electrodynamic braking.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dynamic electric resistor braking combined with dynamic electric regenerative braking

B60L 7/22

for vehicles propelled by dc motors
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicles propelled by motors driven by a dc current

for vehicles propelled by ac motors
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicles propelled by motors driven by an ac current

Controlling the braking effect (B60L 7/12, B60L 7/14, B60L 7/16 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Regenerative braking for vehicles with dc motors

B60L 7/12

Regenerative braking for vehicles with ac motors

B60L 7/14

Regenerative braking for vehicles comprising converters

B60L 7/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Regenerative Braking

B60W 30/18127

Braking by supplying regenerated power to the prime mover of vehicles comprising engine-driven generators
Definition statement

This place covers:

The mechanical resistance of the vehicle combustion engine is used to dissipate the energy regenerated by electrodynamic braking.

Dynamic electric resistor braking, combined with dynamic electric regenerative braking
Definition statement

This place covers:

The traction battery is used to store the energy regenerated by electrodynamic braking. If its storage capacity is not sufficient (e.g. during peaks), braking resistors are used to dissipate the energy regenerated by electrodynamic braking.

Controlling the braking effect
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Retarders being of the electric type

B60T 13/586

Regenerative Braking

B60W 30/18127

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Retarders

regenerating braking in electric vehicles seem to be interpreted as retarders in B60T 13/586

Eddy-current braking
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wear-free systems for slowing a vehicle creating eddy currents in a metal by means of induction.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Eddy-current braking

Wear free systems for slowing a vehicle creating eddy currents by in a metal by means of induction. The eddy currents produces a magnetic field opposing the first magnetic field. Opposing magnetic fields create force that reduces the vehicle velocity.

Electric propulsion with power supply from forces of nature, e.g. sun or wind
Definition statement

This place covers:

The propulsion energy of the vehicle is provided by forces of nature in or at the vehicle itself. This can be achieved e.g. by solar panels and wind mills.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of electric vehicles

B60L 1/00

Arrangements in connection with power supply from force of nature

B60K 16/00

{Converting light into electric energy, e.g. by using photo-voltaic systems}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The electric energy used for propulsion is generated using light e.g. sun light in or at the vehicle.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Solar cells per se

H01L 31/00

Components or accessories specially adapted for PV modules

H02S 40/00

{Converting flow of air into electric energy, e.g. by using wind turbines}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The electric energy used for propulsion of the vehicle is generated in or at the vehicle using wind energy.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wind motors per se

F03D

Electric propulsion with power supply external to the vehicle (electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways B60L 13/00; in combination with batteries or fuel cells within the vehicle B60L 50/53)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Trains, streetcars, buses or similar vehicles using overhead power lines. The vehicle is supplied with electric energy meanwhile it is in motion and as well during stops in stations. The major part of the traction energy is delivered externally to the vehicle a relative small amount of energy may be stored within the vehicle.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways

B60L 13/00

In combination with an external power supply, e.g. from overhead contact lines

B60L 50/53

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Supply of electric current to toy vehicles through a track

A63H 18/12

Control of toy vehicles by vehicle-track interaction

A63H 18/16

Electrically-driven model locomotives

A63H 19/10

Electric toy railways

A63H 19/24

Toy vehicles with overhead trolley-wire

A63H 19/26

Electric drive mechanisms for toys

A63H 29/22

with conversion by metadyne
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Metadyne

Special form of a rotary converter with three or more brushes

using ac induction motors
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Asynchronous motor

Induction motor

Electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways; Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles ({tracks for Maglev-type trains E01B 25/30;} electromagnets per se H01F 7/06; linear motors per se H02K 41/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Tracks for magnetic suspension or levitation vehicles

E01B 25/30

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electromagnets per se

H01F 7/06

Propulsion by linear motors per se

H02K 41/02

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Suspension railway

Railway in a form of elevated monorail where the vehicle is suspended from a fixed track

Rack railway

Railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "rack railway", "rack-and-pinion railway" and "cog railway"
{Electric propulsion adapted for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways (B60L 13/03 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electric propulsion for MagLev vehicles

B60L 13/10

Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Controlling the speed of the traction motor implies the control of the vehicle speed itself.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Starting, controlling, braking of electric machines per se

H02P

{for control of propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways; for control of magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles for propulsion purposes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Control for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles, rack railways or vehicles propelled by linear motors as covered by B60L 13/00

Control for magnetic suspension or levitation for propulsion purposes as covered by B60L 13/00

B60L 13/00 covers the devices, this group covers the control (method) aspects.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways; Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles

B60L 13/00

{for control of propulsion for vehicles propelled by linear motors}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Control for vehicles propelled by linear motors.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric propulsion by linear motors

B60L 13/03

{Physical arrangements or structures of drive train converters specially adapted for the propulsion motors of electric vehicles}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of converters and inverters only in so far specially adapted for the drive train of electric vehicles

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Converters and inverters for charging vehicles

B60L 53/22

Converters and inverters per se

H02M/00

{using field orientation; Vector control; Direct Torque Control [DTC]}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Control for vehicles using control methods based on coordinate transfer to a coordinate system rotating with the rotor of the electric machine. By doing so the stator current of an electrical motor can be broken down into the torque and field component allowing to independently control the torque and field of an electric motor.

References
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Arrangements or methods for the control of electric machines by vector control per se, e.g. by control of field orientation

H02P 21/00

for automatic control superimposed on human control to limit the acceleration of the vehicle, e.g. to prevent excessive motor current (electric devices for safety purposes B60L 3/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electric devices for safety purposes

B60L 3/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control system corrects or modifies a request from the driver

B60W 50/087

with main controller driven by a servomotor (B60L 15/18 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Automatic control without contact making or breaking

B60L 15/18

with main controller driven through a ratchet mechanism (B60L 15/18 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Automatic control without contact making or breaking

B60L 15/18

{for braking}
Relationships with other classification places

Electrodynamic braking breaking B60L 7/00

{for braking on a slope}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Braking on a slope (ascendant and descendant);

Stopping on a slope;

Anti rollback systems on a slope;

Limiting current through motor on Lock State

Stalled state or at zero or low speed (on a slope);

Regenerative braking during low descent on a slope.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hill holding per se

B60W 30/18118

{Electric differentials, e.g. for supporting steering vehicles}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Different speed of wheels on opposite sides of the vehicles whilst turning, e.g. electrical differential and systems of the like. Of particular importance for wheel motors.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement of control devices for differential gearing

B60K 23/02

Electrical power steering

B62D 5/04

{for optimising the use of energy}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The efficient use of energy in electric cars and strategies to achieve this.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Navigation based on energy use

G01C 21/3469

{by controlling transmissions or clutches}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Control is affected upon the transmission or the clutch

{for creeping}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods emulating the creeping state of an automatic transmission.

{for drive off}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods for accelerating the vehicle from stand still.

{for overtaking}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods facilitating the process of overtaking.

with main controller driven through a ratchet mechanism (B60L 15/28 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Control without contact making or breaking

B60L 15/28

Control or regulation of multiple-unit electrically-propelled vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

The joint control of multiple units. Historically this concerns mainly trains with multiple individual propelled units. However this group also covers a collective of electric vehicles that is controlled together.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Traction couplings

B60D 1/00

Adaptation of control equipment on vehicle for remote actuation from a stationary place (devices along the route for controlling devices on rail vehicles B61L 3/00; central rail-traffic control systems B61L 27/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Devices along the route for controlling devices on rail vehicles

B61L 3/00

Central rail-traffic control systems

B61L 27/00

Adaptation of control equipment on vehicle for actuation from alternative parts of the vehicle or from alternative vehicles of the same vehicle train (B60L 15/32 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Control or regulation of multiple-unit electrically-propelled vehicles

B60L 15/32

Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle (with power supply from force of nature, e.g. sun or wind, B60L 8/00; for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways B60L 13/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric vehicles using electric energy stored or provided in various forms within the vehicle. The electric energy can be provided by engine-driven generators, stored in electrical cells like batteries or fuel cells or converted from mechanically stored energy. This subgroup also covers electric vehicles that use auxiliary electric power supplies like capacitors.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electric propulsion with power supply from forces of nature, e.g. sun or wind

B60L 8/00

Electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways

B60L 13/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrically driven model locomotives

A63H 19/10

Arrangements or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion

B60K 6/20

Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles if propulsion other than electric is used to drive the wheels

B60W 20/00

using propulsion power supplied by engine-driven generators, e.g. generators driven by combustion engines
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric vehicles using an engine-driven generator as only power supply, e.g. diesel electric locomotives.

Motors and generators are being considered as being of type AC or DC according to the form of the current used in the motor or generator.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicles with additional power supply

B60L 50/61

The control of combustion engines is covered in

F02D

Control of engine driven generators

F02D 29/06

Starting engines by motor/generator

F02N 11/04

Charging batteries by a generator driven by a prime mover other than motor of the vehicle

H02J 7/1415

with provision for separate direct mechanical propulsion
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicles, where, under certain conditions, power is directly delivered from the engine to the wheels. This includes also electric equipment for hybrid vehicles unless they are conjointly controlled with the combustion engine.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function, including control of electrical propulsion units in case the vehicle is not purely electrically-propelled.

B60W 10/00

Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles. i.e. vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, all used for propulsion of the vehicle

B60W 20/00

Special rules of classification

Classification should additionally be made:

  • in group B60L 53/00 if aspects of charging are relevant (e.g. plug-in hybrid),
  • in group B60L 50/60 if battery related problems are relevant, and
  • in group B60L 50/70 if fuel cell related aspects are relevant.
using propulsion power generated by humans or animals
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric vehicles using human power in addition to other sources of electrical energy

References
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Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Construction of electrically powered cycles

B62M 6/40

using propulsion power stored mechanically, e.g. in fly-wheels
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy and stored mechanically. For later use it is reconverted into electrical energy.

using propulsion power supplied by capacitors
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric vehicles using capacitors in addition to other sources of electrical energy, e.g. to accommodate short-term power fluctuations. The capacitors should explicitly be meant to provide propulsion energy.

using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Primary cells

H01M 6/00

Fuel cells

H01M 8/00

Secondary cells

H01M 10/00

characterised by AC-motors
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicles supplied with electric energy from an electrical cell and propelled by AC motors.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric vehicles with an additional external power supply

B60L 50/53

Electric vehicles powered by fuel cells

B60L 50/70

characterised by DC-motors
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicles supplied with electric energy from an electrical cell and propelled by motors driven by a DC current

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric vehicles with an additional external power supply

B60L 50/53

Electric vehicles powered by fuel cells

B60L 50/70

in combination with an external power supply, e.g. from overhead contact lines
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicle supplied with electric energy from an electrical cell and additionally from the outside mostly in the form of an overhead power line.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric vehicles powered exclusively by external power supply

B60L 9/00

Charging electric vehicles

B60L 53/00

using power supplied by batteries (in combination with fuel cells B60L 50/75)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Monitoring the operating state of the batteries
  • Controlling the drive in dependence of detected batteries variables.

The term "batteries" is used as well for accumulators.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electric vehicles powered by both fuel cells and batteries

B60L 50/75

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Charging or depolarising batteries

H02J 7/00

by batteries charged by engine-driven generators, e.g. series hybrid electric vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric vehicles using a range extender to increase the operating range of the battery, e.g. series hybrid vehicles.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electric vehicles using propulsion power supplied by engine-driven generators, e.g. generators driven by combustion engines

B60L 50/10

charged by low-power generators primarily intended to support the batteries, e.g. range extenders
Definition statement

This place covers:

The engine-driven generator provides not enough power to supply the maximum output power of the vehicle. If only powered by the range extender, this kind of vehicle has a reduced power output.

{Arrangements of batteries}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements or location of batteries only in so far as specially adapted for the drive train of electric vehicles.

using power supplied by fuel cells (in combination with batteries B60L 50/75)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric vehicles powered by fuel cells.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electric vehicles powered by both fuel cells and batteries

B60L 50/75

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of fuel cells

H01M 8/04298

Control of failure or abnormal functionality of fuel cells

H01M 8/04664

Indirect fuel cell; Redox flow type battery

H01M 8/20, H01M 8/188

Grouping of fuel cells into batteries

H01M 8/24

Arrangement of fuel cells within vehicles specially adapted for electric vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements or locations of fuel cells only in so far as specially adapted for the drive train of electric vehicles.

Constructional details of fuel cells specially adapted for electric vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of fuel cells only in so far as specially adapted for the drive train of electric vehicles.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fuel cells per se

H01M 8/00

using propulsion power supplied by specific means not covered by groups B60L 50/10 - B60L 50/50, e.g. by direct conversion of thermal nuclear energy into electricity
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric vehicles using electrical energy provided by sources not covered by groups B60L 50/10 - B60L 50/50, e.g. gas turbine driven generators, radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) or energy converted from energy stored pneumatically or hydraulically.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Detecting, eliminating, remedying or compensating for drive train abnormalities relating to electric energy storage systems

B60L 3/0046

Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for HEV characterised by the electric energy storing means

B60K 6/28

Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Charging and discharging of electric vehicles.

Aspects of

  • charging converter
  • connection means
  • automatic connection
  • exchange of energy storage elements
  • charging stations
  • Methods for
  • identification of vehicles
  • determination of the supplied energy
  • measuring, billing and payment
  • availability of energy.

The vehicles are normally not moving during the charging process. Exceptionally an inductive energy transfer may occur during the ride.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optimisation of energy with GPS or similar systems

B60L 15/2045

Power supply (e.g. charging) of vehicles whilst in motion

B60M

Power supply of vehicles whilst in motion using intermitting contact points along the line

B60M 1/36

Power supply for vehicles of special types using stored power

B60M 7/003

Inductive coupling

H01F 38/14

Connectors per se

H01R

Charging batteries per se

H02J 7/00

Power conversion systems per se

H02M

Arrangements for secret or secure communication

H04L 9/00

{DC charging controlled by the charging station, e.g. mode 4}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods for charging vehicles considerably faster than normal charge, e.g. less than 30 minutes, or also called "fast charging" or "mode 4".

Inductive energy transfer
Definition statement

This place covers:

The energy needed to propel the vehicle is transmitted inductively from the station to the vehicle. Often, but not necessarily, the primary inductances are embedded in the floor. The vehicle normally is stopped during the charging process.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles

B60L 13/04

Inductive couplings

H01F 38/14

Circuit arrangements for charging batteries from ac-mains using non-contact coupling, e.g. inductive, capacitive

H02J 7/025

Inductive nearfield transmission for power transfer

H04B 5/0037

Conductive energy transfer
Definition statement

This place covers:

The connectors are fixed to a station or to the vehicle. The vehicle must be stopped in order to receive any charge. Communication between the station and the vehicle may be established.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Current collectors

B60L 5/00

Charging stations

B60L 53/30

Connectors per se

H01R

Installation of electric cables in vehicles

H02G 3/00

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Pilot

Wire used for communication

characterised by converters located in the vehicle
Definition statement

This place covers:

Measures and means for charging or discharging electric vehicles distinguished by the use of converters.

Constructional details or arrangements of charging converters specially adapted for charging electric vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of converters and inverters only in so far as specially adapted for charging or discharging electric vehicles.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Converters and inverters for vehicle drive trains

B60L 15/007

Converters and inverters per se

H02M

Using the vehicle's propulsion converter for charging
Definition statement

This place covers:

The propulsion converter is used as an onboard charger eliminating the need to provide a separate onboard charger.

Constructional details of charging stations
Definition statement

This place covers:

Charging stations for electric vehicles and their interaction/communication with the vehicle as well as with the grid supplying the station are classified here. Vehicle recognition, user recognition, theft of energy prevention, measurement of transferred energy, billing of the customer, availability of charging slots for the correspondent vehicle types, recognition of battery types.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optimisation of energy and GPS or similar system

B60L 15/20

Inductive energy transfer

B60L 53/12

Conductive energy transfer

B60L 53/20

Exchange of energy storage elements

B60L 53/80

Power lines of special types for vehicles using stored power

B60M 7/003

Building structures for parking

E04H 6/00

Arrangements for road pricing

G07B 15/00

Vending machines other than coins

G07F 7/00

Coin-freed apparatus with meter-controlled dispensing electricity

G07F 15/003

Traffic control systems for road vehicles

G08G 1/00

Automatic parking traffic control systems

G08G 1/065

Fleet management

G08G 1/20

Circuits for charging batteries per se, e.g. for batteries removed from the vehicle

H02J 7/00

Charging stations for mobile units

H02J 7/0027

Using battery charging as network buffer

H02J 7/34

Arrangements for secret or secure communication

H04L 9/00

Charging columns specially adapted for electric vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Charging installations for electric vehicles not integrated in a building. Typically they are designed for a public environment. They can be of a stand-alone type, e.g. columns or integrated into other street furniture. Means for energy theft prevention associated with charging columns.

Means for automatically adjusting the relative position of charging devices and vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Automatic positioning of the plug, the inductive transfer device or the electric vehicle in order to automatically connect to an electric power supply to the vehicle.

by positioning the vehicle
Definition statement

This place covers:

The vehicle is positioned in order to allow automatic connection of a plug or charging device. The positioning can be e.g. mechanical by forcing the car in the right position, optically by guiding the driver or by automatic repositioning of the car.

specially adapted for charging by inductive energy transfer
Definition statement

This place covers:

Automatic positioning of the inductive charging device or the vehicle for inductively charging electric vehicles.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inductive charging of electric vehicles per see

B60L 53/12

Special rules of classification

If the vehicle is positioned, the document should also be classified in B60L 53/36.

with position-responsive activation of primary coils
Definition statement

This place covers:

The position of the vehicle to be charged is detected and primary coils are activated selectively to maximise energy transfer. The primary coils can be integrated in the floor surface or in a separate charging device. The primary coils can also be distributed along the road.

Special rules of classification

If the primary coils are distributed along the road, documents should also be classified in group B60L 53/32.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

primary coil

the coil of an inductive transfer device that is stationary and part of the charging installation

secondary coil

the coil of an inductive transfer device that is integrated in an electric vehicle

Monitoring or controlling charging stations
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods ruling the exchange of energy and the respective data for charging an electric vehicle. Interaction or communication between the vehicle and the charging station or the electricity grid, e.g. availability of charging slots for the correspondent vehicle types.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data exchange for battery identification

H02J 7/0004

in response to network capacity
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods for adapting charging of electrical vehicles to the supply possibilities of the electricity grid, e.g. depending on network stability or limits of the network ability to provide power.

Optimising energy costs, e.g. responding to electricity rates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods for optimising the cost of charging an electric vehicle, e.g. by adapting time or location depending on available energy rates.

involving identification of vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods that allow the identification of an electric vehicle including recognition of vehicle or battery type.

{Methods related to measuring, billing or payment}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods for measuring energy transferred to and from the vehicle.

Registration, billing and payment associated with the transfer of energy.

Exchanging energy storage elements, e.g. removable batteries
Definition statement

This place covers:

Empty or partially empty or faulty batteries, super-capacitors or similar energy carriers are physically removed from the vehicle and replaced with charged ones. An energy carrier may also be the electrolyte that is exchanged exclusively.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Supplying batteries or removing batteries from vehicles

B60S 5/06

Cells working by exchange of electrolyte, e.g. redox flow cells

H01M 8/188

Arrangements for supplying energy stored within a vehicle to a power network, i.e. vehicle-to-grid [V2G] arrangements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods for providing stored energy from the vehicle to the grid. The vehicles serve, e.g. as a net-buffer to stabilise the electricity net.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means in general

H02J 3/32

responding to state of charge [SoC]
Definition statement

This place covers:

The state of charge [SoC/SOC] of the battery is determined and influences the control of the vehicle.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Indicating measured values, displays

G01D

Testing/monitoring SOC per se

G01R 31/382

Testing electrical conditions of batteries

G01R 31/387

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

SOC

State of charge

Maintaining the SoC within a determined range
Definition statement

This place covers:

The control of the electric vehicle is required to keep the SOC within particular range or window (e.g. between 30% and 70%) so as, for example, increase the life span of the battery.

Preventing excessive discharging
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods for prevention of a deep discharge of the battery to avoid damage to or destruction of the battery.

responding to battery ageing, e.g. to the number of charging cycles or the state of health [SoH]
Definition statement

This place covers:

Monitoring the aging of the battery and control methods depending on the established data.

of two or more battery modules
Definition statement

This place covers:

The battery is split in different groups of cells to achieve a desired performance, e.g. using a part for traction purposes whilst another part is recharged.

Switching between serial connection and parallel connection of battery modules
Definition statement

This place covers:

The battery is switched between series and parallel connection in order to achieve a desired performance.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Parallel/serial switching for batteries per se

H02J 7/0024

having different nominal voltages
Definition statement

This place covers:

The interaction of batteries with different voltages, e.g. traction battery and axillary battery.

having the same nominal voltage
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and means to control battery sets having the same nominal voltage.

Balancing the charge of battery modules
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods or means to equalise the charge state or voltage of a group of battery cells to increase capacity and life span of the battery.

by controlling the electric load
Definition statement

This place covers:

The control of the electric loads is influenced in order to control the battery temperature, e.g. by restricting the maximum drive power or by cutting of auxiliary drives.

for starting of fuel cells
Definition statement

This place covers:

Powering up an electric vehicle using the start of the fuel cell including the fuel cell itself.

for controlling the temperature of fuel cells, e.g. by controlling the electric load
Definition statement

This place covers:

Control is affected upon the fuel cell temperature. For example, the control of the electric loads is influenced in order to control the fuel cell temperature, e.g. by restricting the maximum drive power or by cutting of auxiliary drives.