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STATIC STORES (information storage based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer G11B; semiconductor devices for storage H01L, e.g. H01L 27/108 to H01L 27/115 ; pulse technique in general H03K, e.g. electronic switches H03K 17/00 ; { using a static store as a picture recording medium H04N 5/907})
Definition statement
This subclass covers:

Devices or arrangements for storage of digital or analogue information in which no relative movement takes place between an information storage element and a transducer; which incorporate a selecting-device for writing-in or reading-out the information into or from the store.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass does not cover:

Information storage based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer

Manufacturing processes

Semiconductor devices for storage; layout or structure of memory cells or devices at the fabrication level

Pulse technique in general, e.g. electronic switches

Using a static store as a picture recording medium

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Solid state disk drives

Record carriers for machines

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Accessing or allocating memory in electronic computers

Special rules of classification within this subclass

In this sub-class there exist three general main groups, G11C 5/00, G11C 7/00 and G11C 8/00, which cover aspects such as power supply, reading and writing arrangements and addressing arrangements that are common to many if not all types of memories. There are further main groups which are dedicated to one or more specific types of memory cell technologies. Within these, there may be specific sub-groups for aspects such as power supply or addressing which parallel the general groups. The convention is that, where a document describes a specific aspect for a specific cell technology without indicating its use with other cell types, it should only be classified under the technology group. If it is described as applicable to two cell types then it should be classified under each cell type and in the general group. Thus, for example, a sense amplifier for a resistive RAM would be classified under G11C 13/004, while a document applying the same sense amplifier to both ReRAM and flash memory would be further classified in G11C 16/26 and G11C 7/06.

G11C 29/00 is a further general group covering the aspects of testing and repair of memory devices. There are no cell-type specific sub-groups for these aspects and thus they are only classified in this place. However other aspects also covered in testing documents will be classified according to the rules of the previous paragraph.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

2D/3D

two/three dimensional

Storage element

an element which can hold at least one item of information and is provided with means for writing-in or reading-out this information

Memory

a device, including storage elements, which can hold information to be extracted when desired.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ATD

Address transition detection

RAM

Random Access Memory

DRAM

Dynamic RAM

FRAM, FeRAM

Ferro-electric RAM

MRAM

Magnetic RAM

NVRAM

Nonvolatile RAM

PCRAM, PRAM

Phase-change RAM

RRAM, ReRAM

Resistive RAM

SRAM

Static RAM

ROM

Read-only Memory

PROM

Programmable ROM

EPROM

Erasable PROM

EEPROM, E2PROM

Electrically-erasable PROM

EAROM

Electrically-alterable ROM

Details of stores covered by G11C 11/00
Definition statement
This group covers:

Details of arrangements providing supporting functions for semiconductor memory devices, concerning protection against loss of information, memory layout and stacking, signal line and power line interconnection, memory modules and their electrical interconnections, and power supplies including backup supplies, as well as charge pumps, voltage and current reference generators as well as circuits for stabilization of voltages and currents, which are common to all semiconductor memories types covered by subclass G11C, as detailed in main groups G11C 13/00, G11C 14/00, G11C 16/00, G11C 17/00, G11C 19/00, G11C 21/00, G11C 23/00, G11C 25/00, G11C 27/00 as well as G11C 11/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This group covers the above mentioned aspects only when they are concerned with a semiconductor memory.

Furthermore, in the case where any of the above mentioned aspects are adapted to be used with a semiconductor memory of a specific type, such aspects should be classified in the relevant group covering that specific type of semiconductor device, as long as such a specific group is present.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Power supplies, reference generators or voltage pumps in general not being concerned with semiconductor memories.

Circuit means for protection against loss of information in general having no connection to semiconductor memories.

Geometrical lay-out of the components in integrated circuits not concerned with semiconductor memories.

Mechanical aspects of memory modules, supports and cards

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Protection means for ferromagnetic memories

Power supply arrangements for ferromagnetic memories

Protection means for ferroelectric memories

Power supply arrangements for ferroelectric memories

Means for protection concerning static memory cells (SRAM)

Means for protection concerning static memory storage device (SRAM)

G11C11/41355

Power supply arrangements for SRAMs

G11C11/41357

Special rules of classification within this group

If documents are clearly restricted to one specific cell type or memory technology they should not be classified here but in the group of said cell technology, unless there is no group for that cell technology. If documents mention applications to different types of cells then they can be classified here.

{Geometric lay-out considerations of storage- and peripheral-blocks in a semiconductor storage device (geometrical lay-out of the components in integrated circuits, H01L 27/0207)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Geometrical layout considerations of the internal components of a memory device.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Geometrical lay-out of the components in integrated circuits

Special rules of classification within this group

Layout considerations on a printed circuit board are covered by H05K 1/18.

Supports for storage elements, Supports for storage elements,{e.g. memory modules}; Mounting or fixing of storage elements on such supports
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Electrical aspects of memory modules such as e.g. SIMM, DIMM or flash memories.

{Detection of memory cassette insertion/removal; Continuity checks of supply and ground lines (in general G01R 31/02); Detection of supply variations/interruptions/levels (G11C 5/148 takes precedence); Switching between alternative supplies (back-up supplies per se H02J 9/061),(G11C 5/141 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Covering the detection of change in supply voltage, on the voltage or the ground side, in general.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Details of power up or power down circuits, standby circuits or recovery circuits

Battery and back-up supplies

Back-up supplies per se

Testing of electric apparatus, lines or components, for short-circuits, discontinuities, leakage

{Detection of predetermined disconnection or reduction of power supply, e.g. power down or power standby}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Voluntary power down or standby arrangements.

{Details of power up or power down circuits, standby circuits or recovery circuits}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Covering the characteristics of the power up and power down circuits, the standby circuits and recovery circuits.

Arrangements for writing information into, or reading information out from, a digital store (G11C 5/00 takes precedence; auxiliary circuits for stores using semiconductor devices G11C 11/4063 , G11C 11/413 , G11C11/4193)
Definition statement
This group covers:

All aspects of reading and writing of data to an address memory cell in general except the addressing of the cell. The addressing and row circuitry is covered in G11C 8/00. G11C 7/00 is more about column and input/output circuitry "In general" means that technology or cell specific documents are not covered here but in their respective groups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Encryption, data protection

Higher level memory space management, free space management, garbage collection, cache memories

External memory control circuits, buses, bus protocols, DMA, memory controllers

Specific cell types of technologies

Details of stores

Auxiliary circuits for stores using semiconductor devices

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Reading and writing arrangements for specific cell types

Places in relation to which this group is residual:

Early solid state music players

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Security aspects, encryption

External data synchronisation during read or write

Calibration

Auxiliary circuits, e.g. for addressing, decoding, driving, writing, sensing or timing

Auxiliary circuits, e.g. for addressing, decoding, driving, writing, sensing, timing, power reduction

Amplifiers in general

Basic logic circuits, latches and flip-flops

Delays

PLL, DLL circuits per se

Synchronisation

Special rules of classification within this group

If documents are clearly restricted to one specific cell type or memory technology they should not be classified here but in the group of said cell technology, unless there is no group for that cell technology. If documents mention applications to different types of cells then they can be classified here.

with means for avoiding parasitic signals
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bit lines or layout aspects

Power supply arrangements

with means for avoiding disturbances due to temperature effects
Special rules of classification within this group

If refresh is concerned G11C 11/406 takes precedence.

{Differential amplifiers of non-latching type, e.g. comparators, long-tailed pairs}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Most of the current sense amplifiers (current mirrors based) and most of the multi stage sense amplifiers.

Control thereof
Special rules of classification within this group

This is a recent group and most of the material about the control of sense amplifiers in general and about sense amplifier drivers is in G11C 7/06.

Input/output (I/0) data interface arrangements, e.g. I/0 data control circuits, I/O data buffers (level conversion circuits in general H03K 19/0175)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Input/output (I/0) data interface arrangements.

Covers all the synchronous memory data interfaces (Synclink, SDR, DDR, Rambus).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Level conversion circuits in general

Special rules of classification within this group

Serial interfaces (IC2, SPI, single wire) when applied to memories are mainly classified in G11C 5/066. Buses with Ring topologies (daisy chain or peer-to-peer buses) for memories are also covered in G11C 7/10, G11C 7/1051 and G11C 7/1078. Documents where the memory controller is the main aspect are in the G06F 13/16 groups. Data buses and bus protocols in general are in G06F 13/00.

{Data managing, e.g. manipulating data before writing or reading out, data bus switches or control circuits therefor}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In particular:

  • Data masking;
  • Memories incorporating some form of processing capability from logic function and simple ALUs to memories embedded with a CPU (cache memories are in G06F 12/0802);
  • "Sophisticated" data routing, reordering (X-bars).

It also contains sometimes memories with ECC circuits. However these should be searched and classified in G06F 11/1044 .

{using pipelining techniques, i.e. using latches between functional memory parts, e.g. row/column decoders, I/O buffers, sense amplifiers}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The pipelining in clock synchronous and wave pipelining in clockless (asynchronous) memories.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Power supply arrangements for memories with random access ports synchronised on clock signal pulse trains

{using interleaving techniques, i.e. read-write of one part of the memory while preparing another part}
Special rules of classification within this group

"Interleaving" when referring to a bit line layout is classified in G11C 7/18.

{Read-write mode select circuits}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Mode setting registers and bonding pads.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Redundancy; Test mode entry

{Data bus control circuits, e.g. precharging, presetting, equalising}
Special rules of classification within this group

Also some on die termination (ODT) documents which are unfortunately spread over three groups G11C 7/1048, G11C 7/1051 and G11C 5/06, where they are now classified.

{Data output circuits, e.g. read-out amplifiers, data output buffers, data output registers, data output level conversion circuits}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Together with G11C 7/1078, most of the synchronous interfaces documents.

{for memories with random access ports synchronised on clock signal pulse trains, e.g. synchronous memories, self timed memories}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Many early SDRAMs but became rapidly obsolete as most dynamic memories are now synchronous.

{for multiport memories each having random access ports and serial ports, e.g. video RAM}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multiport cells

{Data input circuits, e.g. write amplifiers, data input buffers, data input registers, data input level conversion circuits}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Together with G11C 7/1051, most of the synchronous interfaces documents.

Storage of analogue signals in digital stores using an arrangement comprising analogue/digital (A/D) converters, digital memories and digital/analogue (D/A) converters
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Also many early solid state music players and early solid state memory cards (e.g. Compact Flash, SDcard).These should not be classified here but in G11B, G06F and G06K.

Read-write (R-W) timing or clocking circuits; Read-write (R-W) control signal generators or management
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • All the clock generating circuits (PLL, DLL, delay lines, oscillators),
  • Overall control of memory operation (delay chains, state machines...) and memory operation mode/state, and
  • Control aspects of specific parts of the memory which are not covered in other G11C 5/00, G11C 7/00 and G11C 8/00 groups.
Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Dummy cell

cell that is not used for storage but to provide a reference voltage or current during sensing

Embedded

memories which are designed to be incorporated on the same die as a microcontroller/processor usually in ASICs or System on a Chip circuits - not cache memories

Burst

Read or Write cycle during which a series of 2, 4, 8 or more external data are sequentially input to or output from the memory device

Precharge

to prepare the memory for a subsequent read operation (or a write operation) by charging bit lines and/or word lines to a certain voltage

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

DPD

Deep Power Down

DLL

Delay locked loop

EDO

extended data output

I/O

Input/Output

LCD

Liquid Crystal Display

ODT

On Die Termination

PLL

Phase locked loop

SA

Sense Amplifier

In patent documents the following expressions/words are often used as synonyms.

"Bit line", "digit line" and "signal line"

"I/O line" and "data line"

"Reference cell" and "dummy cell".

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store (for stores using transistors G11C 11/407 , G11C 11/413 ; { switching or gating circuits for general use H03K 17/00})
Definition statement
This group covers:

Circuitry used for decoding a memory address selecting a row line, a bank , a block or a range of memory cells in a semiconductor memory device.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Addressing schemes, architectures or methods, e.g. virtual addressing or multidimensional addressing

Address mapping

For memory cells of the field-effect type

Auxiliary circuits, e.g. for addressing, decoding, driving, writing, sensing, timing, power reduction

Shift registers in general, FIFO, LIFO

Switching or gating circuits for general use

Encoding or decoding method per se

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Particular aspects concerning addressing MRAM (ferromagnetic) devices

Particular aspects concerning addressing FRAM (ferroelectric) devices

Particular aspects concerning addressing DRAM (dynamic RAM) devices

Particular aspects concerning addressing SRAM (static RAM) devices

G11C11/41313

Particular aspects concerning addressing memory devices having resistive memory elements

Particular aspects concerning addressing circuits of EPROM, EAROM, EEPROM devices or other devices having charge storing memory elements

Contact or connection structure for RAS/CAS addressing pins/lines

Circuits selecting Bit lines or data latchs (I/O, input-ouput)

Multiport memory using "single port cells", i.e where the multiport ability it created e.g. in the I/O circuitry.

Special rules of classification within this group

If documents are clearly restricted to one specific cell type or memory technology they should not be classified here but in the group of said cell technology, unless there is no group for that cell technology. If documents mention applications to different types of cells then they can be classified here.

Word line control circuits, e.g. drivers, boosters, pull-up circuits, pull-down circuits, precharging circuits, for word lines
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Circuitries that have an electrical effect on the rows or word lines. e.g. applying a voltage or a potential to the word line or row.

Decoders
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Decoders, circuitry which processes the address information to make a single or plural selection of word line or row line possible. However, these decoder circuits are usually not used for the electrical activation of the row or word line. This is the task of the word line control circuits.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Address mapping per se

Word line organisation; Word line lay-out
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In particular, global and local word line structure.

Multiple access memory array, e.g. addressing one storage element via at least independent addressing line groups{(multiport memories in general G11C 7/1075)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Only documents describing memories where each storage cell on its own has two or more ports.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Multiport memories in general

Address timing or clocking circuits; Address control signal generation or management, e.g. for row address strobe (RAS) or column address strobe (CAS) signals
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Physical realization of a corresponding interface

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "row" and "word line" are often used as synonyms.

Digital stores characterised by the use of particular electric or magnetic storage elements; Storage elements therefor (G11C 14/00 to G11C 21/00 take precedence)
Definition statement
This group covers:
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

EPROM (Erasable PROM) EEPROM, E2PROM (Electrically-erasable PROM) EAROM (Electrically-alterable ROM) Flash memory

RRAM, ReRAM (Resistive RAM)

PCRAM, PRAM (Phase-change RAM)

Digital stores characterised by arrangements of cells having volatile and non-volatile storage properties for back-up when the power is down

Digital stores in which information comprising one or more characteristic parts is written into the store and in which information is read-out by searching for one or more of these characteristic parts, i.e. associative or content-addressed stores

Erasable programmable read-only memories

Read-only memories programmable only once; Semi-permanent stores, e.g. manually-replaceable information cards

ROM (Read-only Memory)

PROM (Programmable ROM)

Digital stores in which the information is moved stepwise, e.g. shift register

Digital stores in which the information circulates

General aspects of testing.

General aspects of redundancy management.

General aspects of power supplies, charge pumps, voltage references and battery backup.

NVRAM Nonvolatile battery backed up RAM

General aspects of input/output selection, read and write circuitry.

General aspects of address decoding and word line selection.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sensors

Special rules of classification within this group

G11C 11/56 takes precedence over sub-groups G11C 11/02 to G11C 11/54.

The sub-group classification G11C 11/34 is not to be assigned as there exist more specific places for different cell types.

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

2D

two dimensional

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

AFM

Antiferromagnetic

CPP

Current Perpendicular to Plane

FeFET

Ferro-electric Field Effect Transistor

FM

Ferromagnetic

GMR

Giant Magnetic Resistive

MTJ

Magnetic Tunnel Junction

SAF

Synthetic Antiferromagnetic

{comprising combined but independently operative RAM-ROM, RAM-PROM, RAM-EPROM cells}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Memories having two distinct arrays of memory elements, one with volatile memory elements and another one with non-volatile memory elements, the latter functioning as a backup memory for the volatile part of the memory.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Memories having two types of memory cells or memory elements merged to each other or otherwise combined in the same memory array

using magnetic elements{(using multibit magnetic storage elements G11C 11/5607 ; counters with magnetic elements H03K 23/76 ; pulse generators, static switches, logic circuits with such elements H03K 3/45 , H03K 17/80 , H03K 19/16 ; measurement of magnetic variables G01R 33/00)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measurement of magnetic variables

Multibit magnetic storage elements

Counters with magnetic elements

Pulse generators, static switches, logic circuits with such elements

using rod-type storage elements{(contains no documents; see G11C 11/06085 , G11C 11/14 , G11C 11/155)}
Special rules of classification within this group

Contains no documents; see G11C 11/06085, G11C 11/14, G11C 11/155 instead.

using single-aperture storage elements, e.g. ring core; using multi-aperture plates in which each individual aperture forms a storage element
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Also the (now obsolete) magnetic-core memories.

using thin-film elements
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Memories using a single magnetic layer.

Memories using domain wall displacement in a shift register like manner, see also G11C 19/0833.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetic thin film layers per se

Manufacturing of a magnetic memory

using multiple magnetic layers (G11C 11/155 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Memories using multiple magnetic layers not using any spin effect.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

With cylindrical configuration

using elements in which the storage effect is based on magnetic spin effect{(sensors using magnetoresistive multilayer structures G01R 33/093 ; thin layer magnetic read heads for magnetic discs G11B 5/31 ; non-reciprocal magnetic elements in waveguides H01P; composition of ferromagnetic material H01F 1/00 ; gyrators H03H 7/002)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Memories using magnetic spin effect, i.e. where the memory elements have magnetic tunnel junctions.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Sensors using magnetoresistive multilayer structures

Thin layer magnetic read heads for magnetic discs

Non-reciprocal magnetic elements in waveguides

Composition of ferromagnetic material

Gyrators

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Spin-exchange coupled multilayers per se

Memory structures

Manufacturing of magnetic memory

{Auxiliary circuits}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Auxiliary circuitry for MRAM elements.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of stores

Arrangements for writing information into, or reading information out from, a digital store

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store

{Address circuits or decoders}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store

{Bit-line or column circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bit line control circuits, e.g. drivers, boosters, pull-up circuits, pull-down circuits, precharging circuits, equalising circuits, for bit lines

Bit line organisation; Bit line lay-out

{Word-line or row circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Word line control circuits

Word line organisation; Word line lay-out

{Cell access}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

MRAM specific details of selecting a memory element, e.g. select transistors, diodes or mere word line or bit line selection voltages.

{Reading or sensing circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sense amplifiers; Associated circuits

Data output circuits, e.g. read-out amplifiers, data output buffers, data output registers, data output level conversion circuits

{Writing or programming circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data input circuits, e.g. write amplifiers, data input buffers, data input registers, data input level conversion circuits

{Verifying circuits or methods}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details of checking written data in MRAM elements.

{Timing circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Read-write (R-W) timing or clocking circuits; Read-write (R-W) control signal generators or management

Address timing or clocking circuits; Address control signal generation or management, e.g. for row address strobe (RAS) or column address strobe (CAS) signals

{Protection circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Memory cell safety or protection circuits, e.g. arrangements for preventing inadvertent reading or writing; Status cells; Test cells

Address safety or protection circuits, i.e. arrangements for preventing unauthorised or accidental access

{Power supply circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Power supply arrangements

using ferroelectric elements{(using multibit ferroelectric storage elements G11C 11/5657 ; pulse generators using ferroelectric elements H03K 3/45 ; counters using such elements H03K 23/76)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Memories using ferroelectric elements. This covers memories with capacitive elements where the insulating dielectric material between the capacitor plates is a ferroelectric material.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Using multibit ferroelectric storage

Pulse generators using ferroelectric elements

Counters using such elements

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ferroelectric capacitors per se

Ferroelectric materials

Memory structures

Manufacturing of ferroelectric memories

{using ferroelectric capacitors}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details of FRAM memory elements comprising a ferroelectric capacitor.

{using MOS with ferroelectric gate insulating film}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details of FRAM memory elements comprising a transistor with ferroelectric material, e.g. a FEFET.

{Auxiliary circuits}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Auxiliary circuitry for FRAM elements.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of stores

Arrangements for writing information into, or reading information out from, a digital store

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store

{Address circuits or decoders}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store

{Bit-line or column circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bit line control circuits, e.g. drivers, boosters, pull-up circuits, pull-down circuits, precharging circuits, equalising circuits, for bit lines

Bit line organisation; Bit line lay-out

{Word-line or row circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Word line control circuits, e.g. drivers, boosters, pull-up circuits, pull-down circuits, precharging circuits, for word lines

Word line organisation; Word line lay-out

{Cell access}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

FRAM specific details of selecting a memory element, e.g. select transistors, diodes or mere word line or bit line selection voltages.

{Reading or sensing circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sense amplifiers; Associated circuits

Data output circuits, e.g. read-out amplifiers, data output buffers, data output registers, data output level conversion circuits.

{Writing or programming circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data input circuits, e.g. write amplifiers, data input buffers, data input registers, data input level conversion circuits

{Verifying circuits or methods}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Details of checking written data in MRAM elements.

{Timing circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Read-write (R-W) timing or clocking circuits; Read-write (R-W) control signal generators or managemen

Address timing or clocking circuits; Address control signal generation or management, e.g. for row address strobe (RAS) or column address strobe (CAS) signals

{Protection circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Memory cell safety or protection circuits, e.g. arrangements for preventing inadvertent reading or writing; Status cells; Test cells.

Address safety or protection circuits, i.e. arrangements for preventing unauthorised or accidental access.

{Power supply circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Power supply arrangements

using semiconductor devices{(processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices H01L 21/00 ; integrated circuit devices H01L 27/00 ; generating electric pulses, e.g. bistable devices using semiconductor devices H03K 3/00)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices

Integrated circuit devices

Generating electric pulses, e.g. bistable devices using semiconductor devices

Special rules of classification within this group

Documents should not be classified in this group unless there is no more specific place available below or in G11C 14/00 to G11C 21/00 (see precedence rule at beginning of this main group). e.g., for:

DRAM (Dynamic RAM), see G11C 11/401 to G11C 11/4099

FRAM, FeRAM (Ferro-electric RAM) see G11C 11/22

MRAM (Magnetic RAM) see G11C 11/14 to G11C 11/16

NVRAM (Nonvolatile RAM) see G11C 5/141 (battery backed RAM) or G11C 16/00 (EAROM/EEPROM/Flash memory)

PCRAM, PRAM (Phase-change RAM) see G11C 13/0004

RRAM, ReRAM (Resistive RAM) see G11C 13/0002 to G11C 13/0097

SRAM (Static RAM) see G11C 11/41 to G11C 11/419

ROM (Read-only Memory) see G11C 17/02 to G11C 17/126

PROM (Programmable ROM) see G11C 17/14 to G11C 17/18

EPROM (Erasable PROM) see G11C 16/00 to G11C 16/349

EEPROM, E2PROM (Electrically-erasable PROM) see G11C 16/00 to G11C 16/349

EAROM (Electrically-alterable ROM) see G11C 16/00 to G11C 16/349

forming cells needing refreshing or charge regeneration,{i.e. dynamic cells}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Basically this group covers DRAMs - and some further types of cells needing to be periodically and frequently refreshed such gain cells.

This group and its sub groups concerns mainly DRAM cells of any type from classic one transistor-one capacitor cell types to more exotic types such single transistor cells or gain cells. All cells have in common that they require to be updated or rewritten or refreshed frequently in order to retain their data.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

The much less frequent refreshing or updating of data in non-volatile memories

Ferro-electric RAMs or FeRAMs

Fabrication, integration, layout of DRAM cells

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Control of displays, e.g. graphic cards

Special rules of classification within this group

This is a technology or cell type specific group and only DRAMs and memories needing frequent refreshes should be classified here. FeRAM with a dynamic mode should be classified in G11C 11/22.

with one charge-transfer gate, e.g. MOS transistor, per cell
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Mostly 1T1C cells but single transistor cells are also found here (see also G11C 2211/4016 for SOI and isolated well single transistor cells).

with three charge-transfer gates, e.g. MOS transistors, per cell
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Cells with three charge-transfer gates, but it also contains gain cells and other cells with access transistors combined with another charge storage transistor. Finally, it covers also partially capacitor based cells with two access transistors and those with more than 3 access transistors (multiport DRAM cells see also G11C 8/16).

Circuits or initialisation, powering up or down, clearing memory or presetting
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Initialisation circuits in general

Power supply or voltage generation circuits, e.g. bias voltage generators, substrate voltage generators, back-up power, power control circuits
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All the power supply or voltage generation circuits, e.g. bias voltage generators, substrate voltage generators, back-up power, power control circuits specific to DRAM - see also G11C 5/14-G11C 5/147 for memory power circuits in general; see also G11C 11/4076 and G11C 7/22 for some power management aspects (changing memory state or mode and DPD e.g. deep power down wake-ups ) and G11C 11/406 for the refresh aspects in low power mode (self-refresh).

The group contains also most of the documents concerning cells with a controlled back plate and back plate voltage circuits.

Timing circuits (for regeneration management G11C 11/406)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Regeneration management

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Read-write (R-W) timing or clocking circuits; Read-write (R-W) control signal generators or management

For memories with random access ports synchronised on clock signal pulse trains, e.g. synchronous memories, self timed memories

Details of clock generating circuits

Clock buffers

Safety or protection circuits, e.g. for preventing inadvertent or unauthorised reading or writing; Status cells; Test cells (protection of memory contents during checking or testing G11C 29/52)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Protection of memory contents during checking or testing

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Safety or protection circuits in general

Address circuits
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Address circuits in general

{Address Buffers; level conversion circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Address Buffers

{Word line control circuits, e.g. word line drivers, - boosters, - pull-up, - pull-down, - precharge}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Word line control circuits in general

{Address decoders, e.g. bit - or word line decoders; Multiple line decoders}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Address decoders in general

Banks

Sense or sense/refresh amplifiers, or associated sense circuitry, e.g. for coupled bit-line precharging, equalising or isolating
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Precharging, equalising or isolating circuits for DRAMs are in G11C 11/4094 and in general also in G11C 7/12.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sense or sense/refresh amplifiers in general

Latching type sense amplifiers

Control thereof (sense amplifier drivers)

Precharging, equalising or isolating circuits for DRAMs

Precharging, equalising or isolating circuits for DRAMs in general

Input/output (I/O) data interface arrangements, e.g. data buffers (level conversion circuits in general H03K 19/0175)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Level conversion circuits in general

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Input/output (I/O) data interface arrangements in general

All the d ata interface circuits (e.g. Synclink, DDR, Rambus)

Bit-line management or control circuits
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bit-line management or control circuits in general

Input/output (I/O) data management or control circuits, e.g. reading or writing circuits, I/O drivers, bit-line switches
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Input/output (I/O) data management or control circuits in general

Bit-line organisation, e.g. bit-line layout, folded bit lines
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bit-line organisation in general

Dummy cell treatment; Reference voltage generators
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dummy cell treatment and reference voltage generators in general

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

1T-1C

One transistor one capacitor cells

Self-refresh

A power saving memory operation mode in which the refreshes its cells autonomously

Auto-refresh

An external signal (from a memory controller usually) triggers the refresh, but the rest of the refresh operation is done by circuitry internal to the memory (refresh address counters etc ...)

Twin cell

Arrangement in which a single datum is stored in two (or more) cells

Gain cell

Cells (usually made of three transistors) in which the charge is stored in a gate electrode of a gain transistor (thereby controlling the conductivity of that transistor),

SOI

Silicon on Insulator - often used to make single transistor DRAM cells (or ZRAM)

forming {static}cells with positive feedback, i.e. cells not needing refreshing or charge regeneration, e.g. bistable multivibrator or Schmitt trigger
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Memories having memory cells with positive feedback or a latch, i.e. a Static RAM or SRAM. This group only covers the aspects of the memory device itself. Manufacturing is covered by H01L21/8442 and array structures by H01L 27/11.

using field-effect transistors only{(latent image memory G11C 7/20 ; multi-port cells G11C8/160)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group contains SRAM memory cells per se.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Latent image memory

Multi-port cells

Auxiliary circuits, e.g. for addressing, decoding, driving, writing, sensing, timing, power reduction (in general G11C 5/00 to G11C 8/00)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Circuitry providing for power, address decoding, signal control etc. required for the functioning of the SRAM. This group and its dependents cover SRAMs having bipolar as well as FET transistor memory cells.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Auxiliary circuits in general

using super-conductive elements, e.g. cryotron{(pulse generators using such elements H03K 3/38 ; counters H03K 23/001)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Memories using super-conductive elements like squids.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pulse generators using such elements

For counters

using displaceable coupling elements, e.g. ferromagnetic cores, to produce change between different states of mutual or self-inductance{(contains no documents; see G11C 17/00 and subgroups)}
Special rules of classification within this group

This sub-group contains no documents; see G11C 17/00 and subgroups.

using elements simulating biological cells, e.g. neuron
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

As used in neural networks.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Computer systems based on biological models, e.g. neural networks per se

Cells storing analogue weights

using storage elements with more than two stable states represented by steps, e.g. of voltage, current, phase, frequency (counting arrangements comprising multi-stable elements of this type H03K 25/00 , H03K 29/00)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Additional aspects relating to the cell type rather than multi-state storage per se should be classified under the relevant cell technology. For counting arrangements comprising multi-stable elements of this type see H03K 25/00, H03K 29/00.

{using magnetic storage elements}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetic storage per se

{using conductive bridging RAM [CBRAM] or programming metallization cells [PMC]}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Comprising conductive bridging RAM [CBRAM] or programming metallization cells [PMCs]

{using charge storage in a floating gate}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Comprising cells containing floating gate transistors

{Programming or writing circuits; Data input circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Programming or data input circuits

{Erasing circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuits for erasing electrically, e.g. erase voltage switching circuits

{Sensing or reading circuits; Data output circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sensing or reading circuits; Data output circuits

{using capacitive charge storage elements}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Forming cells needing refreshing or charge regeneration

{using ferroelectric storage elements}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Using ferroelectric elements

{using organic memory material storage elements}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Using organic memory material storage elements

{using charge trapping in an insulator}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Comprising cells with charge storage in an insulating layer, e.g. MNOS, SNOS

{using amorphous/crystalline phase transition storage elements}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Comprising amorphous/crystalline phase transition cells

{using storage elements comprising metal oxide memory material, e.g. perovskites}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Comprising metal oxide memory material, e.g. perovskites

{read-only digital stores using storage elements with more than two stable states}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Read-only memories programmable only once; Semi-permanent stores, e.g. manually-replaceable information cards

Digital stores characterised by the use of storage elements not covered by groups G11C 11/00 , G11C 23/00 to G11C 25/00
Definition statement
This group covers:

Digital stores or memories:

  • Using elements in which the information is stored in the form of steps of electrical resistance [Ohm], Resistance RAM (RRAM) and auxiliary circuitry therefore; under G11C 13/0002;
  • Using elements whose operation depends on chemical change, G11C 13/02 (G11C 13/0009 takes precedence);
  • Using nanotube elements, under G11C 13/025;
  • Using optical elements, under G11C 13/04;
  • Using magneto-optical elements, under G11C 13/06.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

H01L: Semiconductor fabrication means and methods.

G03H: Holographic processes and apparatus.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Digital stores in which the storage effect is based exclusively on magnetism e.g. Magnetic RAM (MRAM)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bistable switching devices, e.g. Ovshinsky-effect devices

{using resistance random access memory [RRAM] elements}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

RRAM storage elements; for MRAM storage elements see G11C 11/15 and G11C 11/16.

{comprising amorphous/crystalline phase transition cells}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

RRAM elements in which the electrical resistance change is based on an amorphous to crystalline or crystalline to amorphous transition in a phase change material.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multi-state phase transition memory cells

{comprising metal oxide memory material, e.g. perovskites}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

RRAM elements in which the electrical resistance change is based on a switching mechanism in metal oxides e.g. TiO, NiO, HfO2, CuO.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multibit storage elements using metal oxide memory material

{RRAM elements whose operation depends upon chemical change}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

RRAM elements in which the electrical resistance change is based on the formation and breaking of chemical bonds.

{comprising conductive bridging RAM [CBRAM] or programming metallization cells [PMCs]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

RRAM elements in which the electrical resistance change is based on ion movement in a solid electrolyte between metal electrodes.

{comprising cells based on organic memory material}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multibit storage elements using organic memory material

{Auxiliary circuits}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Auxiliary circuitry for RRAM elements.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of stores

Arrangements for writing information into, or reading information out from, a digital store

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store

{Address circuits or decoders}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store

{Bit-line or column circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bit line control circuits, e.g. drivers, boosters, pull-up circuits, pull-down circuits, precharging circuits, equalising circuits, for bit lines

Bit line organisation; Bit line lay-out

{Word-line or row circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Word line control circuits, e.g. drivers, boosters, pull-up circuits, pull-down circuits, precharging circuits, for word lines

Word line organisation; Word line lay-out

{Power supply circuits}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Power supply arrangements

{Reading or sensing circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sense amplifiers; Associated circuits

Data output circuits, e.g. read-out amplifiers, data output buffers, data output registers, data output level conversion circuits

{Security or protection circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Memory cell safety or protection circuits, e.g. arrangements for preventing inadvertent reading or writing; Status cells; Test cells

Address safety or protection circuits, i.e. arrangements for preventing unauthorised or accidental access

{Timing circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Read-write (R-W) timing or clocking circuits; Read-write (R-W) control signal generators or management

Address timing or clocking circuits; Address control signal generation or management, e.g. for row address strobe (RAS) or column address strobe (CAS) signals

{Writing or programming circuits or methods}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data input circuits, e.g. write amplifiers, data input buffers, data input registers, data input level conversion circuits

using elements whose operation depends upon chemical change{(G11C 13/0009 takes precedence)}; using electrochemical charge G11C 11/00
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Storage elements in which the electrical resistance change is based on the formation and breaking of chemical bonds (for RRAM G11C 13/0009 takes precedence).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Using electrochemical charge

using magneto-optical elements ({G11C 13/042 takes precedence}magneto-optics in general G02F)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Using information stored in the form of an interference pattern

Using magnetic-optical storage elements

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magneto-optics in general

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CBRAM

Conductive Bridging RAM

OUM

Ovonic Unified Memory

PCM

Phase Change Memory

PRAM

Phase change RAM

PCRAM

Phase Change RAM

PMC

Programming Metallization Cell

ReRAM

Resistance RAM

RRAM

Resistance RAM

In patent documents the expressions "PMC" and "CBRAM" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the expressions "PRAM", "PCRAM", "PCM", "OUM", "Chalcogenide RAM" and "Ovshinsky-effect memory" are often used as synonyms.

Digital stores characterised by arrangements of cells having volatile and non-volatile storage properties for back-up when the power is down{(bistable elements storing the actual state when the supply voltage fails H03K 3/02335 , H03K 3/0375 , H03K 3/2865 , H03K 3/356008)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Memories with arrangements to save information from a volatile to a nonvolatile memory when power supply is lost and to restore the information from the nonvolatile to the volatile memory when power is restored.

Sub-groups cover details of cells adapted for this purpose, classified first by volatile and then by nonvolatile storage type.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

For memories where volatile and non-volatile elements co-exist but are operated independently, see G11C 11/005. For volatile memories which are designed to power up in a known state (latent image memory), see G11C 7/20.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Bistable elements storing the actual state when the supply voltage fails

Special rules of classification within this group

Where a document only describes the presence of a nonvolatile memory to backup a volatile memory, without cell details, it should be placed in the main group. In principle, a search for such a document would need to encompass all the sub-groups as well as the main group. More detail about the type of storage elements can be added by using Indexing Codes relating to specific cell types.

{in which the volatile element is a DRAM cell}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

DRAM cells

Special rules of classification within this group

In case the nonvolatile element is not covered below, classify here with an Indexing Code to specify its type.

{and the nonvolatile element is an EEPROM element, e.g. a floating gate or MNOS transistor}
Special rules of classification within this group

Can further distinguish between FG (Indexing Code G11C 16/0408) and MNOS (Indexing Code: G11C 16/0466).

{and the nonvolatile element is a ferroelectric element}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

FeRAM cells in general

{and the nonvolatile element is a magnetic RAM [MRAM] element or ferromagnetic cell}
Special rules of classification within this group

Can be further characterised using codes from Indexing Code G11C 11/14 to Indexing Code G11C 11/16.

{and the nonvolatile element is a resistive RAM element, i.e. programmable resistors, e.g. formed of phase change or chalcogenide material.}
Special rules of classification within this group

Can be further characterised using codes from Indexing Code G11C 13/0002 to Indexing Code G11C 13/0019.

{in which the volatile element is a SRAM cell}
Special rules of classification within this group

In case the nonvolatile element is not covered below, classify here with an Indexing Code to specify its type. For SRAM cells in general see G11C 11/41.

{and the nonvolatile element is an EEPROM element, e.g. a floating gate or MNOS transistor}
Special rules of classification within this group

Can further distinguish between FG (Indexing Code G11C 16/0408) and MNOS (Indexing Code G11C 16/0466).

{and the nonvolatile element is a ferroelectric element}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

FeRAM cells

{and the nonvolatile element is a magnetic RAM [MRAM] element or ferromagnetic cell}
Special rules of classification within this group

Can be further characterised using codes from Indexing Code G11C 11/14 to Indexing Code G11C 11/16.

{and the nonvolatile element is a resistive RAM element, i.e. programmable resistors, e.g. formed of phase change or chalcogenide material.}
Special rules of classification within this group

Can be further characterised using codes from Indexing Code G11C 13/0002 to Indexing Code G11C 13/0019.

Digital stores in which information comprising one or more characteristic parts is written into the store and in which information is read-out by searching for one or more of these characteristic parts, i.e. associative or content-addressed stores (in which information is addressed to a specific location G11C 11/00 ; { selection information using addressing means, e.g. hashing, tree addressing, chaining G06F 11/22 ; information retrieval systems using a computer G06F 17/30})
Definition statement
This group covers:

Memories wherein a sought data word for a given field (characteristic part) is supplied as input to the memory, which is able to search its stored data contents to determine if the supplied data word is present among said data contents. If a match or 'hit' is established, the address(es) in the memory where the supplied data word was found is/are returned. Optionally the contents of all fields of the matching word are returned.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Selection information using addressing means, e.g. hashing, tree addressing, chaining

Information retrieval systems using a computer

Digital stores in which information is addressed to a specific location

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviation is often used:

CAM

Content Addressable Memory

Erasable programmable read-only memories (G11C 14/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Memories of the type in which charge is stored in a non-volatile manner, either in a "floating gate" capacitor (see G11C 16/0408) or trapped in the gate insulator of a transistor (see G11C 16/0466).

In both cases, the effect of charge storage is to modify the threshold voltage of the transistor, e.g. from depletion to enhancement mode (stored state discriminated by conduction or not at zero gate voltage) or from 'normal' to 'deep' enhancement (stored state discriminated by conduction or not at small positive gate voltage).

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

NVRAM Nonvolatile battery backed up RAM

Digital stores in which the storage effect is based exclusively on magnetism e.g. Magnetic RAM (MRAM)

FeRAMs

RRAM, ReRAM (Resistive RAM)

PCRAM, PRAM (Phase-change RAM)

Digital stores characterised by arrangements of cells having volatile and non-volatile storage properties for back-up when the power is down

Fabrication of EPROM

H01L21/8247

EPROM memory structures

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Use of a cell to back-up the contents of a corresponding volatile memory cell

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Structures of non-volatile memory arrays; individual transistor structures

electrically programmable{(programmable multibit digital storage elements G11C 11/5621)}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Programmable multi-state digital storage elements

{comprising cells containing floating gate transistors (G11C 16/0483 , G11C 16/0491 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Also cells in which the floating gate is composed of "nanocrystals".

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Comprising cells having several storage transistors connected in series

Virtual ground arrays

{comprising cells containing a single floating gate transistor and no select transistor, e.g. UV EPROM}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

May also comprise cells with additional control gates, e.g. an erase gate.

{comprising cells containing a merged floating gate and select transistor]}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The also known as "split-gate" or "1½ transistor" cells.

{comprising cells containing a single floating gate transistor and one or more separate select transistors}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The classical EEPROM cells.

{comprising cells containing multiple floating gate devices, e.g. separate read-and-write FAMOS transistors with connected floating gates}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Aso complementary-pair type cells, in which two floating gate transistors store opposite states. This type is often used to store redundancy information, see also G11C 29/789.

{comprising cells having several storage transistors connected in series}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

i.e. NAND type cells.

{Virtual ground arrays}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

i.e. arrays in which the individual cell transistors are formed between parallel bitlines, one of which is selected by decoder circuitry to be ground and the other as a normal bitline.

Auxiliary circuits, e.g. for writing into memory (in general G11C 7/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of stores

Arrangements for writing information into, or reading information out from, a digital store

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store

Special rules of classification within this group

This group is only used if no lower sub-group is suitable - assign multiple sub-groups rather than placing here.

Address circuits; Decoders; Word-line control circuits
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store

Word line control circuits, e.g. drivers, boosters, pull-up circuits, pull-down circuits, precharging circuits, for word lines

Word line organisation; Word line lay-out

Programming or data input circuits
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data input circuits, e.g. write amplifiers, data input buffers, data input registers, data input level conversion circuits

{Programming all cells in an array, sector or block to the same state prior to flash erasing}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Erase preprogramming, also called preconditioning.

Programming voltage switching circuits
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Especially high-voltage switches (see e.g. EP862183, figures 1-3), ramp generators (see e.g. EP903750, figure 4).

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Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Switches

Ramp generators

Circuits for erasing optically
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

e.g. ultra-violet erase.

Initialising; Data preset; Chip identification
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Memory initialisation circuits

Safety or protection circuits preventing unauthorised or accidental access to memory cells
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Memory cell safety or protection circuits

Address safety or protection circuits

{Preventing erasure, programming or reading when power supply voltages are outside the required ranges}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Voltage level detection

Bit-line control circuits
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bit line control circuits

Bit line organisation; Bit line lay-out

Sensing or reading circuits; Data output circuits
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sense amplifiers; Associated circuits

Data output circuits

Power supply circuits
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Power supply arrangements

Timing circuits
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Read-write (R-W) timing or clocking circuits; Read-write (R-W) control signal generators or management

Address timing or clocking circuits; Address control signal generation or management, e.g. for row address strobe (RAS) or column address strobe (CAS) signals

{Convergence or correction of memory cell threshold voltages; Repair or recovery of overerased or overprogrammed cells}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

What is also known as "overerase/overprogram correction" or "threshold convergence".

{Circuits or methods to verify correct erasure of nonvolatile memory cells}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

May lead to repeated erase, verify steps until correctly erased or retry limit reached (= failure).

{Circuits or methods to detect overerased nonvolatile memory cells, usually during erasure verification}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Circuits that make no attempt at recovery; the device is therefore regarded as faulty.

{Circuits or methods to verify correct programming of nonvolatile memory cells}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Circuits that may lead to repeated program, verify steps until correctly programmed or retry limit reached (= failure).

{Circuits or methods to detect overprogrammed nonvolatile memory cells, usually during program verification}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Circuits that make no attempt at recovery; the device is therefore regarded as faulty.

{Arrangements for evaluating degradation, retention or wearout, e.g. by counting erase cycles}
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

EAROM

Electrically-Alterable ROM

EEPROM, E2PROM

Electrically-Erasable PROM

EPROM

Erasable PROM

FAMOS

Floating-gate Avalanche Injection MOS

M(O)NOS

Metal (Oxide-)Nitride-Oxide Silicon

S(O)NOS

Silicon (Oxide-)Nitride-Oxide Silicon

In patent documents the following expressions/words "soft programming" (or "soft erasure/erasing"), "overerase (or overprogramming) correction" and "threshold convergence" are often used as synonyms.

Read-only memories programmable only once; Semi-permanent stores, e.g. manually-replaceable information cards ({multibit read-only memories G11C 11/5692 ; } erasable programmable read-only memories G11C 16/00 ; coding, decoding or code conversion, in general H03M; { combination of ROM and RAM G11C 11/005 , G11C 14/00 ; for electrical control of combustion engines F02D 41/2406})
Definition statement
This group covers:

Memories in which the stored data are permanently defined at the time of manufacturing (mask ROM) or which are adapted to be programmed with data one time only after manufacture (PROM).

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Multibit read only memories

Rewritable resistive memories (RRAM)

Erasable programmable read-only memories

Fabrication of read only memories

H01L21/8246

Read only memory structures

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

For electrical control of combustion engines

Combination of ROM and RAM

{comprising cells having several storage transistors connected in series}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

i.e. NAND-type cells.

{Virtual ground arrays}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

i.e. arrays in which the individual cell transistors are formed between parallel bitlines, one of which is selected by decoder circuitry to be ground and the other as a normal bitline.

in which contents are determined by selectively establishing, breaking or modifying connecting links by permanently altering the state of coupling elements, e.g. PROM
Special rules of classification within this group

So-called OTPROM (one-time programmable read only memories), i.e. EPROMs or flash memory arrays which are wholly or partly adapted to not be erasable (e.g. UV EPROM with no erasing window in the package, flash arrays not selectable to receive erasing voltages) are classified in G11C 16/00, with code G11C 2216/26.

using electrically-fusible links
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

e.g. fuses, antifuses.

Auxiliary circuits, e.g. for writing into memory (in general G11C 7/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of stores

Arrangements for writing information into, or reading information out from, a digital store

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

PROM

Programmable ROM

ROM

Read-only Memory

Digital stores in which the information is moved stepwise, e.g. shift register (counting chains H03K 23/00){stack stores, push-down stores (linear pulse counters H03K 23/54 , pulse distributors H03K 5/15 , methods and arrangements for shifting data G06F 5/01)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Digital stores or memories in which information is cascaded between neighbouring data storage locations in a chain under the control of at least one common clock signal.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Methods and arrangements for shifting data

Counting chains

Linear pulse counters

H03K23/02

Pulse distributors

Digital stores in which the information circulates {continuously}(stepwise G11C 19/00)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Digital stores or memories in which information bits circulate stepwise in a closed loop or ring arrangement.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

In which information circulates stepwise

Digital stores characterised by movement of mechanical parts to effect storage, e.g. using balls; Storage elements therefor (storing by actuating contacts G11C 11/50)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Micromechanical and nanomechanical systems for data storage.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Storing by actuating contacts

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Switches making use of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)

Switches making use of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS)

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this group, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:

MEMS

Microelectromechanical systems

NEMS

Nanoelectromechanical systems

Digital stores characterised by the use of flowing media; Storage elements therefor{(multiple fluid-circuit element arrangements for performing digital operations F15C 1/12)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Digital stores or memories whose operation is based on fluid or liquid media.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Multiple fluid-circuit element arrangements for performing digital operations

Electric analogue stores, e.g. for storing instantaneous values{(integrating circuits acting as stores G06G 7/18 ; pulse counters with step by step integration and static storage H03K 25/00)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

Static stores or memories comprising:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

H03K 17/00: Electronic switching or gating i.e. not by contact-making or -braking.

H03K 5/13: Arrangements having a single output and transforming input signals into pulses delivered at desired time intervals.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Integrating circuits acting as stores

Pulse counters with step by step integration and static storage

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digital stores using storage elements with more than two stable states

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

S/H

Sample and Hold

In patent documents the expressions "track and hold" and "sample and hold" are often used as synonyms.

Checking stores for correct operation;{Subsequent repair}; Testing stores during standby or offline operation{(testing of electronic circuits in general G01R 31/28 ; error detection or error correction in computer memories during normal operation G06F 11/1008 , G06F 11/1666 ; testing of computers during standby G06F 11/22)}
Definition statement
This group covers:

The two main fields Test and Repair of semiconductor memories.

Concerning Test: This group covers test in particular

  • after manufacturing including i. e. wafer test and test of packaged memories at manufacturer;
  • after shipping to client and being in use when device is in test mode or performs test during power-on, idle or stand-by state, during refresh cycle.

Repair of memories is found below at G11C 29/70

Relationship between large subject matter areas

H01L: Semiconductor fabrication means and methods.

G06F 11/00: Error detection and correction, monitoring of normal operation.

G06F 12/00: Accessing, addressing or allocation within memory systems.

G01R 31/28: Test of electronic circuits.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Test of electronic circuits in general

Test of digital circuits, e.g. separate computer components

Tester hardware in general

Error detection and correction in static stores integrated on a chip of data during normal operation with adding special bits of coded information in memories.

Error detection or correction of the data by redundancy in hardware where the redundant component is memory or memory area

Detection of defective computer hardware by testing during stand-by operation or during idle time, e.g. start-up testing.

Interconnection of, or transfer of information or other signals between, memories, input/output devices or central processing units for access to memory bus.

Memory bus transfer protocols

Test and repair of storage types other than static stores (e.g. rotating disk drives).

Determination of programming status in electrically erasable and programmable read only memories (e.g. for floating gate transistors correction of threshold voltages , recovery of overerased or overprogrammed floating gate transistor cells G11C 16/3404; verifying correct erasure or programming of floating gate transistor cells G11C 16/3436; evaluation of degradation, retention or wearout of floating gate transistor cells G11C 16/349).

Test and configuration during manufacture

H01L21/66

Test of single circuit components not integrated in memory device (e.g. transistors, capacitors) and not individual auxiliary circuits not integrated in memory device (e.g. power supplies, input/output circuitry).

Various classes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tester hardware in general

Error detection and correction in static stores integrated on a chip

Error detection and correction in CAM

Error detection and correction in sector programmable memories, flash disks

Error detection and correction in multilevel memories

Details of memory controllers

Special rules of classification within this group

Invention related features(concerning testing):

  • G11C 29/02 Detection of defective auxiliary circuits

e.g. short circuit and cross talking on signal lines, intercell defects, stuck at fault (line permanently to GND or Vcc), refresh counter, fuses, charge pumps

G11C 29/021: in voltage or current generators

G11C 29/022: in I/O circuitry

G11C 29/023 : in clock generator or timing circuitry

G11C 29/024: in decoders

G11C 29/025: in signal lines

G11C 29/026: in sense amplifiers

G11C 29/027: in fuses

G11C 29/028: with adaption or trimming of parameters

  • G11C 29/04 Detection of defective memory elements
  • e.g. test of individual cells
  • G11C 29/06 Acceleration test

e.g. only when stress (high temperature/voltage/clock frequency) is essential feature - EC documents only classified therein from 2007 onwards (IPC class for mostly Korean and Japanese documents relating to accelerated test)

e.g. when test is performed by writing/reading/comparing data, includes stress test (high temperature/voltage/clock frequency) when stress is not essential feature; test when something else is measured, i.e. not by write/read/compare in G11C 29/50

e.g. checkerboard pattern

e.g. all for which no particular sub-class exists like error catch memory, word/bit line control, identification means, self refresh logic, interconnection details

G11C 29/12005: comprising voltage or current generators

G11C 29/1201: comprising IO circuitry

G11C 29/12015: comprising clock generation or timing circuitry

e.g. test configuration, internal clock generation, provisions for high speed test with low speed tester

e.g. state machines, sequencers

e.g. address circuits, scrambling

  • G11C 29/20 Using counters, linear feedback shift registers

e.g. linear address generation

e.g. test of redundant cells (replacement of defective cells in G11C 29/70 )

e.g. memories with multiple arrays serially accessed

e.g. bit line/word line spans over multiple arrays and is in normal mode accessed at once

e.g. test on single array / block

e.g. cells connected in series only for test (overlap with G01R 31/318536 scan chain for logic test)

e.g. bit line/word line testing, more than one bit a time tested in single array, word line and bit line driver, controller, decoder therefor

e.g. data storage in DUT, inverters, row copy circuits

e.g. built-in comparators, means to read out test data from memory

e.g. by use of LFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register), EXOR logic circuit

e.g. test performed with use of ECC (overlap with G06F 11/10)

e.g. for repair, keep track on found errors, failure capture (overlap with G06F 11/20)

e.g. initiation of test mode, how to avoid entering test mode

  • G11C 29/48 Arrangements to allow test with external means

e.g. inside or outside memory, overlap with 12 and 56, test interfaces, test connectors, probes, I/O lines, reducing number of used pads/terminals to tester, external monitoring of test results, access paths, interface to scan chains, JTAG, DMA, external provided clock for test

e.g. marginal test including current, race, refresh, temperature, timing/delay, signal margin, imprint and fatigue, floating gate transistor test by dielectric layer test, e.g. gate oxide stress test; EEPROM erase/program verify when focus on threshold voltage or current measurement, i.e. at multilevel EEPROM; charge gain/leakage, DRAM data retention time test, trimming circuits

G11C 29/50004: of threshold voltage

G11C 29/50008: of impedance

G11C 29/50012: of timing

G11C 29/50016: of retention

e.g. data retention in DRAM or EEPROM cells

e.g. soft errors (i.e. radiation) or when memory content can not be read from outside (content protected), transparent test (modifies contents and restores back to original) EEPROM erase/program verify when 0/1 read (during normal operation G11C 16/34) when EEPROM cell is not defective but overerased / overprogrammed

e.g. design of test techniques, simulation, test coverage, error latency (probability)

e.g. external test machines, external pattern and address generation/scrambling, here only when specific for memories, overlap with G01R 31/319

G11C 29/56004: pattern generation

G11C 29/56008: error analysis

G11C 29/56012: timing aspects, clock generation, synchronisation

G11C 29/56: tester apparatus features

  • G11C29/66 Test of serial memories

e.g. FIFO, stacks, serial buffers

  • G11C29/68 Testing at wafer scale level

e.g. features particular related to wafer test, probing, test circuit location on wafer, e.g. in cut slot, chip identification, IDDQ-test. For test and configuration during manufacturing, see H01L21/66.

Additional (not directly invention) related features:

e.g. when test result is feedback into manufacturing process

e.g. document discloses all essential elements off test loop from data generation via DUT to data comparison

e.g. test is performed when memory operates in user application, either in idle state or by monitoring, leading to repair in case of failure

Document relates to error correction (only) in normal operation:

e.g. translation of logical address to physical address

e.g. parallel / simultaneous test of multiple word lines / blocks / arrays / devices / modules

e.g. comparison of test results of identical chips or with golden chip; or looping test result through a plurality of chips / modules

e.g. repair information, chip identification, quality data

e.g. physical values not covered elsewhere

e.g. for timing, voltage, multiplexing of test channels

e.g. as failure bit map

e.g. raw data collection and management

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Scrubbing

Background test

Automatic test machine

External tester

Monitoring

Observation of normal operation

Scrambling, mapping

Translation of a logic address in a physical address or vice versa

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ATM

Automatic Test Machine

BISR

Built-In Self-Repair

BIST

Built-In Self-Test

DUT, CUT

Device / Cell Under Test

IDDQ-test

direct current test

ECC

Error Correction Code

LFSR

Linear Feedback Shift Register

{Masking faults in memories by using spares or by reconfiguring}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Repairing defective memory devices by using redundant (spare) elements; repairing defective memory devices by reconfiguring the address space (this implies a reduced memory capacity compared with a non-defective device); algorithms for effecting such repairs.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Error correction in digital computer systems using redundancy

{by replacing auxiliary circuits, e.g. spare voltage generators, decoders or sense amplifiers, to be used instead of defective ones}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group: EP1141834, figure 1.

media2.jpg

{with optimized replacement algorithms}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Replacement algorithms (failure map to redundancy implementation ).

{using address translation or modifications}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Both with and without dedicated spares - typically address translations via pointers.

Techniques used for redundancy in this kind of applications are always very similar and almost all of them involve sector mapping, counting of read/erase operations, wear-out detection, etc. Many of these documents include lower level features related to flash memories (flash).

Special rules of classification within this group

See also G11C 16/349 for wear-out detection; G11C 29/88 for 'hard wired' reconfiguration.

{using programmable devices}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Could include disconnecting faulty elements.

{with refresh of replacement cells, e.g. in DRAMs}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In DRAMS, how to refresh the redundant lines which are substituting faulty lines.

{with redundancy programming schemes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Fuse related issues; most of these documents have descriptions at transistor level, explaining how the fuse circuits are built or how they are included in the redundancy decoding elements.

{using a fuse hierarchy (for memories using fuses in general G11C 17/16)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In this case, a master fuse can be used to decide whether a redundant line or decoder is in use. This allows to save time when programming the fuses. See EP646866, fig.3 (reference 50).

media3.jpg

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Memories using fuses in general

{using non-volatile cells or latches (erasable programmable memory cells in general G11C 16/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In these documents, the "fuse" is not a fuse as such, but rather a non-volatile memory cell or a combination of a fuse with a latch to retain its status (i.e. the fuse is only read at power up to reduce stress thereon). See US5619469, fig2.

media4.jpg

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Erasable programmable memory cells in general

{with improved layout}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Under this group, techniques which tend to reduce real estate by several means. When the document is a pure layout description - i.e. without a clear functionality other than a "new layout" - it is included in this 'head group'. It should be clear that there is a clear "layout" approach in the description and figures.

{by encoding redundancy signals}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Transmission of faulty/redundant addresses between the fuse boxes and the final decoders is done by encoding: For 2n redundant lines only n lines have to be routed. See EP496282, fig.2.

media5.jpg

{to prevent clustered faults}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Faults which involve several (adjacent) lines can be solved in a simplified way, 'simplified' implying using a reduced amount of coding or storage for the defect. These kind of faults are very frequent due to impurities of a big size. See US5281868, fig. 3,4.

media6.jpg
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{by reducing size of decoders}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Solutions that might have a lower redundancy efficiency (e.g. lines can only be replaced in sets of four, regardless of the fault) but allows to have fewer and/or smaller comparators. See EP239196, fig 3.

media8.jpg

{using a flexible replacement scheme}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

All kinds of solutions in which different combinations of faulty/redundant replacement are possible to allow for a higher level of repair with a lower number of spares. For instance, when redundant lines in a block can be used to substitute faulty lines in any other block, or when the same redundant line can be used for row or column repair, etc. See US5469388 fig 4A.

media9.jpg

{using a hierarchical redundancy scheme}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Faults are solved in a hierarchical way. For instance: lines are replaced with redundant lines in a given block or, if not possible, then the complete block is repaired with a redundant block as a whole unit, etc. See US5295101, fig. 7.

media10.jpg

{using a reduced amount of fuses}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The amount of real estate occupied by fuses is lower.

{for optimized yield}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The layout is done in such a way that a certain cost function associated with the yield is optimized. A lot of NPL and thesis-like stuff. See XP237814.

{for an application-specific layout}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Certain applications (ROMs, synchronous memories, cache memories) demand redundancy solutions which are very related to the nature of the application itself and therefore more likely to be relevant in an application-oriented context.

{for dual-port memories}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

For the case of Dual port RAMs, video memories and the like.

{for EEPROMs}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

These redundancy solutions are usually taking into account the block erase operations as well as the aging of EEPROM cells due to program/erase. Many of these documents are also classified with the solid state disks solutions (G11C 29/765). Normally documents put in this group work at a lower level (i.e. row/columns in a block, rather than sector mapping level.

{for read only memories}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Redundancy solutions for Mask ROMs which have specific layouts.

{for synchronous memories}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Same as above for the case of synchronous memories. Timing (synchronicity) requirements as well as the specific (i.e. sequential) nature of read/write operations are linked to some redundancy requirements.

{with reduced power consumption}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Most of the solutions for this problem are related to the avoidance of DC faults.

{with disconnection of faulty elements}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A common way to reduce power consumption in these cases.

{with roll call arrangements for redundant substitutions}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Roll call circuits to identify redundancy substitutions.

{with substitution of defective spares}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Solving the problem of a faulty spare element which must be disabled for redundant substitution.

{with improved access time or stability}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

In this group, solutions which propose to eliminate or reduce the difference in speed between a non-faulty and a faulty line selection. Many of these documents are actually addressing stability problems (e.g. obtain a reliable voltage level before sampling fuse values) employing similar solutions such as ATDs.

{by introducing a delay in a signal path}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The trick here usually is to insert a delay element in the faster path to make sure both paths (normal and redundant) are equally slow. This delay element usually consists of slower transistors in the path or a chain of inverters. See US5777931, fig.5.

media11.jpg

{by splitting the decoders in stages}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

A normal/redundant selection signal is already obtained at a predecoding stage which allows to start some kind of preselection. See US5550776, fig.4.

media12.jpg

{by choosing redundant lines at an output stage}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Usually the case with column redundancy: Addresses are input simultaneously to faulty and normal column decoders and only at the output (usually by means of a multiplexer) it is decided whether a redundant replacement is pertinent. See US4473895, fig.1.

media13.jpg

{by adjacent switching}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Columns are shifted one or more position skipping the faulty one(s). There are redundant columns at the end of the chain. See EP434200, fig. 4.

media14.jpg

{with partially good memories}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Partially good memories, degraded memories.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

DEP

Defective end product; (now G11C 29/883)

CDEP

Combining defective end product. (now G11C 29/886)

Redundancy information stored in a part of the memory core to be repaired.
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

See US2006190762 (figure 1 - shown), US2009067276.

media15.jpg

Redundancy information loaded from the outside into the memory
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

See US2008307251 (fig.1), US2009072886 (fig.1 - shown).

media16.jpg

Before packaging
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

See US2006221729, figure 2.

media17.jpg

Laser fuses
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

See US2008180983 (figure 2), US2006221729 (figure 3).

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013