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SYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES (for continuous casting of metals B22D 11/16 ; valves per se F16K; sensing non-electric variables, see the relevant subclasses of G01; for regulating electric or magnetic variables G05F)
Definition statement
This subclass covers:

Systems for controlling or regulating non-electric variables, in particular: position, trajectory, attitude or altitude of a vehicle; position or direction of an object; thickness or size of materials; flow rate; level; quantity ratio; linear or angular speed; force or stress; fluid pressure; torque or mechanical power; vibrations; chemical variables; humidity; temperature; viscosity; and illumination.

"controlling" means influencing a variable in any way, e.g. changing its direction or its value (including changing it to or from zero), maintaining it constant, limiting its range of variation.

"regulation" means maintaining a variable automatically at a desired value or within a desired range of values. The desired value or range may be fixed, or manually varied, or may vary with time according to a predeterminated "programme" or according to variation of another variable. Regulation is a form of control.

Merely acting on a variable for the purpose of influencing the state of a system (e.g. acting on the fuel flow rate in an engine for achieving a certain speed), where the value of the variable itself remains irrelevant, should a priori not be considered as controlling or regulating said variable.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass does not cover:

Features of general applicability to regulating systems, e.g. anti-hunting arrangements

Regulating electric or magnetic variables

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Milking machines

Welding parameters

Copying

Grinding or polishing

Abrasive blasts

Dispensing beverages on draught

Electrographic, electrophotographic or magnetographic processes

Dynamo-electric motors or generators

Special rules of classification within this subclass

Control systems specially adapted for particular apparatuses, machines or processes are classified in the subclasses for the apparatus, machine or process, provided that there is specific provision for control or regulation relevant to the special adaptation, either at a detailed level, (e.g. A21B 1/40: "for regulating temperature in bakers' ovens") or at a general level, (e.g. B23K 9/095: "for automatic control of welding parameters in arc welding"). Otherwise, classification is made in the most appropriate place in this subclass.

Places where there is specific provision of the kind referred to above at a detailed level have been listed under the main groups of this subclass (see "References relevant to classification in this subclass"). Where the provision is at a general level (e.g. of a kind appropriate to more than one of the main groups specified in the lists, or to main groups G05D 27/00 or G05D 29/00), the places are listed under this subclass.

A document that can be applied to two or more applications is not specific for any of them and has to be classified in G05D (for instance a thermostat for heating or air conditioning).

A formulation of the kind "regulator for the application X" should a priori not be considered as specific to said application.

Usually, the subdivisions of the regulation classes in the field of the application are less precise than in G05D, therefore giving a class in G05D may be useful for search.

When in a document there is mention of several controlled variables, one should try to visualize the block scheme of the regulation. The document is then to be classified in the group of the variable controlled in the outer control loop. In case the regulation in one of the other control loops is of particular interest, it should also be classified in the group(s) of the variable(s) concerned.

Note that the above is without prejudice of the limiting references contained in the titles of the different groups and subgroups in this subclass.

In the main groups of this subclass, remarks found under "Further details of subgroups" are not meant to replace the definitions in the titles, but either give further information about the definitions or mention particular types of documents to be classified in the subgroups or to be excluded from them. In case no remark is made on a given subgroup, the title is considered to be self-explanatory.

In G05D, the hierarchy in classification is generally done according:

- to the physical variable

- Then to the nature of the auxiliary power used, with the following possibilities, not used for all the variables:

  • without auxiliary power (purely mechanical regulation)
  • with auxiliary non-electric power (e.g. pneumatic or hydraulic)
  • characterised by the use of electric means
  • with combination of electric and non-electric auxiliary power

- Then, to the type of sensor used.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Systems

includes self-contained devices such as speed governors, pressure regulators

Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot (steering applicable only to other than landborne vehicles, e.g. three-dimensional steering applicable to both aircraft and submarines B60K ; construction or disposition of steering means on land vehicles B62 , on waterborne vessels B63 ; manual or automatic control of aircraft, e.g. using automatic pilot or radiated signal B64C ; radio navigation systems or analogous systems using other waves G01S)
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass G01C covers navigation in general, i.e. determining the position and course of land vehicles, ships, aircraft, and space vehicles.

Subclass G01S covers radio, sonar or lidar navigation systems, i.e. navigation by use of radio, acoustic or optical waves, or analogue arrangements using other electromagnetic waves.

Subclass G08G covers navigation systems for traffic control purposes, i.e. systems in which the navigation is not performed autonomously by or in the vehicle, but where the vehicles are guided by instructions transmitted to them.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Rail vehicles

B61

Control of linear or angular speed or of acceleration

Linear or angular position control of an object not being a vehicle

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Agricultural machines or implements

Toy vehicles

Air-cushion vehicles

Driver Assistance Systems for road vehicles

Steering controls of motor vehicles or trailers, i.e. means for initiating a change of direction

Chassis of endless-tracked vehicles

Arrangements for automatically controlling the steering depending on driving conditions

Marine steering; control of waterborne vessels

Controlling aircraft

Controlling attitude or direction of aircraft ejector seats

B64D25/11

Cosmonautic vehicles

Self-propelled missiles

Guided missiles

Marine torpedoes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Navigation, i.e. determining the position and course of land vehicles, ships, aircraft, and space vehicles

Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, e.g. using odometers

Determining distance or velocity using waves and not using reflection or reradiation of waves

Radar systems specially designed for traffic control

Radar systems specially designed for anti-collision purposes

Sonar systems specially designed for anti-collision purposes

Lidar systems specially designed for anti-collision purposes

Position-fixing by co-ordinating a plurality of determinations of direction or position lines

Traffic control systems for road vehicles

Monitoring the location of fleet of vehicles in traffic control systems

Anti-collision traffic control systems

Special rules of classification within this group

This main group concerns only vehicles.

Documents are classified here in case:

  • the stability of the vehicle is obtained or improved by the regulation;
  • the sensors are piloting-specific: (i) to follow a predetermined trajectory; (ii) there is an interaction between the position determination and the goal to be achieved (for example there is a camera to recognize the environment and a processor to determine the trajectory);
  • the security of the piloting or the control of the piloting is achieved by electronic means;
  • of remote control;
  • of piloting-specific optimization; or
  • of interactions between vehicles.

Within this main group, the possible applications of a land vehicle are also classified in G05D201/02.

Within G05D 1/021 and its subgroups, an invention is classified in the subgroups of all the sensors that are essential for the invention. Sensors that are either optional or not directly involved in the invention are classified as additional information.

Further details of subgroups

This subgroup covers control systems where the trajectory of an aircraft or satellite is optimized.

Redundant control systems in general are classified only in G05B 9/03.

This subgroup covers control of an aircraft while on the ground, i.e. while accelerating before taking-off, braking after touching down or taxiing.

G05D 1/02 and subgroups

This subgroup covers control systems where the position determination or the position evolution takes place on a two-dimensional space. If the nature of the vehicle is specified, then it is classified in the corresponding subgroup.

G05D 1/0202 and subgroup

This subgroup covers two-dimensional navigation of an aircraft while in flight.

G05D 1/021 and subgroups

This subgroup covers control systems to define a trajectory for a land vehicle, and to take suitable actions to make the vehicle follow said trajectory.

Aspects of navigation systems that are important per se should also be classified in the relevant groups of G01C.

Aspects of radio, sonar or lidar navigation systems that are important per se should also be classified in the relevant groups of G01S.

Aspects of navigation systems for traffic purposes that are important per se should also be classified in the relevant groups of G08G.

This subgroup also covers control systems using barcode readers for positioning.

This subgroup also covers control systems using RFID tags for positioning.

This subgroup covers control systems where one of the vehicles sends orders to the others.

Control of position or direction (G05D 1/00 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Control of machine tools

Programme-controlled manipulators

Programme-control systems

Position control of a vehicle

Control of linear or angular speed or of acceleration

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Footwear manufacture

Tool carriers in forging or pressing

Pattern-controlled boring or drilling tools

Planing or slotting machines controlled by copying device

Electrode to workpiece spacing in electric discharge and electrochemical machining

Workpiece in laser welding or cutting

Workpiece in welding

Molten metal in welding

Tool or work position in machine tools

Tools controlled by pattern or master model

Spindles in machine tools

Grinding controlled by patterns, drawings, magnetic tape or the like

Starting position in grinding

Actuating members in presses

Chassis of tracked vehicles

Web-advancing mechanisms

Dippers or buckets in dredgers

Fluid-pressure servomotors with follow-up action

Tracking of solar heat collectors

Photomechanical production of patterned or textured surfaces

Rotating heads in information storage systems

Movement of control elements in nuclear reactors

Control of dimensions of material
Definition statement
This group covers:

Control of thickness or size of material

References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Tobacco cutting

Thickness of coating of fluent material on surface

Thickness, width, diameter or other transverse dimensions of the products of metal-rolling mills

Dimension of glass ribbon

Thickness of layer in paper making

Control of flow (level control G05D 9/00 ; ratio control G05D 11/00 ; of media to the human body A61M 5/168 ; weighing apparatus G01G)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Control of flow of liquids, gases, particulate matter and other fluent materials by action on throttling means and/or flow sources.

References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Air in hair drying helmets

Flow of media to the human body

Gases or vapour in electrostatic separators

Fluent material in coating devices

Dispensing beverages on draught

Transferring liquids

B67D5/28

Gas purifiers

Flushing boreholes

Obtaining liquids from wells

Flow in non-positive displacement machines or systems

Lubrication arrangements

Coolant flow in cooling devices

Gas-turbine working fluid

Throttle passages in pipes

Air-flow or supply of heating or cooling fluids in air treatment arrangements

Air or gas flow in dryers

Continuous flow weighing apparatus

Coolant in nuclear power plant

Further details of subgroups:

This subgroup covers valves where the flexible member itself, e.g. a membrane, acts on the valve seat.

This subgroup covers for example flexible members having the form of a torus.

This subgroup covers valves comprising several pistons sliding one over the other.

This subgroup covers valves using calibrated orifices for achieving a constant flow.

These subgroups cover systems where the target flow is defined in dependence on a specific parameter, e.g. the speed of a vehicle.

Within this subgroup, an invention is classified in the last appropriate place.

Level control, e.g. controlling quantity of material stored in vessel (controlling level of liquid-pool electrode in electric discharge tubes and lamps H01J 1/10 , H01J 13/14)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Control of quantity of liquids or particulate matter in a vessel by action on the input and/or the output flow.

References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Liquid level in sedimentation arrangements

Ink level in printing, manifolding or duplicating arrangements

Feed water for boilers

Liquid pool electrodes in electric discharge tubes or lamps

Ratio control (control of chemical or physico-chemical variables, e.g. pH-value G05D 21/00 ; humidity control G05D 22/00 ; control of viscosity G05D 24/00 ; proportioning the ingredients for mixing clay or cement with other substances B28C 7/00)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Control of the relative ratio of flow rate or of volume of two or more fluent materials by action on throttling means and/or flow sources.

References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Density in sedimentation arrangements

Mixers

Abrasive blasts

Mixtures of clays or cements

Bulk material conveyers

Flow ratio in jet-propulsion plants

Further details of subgroups:

This subgroup also covers systems using interconnected pistons

This subgroup covers systems comprising venturi aspirators.

This subgroup covers systems where the motor of the pump acting on the feeding of a fluid is operated by another fluid.

Subgroups G05D 11/001 to G05D 11/008 are used in preference to G05D 11/03, also for flow ratio control systems without auxiliary power.

Systems aiming at regulating a temperature by mixing hot and cold water are only classified in G05D 23/13 and subgroups.

Control of linear speed; Control of angular speed; Control of acceleration or deceleration, e.g. of a prime mover (synchronising telegraph receiver and transmitter H04L 7/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Drum speed in metal drawing

Cutting velocity of tool or work

Ram speed in presses

Setting or limiting speed of vehicles

Electrically-propelled vehicles

Road vehicle cruise control

Cruising speed of aircraft

Feed rate in manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles or ribbons

Carding machines

Warping, beaming or leasing machines

Cyclically varying speed of looms

Speed of fluid carrier in chemical analysis

Record carriers or heads for such carriers in information storage systems

Control of mechanical force or stress; Control of mechanical pressure
References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Portable percussive tools

Ram pressure in presses

Tension in webs, tapes, filamentary material

Tension in filamentary material

Rope, cable or chain tension

Tension in looms

Tension in sewing machines

Pressure in paper-making machines

Drying fabrics

Pressure in dryers

Record carrier tension in information storage arrangements

Control of fluid pressure (control of pressure in electric discharge tubes or lamps H01J e.g. H01J 7/14 ; control of pressure in electric incandescent lamps H01K 1/52)
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Valves per se

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Tyre pressure

Air within diving suit

Aircraft air-pressure

Bulk material conveyers

Manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles or ribbons

Flushing boreholes

Lubrication arrangements

Pressure of fluid carrier in chemical analysis

Pressure in electric discharge tubes or lamps

Pressure in electric incandescent lamps

Further details of subgroups

This subgroup covers valves in series or in cascade, where the output of one valve is the input of another one.

This subgroup covers valves having their inputs and/or outputs connected together.

This subgroup covers valves comprising several pistons sliding one over the other.

G05D 16/14 and subgroups

This subgroup covers non-electric pilot valves.

This subgroup covers valves where the electric energy is used for adjusting the set point of an otherwise purely mechanical regulator.

This subgroup covers electromagnetic pilot valves.

Control of torque; Control of mechanical power
Definition statement
This group covers:

Regulation of the torque of tightening tools, control of the torque or power of electric motors, combustion engines and the like when the control is not specific of the particular drive.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Torque limiters in tools

Propulsion units in vehicles

Control of combustion engines

Control of electric motors

Control of mechanical oscillations, e.g. of amplitude, of frequency, of phase (generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations B06B ; control of electric motors H02P)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Control of mechanical oscillations or vibrations in machines or structures, either by generating oscillations, or by damping oscillations, other than suppression of vibrations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Musical instruments; acoustics

G10

Loudspeakers or like acoustic electromechanical transducers

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Portable percussion tools

Jigging conveyers

Suppression of vibrations in systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations

Control of electric motors

Control of chemical or physico-chemical variables, e.g. pH value
Definition statement
This group covers:

Regulation of chemical composition, concentration, pH or the like in a chemical process when the regulation is not specific of the particular process.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Ratio control

Humidity control

Control of viscosity

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Density in sedimentation arrangements

Treating gases or vapours

Composition of fluid carrier in chemical analysis

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Physical or chemical processes in general

Treatment of water

Control of humidity (of tobacco products A24B 9/00 ; air conditioning F24F)
References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like

Poultry incubators

Tobacco products

Moistening in air treating devices of vehicles

Air conditioning

Dryers

Control of temperature (automatic switching arrangements for electric heating apparatus H05B 1/02 ; controlling induction heating H05B 6/06 ; regulating temperature of anode of X-ray tube H05G 1/36)
References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Bakers' ovens

Hair curlers

Metal extruding

Tyre temperature

Cosmonautic vehicles

Float baths in glass making

Manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles or ribbons

Knitting machines

Hand irons

Paper-making machines

Lubricant in lubrication arrangements

Arrangements for supplying oil or unspecified lubricant from a reservoir

Steam superheat

Dryers

Temperature of fluid carrier in chemical analysis

Electric storage cells

Automatic switching arrangements for electric heating apparatus

Dielectric, induction or microwave heating

Anode of X-ray tube

Special rules of classification within this group

Within subgroups G05D 23/01 to G05D 23/32, an invention is classified in the last appropriate place in the absence of an indication of the contrary.

Further details of subgroups:

These subgroups cover valves controlling the flow of a fluid as a function of the temperature of said fluid.

These subgroups cover valves controlling the flow of a fluid as a function of the temperature of an external sensor, e.g. thermostat for radiator.

G05D 23/024 and subgroups

These subgroups cover memory shape alloys working as a sensing element.

This subgroup covers systems where the fusing of an element irreversibly releases a cooling fluid.

This subgroup covers valves controlling the flow of fuel to a burner as a function of the temperature of a controlled space.

This subgroup covers valves distributing the flow of a fluid among two conduits as a function of the temperature of said fluid, e.g. refrigerating systems.

This subgroup covers not only valves where the flow is regulated, but also where it is just set by the user.

G05D 23/185 and subgroups

These subgroups cover valves similar to the corresponding subgroups in G05D 23/01, but further comprising the use of auxiliary pneumatic or hydraulic energy.

G05D 23/19 and subgroups

These subgroups cover inventions where the nature of the sensing element is not mentioned or is irrelevant.

G05D 23/20 and subgroups

This covers inventions where the sensing element has a variation of electric or magnetic properties other than defined in G05D 23/22, G05D 23/24 or G05D 23/26, e.g. a semiconductor, an ionized gas or a capacitor.

These subgroups cover inventions relating to the input means of the reference value.

These subgroups cover systems where a temperature profile is defined as a function of time.

These subgroups cover systems where the control action is a continuous function of the measured error.

These subgroups cover systems delivering a series of pulses having a frequency that is a continuous function of the measured error.

These subgroups also cover systems using Peltier effect devices.

These subgroups cover systems where the actuator consists of a heat expanding element being heated electrically in order to act on a valve.

These subgroups cover control systems for storage heaters.

These subgroups cover systems using solar energy.

These subgroups cover systems measuring the temperature of the controlled space and of another space in thermal relationship with it, e.g. outdoors.

This subgroup covers systems where one sensor is used for control after the other, e.g. measuring the input flow temperature of a heating system and later switching to measuring the output flow temperature.

Control of light, e.g. intensity, colour, phase (mechanically operable parts of lighting devices for the control of light F21V ; optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable elements for controlling light independent of the light source G02B 26/00 ; devices or arrangements, the optical operation of which is modified by changing the optical properties of the medium of the devices or arrangements for the control of light, circuit arrangements specially adapted therefor, control of light by electro-magnetic waves, electrons or other elementary particles G02F 1/00 ; circuit arrangements for controlling light sources H01S 3/10 , H05B 33/08 , H05B 35/00 to H05B 43/00)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Regulation of intensity, colour or phase of light other than by acting on the light sources.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Vehicle lighting

Operating screening devices

Mechanically operable parts of lighting devices for the control of light

Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable elements for controlling light independent of the light source

Devices or arrangements, the optical operation of which is modified by changing the optical properties of the medium of the devices or arrangements for the control of light, circuit arrangements specially adapted therefor, control of light by electro-magnetic waves, electrons or other elementary particles

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Photographic composing machines

Lasers and other light sources

Simultaneous control of variables covered by two or more of the preceding main groups
Special rules of classification within this group

If there is a double regulation (two independent set points for two corresponding controlled variables, e.g. temperature and humidity, when there are interactions in the control loops), the document is also classified in this group. Thus, this group should be assigned in addition to the groups corresponding to the two or more controlled variables.

Simultaneous control of electric and non-electric variables
Special rules of classification within this group

If there is a double regulation (two independent set points for two corresponding controlled variables, when there are interactions in the control loops), the document is also classified in this group. Thus, this group should be assigned in addition to the groups corresponding to the two or more controlled variables.

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not being used.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013