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SYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES ( for continuous casting of metals B22D 11/16 ; valves per se F16K; sensing non-electric variables, see the relevant subclasses of G01; for regulating electric or magnetic variables G05F)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems for controlling or regulating non-electric variables, in particular: position, trajectory, attitude or altitude of a vehicle; position or direction of an object; thickness or size of materials; flow rate; level; quantity ratio; linear or angular speed; force or stress; fluid pressure; torque or mechanical power; vibrations; chemical variables; humidity; temperature; viscosity; and illumination.

"controlling" means influencing a variable in any way, e.g. changing its direction or its value (including changing it to or from zero), maintaining it constant, limiting its range of variation.

"regulation" means maintaining a variable automatically at a desired value or within a desired range of values. The desired value or range may be fixed, or manually varied, or may vary with time according to a predeterminated "programme" or according to variation of another variable. Regulation is a form of control.

Merely acting on a variable for the purpose of influencing the state of a system (e.g. acting on the fuel flow rate in an engine for achieving a certain speed), where the value of the variable itself remains irrelevant, should a priori not be considered as controlling or regulating said variable.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Features of general applicability to regulating systems, e.g. anti-hunting arrangements
Regulating electric or magnetic variables

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Milking machines
Welding parameters
Copying
Grinding or polishing
Abrasive blasts
Dispensing beverages on draught
Electrographic, electrophotographic or magnetographic processes
Dynamo-electric motors or generators
Special rules of classification within this subclass

Control systems specially adapted for particular apparatuses, machines or processes are classified in the subclasses for the apparatus, machine or process, provided that there is specific provision for control or regulation relevant to the special adaptation, either at a detailed level, (e.g. A21B 1/40: "for regulating temperature in bakers' ovens") or at a general level, (e.g. B23K 9/095: "for automatic control of welding parameters in arc welding"). Otherwise, classification is made in the most appropriate place in this subclass.

Places where there is specific provision of the kind referred to above at a detailed level have been listed under the main groups of this subclass (see "References relevant to classification in this subclass"). Where the provision is at a general level (e.g. of a kind appropriate to more than one of the main groups specified in the lists, or to main groups G05D 27/00 or G05D 29/00), the places are listed under this subclass.

A document that can be applied to two or more applications is not specific for any of them and has to be classified in G05D (for instance a thermostat for heating or air conditioning).

A formulation of the kind "regulator for the application X" should a priori not be considered as specific to said application.

Usually, the subdivisions of the regulation classes in the field of the application are less precise than in G05D, therefore giving a class in G05D may be useful for search.

When in a document there is mention of several controlled variables, one should try to visualize the block scheme of the regulation. The document is then to be classified in the group of the variable controlled in the outer control loop. In case the regulation in one of the other control loops is of particular interest, it should also be classified in the group(s) of the variable(s) concerned.

Note that the above is without prejudice of the limiting references contained in the titles of the different groups and subgroups in this subclass.

In the main groups of this subclass, remarks found under "Further details of subgroups" are not meant to replace the definitions in the titles, but either give further information about the definitions or mention particular types of documents to be classified in the subgroups or to be excluded from them. In case no remark is made on a given subgroup, the title is considered to be self-explanatory.

In G05D, the hierarchy in classification is generally done according:

- to the physical variable

- Then to the nature of the auxiliary power used, with the following possibilities, not used for all the variables:

  • without auxiliary power (purely mechanical regulation)
  • with auxiliary non-electric power (e.g. pneumatic or hydraulic)
  • characterised by the use of electric means
  • with combination of electric and non-electric auxiliary power

- Then, to the type of sensor used.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Systems
includes self-contained devices such as speed governors, pressure regulators
Control of position, course or altitude of land, water, air, or space vehicles, e.g. automatic pilot ( steering applicable only to other than landborne vehicles, e.g. three-dimensional steering applicable to both aircraft and submarines B60K ; construction or disposition of steering means on land vehicles B62 , on waterborne vessels B63 ; manual or automatic control of aircraft, e.g. using automatic pilot or radiated signal B64C ; radio navigation systems or analogous systems using other waves G01S)
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass G01C covers navigation in general, i.e. determining the position and course of land vehicles, ships, aircraft, and space vehicles.

Subclass G01S covers radio, sonar or lidar navigation systems, i.e. navigation by use of radio, acoustic or optical waves, or analogue arrangements using other electromagnetic waves.

Subclass G08G covers navigation systems for traffic control purposes, i.e. systems in which the navigation is not performed autonomously by or in the vehicle, but where the vehicles are guided by instructions transmitted to them.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rail vehicles
Control of linear or angular speed or of acceleration
Linear or angular position control of an object not being a vehicle

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Agricultural machines or implements
Toy vehicles
Air-cushion vehicles
Driver Assistance Systems for road vehicles
Steering controls of motor vehicles or trailers, i.e. means for initiating a change of direction
Chassis of endless-tracked vehicles
Arrangements for automatically controlling the steering depending on driving conditions
Marine steering; control of waterborne vessels
Controlling aircraft
Controlling attitude or direction of aircraft ejector seats
B64D25/11
Cosmonautic vehicles
Self-propelled missiles
Guided missiles
Marine torpedoes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Navigation, i.e. determining the position and course of land vehicles, ships, aircraft, and space vehicles
Measuring distance traversed on the ground by vehicles, e.g. using odometers
Determining distance or velocity using waves and not using reflection or reradiation of waves
Radar systems specially designed for traffic control
Radar systems specially designed for anti-collision purposes
Sonar systems specially designed for anti-collision purposes
Lidar systems specially designed for anti-collision purposes
Position-fixing by co-ordinating a plurality of determinations of direction or position lines
Traffic control systems for road vehicles
Monitoring the location of fleet of vehicles in traffic control systems
Anti-collision traffic control systems
Special rules of classification within this group

This main group concerns only vehicles.

Documents are classified here in case:

  • the stability of the vehicle is obtained or improved by the regulation;
  • the sensors are piloting-specific: (i) to follow a predetermined trajectory; (ii) there is an interaction between the position determination and the goal to be achieved (for example there is a camera to recognize the environment and a processor to determine the trajectory);
  • the security of the piloting or the control of the piloting is achieved by electronic means;
  • of remote control;
  • of piloting-specific optimization; or
  • of interactions between vehicles.

Within this main group, the possible applications of a land vehicle are also classified in G05D201/02.

Within G05D 1/021 and its subgroups, an invention is classified in the subgroups of all the sensors that are essential for the invention. Sensors that are either optional or not directly involved in the invention are classified as additional information.

Further details of subgroups

This subgroup covers control systems where the trajectory of an aircraft or satellite is optimized.

Redundant control systems in general are classified only in G05B 9/03.

This subgroup covers control of an aircraft while on the ground, i.e. while accelerating before taking-off, braking after touching down or taxiing.

G05D 1/02 and subgroups

This subgroup covers control systems where the position determination or the position evolution takes place on a two-dimensional space. If the nature of the vehicle is specified, then it is classified in the corresponding subgroup.

G05D 1/0202 and subgroup

This subgroup covers two-dimensional navigation of an aircraft while in flight.

G05D 1/021 and subgroups

This subgroup covers control systems to define a trajectory for a land vehicle, and to take suitable actions to make the vehicle follow said trajectory.

Aspects of navigation systems that are important per se should also be classified in the relevant groups of G01C.

Aspects of radio, sonar or lidar navigation systems that are important per se should also be classified in the relevant groups of G01S.

Aspects of navigation systems for traffic purposes that are important per se should also be classified in the relevant groups of G08G.

This subgroup also covers control systems using barcode readers for positioning.

This subgroup also covers control systems using RFID tags for positioning.

This subgroup covers control systems where one of the vehicles sends orders to the others.

Control of position or direction (G05D 1/00 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control of machine tools
Programme-controlled manipulators
Programme-control systems
Position control of a vehicle
Control of linear or angular speed or of acceleration

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Footwear manufacture
Tool carriers in forging or pressing
Pattern-controlled boring or drilling tools
Planing or slotting machines controlled by copying device
Electrode to workpiece spacing in electric discharge and electrochemical machining
Workpiece in laser welding or cutting
Workpiece in welding
Molten metal in welding
Tool or work position in machine tools
Tools controlled by pattern or master model
Spindles in machine tools
Grinding controlled by patterns, drawings, magnetic tape or the like
Starting position in grinding
Actuating members in presses
Chassis of tracked vehicles
Web-advancing mechanisms
Dippers or buckets in dredgers
Fluid-pressure servomotors with follow-up action
Tracking of solar heat collectors
Photomechanical production of patterned or textured surfaces
Rotating heads in information storage systems
Movement of control elements in nuclear reactors
Control of dimensions of material
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of thickness or size of material

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Tobacco cutting
Thickness of coating of fluent material on surface
Thickness, width, diameter or other transverse dimensions of the products of metal-rolling mills
Dimension of glass ribbon
Thickness of layer in paper making
Control of flow ( level control G05D 9/00 ; ratio control G05D 11/00 ; of media to the human body A61M 5/168 ; weighing apparatus G01G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of flow of liquids, gases, particulate matter and other fluent materials by action on throttling means and/or flow sources.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Air in hair drying helmets
Flow of media to the human body
Gases or vapour in electrostatic separators
Fluent material in coating devices
Dispensing beverages on draught
Transferring liquids
B67D5/28
Gas purifiers
Flushing boreholes
Obtaining liquids from wells
Flow in non-positive displacement machines or systems
Lubrication arrangements
Coolant flow in cooling devices
Gas-turbine working fluid
Throttle passages in pipes
Air-flow or supply of heating or cooling fluids in air treatment arrangements
Air or gas flow in dryers
Continuous flow weighing apparatus
Coolant in nuclear power plant

Further details of subgroups:

This subgroup covers valves where the flexible member itself, e.g. a membrane, acts on the valve seat.

This subgroup covers for example flexible members having the form of a torus.

This subgroup covers valves comprising several pistons sliding one over the other.

This subgroup covers valves using calibrated orifices for achieving a constant flow.

These subgroups cover systems where the target flow is defined in dependence on a specific parameter, e.g. the speed of a vehicle.

Within this subgroup, an invention is classified in the last appropriate place.

Level control, e.g. controlling quantity of material stored in vessel ( controlling level of liquid-pool electrode in electric discharge tubes and lamps H01J 1/10 , H01J 13/14)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of quantity of liquids or particulate matter in a vessel by action on the input and/or the output flow.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Liquid level in sedimentation arrangements
Ink level in printing, manifolding or duplicating arrangements
Feed water for boilers
Liquid pool electrodes in electric discharge tubes or lamps
Ratio control ( control of chemical or physico-chemical variables, e.g. pH-value G05D 21/00 ; humidity control G05D 22/00 ; control of viscosity G05D 24/00 ; proportioning the ingredients for mixing clay or cement with other substances B28C 7/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of the relative ratio of flow rate or of volume of two or more fluent materials by action on throttling means and/or flow sources.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Density in sedimentation arrangements
Mixers
Abrasive blasts
Mixtures of clays or cements
Bulk material conveyers
Flow ratio in jet-propulsion plants

Further details of subgroups:

This subgroup also covers systems using interconnected pistons

This subgroup covers systems comprising venturi aspirators.

This subgroup covers systems where the motor of the pump acting on the feeding of a fluid is operated by another fluid.

Subgroups G05D 11/001 to G05D 11/008 are used in preference to G05D 11/03, also for flow ratio control systems without auxiliary power.

Systems aiming at regulating a temperature by mixing hot and cold water are only classified in G05D 23/13 and subgroups.

Control of linear speed; Control of angular speed; Control of acceleration or deceleration, e.g. of a prime mover ( synchronising telegraph receiver and transmitter H04L 7/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Drum speed in metal drawing
Cutting velocity of tool or work
Ram speed in presses
Setting or limiting speed of vehicles
Electrically-propelled vehicles
Road vehicle cruise control
Cruising speed of aircraft
Feed rate in manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles or ribbons
Carding machines
Warping, beaming or leasing machines
Cyclically varying speed of looms
Speed of fluid carrier in chemical analysis
Record carriers or heads for such carriers in information storage systems
Control of mechanical force or stress; Control of mechanical pressure
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Portable percussive tools
Ram pressure in presses
Tension in webs, tapes, filamentary material
Tension in filamentary material
Rope, cable or chain tension
Tension in looms
Tension in sewing machines
Pressure in paper-making machines
Drying fabrics
Pressure in dryers
Record carrier tension in information storage arrangements
Control of fluid pressure ( control of pressure in electric discharge tubes or lamps H01J e.g. H01J 7/14 ; control of pressure in electric incandescent lamps H01K 1/52)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Valves per se

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Tyre pressure
Air within diving suit
Aircraft air-pressure
Bulk material conveyers
Manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles or ribbons
Flushing boreholes
Lubrication arrangements
Pressure of fluid carrier in chemical analysis
Pressure in electric discharge tubes or lamps
Pressure in electric incandescent lamps

Further details of subgroups

This subgroup covers valves in series or in cascade, where the output of one valve is the input of another one.

This subgroup covers valves having their inputs and/or outputs connected together.

This subgroup covers valves comprising several pistons sliding one over the other.

G05D 16/14 and subgroups

This subgroup covers non-electric pilot valves.

This subgroup covers valves where the electric energy is used for adjusting the set point of an otherwise purely mechanical regulator.

This subgroup covers electromagnetic pilot valves.

Control of torque; Control of mechanical power
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Regulation of the torque of tightening tools, control of the torque or power of electric motors, combustion engines and the like when the control is not specific of the particular drive.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Torque limiters in tools
Propulsion units in vehicles
Control of combustion engines
Control of electric motors
Control of mechanical oscillations, e.g. of amplitude, of frequency, of phase ( generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations B06B ; control of electric motors H02P)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of mechanical oscillations or vibrations in machines or structures, either by generating oscillations, or by damping oscillations, other than suppression of vibrations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Musical instruments; acoustics
Loudspeakers or like acoustic electromechanical transducers

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Portable percussion tools
Jigging conveyers
Suppression of vibrations in systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Generating or transmitting mechanical vibrations
Control of electric motors
Control of chemical or physico-chemical variables, e.g. pH value
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Regulation of chemical composition, concentration, pH or the like in a chemical process when the regulation is not specific of the particular process.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ratio control
Humidity control
Control of viscosity

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Density in sedimentation arrangements
Treating gases or vapours
Composition of fluid carrier in chemical analysis
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Physical or chemical processes in general
Treatment of water
Control of humidity ( of tobacco products A24B 9/00 ; air conditioning F24F)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
Poultry incubators
Tobacco products
Moistening in air treating devices of vehicles
Air conditioning
Dryers
Control of temperature ( automatic switching arrangements for electric heating apparatus H05B 1/02 ; controlling induction heating H05B 6/06 ; regulating temperature of anode of X-ray tube H05G 1/36)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Bakers' ovens
Hair curlers
Metal extruding
Tyre temperature
Cosmonautic vehicles
Float baths in glass making
Manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles or ribbons
Knitting machines
Hand irons
Paper-making machines
Lubricant in lubrication arrangements
Arrangements for supplying oil or unspecified lubricant from a reservoir
Steam superheat
Dryers
Temperature of fluid carrier in chemical analysis
Electric storage cells
Automatic switching arrangements for electric heating apparatus
Dielectric, induction or microwave heating
Anode of X-ray tube
Special rules of classification within this group

Within subgroups G05D 23/01 to G05D 23/32, an invention is classified in the last appropriate place in the absence of an indication of the contrary.

Further details of subgroups:

These subgroups cover valves controlling the flow of a fluid as a function of the temperature of said fluid.

These subgroups cover valves controlling the flow of a fluid as a function of the temperature of an external sensor, e.g. thermostat for radiator.

G05D 23/024 and subgroups

These subgroups cover memory shape alloys working as a sensing element.

This subgroup covers systems where the fusing of an element irreversibly releases a cooling fluid.

This subgroup covers valves controlling the flow of fuel to a burner as a function of the temperature of a controlled space.

This subgroup covers valves distributing the flow of a fluid among two conduits as a function of the temperature of said fluid, e.g. refrigerating systems.

This subgroup covers not only valves where the flow is regulated, but also where it is just set by the user.

G05D 23/185 and subgroups

These subgroups cover valves similar to the corresponding subgroups in G05D 23/01, but further comprising the use of auxiliary pneumatic or hydraulic energy.

G05D 23/19 and subgroups

These subgroups cover inventions where the nature of the sensing element is not mentioned or is irrelevant.

G05D 23/20 and subgroups

This covers inventions where the sensing element has a variation of electric or magnetic properties other than defined in G05D 23/22, G05D 23/24 or G05D 23/26, e.g. a semiconductor, an ionized gas or a capacitor.

These subgroups cover inventions relating to the input means of the reference value.

These subgroups cover systems where a temperature profile is defined as a function of time.

These subgroups cover systems where the control action is a continuous function of the measured error.

These subgroups cover systems delivering a series of pulses having a frequency that is a continuous function of the measured error.

These subgroups also cover systems using Peltier effect devices.

These subgroups cover systems where the actuator consists of a heat expanding element being heated electrically in order to act on a valve.

These subgroups cover control systems for storage heaters.

These subgroups cover systems using solar energy.

These subgroups cover systems measuring the temperature of the controlled space and of another space in thermal relationship with it, e.g. outdoors.

This subgroup covers systems where one sensor is used for control after the other, e.g. measuring the input flow temperature of a heating system and later switching to measuring the output flow temperature.

Control of light, e.g. intensity, colour, phase ( mechanically operable parts of lighting devices for the control of light F21V ; optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable elements for controlling light independent of the light source G02B 26/00 ; devices or arrangements, the optical operation of which is modified by changing the optical properties of the medium of the devices or arrangements for the control of light, circuit arrangements specially adapted therefor, control of light by electro-magnetic waves, electrons or other elementary particles G02F 1/00 ; circuit arrangements for controlling light sources H01S 3/10 , H05B 33/08 , H05B 35/00 to H05B 43/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Regulation of intensity, colour or phase of light other than by acting on the light sources.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Vehicle lighting
Operating screening devices
Mechanically operable parts of lighting devices for the control of light
Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable elements for controlling light independent of the light source
Devices or arrangements, the optical operation of which is modified by changing the optical properties of the medium of the devices or arrangements for the control of light, circuit arrangements specially adapted therefor, control of light by electro-magnetic waves, electrons or other elementary particles

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Photographic composing machines
Lasers and other light sources
Simultaneous control of variables covered by two or more of the preceding main groups
Special rules of classification within this group

If there is a double regulation (two independent set points for two corresponding controlled variables, e.g. temperature and humidity, when there are interactions in the control loops), the document is also classified in this group. Thus, this group should be assigned in addition to the groups corresponding to the two or more controlled variables.

Simultaneous control of electric and non-electric variables
Special rules of classification within this group

If there is a double regulation (two independent set points for two corresponding controlled variables, when there are interactions in the control loops), the document is also classified in this group. Thus, this group should be assigned in addition to the groups corresponding to the two or more controlled variables.

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is not being used.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013