CPC Definition - Subclass G01M

Last Updated Version: 2019.01
TESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
Definition statement

This place covers:

Testing characterised by the objects investigated:

Testing characterised by the properties investigated:

  • Balance – see definition for G01M 1/00
  • Fluid tightness – see definition for G01M 3/00
  • Elasticity, deflection – see definition for G01M 5/00
  • Vibration resistance – see definition for G01M 7/00
  • Aerodynamic properties – see definition for G01M 9/00
  • Hydrodynamic properties – see definition for G01M 10/00
  • Optical properties – see definition for G01M 11/00
Relationships with other classification places

Subclass G01N covers investigating, i.e. testing or determining, the properties of materials, as opposed to testing or determining the properties of structures or apparatus, machine parts, which is covered by subclass G01M.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for testing the performance of portable percussive tools with fluid-pressure drive

B25D 9/005

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Calibrating

means ascertaining the quality of a measuring or testing device, or checking, adjusting graduations of measuring or testing device.

Monitoring

means maintain a continuous or periodical watch (human or instrumental) on, to enable action to be taken or initiated, or a signal to be given, if undesired conditions occur.

Investigating

means testing or determining.

Testing

means determination of the presence, quality, or genuineness of object to be tested.

Testing static or dynamic balance of machines or structures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and apparatus for:

  • Determining and compensating static or dynamic unbalance of machine or structures.
  • Determining the moment of inertia of machines or structures.
  • Static balancing of machines or structures.
  • Determining position of centre of gravity of machines or structures.
  • Devices for determining unbalance of machines.
  • Devices for correcting unbalance of machines or structures.
Relationships with other classification places

G01H covers the combination of generation and measurement of mechanical and other vibrations while subclass G01M covers determining unbalance by oscillating or rotating the body to be tested.

G01R covers instruments for measuring electrical variables, which can be used for balancing machines or devices but not specially adapted for this purposes.

H04R covers electromechanical transducers producing acoustic waves or variations of electric variables (current or voltage) while G01M covers determining unbalance by converting vibrations due to unbalance into electric variables.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Balancing rotary bowls of centrifuges

B04B 9/14

Means for holding wheels or parts thereof

B60B 30/00

Determining vessel properties with respect to stability or balance

B63B 9/08

Equipment to decrease pitch, roll, or like unwanted vessel movements; Apparatus for indicating vessel attitude

B63B 39/00

Aircraft stabilization not otherwise provided for

B64C 17/00

Centring the rotor within the stator; Balancing the rotor

H02K 15/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tools for wheel weight mounting or removing

B25B 27/0078

Balancing rotors of turbines

F01D 5/027

Counterweights; Attaching or mounting same

F16F 15/28

Correcting- or balancing-weights or equivalents means for balancing rotating bodies, e.g. vehicle wheels

F16F 15/32

Measuring vibrations in general

G01H

Measuring electrical variables in general

G01R

Control of mechanical oscillations

G05D 19/00

Microphones or like acoustic electromechanical transducers

H04R

Adaptation of bearing support assemblies for receiving the body to be tested
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Test of wheels

G01M 17/013

Uniformity test of tyre

G01M 17/02

Tyre chucks for testing purposes

G01M 17/021

Uniformity test of tyre and surface correction

G01M 17/024

Static balancing; Determining position of centre of gravity (by determining unbalance G01M 1/14)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Determining unbalance by dynamic methods

G01M 1/14

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Levelling, stabilizing of vehicles transporting loads

B60P 1/045

and converting vibrations due to unbalance into electric variables
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Measuring vibration in general

G01H

Vibration transducers per se

H04R

Compensating unbalance
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Counterweights

F16F 15/28

by adding material to the body to be tested, e.g. by correcting-weights
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Correcting-weights per se

F16F 15/32

by removing material from the body to be tested, e.g. from the tread of tyres
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices for compensating unbalance by removing by grinding or drilling.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Uniformity test of tyre and surface correction

G01M 17/024

by adjusting position of masses built-in the body to be tested
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices for:

Hydraulic positioning of balancing weights.

Electric, magnetic positioning, like solenoids, motors.

Mechanical positioning.

Balancing with free moving parts, like balls,

Balancing by using eccentric discs.

Investigating fluid-tightness of structures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Investigating fluid-tightness of structures:

Like cables, tubes, pipes, welds, pipe joints, seals, valves, containers, radiators.

By using thermal means, pigs or moles, fluid or vacuum, tracer materials, infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic vibrations, pressure or flow or level detector, light or by using other electric means, e.g. by observing electric discharges.

With leakage calibration devices and standard leak

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Detection of leak in washing machines

A47L 15/4212

Membrane leak detection in blood dialysis

A61M 1/1692

Detecting medical infusion flow leakage

A61M 5/16831

Detecting or repairing leaks in apparatus using semi-permeable membranes

B01D 65/10

Leak detection in membrane

B01D 65/102

Testing for leaks in apparatus for blow-molding

B29C 49/80

Monitoring, testing or servicing air conditioning in vehicles

B60H 1/00585

Leakage-indicating devices for large containers

B65D 90/50

Locating fluid leaks in boreholes or wells

E21B 47/10

Leakage detectors for rocket-engine plants

F02K 9/54

Leak detection in pumps

F04B 43/009

Means for stopping flow from pipes

F16L 55/10

Preventing, monitoring or locating loss in the pipe-line and networks

F17D 5/02

Leak detection in steam boilers

F22B 37/421

Leakage detection in pressure sensors

G01L 19/0672

Investigating material strength by pressure test

G01N 3/12

Investigating the permeability, pore volume, or surface area of porous materials

G01N 15/08

Investigating the presence of flaws or irregularities of material by mechanical methods

G01N 19/08

Investigating the presence of flaws, defects or contamination by the use of optical means

G01N 21/88

Investigating the presence of flaws by the use of microwaves

G01N 22/02

Investigating the presence of flaws by wave or particle radiation, e.g. X-rays

G01N 23/18

Investigating the presence of flaws by the use of thermal means

G01N 25/72

Investigating the presence of flaws by the use of electric, electro-chemical or magnetic means

G01N 27/00

Investigating the presence of flaws by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

G01N 29/04

Leakage detection for insulated conductors or cables characterised by their form

H01B 7/32

Mass spectrometers per se

H01J 49/26

Leak testing of cell or batteries

H01M 10/4228

{using pigs or moles (G01M 3/246, G01M 3/2823 take precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Leak detection using sonic vibration in pipe using pigs moles

G01M 3/246

Leak detection using pressure, flow or level detector in pipe using pigs moles

G01M 3/2823

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Pig moles per se

F16L 55/26

General pipeline inspection

F17D 5/00

{Leak detector calibration, standard leaks (G01M 3/207 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Dummy leakage generators for sensitivity check.

Standard volume tanks for leakage test.

Changing means of fine volume for calibration.

Fine leakage bulb.

Standard leak bodies controlling probe gas flow.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Calibration of leak detection using tracermaterials

G01M 3/207

{Test plugs for closing off the end of a pipe}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means for stopping flow from pipes

F16L 55/10

{Details with respect to the testing of engines or engine parts}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Failures in purge control systems

F02M 25/0809

{using mass spectrometer detection systems}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mass spectrometer per se

H01J 49/26

{Accessories or associated equipment; Pump constructions}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multistage pump, specially adapted to production of high vacuum, like molecular pumps

F04D 19/04

using infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic vibrations
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems for:

  • Locating leak in underground pipes.
  • Signal processing in the time and frequency domain.
  • Signal processing using correlation techniques.
  • Passive detection (no active source is used).
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Leak detection using pig-moles

G01M 3/005

{for underground fuel dispensing systems (G01M 3/30 takes precedence)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Leakage-indicating devices for large containers

B65D 90/50

{Details, e.g. container closure devices}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also container closure devices.

{by monitoring the interior space of the containers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Tightness of tanks, bottles, cans and methods or apparatus:

Using introduction of overpressure into interior space;

Using vacuum pump and controlling vacuum pressure and also by measuring on/off of vacuum pump or by measuring pressure change while pump cycles have predetermined on/off cycles.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Leak testing of cell or batteries

H01M 10/4228

{removably mounted in a test cell}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Test cells, testing pockets, test chambers, seal chambers, testing bells.

Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges or air-craft wings (G01M 9/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges, aircraft wings or blades, elongated object, like pipe, masts, tower or railways, e.g. testing elastic properties of bodies or chassis, e.g. torsion-testing:

  • by determining damage, crack or wear.
  • by determining deflection or stress.
  • by using vibration or acceleration excitation or detection.
  • by using an external apparatus, like a test bench.
  • by measuring a variation of impedance (resistance, inductance or capacitance).
  • by using electromagnetic excitation or detection.

Further details of subgroups

G01M 5/0066; This sub-group has some overlap with G01M 7/00 (vibration testing of structure): it is possible to classify in both main groups (G01M 7/00 and G01M 5/00): a classification in G01M 5/00 are suited for documents making the emphasis on the testing of the structure, and documents making emphasis on the vibration testing are to be classified in G01M 7/00.

This subgroup also covers documents where there is a vibration or acceleration detection without specific vibration detection (for instance a bridge with acceleration detector whereas the signature of vehicle passage are measured and analysed: in this specific case also classify in G01M 5/0008).

G01M 5/0075; This sub-group has some overlap with G01M 11/08 (testing of mechanical properties with optical methods). It is possible to classify in both main group (G01M 11/00 and G01M 5/00): a classification in G01M 5/00 are suited for documents making the emphasis on the testing of the structure, and documents making emphasis on the optical testing are suited to be classified in G01M 11/00.

This sub group does not cover the investigating of the properties of solids material by the use of optical means (G01N 21/00).

Relationships with other classification places

G01B covers apparatus, which can be used for investigating the elasticity of structures but not specially adapted for this purposes, e.g. strain gauges.

G01H covers apparatus or methods for the measurement, or measurement in combination with generation, of mechanical vibrations or the like, and particularly for the measurement of:

Mechanical vibrations or ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves by using radiation-sensitive means, e.g. Optical means.

Mechanical vibrations or ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves by detecting changes in electric or magnetic properties.

Mechanical vibrations or ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves by other means;

Vibrations in solids by using direct conduction to the detector.

Vibrations in fluids by using a detector in a fluid.

Propagation velocity of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves.

Reverberation time.

Resonant frequency.

Mechanical or acoustic impedance.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Aerodynamic testing

G01M 9/00

References out of a residual place

Examples of places in relation to which this place is residual:

Investigating the properties of solids material by application of mechanical stress

G01N 3/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing of machine parts

G01M 13/00

Testing a vehicles

G01M 17/00

Mechanical testing of complete machine

G01M 99/005

Testing a structure by applying load

G01M 99/007

Testing of foundations or foundations structures

E02D 33/00

Earthquake detection

G01V 1/00

Testing of nuclear power plants

G21C 17/00

Vibration-testing of structures; Shock-testing of structures (G01M 9/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vibration testing or shock testing of structures.

Relationships with other classification places

G01B covers Instruments and methods for measuring linear dimensions of objects such as length, thickness, width, height, depth, diameter, coordinates of points of objects, distance or clearance between spaced objects or spaced apertures, angles or tapers, alignment of axes, areas, contours, curvatures, or profiles, roughness or irregularities of surfaces, deformation in a solid.

G01H covers measurement of mechanical vibrations in general.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Aerodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on wind tunnels

G01M 9/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing of gearings and transmission mechanisms using acoustic or vibration analysis

G01M 13/028

Testing of bearings using acoustic or vibration analysis

G01M 13/045

Testing of internal combustion engine using acoustic or vibration analysis

G01M 15/12

Testing the effect of speed or acceleration

G01M 99/004

Generating and transmitting of mechanical vibrations.

B06B

Testing of foundations or foundations structures

E02D 33/00

Strain gauges

G01B

Measurement of mechanical vibrations in general.

G01H

Investigating the properties of solids material by application of a single impulsive force

G01N 3/30

Investigating the properties of solids material by application of a repeated or pulsating force

G01N 3/32

Investigating the properties of material by the use of ultra sonic, sonic or infra sonic waves

G01N 29/00

Investigating the presence of flaws in solids by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

G01N 29/04

Earthquake detection

G01V 1/00

Musical instruments and acoustics.

G10

Testing of nuclear power plants

G21C 17/00

Loudspeakers, microphones and similar devices.

H04R

Special rules of classification

This group has some overlap with G01M 5/0066 (testing of structure using vibration or acceleration detection or excitation). It is possible to classify in both main groups (G01M 7/00 and G01M 5/00): a classification in G01M 5/00 are suited for documents making the emphasis on the testing of the structure, and documents making emphasis on the vibration testing are suited to be classified in G01M 7/00.

Vibration-testing {by means of a shake table}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Environmental testing.

{Vibration control arrangements, e.g. for generating random vibrations}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Overload protection.

{Measuring arrangements}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Measurement data analysis of vibration testing.

{Specimen mounting arrangements, e.g. table head adapters}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Producing shaped articles by using vibration

B28B 1/08

Producing shaped articles by using vibration tables

B28B 1/0873

Details of apparatus for testing material with sonic waves

G01N 29/22

Shock-testing
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Shock testing of vehicles

G01M 17/0078

Measuring force due to impact

G01L 5/0052

Shock-testing of solid materials

G01N 29/045

Anatomic models

G09B 23/00

Aerodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on wind tunnels
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aerodynamic testing and arrangements therefore.

Also covered is parachute canopy testing, testing using infrared camera, chimney testing, space conditions, simulation, testing of autopilots, heat conversion, balancing of propellers.

Relationships with other classification places

G01B covers apparatus, which can be used for investigating the elasticity of structures but not specially adapted for this purposes, e.g. strain gauges.

G01H covers measurement of mechanical vibrations in general.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges, aircraft wings

G01M 5/00

Vibration testing of structures; Shock-testing of structures

G01M 7/00

Investigating the ductility of materials

G01N 3/28

Measuring speed of fluids, e.g. of air stream; Measuring speed of bodies relative to fluids, e.g. of ship, of aircraft

G01P 5/00

Wind tunnels
Definition statement

This place covers:

Complete arrangements as well as simulations.

Details
Definition statement

This place covers:

Partial details of wind tunnels, measurements arrangements, investigation properties, like acoustic or wind distribution, wall arrangements, wind or smoke or hot gas production, production of environmental conditions, supersonic flow generators, high speed plasma generators, holding or support devices of the object under test, vibration absorbers, isolation, high pressure wave generator.

Measuring arrangements specially adapted for aerodynamic testing
Definition statement

This place covers:

Theoretical arrangements for aerodynamic measuring, constructions in combination with visualisation methods of flow profiles, simulation, space conditions, turbulators on airfoils for transient simulation, balances incorporated in test object.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring volume flow, flow rate

G01F

Measuring multiple component of the force

G01L 5/16

Aerodynamic models
Definition statement

This place covers:

Theoretical models and model construction for aerodynamic measurements or observing or form creation.

Hydrodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on ship-testing tanks or water tunnels
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydrodynamic testing and arrangements therefore, e.g. means for studying the flow of fluid about the object to be tested.

Relationships with other classification places

G01B covers apparatus, which can be used for investigating the elasticity of structures but not specially adapted for this purposes, e.g. strain gauges.

G01H covers measurement of mechanical vibrations in general.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Method for design, building or repairing or determining properties using towing tanks or model basins

B63B 9/02

Determining vessel properties with respect stability or balance

B63B 9/08

Apparatus for indicating vessel attitude

B63B 39/00

Strain gauges

G01B

Investigating properties of materials in general

G01N

Investigating the ductility of materials

G01N 3/28

Measuring speed of fluids, e.g. of air stream; Measuring speed of bodies relative to fluids, e.g. of ship, of aircraft

G01P 5/00

Building aspects

E

Testing of optical apparatus; Testing structures by optical methods not otherwise provided for
Definition statement

This place covers:

Testing of optical apparatus, e.g. testing of fiber, testing of mirror, testing of optical properties of lenses (measuring refractive power, geometrical properties or aberrations, material or chromatic transmission properties, the optical modulation transfer function of optical apparatus and etc.) or mechanical properties. Testing of headlights. Testing structures by optical methods not otherwise provided for.

This group also covers theoretical articles, calibration arrangements not otherwise provided, parts of testing systems, like power meters, testing resistance to radiation, end face monitoring, photo acoustic methods.

Relationships with other classification places

This group is residual place for classifying testing of optical devices or apparatus not provided for in any other subclass of the CPC. Testing of particular optical devices or apparatus is often covered by the respective subclass provided for that optical devices or apparatus.

Testing of optical devices or apparatus is classified in G01M 11/00 only if there is no appropriate place for that subject matter elsewhere.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for testing or checking weapon sighting devices

F41G 1/54

Devices for testing or checking aiming and laying means

F41G 3/32

Interferometers

G01B 9/02

Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means

G01B 11/00

Calibrating optical contour or curvature measuring devices

G01B 11/2504

Photometry

G01J 1/00

Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means

G01N 21/00

Testing electrical properties of light emitting diodes, laser diodes or photodiodes

G01R 31/2635

Testing electrical properties of lamps

G01R 31/44

Optical elements, systems or apparatus

G02B

Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source, e.g. switching, gating, or modulating

G02F 1/00

Repairing of testing liquid crystal displays

G02F 1/1309

Testing correct operation of photographic apparatus

G03B 43/00

Testing and control of apparatus for microlithography

G03F 7/70483G03F 7/70541, G03F 7/70558, G03F 7/70591G03F 7/70683

Inspection of images for flow detection

G06T 7/0002

Electronic inspection or testing of displays, like LED or LCD

G09G 3/006

Testing electrical properties of solar cells

H02S 50/10

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems or their details

H04N 17/00

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television cameras

H04N 17/002

Monitoring or testing of lasers

H04S 3/008

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

FBG

Fibre Bragg Grating

LCD

Liquid Crystal display

LED

Light Emitting Diode

OFDR

Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry

OTDR

Optical Time Domain Reflectometry

PDL

Polarisation Dispersion Loss

PMD

Polarisation Mode Dispersion

{Testing of reflective surfaces, e.g. mirrors}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical means to measure roughness of a surface

G01B 11/30

{by determining the optical axis or position of lenses}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing the alignment of axes using optical means

G01B 11/27

{by measuring geometrical properties or aberrations}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring contours or curvatures by optical means

G01B 11/24

Measuring geometric parameters required to locate ophthalmic lenses in spectacles frames

G02C 13/005

{Detecting defects of the object to be tested, e.g. scratches or dust (investigating the presence of flaws or contamination on materials by optical means G01N 21/88)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

This group also covers the detection of marks on lenses

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination on materials by optical means

G01N 21/88

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inspecting transparent materials

G01N 21/958

Testing the alignment of vehicle headlight devices
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems mainly projecting the light beam on a surface.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for automatically correcting headlights in vehicle

G01B 11/30

Testing mechanical properties {(G01M 11/005 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Testing of reflective surfaces, e.g. mirrors

G01M 11/005

Special rules of classification

This sub-group has some overlap with G01M 5/00 (testing of mechanical properties of structures). It is possible to classify in both main group (G01M 11/00 and G01M 5/00): a classification in G01M 5/00 is suited for documents having the emphasis on the testing of the structure, and documents having the emphasis on the optical testing should be classified in G01M 11/00.

{of optical fibres; Mechanical features associated with the optical testing of optical fibres}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also thermal testing, in flight testing, testing pay-out of a canister.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical testing of thin elongated materials, like filament, web, tape or non-optical fibres

G01N 2203/028

{Testing of optical devices, constituted by fibre optics or optical waveguides}
Relationships with other classification places

In general, this group covers the testing of optical by measuring one or more given physical parameters; however, if it concerns the use of fibre for determining one or more physical parameters, see the corresponding fields (for instance G01L for force measurement, G01K for temperature measurement ...).

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring a length, thickness, angle with an optical fibre

G01B 9/00

Measuring a non-specific physical parameter with an optical fibre

G01D 5/353

Measuring force with an optical fibre

G01L 1/242

Monitoring or testing optical transmission line

H04B 10/07

Monitoring or testing optical amplifier

H04B 10/0731

Monitoring or testing optical transmission line in use

H04B 10/075

Optical multiplexing system

H04J 14/00

Special rules of classification

There is an overlap between G01M 11/30 and H04B 10/07 (testing of optical transmission line) and double classification is possible. Documents for G01M 11/30 should have an emphasis on the default detection method.

{with a light emitter and a light receiver being disposed at the same side of a fibre or waveguide end-face, e.g. reflectometers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Testing of light fibers with light source and detector on the same end, measuring connectors, optical switches, splitter in optical transmission lines, measuring end shape of fiber backscatter of cw for power measurements.

For localisation of faults, local monitoring of fibers see subgroups of G01M 11/31.

{Reflectometers detecting the back-scattered light in the time-domain, e.g. OTDR}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Localisation of attenuation or faults by use of single pulses and direct detection of delay-time and intensity, like OTDR, averaging, box-car, references fibers, dummy fibers, photon counting.

{using coded light-pulse sequences}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices using pseudo-random signals, correlation techniques, Golay-code.

{Reflectometers detecting the back-scattered light in the frequency-domain, e.g. OFDR, FMCW, heterodyne detection}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Local oscillators, frequency shifting interferometers.

{Reflectometers dealing with polarisation}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Measurements or compensation of polarisation backscatter.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polarization Mode Dispersion measurement in transmission

G01M 11/336

Polarization Dependent Loss measurement in transmission

G01M 11/337

{Reflectometers using stimulated back-scatter, e.g. Raman or fibre amplifiers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Measurements on doped fibers, measurements using stimulated Raman or Brillouin scattering, or using laserloops or ringlasers for generating stimulated backscatter.

{in which light is transversely coupled into or out of the fibre or waveguide, e.g. using integrating spheres (G01M 11/31 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also light injection by microbending.

{in which light is projected perpendicularly to the axis of the fibre or waveguide for monitoring a section thereof}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also refractive index profile measurements of fibers, fiber core diameter or shape or excentricity measurements, and also transversal camera monitoring.

Testing of machine parts
Definition statement

This place covers:

Testing of machine parts, such as: sealing rings, gearings, power-transmitting couplings or clutches, power-transmitting endless, e.g. belts, chains, bearings.

Relationships with other classification places

G01L covers instruments which can be used for testing of machine parts (gearing, transmission mechanisms), of steering or rolling behavior of vehicles, e.g. measuring efficiency, steering angles, steering forces, but not specially adapted for this purposes.

G01N covers investigating, i.e. testing or determining, the properties of materials, as opposed to testing machine parts, which is covered by G01M 13/00.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for testing, tuning or synchronising carburettors, e.g. carburettor flow stands

F02M 19/01

Testing fuel-injection apparatus

F02M 65/00

Testing of ignition installations peculiar to internal-combustion engines

F02P 17/00

Testing of valves

F16K 37/0075

Testing brakes

G01L 5/28

Pressure-testing of materials

G01N 3/12

Investigating machinability by cutting tools; Investigating the cutting ability of tools

G01N 3/58

Gearings; Transmission mechanisms
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also testing of power transmitting rotating elements, like gearings, driveshaft, differentials, vehicle power transmissions, coupling, belt drives, temperature or pressure or other adaptation means, gear shifting, control tests of automatic transmission, life usage, shaft adjustments, rotation angle measurements, tests of synchronizers.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transmission coupling, clutches in general

F16D

Transmission means using belt, cables, ropes in general

F16G

Contour measurements on gear teeth with mechanical means

G01B 5/202

Distance measurements on gear teeth

G01B 7/146

Contour measurements on gear teeth with electrical or magnetic means

G01B 7/283

Test-benches with rotational drive means and loading means; Load or drive simulation
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also devices with electrical or hydraulic drive means, simulation of combustion engines, brake and inertial forces, measuring power transmitting characteristics, of vehicle transmission, driveshaft.

Test-benches of the mechanical closed-loop type, i.e. having a gear system constituting a closed-loop in combination with the object under test
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also devices with power circulation type, ring connected multiple gearbox driveshaft.

Test-benches with force-applying means, e.g. loading of drive shafts along several directions
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also devices with application or measurement of different component measuring steering forces on drive, steering trains, radial or vertical forces on vehicle axels, driveshaft.

Bearings
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also devices for monitoring bearing with temperature sensor.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vibration testing of structures in general

G01M 7/00

Bearing with rolling contact in general

F16C 19/00

Force sensor associated with a bearing

G01L 5/0009

Testing of engines
Definition statement

This place covers:

Testing of engines, e.g. by monitoring different engine parameters: pressure, temperature, velocity, vibration, and power, detecting misfire, exhaust gases, combustion flame.

Further details of subgroups

G01M 15/042 if the devices monitors with fuel consumption, ignition, compression, load, multiple diagnostic stations, test station in series;

G01M 15/044 if the devices monitors power, for instance with dynamometers;

G01M 15/046 if the devices monitors revolutions, by speed or speed variations, deriving torque, cylinder pressure therefrom, and for cylinder detection by flywheel tooth measurements see also G01M 15/06;

G01M 15/048 if the devices monitors temperature (Temperature per se, see G01K);

G01M 15/06 if the devices monitors positions of pistons or crank angle;

G01M 15/08 if the devices monitors pressure (Pressure measurement per see se, G01L);

G01M 15/08 if the devices monitors pressure in fluid ducts (Pressure measurement per see se, G01L);

G01M 15/10 if the device monitors exhaust gas (Analysis of gas per se, see G01N; details of exhaust gas measuring device see G01M 15/02; controlling catalytic converters, see F01N 3/18; electrical control of supply of combustion mixture, see F02D 41/14):

G01M 15/11 by detecting misfire (control arrangements in order to prevent misfire see F02D and F02P);

G01M 15/12 by monitoring vibration (vibration testing of structure see G01M 7/00).

And if several parameter are monitored at the same time:

G01M 15/05 (see also G07C 5/0808, diagnosing performance data of vehicles).

Relationships with other classification places

G01L covers instruments which can be used for testing of machine parts (gearing, transmission mechanisms), of steering or rolling behavior of vehicles, e.g. measuring efficiency, steering angles, steering forces, but not specially adapted for these purposes.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lubrication of combustion engines

F01M

Monitoring or diagnostic devices for exhaust-gas treatment apparatus

F01N 11/00

Indicating or supervising devices of internal-combustion engines

F02B 77/08

Running-in of internal-combustion engines

F02B 79/00

Controlling combustion engines

F02D

Rocket-engine plants characterised by specially adapted arrangements for testing or measuring

F02K 9/96

Apparatus for testing, tuning or synchronising carburettors, e.g. carburettor flow stands

F02M 19/01

Testing fuel-injection apparatus

F02M 65/00

Testing of ignition installations peculiar to internal-combustion engines

F02P 17/00

Testing positive displacement machines for liquids, pumps, pumping installation

F04B 51/00

Testing of valves

F16K 37/0075

Testing of ignition installations of combustion apparatus

F23Q 23/00

Devices for determining the value of power, e.g. by measuring and simultaneously multiplying the values of torque and revolutions per unit of time, by multiplying the values of tractive or propulsive force and velocity

G01L 3/24

Measuring wheel side-thrust

G01L 5/20

Measuring the force applied to control members, e.g. control members of vehicles, triggers

G01L 5/22

Determining the characteristic of torque in relation to revolutions per unit of time

G01L 5/26

Testing brakes

G01L 5/28

Devices for detecting or indicating knocks in internal-combustion engines

G01L 23/22

Knock detection in internal combustion engines

G01L 23/221

Devices for measuring pressure in inlet or exhaust ducts of internal- combustion engines

G01L 23/24

Means for indicating positions of pistons or cranks of internal-combustion engines by measuring pressure

G01L 23/30

Testing or calibrating of apparatus for measuring force, torque, work, mechanical power, or mechanical efficiency

G01L 25/00

Testing or calibrating of apparatus for measuring fluid pressure

G01L 27/00

Pressure-testing

G01N 3/12

Testing internal-combustion engines
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monitoring or diagnostic devices for exhaust-gas treatment apparatus

F01N 11/00

Indicating or supervising devices of internal-combustion engines

F02B 77/08

Running in of internal-combustion engines

F02B 79/00

Controlling combustion engines

F02D

Apparatus for testing, tuning or synchronising carburettors, e.g. carburettor flow stands

F02M 19/01

Testing fuel-injection apparatus

F02M 65/00

Testing internal-combustion engine ignition, e.g. timing

F02P 17/00

Devices for determining the value of power, e.g. by measuring and simultaneously multiplying the values of torque and revolutions per unit of time, by multiplying the values of tractive or propulsive force and velocity

G01L 3/24

Determining the characteristic of torque in relation to revolutions per unit of time

G01L 5/26

Devices for detecting or indicating knocks in internal-combustion engines

G01L 23/22

Devices for measuring pressure in inlet or exhaust ducts of internal combustion engines

G01L 23/24

Means for indicating positions of pistons or cranks of internal-combustion engines by measuring pressure

G01L 23/30

Testing gas-turbine engines or jet-propulsion engines
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rocket-engine plants characterised by specially adapted arrangements for testing or measuring

F02K 9/96

Testing of vehicles (testing fluid tightness G01M 3/00; testing elastic properties of bodies or chassis, e.g. torsion-testing, G01M 5/00; testing alignment of vehicle headlight devices G01M 11/06; testing of engines G01M 15/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Testing of machine parts, such as: sealing rings, gearings, power-transmitting couplings or clutches, power-transmitting endless, e.g. belts, chains, bearings.

Testing of engines, e.g. by monitoring different engine parameters: pressure, temperature, velocity, vibration, and power, detecting misfire, exhaust gases, combustion flame.

Testing of different parts of vehicles, e.g. wheels, tyres, endless-tracks, suspension, or of damping as a part of wheeled or endless-tracked vehicles or suspension, axles, wheels suspension, or of axles as a part of railway vehicles.

Relationships with other classification places

G01L covers instruments which can be used for testing of machine parts (gearing, transmission mechanisms), of steering or rolling behaviour of vehicles, e.g. measuring efficiency, steering angles, steering forces, but not specially adapted for these purposes.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Testing fluid tightness

G01M 3/00

Testing elastic properties of bodies or chassis, e.g. torsion testing

G01M 5/00

Testing alignment of vehicle head-lighting devices

G01M 11/06

Testing of engine

G01M 15/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for measuring, signalling, controlling, or distributing tyre pressure or temperature, specially adapted for mounting on vehicles

B60C 23/00

Measuring wheel side-thrust

G01L 5/20

Measuring the force applied to control members, e.g. control members of vehicles, triggers

G01L 5/22

Testing brakes

G01L 5/28

Devices or apparatus for measuring tyre pressure or the pressure in other inflated bodies

G01L 17/00

Testing of electric installation on transport means

G01R 31/006

{the wheels of the vehicle co-operating with rotatable rolls (G01M 17/022, G01M 17/045, G01M 17/065 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices with dynamometers, associated flywheel assemblies, constructions (for search see also G01L 3/16, rotary absorption dynamometers), roller assemblies (without specific roller construction), measuring or calculation arrangements, endless belts, flat belts, dynamometer control arrangements, like system using feedback.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The tyre co-operates with rotatable rolls

G01M 17/022

The vehicle wheels co-operating with rotatable rollers

G01M 17/045

The vehicle wheels co-operating with rotatable rolls

G01M 17/065

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rotary-absorption dynamometers, e.g. of brake type

G01L 3/16

{Details, e.g. roller construction, vehicle restraining devices}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Automatic shifters of gears, brake, gas pedal, devices for applying a variable load on the vehicle, safety arrangements, vehicle lifting devices, vibrators (for search see also G01M 7/04) and special applications, like testing of remote controlled toy car.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monodirectional test stands

G01M 7/04

{Shock-testing of vehicles}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Shock testing of structure

G01M 7/08

Measuring force due to impact

G01L 5/0052

Anatomic models

G09B 23/00

Wheels
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Railway wheel testing

G01M 17/10

Testing of wheel alignment by optical means

G01B 11/275

Tyres
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tyre tread bands and tread patterns

B60C 11/00

Tyre tread bands and tread patterns wear indicating arrangements

B60C 11/24

Measuring profile depth

G01B 21/18

{Tyre supporting devices, e.g. chucks (for balancing G01M 1/04)}
Special rules of classification

Wheel testing is not to be classified in this group but mainly testing tires with adjustable chucks, two rims, etc.

{the tyre co-operating with rotatable rolls}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Measuring uniformity, concentricity, tread problems, radial forces, elastic deformation, rolling resistance, cornering resistance, yaw attitude, drag force, side-wall deformation, tire air pressure, impact resistance, conicity, with a flat belt, single roller, multiple rollers, hydraulic motor, endless belt, dynamic load, grooved drum, suspension simulation, vibration exciters, setting means for slip, camber angle, rubber removing brush, water jets.

{combined with tyre surface correcting or marking means}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compensation by grinding the shoulders, by grinding the tire tread, by compensating radial, lateral or tangential forces.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Marking location of unbalance

G01M 1/26

Compensating balance by removing material

G01M 1/34

Steering behaviour; Rolling behaviour
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vehicle diagnostic devices, side slip, axel vibrations, toe-angle, wheel alignment, tire tread, caster trail, cornering.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring steering angles

G01B

Measuring steering forces

G01L 5/221

Railway vehicles
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing of railways brake system

B60T 17/228

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
References
References out of a residual place

Examples of places in relation to which this place is residual:

Testing static or dynamic balance of machines or structures

G01M 1/00

Investigating fluid tightness of structures

G01M 3/00

Investigating the elasticity of structures, e.g. deflection of bridges, aircraft wings

G01M 5/00

Vibration testing of structures; Shock-testing of structures

G01M 7/00

Aerodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on wind tunnels

G01M 9/00

Hydrodynamic testing; Arrangements in or on ship-testing tanks or water tunnels

G01M 10/00

Testing of optical apparatus

G01M 11/00

Testing of machine parts

G01M 13/00

Testing of engines

G01M 15/00

Testing of vehicles

G01M 17/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing instrument for artificial joints

A61F 2/468

Testing of non-implantable prostheses

A61F 2/76

Testing the effectiveness of sterilization

A61L 2/28

Measuring golf clubs, bats or rackets

A63B 51/005, A63B 60/42, A63B 60/46

Filter condition indicators

B01D 46/0086

Testing of membranes or membrane apparatus

B01D 65/10

Controlling or analyzing typewriter or other selective printing mechanism

B41J 29/393

Testing or monitoring air-conditioning of vehicles

B60H 1/00585

Testing of parachutes

B64D 21/00

Testing foundations or foundations structures

E02D 33/00

Testing characteristics of the spark in internal combustion engine ignition

F02P 17/12

Calibrating optical contour or curvature measuring devices

G01B 11/2504

Calibration of coordinate measuring apparatus

G01B 21/042

Testing, calibrating, or compensating of compasses

G01C 17/38

Detection of malfunction of sensor per se

G01D 3/08

Calibrating of sensor per se

G01D 18/00

Testing or calibrating apparatus for measuring volume, volume flow or liquid level or for metering by volume

G01F 25/00

Testing or calibrating of weighing apparatus

G01G 23/01

Testing or calibrating of thermometers

G01K 15/00

Testing or calibrating calorimeters

G01K 19/00

Testing or calibrating force, work or torque apparatus testing and calibrating fluid pressure sensorArrangements for testing electric properties;

G01L 25/00

Arrangements for locating electric faults;

G01L 27/00

Arrangements for electrical testing characterized by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere

G01R 31/00

Testing or calibrating meteorological apparatus

G01W 1/18

Testing correct operation of photographic apparatus or parts thereof

G03B 43/00

Quality surveillance of production

G05B 19/41875

Testing or monitoring of control systems

G05B 23/00

Registering or indicating the condition or the working of machines or other apparatus

G07C 3/00

Checking or monitoring of signalling or alarm systems

G08B 29/00

Monitoring; Testing of fusion reactors

G21C 17/00

Testing or measuring during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices

H01L 22/00

Testing of electrical properties of sparking plugs

H01T 13/60

Calibration or testing of analogue/digital or digital/analogue converters

H03M 1/10

Monitoring; Testing of line transmission systems

H04B 3/46

Monitoring or testing of relay systems

H04B 17/40

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems or their details

H04N 17/00

Monitoring arrangements; Testing arrangements of acoustic electromechanical transducers

H04R 29/00

Special rules of classification

This group is residual place for classifying testing of structures or of apparatus, not provided for elsewhere.

Testing of particular devices or apparatus is often covered by the respective subclass provided for that devices or apparatus. Testing of particular devices or apparatus is classified in G01M 99/00 only if there is no appropriate place elsewhere for that subject matter.