CPC Definition - Subclass H04R

Last Updated Version: 2019.05
LOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS (generating mechanical vibrations in general B06B; transducers for measuring particular variables G01; transducers in clocks G04; producing sounds with frequency not determined by supply frequency G10K; transducers in recording or reproducing heads G11B; transducers in motors H02)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • loudspeakers, microphones, acoustic transducers therefor producing acoustic waves or variations of electric current or voltage, or gramophone pick-ups
  • arrangements actuated by variations of electric current or voltage for cutting grooves in records;
  • circuits for the above-mentioned loudspeakers, microphones, acoustic transducers, gramophone pick-ups or arrangements;
  • monitoring or testing of the above-mentioned loudspeakers, microphones, acoustic transducers, gramophone pick-ups, arrangements or circuits therefor.
Relationships with other classification places

Regarding producing sound, this subclass covers producing sound with a frequency determined by the frequency of the electrical signal applied to the transducer, whereas G10K covers producing sounds with frequency not so determined.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Generating mechanical vibrations in general

B06B

Transducers for measuring particular variables

G01H

Transducers in recording or reproducing heads

G11B

Transducers in motors

H02K, H02N

Transmission systems employing ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

H04B 11/00

Special rules of classification
  • Classification of invention information and additional information is obligatory.
  • Further detail not provided for in any of the main groups is provided for in the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2201/00 - H04R 2231/00, H04R 2307/00 and H04R 2400/00H04R 2499/00. These indexing code groups should be used in combination with CPC main trunk symbols to classify information highly relevant to the invention only. Classification is obligatory as indicated for each of the indexing groups concerned.
  • Of Indexing Code groups H04R 2201/00 - H04R 2231/00, H04R 2307/00 and H04R 2400/00 - H04R 2499/00 and of Indexing Code groups H04R 2201/02, H04R 2201/10 and H04R 2201/40 ONLY the subgroups should be used for classification.
  • Further detail not provided for in any of the main groups is provided for in the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04S 2400/00 and H04S 2420/00 below. Classification is obligatory.
  • Modifications to the transducers itself (e.g. a Helmholtz resonator attached to a through-hole in the magnetic circuit or zeolytes attached to the frame) in order to modify the frequency response are to be classified in the appropriate place for the type of transducer (H04R 9/00 - H04R 23/00) as invention information in combination with H04R 1/22 as additional information.
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Acoustic, Sound

cover the technical field dealing with ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

Deaf aid

hearing aid

Loudspeaker

transducer mounted in a casing for producing sound

Microphone

transducer mounted in a casing for collecting sound

Stereophonic system

two- or more channel system, e.g. quadraphonic, ambisonic or similar system

Transducer

a device that converts an electrical signal to an acoustic signal with a frequency which is determined by the frequency of the electrical signal applied to the transducer, or vice versa

Microstructural device

1. micromechanical devices comprising movable, flexible or deformable elements; 2. three-dimensional structures without movable, flexible or deformable elements, comprising microformations designed to accomplish an essential structural function for interacting with their environment, as opposed to purely electronic or chemical functions, regardless of whether the structures are combined with microelectronic devices or formed from specific materials;

Microstructural system

1. systems of cooperating microstructural devices; 2. microelectro-mechanical or microopto-mechanical systems, which combine on a common substrate the specific features of microstructural devices and electrical or optical components, e.g. for controlling, analysing or signalling the functioning of microstructural devices.

Details of transducers, {loudspeakers or microphones}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of transducers, loudspeakers or microphones.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Diaphragms for acoustic transducers

H04R 7/00

Details of transducers characterised by the nature of the transducer

H04R 9/00 - H04R 23/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Mountings specially adapted for telephone equipment

H04M 1/02

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mounting radio sets or communication systems in helmets

A42B 3/30

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code group H04R 2201/003 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Casing

housing, cabinet, enclosure

Deaf aid

hearing aid, auditory prosthesis

Stereophonic system

two- or more channel system, e.g. quadraphonic, ambisonic or similar systems

{using digitally weighted transducing elements}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example for a loudspeaker transducer (the number of windings of the 15 coils ranges from 20-214)

media0.png

Example for a microphone transducer:

media1.png

Casings; Cabinets {; Supports therefor;} Mountings therein (H04R 1/28 takes precedence {; attachments for microphones H04R 1/08; mounting of transducers in earpieces H04R 1/1075})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Casings, cabinets for transducers, their manufacture, their support, or mountings for transducers therein.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Attachments for microphones

H04R 1/08

Mounting of transducers in earpieces

H04R 1/1075

Transducer mountings or enclosures modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances, e.g. resonator, damping means

H04R 1/28

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mounting of acoustic transducers in vehicles

B60R 11/0217, B60R 11/0247

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2201/02 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

{Screens for loudspeakers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A mesh or grating covering the loudspeaker transducer or a sound path leading to the loudspeaker transducer

{Arrangements for fixing loudspeaker transducers, e.g. in a box, furniture}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Furniture aspects of radio, television

A47B 81/06

Adaptations of chairs or stools for incorporating lamps, radio sets, bars, telephones, ventilation, heating or cooling arrangements or the like

A47C 7/72

{Supports for loudspeaker casings}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Means to hold a loudspeaker casing for and during use

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Decoupling of vibrations by means of point-of-contact supports, e.g. ball bearings

F16F 15/021

Supports and stands in general

F16M 11/00; F16M 13/00

Structural association of microphone with electric circuitry therefor (in deaf-aid sets H04R 25/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

As shown in the figure circuitry (81) can be mounted inside the microphone (80)

media2.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Structural association of microphone with electric circuitry therefor in deaf-aid sets

H04R 25/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

MEMS packages

B81B 7/0032

Microstructural systems comprising a MEMS connected to control electronics, i.e. smart-MEMS

B81B 2207/01

Packaging of Smart-MEMS, i.e. packaging together processing unit and MEMS

B81C 1/0023

Arranging circuit leads; Relieving strain on circuit leads
Definition statement

This place covers:

Connection or contacting arrangements specially adapted to transducers, loudspeakers or headphones.

In the example the tinsel wire 145 is prevented from contacting the diaphragm during vibration, by ring structure 150.

media3.png

media4.png

In the example, the terminal 30 is prevented from bending too much during mounting, by stopper 29.

media5.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interconnections between the MEMS and external electrical signals

B81B 7/007

Connecting electric signal lines from the MEMS device with external electrical signal lines, e.g. through vias

B81C 1/00301

Means for relieving strain on wire connection, e.g. cord grip, for avoiding loosening of connections between wires and terminals within a coupling device terminating a cable or for flat or ribbon cables

H01R 13/58, H01R 12/00

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2420/09 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Mouthpieces; {Microphones;} Attachments therefor
Definition statement

This place covers:

Microphones, mouthpieces or attachments therefor, e.g. spiders or microphone booms, or protective screens therefor, e.g. all weather or wind screens.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Throat mountings for microphones

H04R 1/14

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Supports and stands in general

F16M 11/00; F16M 13/00

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used with the meaning indicated:

"spider"

"shock mount to elastically fasten microphones to stands".

{Protective screens, e.g. all weather or wind screens}
Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group.

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2410/07. Classification is obligatory.

Earpieces; Attachments therefor {; Earphones; Monophonic headphones (H04R 1/28 takes precedence; stereophonic headphones H04R 5/033)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Earphones or monophonic headphones;
  • Attachments therefor, e.g. ear hooks;
  • Details of headphones both of monophonic and stereophonic type, e.g. earpieces, e.g. intra-aural or supra-aural, or mechanical or electronic switches or control elements peculiar thereto, or accumulators or arrangements for charging peculiar thereto;
  • Assembly or manufacture thereof, e.g. ear pads;
  • Mechanical or electrical reduction of external noise.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transducer mountings or enclosures modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances, e.g. resonator, damping means

H04R 1/28

Example for the precedence rule:

media6.png

Earphone wherein the frequency response can be changed by changing (with slide 130) the number of holes (124) that are open/closed

Invention information: H04R 1/2826

Additional information: H04R 1/1016, H04R 1/1041

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sanitary or hygienic devices for earpieces

H04R 1/12

Badges

A44C 3/00

Ornaments for ears

A44C 7/00

Earphones measuring physiological sounds (e.g. heart rate, breathing, pulse)

A61B 5/02

Transceivers carried on the body, e.g. in helmets

H04B 1/385

Special rules of classification
  • When classifying in this group or in its subgroups, aspects relating to stereophonic headphones are to be classified in H04R 5/033 (additional information) as well.
  • Concerning inventions relating to hearing devices, if an application describes and shows the invention using only embodiments relating to ear- or headphones then H04R 1/10 or subgroups or H04R 5/033 or subgroups should be given as invention information. Dependent on the case, the mere statement that the invention is also applicable to hearing aids may render classification under H04R 25/00 useful, but only as additional information. Only if specific non-trivial embodiments for hearing aids are also shown, classification under H04R 25/00 as invention information may be considered as well.
{Earpieces of the intra-aural type}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ear moulds for hearing aids

H04R 25/652

Hybrid ear moulds for customisation

H04R 25/659

Earplugs for protection

A61F 11/08

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2460/09 and H04R 2460/11 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

{Accumulators or arrangements for charging (secondary cells per se H01M 10/00; charging in general H02J 7/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Adaptations to earpieces to enable charging.

For example:

media7.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Aspects of accumulators, e.g. rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, in hearing aids

H04R 2225/31

Secondary cells per se

H01M 10/00

Charging in general

H02J 7/00

Battery chargers characterised by the mechanical construction, e.g. adapted for holding portable devices containing batteries

H02J 7/0042

{Cables or cables storage, e.g. cable reels (cord reels per se H02G 11/02; arrangements for storing and repeatedly paying-out and re-storing lengths of conductors or cables B65H 75/34; extensible conductors or cables, e.g. self-coiling cords H01B 7/06)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

A stereophonic earphone with two earpieces each with a cable (4,5). The cable is wound on a spool (8) for storing the cables when the earphone is not in use.

media8.png

For example:

A stereophonic headphone with a U-shaped slider (8) to adjust the length of the cable.

media10.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for storing and repeatedly paying-out and re-storing lengths of conductors or cables

B65H 75/34

Extensible conductors or cables, e.g. self-coiling cords

H01B 7/06

Insulated conductors or cables characterised by their form with arrangements for facilitating mounting or securing

H01B 7/40

Cord reels per se

H02G 11/02

Protection of telephone cord; Guiding telephone cord; Winding-up telephone cord

H04M 1/15

{Mechanical or electronic switches, or control elements (switches in general H01H)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example (electronic switch/control elements)

media11.png

For example (mechanical control element):

Earphone wherein the frequency response can be changed by changing (with slide 130) the number of holes (124) that are open/closed. Please take note of precedence rule referring to H04R 1/28.

media6.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mounting or interconnection of switches or control elements in hearing aids

H04R 25/603

Aspects relating to switches or control elements for hearing aids, e.g. functioning

H04R 2225/61

Switches in general

H01H

Line cord switches

H01H 9/0228

Hand-held casings specially adapted for remote control, e.g. of audio or video apparatus

H01H 9/0235

{Earpiece supports, e.g. ear hooks (for stereophonic headphones H04R 5/0335)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

Earpiece support 30 is used to attach headset to the ear. The arms 31 of support 30 are rotatable around hinge H.

media13.png

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Earpiece supports for stereophonic headphones

H04R 5/0335

{Manufacture or assembly}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods of manufacture or assembling as well as the way devices are assembled or constructed

For example:

media14.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manufacture of mono- or stereophonic headphone parts not otherwise provided for in H04R, e.g. moulding of ear pads

H04R 2201/105

{Constructional aspects of the interconnection between earpiece and earpiece support (earpiece support for monophonic headphones H04R 1/105; earpiece support for stereophonic headphones H04R 5/0335)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example (ear hook):

media257.png

Example (headband):

media258.png

Example (headband):

media259.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Earpiece support for monophonic headphones

H04R 1/105

Earpiece support for stereophonic headphones

H04R 5/0335

{Mountings of transducers in earphones or headphones}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (positioning of the transducers (4, 5, 6) in the earpiece)

media15.png

For example: (mounting of the loudspeakers mounted on the head support (in figure only the left side: left front 22L and left rear 24L both ported to the left ear)

media16.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mounting transducers in general

H04R 1/02

{Reduction of ambient noise (active noise reduction per se G10K 11/175; protective devices for the ear, e.g. providing acoustic protection A61F 11/06)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

A personal noise exposure dose meter integrated in an active hearing protective communications earplug, comprising a main section 1 containing two microphones an outer microphone M1 and an inner microphone M2, and a sound generator SG, which are used for active noise control. A sealing section 2 is attached to the main section. An acoustic transmission channel T1 connects microphone M2 to the inner portion of the meatus 3. Microphone M2 therefore picks up the sound present in the meatus 3, just outside the eardrum (tympanum) 4. An acoustic transmission channel T2 connects sound generator SG to the inner portion of the meatus 3. The sound generator SG may provide audible information to the user, in form of warning signals or synthetic speech.

media17.png

For example:

Noise reduction using feedback (23):

media18.png

Noise reduction using feedforward (33).

media19.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protective devices for the ear, e.g. providing acoustic protection

A61F 11/06, A61F 2011/145

Active noise reduction per se

G10K 11/175

Active noise control in general for microphones or earphones

G10K 2210/1081, G10K 2210/1082

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2460/01. Classification is obligatory.

{Details not provided for in groups H04R 1/1008 - H04R 1/1083}
References
References out of a residual place

Examples of places in relation to which this place is residual:

Earpieces of the supra-aural or circum-aural type

H04R 1/1008

Earpieces of the intra-aural type

H04R 1/1016

Accumulators or arrangements for charging

H04R 1/1025

Cables or cables storage, e.g. cable reels

H04R 1/1033

Mechanical or electronic switches, or control elements

H04R 1/1041

Earpiece supports, e.g. ear hooks

H04R 1/105

Manufacture or assembly

H04R 1/1058

Reduction of ambient noise

H04R 1/1083

Special rules of classification
Sanitary or hygienic devices for mouthpieces or earpieces, e.g. for protecting against infection
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mouthpieces in general

H04R 1/08

Earpieces in general

H04R 1/10

Ear wax barrier for hearing aids

H04R 25/654

Hygienic or sanitary devices on telephone equipment

H04M 1/17

Throat mountings for microphones
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mouthpieces in general

H04R 1/08

Special adaptations for use as contact microphones

H04R 1/46

Transceivers carried on the body, e.g. in helmets

H04B 1/385

Arrangements for obtaining desired frequency or directional characteristics (for stereophonic purpose H04R 5/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for obtaining desired frequency or directional characteristics for stereophonic purposes

H04R 5/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Speech enhancement by processing of the speech signal

G10L 21/02

for obtaining desired frequency characteristic only (circuit for combining transducers having different responses H04R 3/00 {for hearing aids H04R 25/407})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements where the focus lies in the way the desired frequency characteristic is obtained

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Arrangements in hearing aids for obtaining desired frequency characteristic

H04R 25/48

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuits for combining transducers having different responses

H04R 3/00

Special rules of classification

If a directivity effect is also addressed classification in H04R 1/32 or subgroups as additional information is required as well

Transducer mountings or enclosures modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances, e.g. resonator, damping means {(combinations of transducers with horns, i.e. front-loaded horns H04R 1/30)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transducer enclosure modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances to achieve a desired frequency or phase response, e.g. enclosures:

  • of the bass reflex type,
  • of the bandpass type,
  • using passive membranes,
  • using acoustic labyrinths or transmission lines,
  • using back-loaded horns.
  • with adjustable volume
  • Virtual enlargement by e.g. zeolytes.

Transducer mountings or enclosures modified to reduce undesired resonances, i.e. standing waves within enclosure, or of vibrations, i.e. of the enclosure itself, by e.g.:

  • damping materials in the enclosure,
  • enclosure stiffening structures,
  • Helmholtz resonators,
  • special mountings of transducers.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Combinations of transducers with horns, i.e. front loaded horns

H04R 1/30

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Transducer mounting in telephone equipment improving the acoustic characteristics by means of constructional features of the housing, e.g. ribs, walls, resonating chambers or cavities.

H04M 1/035

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mountings for loudspeaker in general

H04R 1/025

Mountings for microphones in general

H04R 1/08

Circuits for combining transducers having different responses

H04R 3/00

Special rules of classification

Applications of the mountings or enclosures for loudspeaker transducers is to be classified in the appropriate subgroup with title "{for loudspeaker transducers}";

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2201/029. Classification is obligatory.

{for loudspeaker transducers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example for porous material (12) for virtual volume increase, to improve bass response:

media20.png

Example for porous carbon material (20) for virtual volume increase, to improve bass response, membrane (22) is to prevent moisture from reaching the porous carbon material; membrane acoustically transparent)

media21.png

Special rules of classification

The use of porous materials in loudspeaker enclosures for equivalent volume increase is classified under H04R 1/2803). For mid- and high-frequencies the porous material works as a damping material too. Thus classification in H04R 1/2876 or Indexing Code may be required if this aspect is addressed as well.

{Enclosures comprising vibrating or resonating arrangements (for the reduction of undesired resonances or vibrations H04R 1/2869)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example (for H04R 1/2811): movable side wall (4) for varying volume to adapt frequency response:

media22.png

Example (for H04R 1/2811): left-hand figure amplified bass, and right-hand figure normal bass:

media23.pngmedia24.png

{Vents, i.e. ports, e.g. shape thereof or tuning thereof with damping material (number or position of ports H04R 1/2815; vents in bandpass type enclosures H04R 1/2846)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Examples (for H04R 1/2826):

Vent with variable length:

media26.png

Shape of the vent:

media25.png

Shape and structure of the vent

media28.png

media27.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Number or position of ports in enclosures of the bass reflex type

H04R 1/2815

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vents in bandpass type enclosures

H04R 1/2846

{using a passive diaphragm}
Special rules of classification
  • Passive diaphragms or their suspension (invention) and being used in a bandpass type enclosure is classified in in H04R 1/283 or H04R 1/2834 (invention information), but H04R 1/2838 or H04R 1/2842 (additional information) is to be given as well;
  • Passive diaphragms or their suspension themselves are to be classified as diaphragms for transducers, i.e. in H04R 7/00 or H04R 31/003 (invention or additional information) where appropriate, but H04R 1/283 or H04R 1/2834 (additional information) is to be given as well.
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Passive diaphragm

Diaphragm driven by a fluid and providing an acoustic impedance

{of the bandpass type}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example (for H04R 1/2842):

media31.png

media30.png

(vent 9 is not tuned to the wavelength)

Example 1st classification rule (the vent is replaced by a passive membrane):

media31.png

Example 2nd classification rule (vent replaced by tube tuned to the wavelength)

media32.png

Special rules of classification
{Vents, i.e. ports, e.g. shape thereof or tuning thereof with damping material (number or position of ports H04R 1/2838; vents in bass reflex type enclosures H04R 1/2823)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Number or position of ports in enclosures of the bandpass type

H04R 1/2838

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vents in bass reflex type enclosures

H04R 1/2823

{using an acoustic labyrinth or a transmission line}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Enclosures using an acoustic labyrinth or a transmission line. The acoustic labyrinth or the transmission line can be open or closed.

For example (for H04R 1/2857):

media33.png

media34.png

The length of the top tubular part is tuned to the wavelength.

Special rules of classification

Acoustic labyrinths or transmission lines (invention) and being used in a bandpass type enclosure is classified in H04R 1/2853 or H04R 1/2857 (invention information), but H04R 1/2838 or H04R 1/2842 (additional information) is to be given as well.

{using a back-loaded horn}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Enclosures using a back-loaded horn. The horn has an aperture surface area that increases with distance from the transducer along the horn axis.

{Reduction of undesired resonances, i.e. standing waves within enclosure, or of undesired vibrations, i.e. of the enclosure itself}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Reduction of undesired resonances not covered by its subgroups, e.g. by means of Helmholtz resonators

{by means of damping material, e.g. as cladding (damping material for tuning desired resonances H04R 1/2807, e.g. in vents H04R 1/2823, H04R 1/2846)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The use of damping material to tune vents

H04R 1/2823; H04R 1/2846

The use of damping material to tune transmission lines

H04R 1/2853

{by means of the enclosure structure, i.e. strengthening or shape of the enclosure (by means of Helmholtz resonators H04R 1/2869)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example (for H04R 1/2888):

Stiffening panels inside the enclosure

media35.png

Shape of the enclosure to reduce reflexions within the enclosure

media36.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Reduction of undesired resonances by means of Helmholtz resonators

H04R 1/2869

{Mountings or supports for transducers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example (for H04R 1/2896): DE202004017450U (rubber transducer mounting), US2005152570.

For example (for H04R 1/2896):

Rubber transducer mounting (5) combined with flexible cables (3):

media37.png

Elastic mounting (20) with dampening buffer element (30)

media38.png

Combinations of transducers with horns, e.g. with mechanical matching means {, i.e. front-loaded horns} (horns in general G10K; {transducer enclosures or mountings using a back-loaded horn H04R 1/2861; application of horns as guiding means to obtain a predetermined directivity characteristic H04R 1/345})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Combinations of transducers with front-loaded horns; Enclosures using front-loaded horns, the acoustic horns predominantly being characterised by the mechanical matching, even though a directivity effect is also present

The horn has an aperture surface area that increases with distance from the transducer along the horn axis

For example:

media39.png

media40.png

In the example shown on the left the exponential area increase is obtained by the combination of a cylindrical housing (1) with a flat sloped plate (3).

media41.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transducer enclosures or mountings using a back-loaded horn

H04R 1/2861

Application of horns as guiding means to obtain a predetermined directivity characteristic

H04R 1/345

Horn in general

G10K 11/02

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2400/13 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

for obtaining desired directional characteristic only {(specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/40)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements where the focus lies in the way the desired directional characteristic is obtained

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Arrangements in hearing aids for obtaining desired directional characteristic

H04R 25/40

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mounting transducers, e.g. provided with mechanical moving or orienting device

G10K 11/004

Special rules of classification
  • If a frequency effect is also addressed classification in H04R 1/22 or subgroups as additional information is required as well
  • Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2410/01. Classification is obligatory.
by using a single transducer with sound reflecting, diffracting, directing or guiding means {(specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/402)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sound reflecting, diffracting, directing or guiding means, e.g. horns to obtain a desired directivity characteristic, acoustic lenses, tubes, or phase plugs

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Arrangements specially adapted for hearing aids

H04R 25/402

{for loudspeakers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (horn (top figure) used to obtain predetermined directivity (lower figures)

media42.png

media44.png

For example: (plurality of plates (210) functioning as an acoustic lens).

media47.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Horn-loaded compression drivers and impedance frequency matching

H04R 1/30

Single aperture acoustic lenses

H04R 1/36

Methods or devices for sound-focusing or directing

G10K 11/26

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2201/34 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

{for obtaining a phase-shift between the front and back acoustic wave}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media48.png

by using a single aperture of dimensions not greater than the shortest operating wavelength
Definition statement

This place covers:

Such an aperture functions as an acoustic lens

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Other types of acoustic lenses

H04R 1/34

by combining a number of identical transducers {(specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/405)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Combining a number of identical transducers for stereophonic purpose

H04R 5/02, H04R 5/027

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Combining a number of identical transducers specially adapted for hearing aids

H04R 25/405

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Constructional aspects of beam steering

B06B 1/0607, B06B 1/085

Sound-focusing or directing using electrical steering of transducer arrays, e.g. beam steering

G10K 11/34

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2201/40. Classification is obligatory.

{loud-speakers}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuits for distributing signals of two or more loudspeakers

H04R 3/12

{microphones}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuits for combining the signals of two or more microphones

H04R 3/005

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2410/05. Classification is obligatory.

Special adaptations for use as contact microphones, e.g. on musical instrument, on stethoscope (throat mountings H04R 1/14)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Throat mountings for microphones

H04R 1/14

Circuits for transducers {, loudspeakers or microphones}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Circuits for transducers, e.g.:

  • Damping motional feedback circuits.
  • Circuits for combining the signals of two or more microphones.
  • Protection circuits for transducers.
  • Circuits for preventing acoustic reaction.
  • Circuits for distributing a signal to a plurality of loudspeakers.
  • Circuits for correcting the frequency response of transducers.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Testing of transducer, loudspeaker or microphone connection for non-stereophonic purposes

H04R 29/001; H04R 29/004

Arrangements for producing a reverberation or echo sound

G10K 15/08

Amplifiers

H03F

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Circuits for stereophonic arrangements

H04R 5/04

Circuits for combining the signals of two or more microphones or loudspeakers specially adapted for hearing aids

H04R 25/407

Public address systems, e.g. circuits therefor

H04R 27/00

Stereophonic systems

H04S

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Driving circuits for generating mechanical vibrations of infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic frequency (specially adapted for particular applications, see the relevant subclass)

B06B 1/0207

Audio-frequency transformers or mutual inductances, i.e. not suitable for handling frequencies considerably beyond the audio range

H01F 19/02

Low frequency amplifiers, e.g. audio preamplifiers

H03F 3/181

Power amplifiers using a combination of several semiconductor amplifiers

H03F 3/211

Combinations of amplifiers using coupling networks with distributed constants

H03F 3/602

Combinations of amplifiers, e.g. multi-channel amplifiers for stereophonics

H03F 3/68

Control of amplification

H03G

Remote control of amplification, tone, or bandwidth

H03G 1/02

Arrangements for preventing acoustic feedback

H04M 1/20

Two-way loud-speaking telephone systems with means for conditioning the signal, e.g. for suppressing echoes for one or both directions of traffic

H04M 9/08

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2201/401, H04R 2201/403, H04R 2201/405, H04R 2203/12, H04R 2410/07, H04R 2420/01, H04R 2420/03, H04R 2420/05, H04R 2430/01 and H04R 2430/03. Classification is obligatory.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Deaf aid

hearing aid, auditory prosthesis

Stereophonic system

two- or more channel system, e.g. quadraphonic, ambisonic or similar systems

{for combining the signals of two or more microphones (specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/407)}
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Circuits for combining the signals of two or more microphones to obtain desired directional characteristics specially adapted for hearing aids

H04R 25/407

Circuits for combining the signals of two or more microphones, i.e. mixing, specially adapted for hearing aids

H04R 25/43

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Combining a number of identical transducers

H04R 1/40 and the subgroups of H04R 2201/40

Spatial or constructional stereophonic arrangement of microphones

H04R 5/027

Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, not having a directional significance, are being received

G01S 3/80

Systems for determining distance or velocity not using reflection or re-radiation and using ultrasonic, sonic, or infrasonic waves

G01S 11/14

Circuits for sound-focusing or directing using electrical steering of transducer arrays, e.g. beam steering

G10K 11/34

Speech recognition techniques specially adapted for robustness in adverse environments

G10L 15/20

Combining signals of a signal microphone and a noise microphone for speech processing

G10L 2021/02165

Beamforming for speech processing

G10L 2021/02166

Telephonic conference arrangements

H04M 3/56

Video conference systems

H04N 7/15

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2410/01, H04R 2410/05 and H04R 2430/20 and its subgroups. Classification is obligatory.

for preventing acoustic reaction {, i.e. acoustic oscillatory feedback (specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/453)}
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Electronic prevention acoustic reaction specially adapted for hearing aids

H04R 25/453

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical acoustic echo cancellation for telephony

H04M 1/20

Electronic acoustic echo cancellation for telephony

H04M 9/08

for correcting frequency response
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synergistic effects of band splitting and sub-band processing

H04R 2430/03

Tone control or bandwidth control in amplifiers

H03G 5/00

for distributing signals to two or more loudspeakers {(specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/407)}
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Circuits for combining the signals of two or more loudspeakers to obtain a desired directivity characteristic specially adapted for hearing aids

H04R 25/407

Public address systems

H04R 27/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Directing sound using electrical steering of transducer arrays, e.g. beam steering

G10K 11/34

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2203/12 and H04R 2430/20. Classification is obligatory.

Stereophonic arrangements (stereophonic pick-ups H04R 9/16, H04R 11/12, H04R 17/08, H04R 19/10)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Spatial or constructional arrangements of loudspeakers or of electro-acoustic devices for stereophonic purposes or specific circuit arrangements therefor, e.g.

  • aspects relating to docking-station type assemblies to obtain an acoustical effect,
  • positioning of loudspeakers for spatial sound reproduction,
  • plurality of transducers corresponding to a plurality of sound channels in each earpiece of headphones or in a single enclosure,
  • single (sub)woofer with two or more satellite loudspeakers for higher frequency band reproduction driven via the (sub)woofer,
  • sound field microphones, or
  • dummy heads
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Stereophonic pick-ups, i.e. wherein signals are recorded or played back by vibration of a stylus in two orthogonal directions simultaneously

H04R 9/16, H04R 11/12, H04R 17/08, H04R 19/10

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stereophonic system

two- or more channel system, e.g. quadraphonic, ambisonic or similar systems

Spatial or constructional arrangements of loudspeakers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Spatial or constructional arrangements of loudspeakers or loudspeaker transducers for stereophonic reproduction, e.g.

  • aspects relating to docking-station type assemblies to obtain an acoustical effect,
  • positioning of loudspeakers for spatial sound reproduction,
  • plurality of transducers corresponding to a plurality of sound channels in each earpiece of headphones or in a single enclosure, or
  • single (sub)woofer with two or more satellite loudspeakers for higher frequency band reproduction driven via the (sub)woofer.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mounting radio sets or communication systems in helmets

A42B 3/30

Mounting of acoustic transducers in vehicles

B60R 11/0217, B60R 11/0247

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2205/021, H04R 2205/022, H04R 2205/024 and H04R 2205/026. Classification is obligatory.

Spatial or constructional arrangements of microphones, e.g. in dummy heads
Definition statement

This place covers:

Spatial or constructional arrangements of microphones or microphone transducers for stereophonic sound capture.

For example (dummy head):

media49.png

media50.png

For example (sound field microphone):

media51.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for obtaining desired frequency or directional characteristics by combining a number of identical transducers microphones

H04R 1/406

Circuits for combining the signals of two or more microphones for non-stereophonic purposes

H04R 3/005

Hearing aid circuits for combining signals of transducers

H04R 25/407

Binaural hearing aids

H04R 25/552

Details of transducer arrays

H04R 2201/40

Headphones for stereophonic communication {(details thereof, e.g. relating to batteries, cables or control elements H04R 1/10)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details thereof, e.g. relating to batteries, cables or control elements

H04R 1/10

Transceivers carried on the body, e.g. in helmets

H04B 1/385

Sound field enhancement in stereophonic headphones

H04S 1/005, H04S 3/004

Special rules of classification
  • Concerning inventions relating to hearing devices, if an application describes and shows the invention using only embodiments relating to ear- or headphones then H04R 1/10 or subgroups or H04R 5/033 or subgroups should be given as invention information. Dependent on the case, the mere statement that the invention is also applicable to hearing aids may render classification under H04R 25/00 useful, but only as additional information. Only if specific non-trivial embodiments for hearing aids are also shown, classification under H04R 25/00 as invention information may be considered as well.
  • Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2201/103, H04R 2201/105, H04R 2420/09 and H04R 2460/03. Classification is obligatory.
{Earpiece support, e.g. headbands or neckrests (for monophonic headphones H04R 1/105)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: segmented headband for easy storage of the headphone

media53.png

For example: (head support with loudspeakers mounted thereon (in figure only the left side: left front speaker 22L and left rear speaker 24L both ported to the left ear)

media16.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Earpiece support for monophonic headphones, e.g. earhooks

H04R 1/105

Circuit arrangements, {e.g. for selective connection of amplifier inputs/outputs to loudspeakers, for loudspeaker detection, or for adaptation of settings to personal preferences or hearing impairments (combinations of amplifiers H03F 3/68; stereophonic systems H04S)}
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Circuits or components specially adapted for stereophonic broadcast systems

H04H 20/47

Broadcast systems for the distribution of stereophonic information

H04H 20/88

Circuits or components specially adapted for stereophonic broadcast receiving

H04H 40/36

Stereophonic systems

H04S

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing of transducer, loudspeaker or microphone connection for non-stereophonic purposes

H04R 29/001; H04R 29/004

Amplifiers

H03F

Low frequency amplifiers, e.g. audio preamplifiers

H03F 3/181

Power amplifiers using a combination of several semiconductor amplifiers

H03F 3/211

Combinations of amplifiers using coupling networks with distributed constants

H03F 3/602

Combinations of amplifiers, e.g. multi-channel amplifiers for stereophonics

H03F 3/68

Control of amplification

H03G

Remote control of amplification, tone, or bandwidth

H03G 1/02

Transmission systems for stereophonic reception

H04B 1/1646

Powerline communication in general

H04B 3/54

Audio/video applications of powerline communications

H04B 2203/545

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2205/041, subgroups of H04R 2420/00, and H04R 2430/01. Classification is obligatory.

Diaphragms for electromechanical transducers (in general F16J 3/00); Cones (for musical instruments G10 ){(cones, diaphragms or the like, for emitting or receiving sound in general G10K 13/00; Mounting thereof)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Diaphragms for electromechanical transducers.
  • Cones
  • Mountings thereof, e.g. outer suspension.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of diaphragms or surrounds for transducers

H04R 31/003

MEMS structures allowing for movement

B81B 2203/01

Type of movement

B81B 2203/05

Diaphragms in general

F16J 3/00

Pressure measurement / constructional details associated with semiconductive diaphragm sensors, e.g. etching of diaphragms

G01L 9/0042

Cones, diaphragms or the like, for emitting or receiving sound in general

G10K 13/00

characterised by the construction
Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2207/021, H04R 2231/001, H04R 2231/003 and H04R 2307/021 - H04R 2307/029. Classification is obligatory.

Plane diaphragms
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

In vehicles

B60R 11/0217

Projection screens allowing free passage of sound

G03B 21/565

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2440/01 and H04R 2440/07. Classification is obligatory.

{using the distributed mode principle, i.e. whereby the acoustic radiation is emanated from uniformly distributed free bending wave vibration induced in a stiff panel and not from pistonic motion}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Upon excitation of diaphragm 1 by piezoelectric exciter 15 the diaphragm generating bending wave in itself and eventually produces sound by resonating.

media55.png

media56.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Using non-resonant travelling waves

H04R 2440/01

Touch screens using propagation of acoustic waves

G06F 3/043

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2440/03 and H04R 2440/05. Classification is obligatory.

{dome-shaped}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (dome 52).

media60.png

corrugated, pleated or ribbed
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: DE202007016414 (air motion transformer).

For example: ribs to provide rigidity to the central part of the loudspeaker diaphragm

media61.png

For example: air motion transformer (AMT) with a meander shaped diaphragm and air pockets (6). Upon energising the transformer (current through conductors 2) and due to the magnetic field perpendicular to the current, the air in the pockets is pushed out or pulled in, thus producing sound.

media62.png

Mounting or tensioning of diaphragms or cones
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: diaphragm is mounted to the frame (26) by surround (29) which is connected to the membrane (27) within its periphery (at 200)

media63.png

at the periphery
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: membrane (2) is extended to form outer suspension (21), whose elastic properties are adapted by the elastic layer (22).

media64.png

For example: membrane (34) divided in a suspension part (34A, 34B) and a central sound producing part (34C)

media65.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manufacture of surrounds

H04R 2231/003

Securing diaphragm or cone resiliently to support by flexible material, springs, cords, or strands
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media66.png

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2231/001, H04R 2231/003, H04R 2307/201 - H04R 2307/207. Classification is obligatory.

Clamping rim of diaphragm or cone against seating
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Microphone comprising a vibrating plate (12) with polar ring which is clamped via a spacer (13) between base (14, 16) and the casing (102). Groove 102h is formed to prevent deformation of the polar ring which would negatively affect the acoustic properties membrane (2) is extended to form outer suspension (21), whose elastic properties are adapted by the elastic layer (22).

media67.png

Tensioning by means acting directly on free portions of diaphragm or cone
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: EP0330423.

For example: tensioning by springs 5'

media68.png

Damping by means acting directly on free portion of diaphragm or cone (air damping H04R 1/28)
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: damping by elastic material 27

media70.png

media71.png

For example: sound producing diaphragm provided with a damping layer (12) to dampen vibration in the diaphragm

media72.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transducer mountings or enclosures providing mechanical or acoustic impedances by air damping

H04R 1/28

Transducers of moving-coil, moving-strip, or moving-wire type
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transducers of moving-coil, moving-strip, or moving-wire type, e.g.

  • general constructional aspects thereof
  • cooling aspects;
  • constructional aspects of the magnetic circuit, e.g. to reduce eddy currents or stray flux;
  • aspects of the voice coil, i.e. mounting, construction or centring thereof
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Generating mechanical vibrations of infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic frequency operating with electromagnetism, e.g. using vibrating magnet, armature or coil system

B06B 1/045

Dynamo-electric motors with vibrating magnet, armature or coil system

H02K 33/00

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2201/003 and the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2440/00. Classification is obligatory.

Details
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • General constructional aspects of the transducers;
  • Cooling aspects;
  • Constructional aspects of the magnetic circuit, e.g. to reduce eddy currents or stray flux;
  • Aspects of the voice coil, i.e. mounting, construction or centring thereof.
Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2209/021 - H04R 2209/027 and the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2400/00. Classification is obligatory.

{Magnetic circuit}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manufacturing aspects of the magnetic circuit of loudspeaker or microphone transducers

H04R 2209/024

{Air gaps using a magnetic fluid}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetic liquids in general, e.g. ferrofluids

H01F 1/44

Construction, mounting, or centering of coil
Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2209/041 and H04R 2209/043 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

{Inner suspension or damper, e.g. spider (outer suspension or surround H04R 7/16)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: the inner suspension (13) is formed with leg portions (13b, 13c) having equal length, to prevent lateral vibration of the bobbin (8). Thus excursion of suspension and thus of the diaphragm can be increase without increasing the diameter of the inner suspension.

media73.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Outer suspension or surround

H04R 7/16

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

spider

inner suspension usually placed between voice coil former and frame, for providing a restoring force enabling the return of the transducer membrane to its normal resting position and for centring the voice coil

{Mounting (H04R 9/043 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mounting of the voice coil or the bobbin on which the voice coil is wound

For example: the connection between bobbin (8) and diaphragm (2) is provided with a groove, which is filled with glue to strengthen the connection.

media74.png

Example: bobbin assembly (355) removably mounted to the inner circumference of the diaphragm (310). Thus replacement of damaged assembly requires minimal effort.

media75.png

Example: bobbin (140) is mounted at its top directly to outer suspension and in the middle via bridge (160). Thus the bobbin is prevented from bending.

media76.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inner suspension or damper

H04R 9/043

{Construction}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Constructional aspects of the voice coil, e.g. shape of the coil, the winding angle, shape or material of the windings,
  • Constructional aspects of the bobbin on which a voice coil is to be wound, e.g. material, shape, connection with voice coil
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coils per se and their manufacture

H01F 5/00; H01F 41/00

Loudspeakers
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Transducers for loudspeakers of the pistonic type, e.g. compression drivers, or of the distributed mode type;
  • Inertial transducers, i.e. transducers for loudspeakers wherein the voice coil is directly mounted to vibrating diaphragm and the magnetic circuit is floating but suspended with respect to the diaphragm and voice coil.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Telephone receivers

H04R 9/10

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group and by H04R 2400/13. Classification is obligatory.

{using the principle of inertia}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transducers for loudspeakers wherein the voice coil is directly mounted to vibrating diaphragm and the magnetic circuit is floating but suspended with respect to the diaphragm and voice coil.

For example: body sensed speaker, that can be placed in e.g. waistcoats, cushions, matrasses, belts

media248.png

For example: exciter for distributed mode loudspeakers (DML)

media78.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transducers of moving-armature or moving-core type

H04R 11/02

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2400/07. Classification is obligatory.

Microphones
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transducers having separately controllable opposing diaphragms, e.g. for ring-tone and voice, or for combined microphone/-receiver in telephones

H04R 2209/026

Transducers used as a loudspeaker to generate sound as well as a microphone to detect sound

H04R 2400/01

Telephone receivers
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transducers having separately controllable opposing diaphragms, e.g. for ring-tone and voice

H04R 2209/026

Transducers used as a loudspeaker to generate sound as well as a microphone to detect sound

H04R 2400/01

Transducers capable of generating both sound as well as tactile vibration e.g. as used in cellular phones

H04R 2400/03

Generating mechanical vibrations of infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic frequency using vibrating magnet, armature or coil system

B06B 1/045

Generating vibrations with systems involving rotary unbalanced masses

B06B 1/16

Tactile signalling systems

G08B 6/00

Transducers of moving-armature or moving-core type (acoustic diaphragm of magnetisable material directly coacting with electromagnet H04R 13/00)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transducers of moving-coil, moving-strip, or moving-wire type

H04R 9/00

Loudspeaker transducers using the principle of inertia

H04R 9/066

Acoustic diaphragm of magnetisable material directly co-acting with electromagnet

H04R 13/00

Generating mechanical vibrations of infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic frequency operating with electromagnetism, e.g. using vibrating magnet, armature or coil system

B06B 1/045

Dynamo-electric motors with vibrating magnet, armature or coil system

H02K 33/00

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2400/01, H04R 2400/03, and H04R 2440/01 - H04R 2440/07.

Loudspeakers
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

The voice coil (2) is static. Upon energising the magnets (4-6) move.

media79.png

Example of a hearing aid receiver:

Armature 136 has a fixed (146) and a movable arm (144). When coils 134 is energised, movable arm 144 moves and drives membrane (118) via a linkage 138, thus producing sound.

media80.png

Example of a bone conduction speaker:

media81.png

Voice coil 30 is mounted directly to base plate 14 which is part of the transducer frame. The magnetic circuit (yoke 22, magnet 24, base plate 26) is movably attached to the frame 12 via damper 20, such that upon energising the voice coil the armature moves.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Telephone receivers of the moving-armature or moving-core type

H04R 11/06

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2400/07 and H04R 2400/11. Classification is obligatory.

Telephone receivers
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transducers having separately controllable opposing diaphragms, e.g. for ring-tone and voice

H04R 2209/026

Transducers used as a loudspeaker to generate sound as well as a microphone to detect sound

H04R 2400/01

Transducers capable of generating both sound as well as tactile vibration e.g. as used in cellular phones

H04R 2400/03

Generating vibrations with systems involving rotary unbalanced masses

B06B 1/16

Tactile signalling systems

G08B 6/00

Transducers having an acoustic diaphragm of magnetisable material directly co-acting with electromagnet
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transducers for loudspeakers or microphones, in which the membrane is part of the magnetic circuit.

For example:

media82.png

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2400/11 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Magnetostrictive transducers (magnetostrictive elements in general H01L 41/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

In the example shown in the figure below a configuration of the magnetostrictive actuator 103 is presented. The magnetostrictive actuator 103 has a rod-like magnetostrictive element 151 that is displaced along its extension direction, a solenoid coil 152 for generating a magnetic field, which is positioned around this magnetostrictive element 151, a driving rod 103a as driving member, which is connected to an end of the magnetostrictive element 151 and transmits any displacement output of the magnetostrictive actuator 103, and a container 154 that contains the magnetostrictive element 151 and the solenoid coil 152 therein.

media83.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetostrictive elements in general

H01L 41/00

Details of magnetostrictive devices

H01L 41/06

Materials; Manufacture of magnetostrictive devices

H01L 41/12, H01L 41/20

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2201/003, H04R 2217/01, H04R 2400/03 and H04R 2400/11. Classification is obligatory.

Piezo-electric transducers; Electrostrictive transducers (piezo-electric or electrostrictive elements in general H01L 41/00; details of piezo-electric or electrostrictive motors, generators or positioners {H01L 41/00})
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Piezo-electric or electrostrictive elements in general

H01L 41/00

Details of piezo-electric or electrostrictive motors, generators or positioners

H01L 41/00

Details of piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices

H01L 41/04; H01L 41/08

Selection of materials for piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices

H01L 41/16

Manufacture of piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices

H01L 41/22

Details of piezo-electric or electrostrictive motors, generators or positioners

H02N 2/00

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2201/003, H04R 2217/01, H04R 2400/03, H04R 2400/11 and the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2440/00. Classification is obligatory.

{using a piezo-electric polymer}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices of macromolecular compositions

H01L 41/193

Microphones
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices with mechanical input and electrical output

H01L 41/113

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2410/03. Classification is obligatory.

{using a piezo-electric polymer}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices of macromolecular compositions

H01L 41/193

Electrostatic transducers
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Generating mechanical vibrations of infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic frequency using electrostatic transducers, e.g. electret-type

B06B 1/0292

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2400/11 and H04R 2410/03. Classification is obligatory.

{using semiconductor materials}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transducers other than those covered by groups H04R 9/00 - H04R 21/00 using solid state devices

H04R 23/006

Arrangements for avoiding sticking of the flexible or moving parts of MEMS devices having such parts

B81B 3/0002

MEMS packages and encapsulations

B81B 7/0032

Microphones and microspeakers

B81B 2201/0257

MEMS structures allowing for movement

B81B 2203/01

Type of movement

B81B 2203/05

Pressure measurement / constructional details associated with semiconductive diaphragm sensors, e.g. etching of diaphragms

G01L 9/0042

Loudspeakers (H04R 19/01 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electrostatic transducers characterised by the use of electrets

H04R 19/01

for loudspeakers

H04R 19/013

Microphones (H04R 19/01 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electrostatic transducers characterised by the use of electrets

H04R 19/01

for microphones

H04R 19/016

Variable-resistance transducers (gaseous resistance transducers H04R 23/00; magneto-resistive transducers H04R 23/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Gaseous resistance transducers

H04R 23/00

Magneto resistive transducers

H04R 23/00

Transducers other than those covered by groups H04R 9/00 - H04R 21/00 {(diaphragms for transducers of the distributed-mode type H04R 7/045)}
References
References out of a residual place

Examples of places in relation to which this place is residual:

Transducers of moving-coil, moving-strip or moving-wire type

H04R 9/00

Transducers of moving-armature or moving-core type

H04R 11/00

Transducers having an acoustic diaphragm of magnetisable material directly co-acting with electromagnet

H04R 13/00

Magnetostrictive transducers

H04R 15/00

Piezo-electric transducers; Electrostrictive transducers

H04R 17/00

Electrostatic transducers

H04R 19/00

Variable-resistance transducers

H04R 21/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Diaphragms for transducers of the distributed-mode type

H04R 7/045

{using ionised gas}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sound producing devices using optical excitation, e.g. laser bundle

G10K 15/046

Sound producing devices using electric discharge

G10K 15/06

{using solid state devices (solid state devices per se H01L)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acoustic transducers using solid state devices and not covered by H04R 9/00 - H04R 21/00

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electrostatic transducers using semiconductor materials

H04R 19/005

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Solid state devices per se

H01L

Deaf-aid sets {, i.e. electro-acoustic or electro-mechanical hearing aids; Electric tinnitus maskers providing an auditory perception (electrical stimulation of auditory nerves to promote the auditory function A61N 1/36038; optical stimulation of auditory nerves to promote the auditory function A61N 5/0622)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Electro-acoustic or electro-mechanical hearing aids
  • Electric tinnitus maskers providing an auditory perception
  • Electrical or mechanical aspects thereof, e.g.
  • signal processing, e.g. beamforming, prevention of acoustic reaction or noise reduction,
  • electronic fitting, i.e. initial adaptation, e.g. by a hearing aid acoustitian, or subsequent adaptation of hearing aid parameters, e.g. in dependence of listening situation
  • testing or monitoring
  • wired or wireless external connection or remote control
  • manufacture or assembly, e.g. mounting of transducers or of the batteries
  • ear tips, ear moulds or there manufacture
  • WARNING:
  • Groups H04R 25/30 - H04R 25/75 do not correspond to former or current IPC groups.
  • Concordance CPC : IPC for these groups is as follows:
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electrical stimulation of auditory nerves to promote the auditory function, e.g. cochlear implants

A61N 1/36038

Optical stimulation of auditory nerves to promote the auditory function

A61N 5/0622

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Constructions of transducers per se

H04R 9/00 - H04R 23/00

Amplifying systems for the deaf

H04R 27/02

Monitoring arrangements; Testing arrangements in general

H04R 29/00

Ornaments for ears

A44C 7/00

Earphones measuring physiological sounds, e.g. heartrate, breathing, pulse

A61B 5/02

Non-electric hearing aids

A61F 11/008

Devices or methods enabling ear patients to replace direct auditory perception

A61F 11/04

Internal protective devices for the ears, e.g. earplugs

A61F 11/08

Structural combination of hearing aids with spectacle frames

G02C 11/06

Teaching or communicating with deaf persons

G09B 21/009

Directing sound using electrical steering of transducer arrays, e.g. beam steering

G10K 11/34

Coding or decoding of speech or audio signal, using source filter models or psychoacoustic analysis

G10L 19/00

Processing of speech signals

G10L 21/00

Automatic gain control in audio amplifiers

H03G 3/3005

Telephone sets for the hearing impaired

H04M 1/2475

Mobile telephones for the hearing impaired

H04M 1/72591

Special rules of classification
  • Classification should be directed to groups, H04R 25/02, H04R 25/04 and H04R 25/50 and its subgroups, if and only if the technical subject in consideration cannot be classified elsewhere under this main group.
  • Concerning inventions relating to hearing devices, if an application describes and shows the invention using only embodiments relating to hearing aids then H04R 25/00 or subgroups should be given as invention information. Dependent on the case, the mere statement that the invention is also applicable to ear- or headphones may render classification under H04R 1/10 or H04R 5/033 useful, but only as additional information. Only if specific non-trivial embodiments for ear- or headphones are also shown, classification under H04R 1/10 or H04R 5/033 as invention information may be considered as well.
  • Further details are covered by Indexing groups H04R 2225/31, H04R 2225/33, H04R 2410/07, H04R 2430/03, H04R 2460/03, H04R 2460/13 and H04R 2460/17. Classification is obligatory.
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Electro-acoustic or electro-mechanical hearing aids

hearing aids acting indirectly, e.g. acoustically, or directly on the ear drum, mastoid, ossicles or cochlea and providing an auditory perception

Monitoring

encompasses indication

comprising pocket amplifiers
Definition statement

This place covers:

The signal processing is done external to the hearing aid part that is in the ear (as for example shown in the figure)

media84.png

{Monitoring or testing of hearing aids, e.g. functioning, settings, battery power}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example testing of the functioning of an amplifier in a hearing aid (see figure). Switching circuit 20 measures a time period T, and interrupts the signal from the microphone 10 once every such period T. The interruption, or test time interval, lasts for another measured time segment t where t is less than T. During the interruption, the switching circuit 20 transmits the signal from the signal generator 22 to the hearing aid amplifier 12 to act as a test signal. Difference detector 24 detects malfunction of the amplifier. Difference detector 34 low battery status.

media85.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing arrangements for electro-acoustic transducers in general

H04R 29/00

Testing arrangements for cochlear implants

A61N 1/08

Battery testing in general

G01R 31/36

Indicators for indicating switching condition

H01H 9/16

For example: US4049930.

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2460/15. Classification is obligatory.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Monitoring

also encompasses indicating

{Self-monitoring or self-testing}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example of a self-diagnosis system with which the transducers and other component can be checked, see figure.

media86.png

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code subgroup H04R 2225/39. Classification is obligatory.

{Frequency, e.g. frequency shift or compression}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media87.png

{Amplitude, e.g. amplitude shift or compression}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media88.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compression/ expansion

H03G 7/00

Frequency-dependent volume compression or expansion in general, e.g. multiple-band systems

H03G 9/025

{using contructional means}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Obtaining a desired directivity characteristic using constructional means in general

H04R 1/32

{by combining a plurality of transducers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mechanical aspects, e.g. orientation, relative placement, of acoustic transducers in hearing aids to obtain a desired directional characteristic.

For example microphone openings (17A-17C) arranged along a straight line (see figure):

media89.png

For example microphones (8a,8b) mounted in a BTE housing and additional microphones (8c, 8d) mounted in a lever (4) which can be swung away from the housing to adapt the directivity of the hearing aid.

media90.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for obtaining a desired directional characteristic by combining a number of identical acoustic transducers

H04R 1/40

Special rules of classification

The mere fact that more than one microphone is used to obtain a desired directivity need not be classified, especially if H04R 25/407 has to be given anyway (cf. the first 2 EXAMPLES given for H04R 25/407).

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2410/01. Classification is obligatory.

{Circuits for combining signals of a plurality of transducers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media91.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuits for combining signals of a plurality of acoustic transducers in general

H04R 3/005; H04R 3/12

Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, not having a directional significance, are being received

G01S 3/80

Systems for determining distance or velocity not using reflection or re-radiation and using ultrasonic, sonic, or infrasonic waves

G01S 11/14

Circuits for sound-focusing or directing using electrical steering of transducer arrays, e.g. beam steering

G10K 11/34

Speech recognition techniques specially adapted for robustness in adverse environments

G10L 15/20

Speech enhancement using two microphones, one receiving mainly the noise signal and the other one mainly the speech signal

G10L 2021/02165

Speech enhancement using microphone arrays or beamforming

G10L 2021/02166

Telephonic conference arrangements

H04M 3/56

Video conference systems

H04N 7/15

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2410/01 and H04R 2430/20 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

{Electronic input selection or mixing based on input signal analysis, e.g. mixing or selection between microphone and telecoil or between microphones with different directivity characteristics (H04R 25/407 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example for input selection:

media92.png

Example for mixing:

media93.png

{electronically}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Prevention of acoustic reaction in general

H04R 3/02

{mechanically}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mounting and assembly of hearing aids

H04R 25/60

Housing parts, e.g. shells, tips or moulds

H04R 25/65

Aspects relating to vents in hearing devices

H04R 2460/11

{using constructional means for obtaining a desired frequency response (H04R 25/652 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ear tips; Ear moulds

H04R 25/652

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Constructional means for obtaining a desired frequency response in general

H04R 1/22

{Customised settings for obtaining desired overall acoustical characteristics}
Definition statement

This place covers:

General analog or digital signal processing in hearing aid not provided for in H04R 25/00 or its subgroups.

Special rules of classification
{using an external connection, either wireless or wired}
Definition statement

This place covers:

External connection for the purpose of data exchange between hearing aids, e.g. binaural hearing aids, or between hearing aid and external device, e.g. telecoil, remote control, or for charging of batteries in hearing aids

Example for wirelessly charging accumulators in a hearing aid (see figure)

media94.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transmission systems in which the medium consists of the human body

H04B 13/00

Special rules of classification
{Binaural}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Binaural control, e.g. control of one hearing aid in dependence of the other; Data exchange between hearing aids to enable binaural control, e.g. type of data, timing, ...

Special rules of classification

The mere fact that binaural control of data exchange is wired or wireless needs not be classified.

{using a wireless connection, e.g. between microphone and amplifier or using Tcoils}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric hearing aids using wireless connection for the transmission audio representative data, e.g. T-coils, FM receivers (see e.g. the figure below)

media95.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wireless connection in general

H04R 2420/07

Near field transmission in general

H04B 5/00

Transmission systems in which the medium consists of the human body

H04B 13/005

Non-intrusive coupling means between telephone set and auxiliary equipment

H04M 1/215

Special rules of classification

Binaural hearing aids (invention) are not to be classified in this group but in H04R 25/552. No classification in H04R 25/554 (as invention of additional information) is in principle needed.

{External connectors, e.g. plugs or modules (H04R 25/607 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example for an ITE hearing aid connected to a programmer (5):

media96.png

Example for a BTE hearing aid additionally provided with an FM receiver (3):

media97.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Earhooks

H04R 25/607

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Local control of medical devices, e.g. graphical user interfaces, dedicated hardware interfaces

G16H 20/00

Connectors in general

H01R

Special rules of classification

Connection between the BTE housing and the earmould via an earhook is not to be classified here but in H04R 25/60 in combination with H04R 2225/0213.

{Remote control, e.g. of amplification, frequency}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Telemetry systems for implants such as pace makers or cochlear implants

A61N 1/37211

Input or output devices integrated in time-pieces

G04G 21/00

Remote control in general

G05F

Audio-frequency transformers or mutual inductances, i.e. not suitable for handling frequencies considerably beyond the audio range

H01F 19/02

Indicators for indicating switching condition

H01H 9/16

Remote control of amplification, tone, or bandwidth

H03G 1/02

Combined remote-control of tuning and other functions, e.g. brightness, amplification

H03J 9/00

remote control, e.g. for HiFi systems or audio/video combinations

H04B 1/20

Hi-Fi systems or audio/video combinations

H04B 1/202

{Mounting or interconnection of hearing aid parts, e.g. inside tips, housings or to ossicles (ear wax retarders, e.g. mounting thereof H04R 25/654)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements for mounting or interconnection of hearing aid parts.

Example: Details of mounting of ear tip (11) via tube (21 to BTE housing (30):

media98.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ear wax retarders, e.g. their mounting

H04R 25/654

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code subgroups H04R 2225/0213, H04R 2225/49, H04R 2225/59, H04R 2225/61, and H04R 2225/67. Classification is obligatory.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Interconnection

covers both mechanical as well as electrical interconnection

{of batteries}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements for mounting or interconnection of batteries in hearing aids

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrical supply for implants, e.g. pace makers or cochlear implants

A61N 1/378

Batteries in general

H01M 2/02

Constructional details or processes of manufacture of the non-active parts, Cases, jackets or wrappings for small-sized cells or batteries, e.g. miniature battery or power cells, batteries or cells for portable equipment

H01M 2/0202

Battery holders in general

H01M 2/10

Cabinets, cases, fixing devices, adapters, racks for miniature batteries or batteries for portable equipment

H01M 2/1022

Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof, Details, Construction or manufacture in general, small-sized flat cells or batteries portable equipment

H01M 10/0436

Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries

H02J 7/00

{of acoustic or vibrational transducers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements for mounting or interconnection of transducers in hearing aids

{acting directly on the eardrum, the ossicles or the skull, e.g. mastoid, tooth, maxillary or mandibular bone, or mechanically stimulating the cochlea, e.g. at the oval window}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mounting or interconnection aspects of implantable hearing aid transducers

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Earphones or headphones using bone-conduction transducers

H04R 1/10, H04R 5/033

Constructions of transducers per se

H04R 9/00 - H04R 23/00

Implantable hearing aids or parts thereof

H04R 2225/67

Electrode placement of cochlear implants

A61N 1/0541

Controlling aspects of cochlear implants

A61N 1/36036

Electrical supply for implants

A61N 1/378

{of circuitry (of electronic switches or control elements H04R 25/603)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Interconnection or mounting of electrical aspects of implantable hearing aid transducers

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

of electronic switches or control elements

H04R 25/603

{Housing parts, e.g. shells, tips or moulds, or their manufacture}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example CIC: housing (15) and ear tip (18)

media99.png

Example ITE: housing (15) and ear mould (21)

media100.png

Example BTE: housing (17) and ear tip (20).

media101.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Constructional arrangements, e.g. casings, for implants

A61N 1/375

Storage case for drying purposes

F26B 9/003

Housing specially adapted for small components

H05K 5/0091

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2225/77. Classification is obligatory.

{Ear tips; Ear moulds (hybrid ear moulds or post-processing thereof for their customisation H04R 25/659)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For examples, please see H04R 25/65.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hybrid ear moulds or post-processing thereof for their customisation

H04R 25/659

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Earpieces of the intra-aural type

H04R 1/1016

Measuring physical dimensions, e.g. size of the entire body or parts thereof

A61B 5/107

Earplugs for protection

A61F 11/08

Computer-aided design

G06F 17/50

Three dimensional (3D) modelling, e.g. data description of 3D objects

G06T 17/00

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2460/09 and H04R 2460/11. Classification is obligatory.

{Ear wax retarders}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Means for protecting electric components, e.g. receivers, microphones, in hearing aids against e.g. earwax, oil, moisture, debris, and other foreign material; Their mounting or interconnection

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Screens for loudspeakers

H04R 1/023

Protective screens for microphones, e.g. all weather or wind screens

H04R 1/086

Mounting or interconnection of hearing aid parts in general, e.g. inside tips, housing or to ossicles

H04R 25/60

{Non-customized, universal ear tips, i.e. ear tips which are not specifically adapted to the size or shape of the ear or ear canal}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example BTE:

media102.png

Example ITE:

media103.png

Example CIC:

media104.png

{Manufacture of housing parts}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aspects of design and manufacturing of housing parts

Example of design and subsequent manufacture of ear mould:

media105.png

Example of design of a vent in a hearing aid shell (left-hand figure: general modelling and right-hand figure a method for optimising the shape of the vent)

media107.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Moulding of plastics

B29C 43/00, B29C 45/00, B29C 48/00, B29C 49/00

Shaping of plastics in general

B29C 67/00

{Adaptation of deaf aid to hearing loss, e.g. initial electronic fitting}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electronic adaptation of the hearing aid settings in response to audiological test signals to compensate for hearing aid loss or changes therein, i.e. initial or subsequent fitting.

Initial fitting is generally carried out by an acoustician. Subsequent fitting can be carried out by the acoustician or by the user, e.g. with audiological test signals generated in the hearing aid.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ear tip or ear moulds for hearing aids

H04R 25/652

Audiometering

A61B 5/12

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code subgroups H04R 2225/39, H04R 2225/81 and H04R 2225/83. Classification is obligatory.

{Electric tinnitus maskers providing an auditory perception}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electric tinnitus maskers providing an auditory perception e.g. an acoustic noise signal around the tinnitus frequency. The tinnitus maskers can be stand-alone devices or can be integrated in a hearing aid.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Evaluating tinnitus

A61B 5/128

Devices or methods to cause a change in the state of consciousness

A61M 21/00

Masking sound in general

G10K 11/175

Public address systems (circuits for preventing acoustic reaction H04R 3/02; circuits for distributing signals to loudspeakers H04R 3/12; {monitoring or testing arrangements for public address systems H04R 29/007}; amplifiers H03F)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Audio distribution systems for buildings, e.g. stations or religious facilities, for venues, e.g. in stadiums or in concerts halls, or for domestic use, i.e. multiroom.

Public address systems for buildings, e.g. stations or religious facilities, for open air, for indoor and outdoor venues, e.g. in stadiums or in concerts halls, or for domestic use, i.e. multiroom.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Circuits for preventing acoustic reaction

H04R 3/02

Monitoring or testing arrangements for public address systems

H04R 29/007

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuits for distributing signals to loudspeakers in general

H04R 3/12

Audible signalling systems and audible personal calling systems

G08B 3/00

Audible advertising

G09F 25/00

Combined visual and audible advertising or displaying, e.g. for public address

G09F 27/00

Speech enhancement, e.g. noise reduction, echo cancellation in public address systems

G10L 21/0208

Installations of electric cables or lines in or on buildings or equivalent structures

H02G 3/00

Amplifiers

H03F

Powerline communication in general

H04B 3/54

Audio/video applications of powerline communications

H04B 2203/545

Broadcasting

H04H

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2227/00 and by Indexing Code groups H04R 2420/05 and H04R 2430/03. Classification is obligatory.

Amplifying systems for the deaf
Definition statement

This place covers:

Inductive loop or similar systems to enable communication with the hard of hearing.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electric hearing aids

H04R 25/00

Cochlear implants

A61N 1/36036

Teaching or communicating with deaf persons

G09B 21/009

Monitoring arrangements; Testing arrangements {(for hearing aids H04R 25/30; detection of loudspeaker connection H04R 5/04; sound-field adaptation dependent on speaker detection H04S 7/308)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Monitoring or testing arrangements for transducers, loudspeakers, microphones or public address systems;
  • Testing of transducer, loudspeaker or microphone connection
  • Visual indication of acoustic signal levels.
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Detection of loudspeaker or microphone connection for stereophonic purposes

H04R 5/04

Monitoring or testing of hearing aids

H04R 25/30

Circuits or components specially adapted for stereophonic broadcast systems

H04H 20/47

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measurement of mechanical vibrations or ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves, e.g. sound dosimeter

G01H

Testing of electronic circuits in household appliances or professional audio/video equipment

G01R 31/2825

Sound-field adaptation dependent on speaker detection

H04S 7/308

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code groups H04R 2420/05 and H04R 2430/03. Classification is obligatory.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Monitoring

encompasses indication

{for loudspeakers (H04R 29/007 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Loudspeaker 102 the one under test is in the exemplary figures below.

Loudspeaker 108 is the reference loudspeaker.

media109.png

media108.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Testing or monitoring arrangements for public address systems

H04R 29/007

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Signal processing adapting stereophonic sound system to listener position

H04S 7/302

{Loudspeaker arrays}
Definition statement

This place covers:

As an illustrative example:

media110.png

media111.png

{of the moving-coil type}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media253.png

{for microphones (H04R 29/007 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example for test method:

media250.png

Example for testing arrangement to test a plurality of microphones:

media115.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Testing or monitoring arrangements for public address systems

H04R 29/007

{Microphone arrays}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

Functioning of the microphones (102a, 102b) is monitored (error detection 110) and if one microphone is considered defect, its signal is not used for further processing.

media116.png

media117.png

{Microphone matching}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: US6272229.

For example: microphone matching in a microphone array in general

media251.png

media252.png

For example: microphone matching (CABLE) in an adaptive interference canceller (side-lobe canceller):

media120.png

{for public address systems (public address systems per se H04R 27/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

In the PA system shown in the figure control device (CD) polls all monitoring devices 12,14 and line monitoring devices 16 to check if errors have occurred: Monitoring 12 checks for example whether the voice coil in the loudspeaker is an open connection (e.g. loudspeaker is defect)

media121.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Public address systems per se

H04R 27/00

Testing and monitoring for signalling and alarm systems

G08B 29/00

{Visual indication of individual signal levels (visual indication of stereophonic sound image H04S 7/40)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Indicating measured values

G01D 7/00

Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms

G01R 13/00

Visual indication of stereophonic sound image

H04S 7/40

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of transducers or diaphragms therefor {(manufacture of microstructural arrangements of deformable or non-deformable structures in general B81C 1/00182)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of

  • acoustic transducers, including MEMS acoustic transducers
  • diaphragms therefor;
  • means for securing diaphragm or cone resiliently to support by flexible material, springs, cords, or strands for diaphragms.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Microphones and microspeakers

B81B 2201/0257

Manufacture of microstructural arrangements of deformable or non-deformable structures in general

B81C 1/00182

Packaging of Smart-MEMS, i.e. packaging together processing unit and MEMS

B81C 1/0023

Interconnecting the MEMS and the processing unit

B81C 1/00238

Processes for packaging MEMS

B81C 1/00261

Pressure measurement / constructional details associated with semiconductive diaphragm sensors, e.g. etching of diaphragms

G01L 9/0042

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code groups H04R 2201/003, H04R 2231/001 and H04R 2231/003. Classification is obligatory.

{for diaphragms or their outer suspension}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Aluminium diaphragm (1) is pressed (5-7) out of an aluminium plate. The diaphragm is chemically treated cleaned (8-10) and the resulting diaphragm is treated with anodic oxidation to form an amorphous ceramic diaphragm of Al2O3. The amorphous diaphragm is heat treated to create corundum, a crystalline form of Al2O3.

media122.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Diaphragms for electromechanical transducers characterised by the construction

H04R 7/02

Securing diaphragm or cone resiliently to support by flexible material, springs, cords, or strands

H04R 7/16

Moulding of plastics

B29C 43/00, B29C 45/00, B29C 48/00, B29C 49/00

Shaping of plastics in general

B29C 67/00

Manufacture of micromechanical membranes and diaphragms

B81C 1/00158

Electroplating

C25D 3/00, C25D 5/00, C25D 7/00, C25D 9/00

Anodizing of metals

C25D 11/00

Special rules of classification

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2207/021 and the subgroups of H04R 2307/00. Classification is obligatory.

{Interconnection of transducer parts (of diaphragm and outer suspension by moulding H04R 31/003)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: A transducer is assembled with the help of jig 1 and jig 12 used for relative positioning of the parts during assembly. Jig 12 is removed before mounting of bottom frame 8. Jig 1 is removed after complete assembly.

media124.png

For example: A centre pole cap 88 is formed with cap die press 82. With help of pattern roller 82 an axial griping surface 92 is formed on the centre pole 16, after which the cap is pressed on the pole with press 86. The cap is held in place by interference fit.

media125.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Assembly of magnetic circuit for electrodynamic transducers

H04R 2209/024

Adhesives

C09J

Mems transducers or their use (of the electrostatic type H04R 19/005)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mems transducers of the electrostatic type

H04R 19/005

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for avoiding sticking of the flexible or moving parts of MEMS devices having such parts

B81B 3/0002

MEMS packages and encapsulations

B81B 7/0032

Microphones and microspeakers

B81B 2201/0257

MEMS structures allowing for movement

B81B 2203/01

Type of movement

B81B 2203/05

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

MEMS

Microelectromechanical system

Transducers or their casings adapted for mounting in or to a wall or ceiling
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection

E04B 1/82

Sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection of floors or ceilings

E04B 9/001

Sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection of flooring

E04F 15/20

Room acoustics, i.e. forms of, or arrangements in, rooms for influencing or directing sound

G10K 11/175

Transducers incorporated in garment, rucksacks or the like
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media253.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Garments adapted to accommodate electronic equipment

A41D 1/002

Footwear provided with sound or music source

A43B 3/0021

Structural combinations of loudspeakers with built-in power amplifiers, e.g. in the same acoustic enclosure (H04R 2499/10 takes precedence; Single (sub)woofer with two or more satellite loudspeakers for mid- and high-frequency band reproduction driven via the (sub)woofer H04R 2205/026)
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (amplifier (10) mounted to transducer (20))

media126.png

(amplifier mounted to loudspeaker enclosure)

media127.png

For example: (the active loudspeaker (311,312) is placed in a separate enclosure (11,12) used in a television)

media128.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

General applications

H04R 2499/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Single (sub)woofer with two or more satellite loudspeakers for mid- and high-frequency band reproduction driven via the (sub)woofer

H04R 2205/026

Manufacturing aspects of enclosures transducers
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: manufacture of loudspeaker casing with backloaded horn using two lateral plates (1) and a plurality of intermediate plates (2) which are screwed together (6,7).

media129.png

For example: assembly of loudspeaker.

media130.png

Manufacture of mono- or stereophonic headphone components
Definition statement

This place covers:

Typical components are earpiece supports, ear tips, and ear cushions, transducers specially adapted for earphones or headphones.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Manufacture of diaphragms for acoustic transducers

H04R 31/003

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Manufacture or assembly of earphones or headphones

H04R 1/1058

Manufacturing aspects of the magnetic circuit of loudspeaker or microphone transducers

H04R 2209/024

Monophonic and stereophonic headphones with microphone for two-way hands free communication
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (monophonic: microphone (40)).

media131.png

For example: (stereophonic; microphone (30)).

media132.png

Arrangements to adapt hands free headphones for use on both ears
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (monophonic) rotatable joint 25 enables rotation about axes B and C.

media133.png

For example US5210792 (monophonic): rotatable joints 28a and 28b enable rotation of the microphone arm 24 and of the earpiece, respectively.

media134.png

For example: (stereophonic) earpieces are releasably mounted using Velcro.

media136.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mouthpieces and attachments therefor in general

H04R 1/08

Throat mountings for microphones

H04R 1/14

Transceivers carried on the body, e.g. in helmets

H04B 1/385

Substation equipment including speech amplifiers providing hands-free use or loudspeaker mode

H04M 1/6041

Directing or guiding sound by means of a phase plug
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:US5933508 (phase plug of a compression driver), US2006153412 (phase plug used with a transducer).

For example: (phase plug (30) of a compression driver)

media137.png

For example: (phase plug used with a transducer)

media138.png

Beamforming aspects for stereophonic sound reproduction with loudspeaker arrays
Definition statement

This place covers:

See for example: generation of multiple sound channels (12-1, 12-2) to reproduce stereophonic sound

media139.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Beamforming aspects for sound reproduction in general

H04R 2430/20

Aspects relating to docking-station type assemblies to obtain an acoustical effect, e.g. the type of connection to external loudspeakers or housings, frequency improvement
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (electric connection)

media141.png

media140.png

JP2005136895 (acoustic connection)

media142.png

media143.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

External expansion units, e.g. docking stations

G06F 1/1632

Cabinets for information storage devices; Cases; Stands; Disposition of apparatus therein or thereon

G11B 33/02

Disposition of constructional parts in the apparatus for information storage devices, e.g. of power supply, of modules

G11B 33/12

Side-by-side or stacked arrangements for casings, cabinets or drawers for electric apparatus

H05K 5/0021

Plurality of transducers corresponding to a plurality of sound channels in each earpiece of headphones or in a single enclosure
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (two-channel microphones in earpiece (2a, 2b) mounted on a spherical structure (1) for four-channel sound capture).

media144.png

media145.png

For example: (multiple channels (20, 20') in earpiece (30) of headphones).

media146.png

For example: (multiple channels in single loudspeaker box).

media147.png

For example: (multiple channels in single loudspeaker box, comprising a pistonic loudspeaker transducer (7) and a distributed mode panel (3) with exciters (5)).

media148.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Positioning of loudspeaker enclosures for spatial sound reproduction

H04R 5/02, H04R 2205/024

Positioning of microphones for spatial sound recording in general

H04R 5/027

Positioning of loudspeaker enclosures for spatial sound reproduction
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aspect relating to the relative positioning of loudspeaker enclosures, e.g. determination of their actual position

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mounting of transducers in earphones or headphones

H04R 1/1075

Public address systems

H04R 27/00

Electronic adaptation of stereophonic sound system to listener position or orientation

H04S 7/302

Single (sub)woofer with two or more satellite loudspeakers for mid- and high-frequency band reproduction driven via the (sub)woofer
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media149.png

Adaptation of stereophonic signal reproduction for the hearing impaired
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Deaf-aid sets

H04R 25/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Telephone sets for the hearing impaired

H04M 1/2475

Mobile telephones for the hearing impaired

H04M 1/72591

Diaphragm extensions, not necessarily integrally formed, e.g. skirts, rims, flanges
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (flange (a) to prevent deformation of dome during firing to obtain a ceramic diaphragm

media150.png

For example: (annular skirt (54) extending from the dome (52), around which a voice coil is wound)

media152.png

Manufacturing aspects of the magnetic circuit of loudspeaker or microphone transducers
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetic circuits for electrodynamic loudspeaker transducers

H04R 9/025

Magnetic materials, cores, yokes and magnets in general, and their manufacture

H01F 1/00, H01F 3/00, H01F 7/00

Transducers having separately controllable opposing diaphragms, e.g. for ring-tone and voice (H04R 2400/03 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transducers capable of generating both sound as well as tactile vibration e.g. as used in cellular phones

H04R 2400/03

Electrical or mechanical reduction of yoke vibration
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (passive reduction with the help of a weight (23) mounted at the rear side of the magnetic circuit (25) of loudspeaker transducer (25)).

media153.png

For example (active reduction with the help of a second magnetic circuit (5B). This second magnetic circuit is similar to the first magnetic circuit (5A) driving the diaphragm (8 and attached thereto. Voice coil 7B is driven with part of the signal with which voice coil 7A is driven, such that a weight coupled to the coil 7B move in a direction opposite to that of the diaphragm (8)).

media154.png

Short circuited voice coils driven by induction
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: (short circuited moving coil (28) and static driving coil (23)

media155.png

Non-planar magnetostrictive, piezo-electric or electrostrictive benders
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: a flat bi-layer tape (21) extending around a minor axis (24) in a helix to form a helical electro-active structure extending along the minor axis (24). The tape can be used as shown in the right-hand figure to obtain a loudspeaker driver (480).

media157.png

media156.png

Parametric transducers where sound is generated or captured by the acoustic demodulation of amplitude modulated ultrasonic waves
Definition statement

This place covers:

Construction or application of such transducers. Sound generation may be using piezoelectric, electrostatic, or other principles.

For example: schematic driving circuit (14, 6, 27) for a parametric loudspeaker array comprising a plurality of modules (12, 29).

media158.png

An example for the modules used with the driving circuit above is shown in the figure directly below. A conductive electrode unit (32), a dielectric spacer (34) provided with an array of apertures (36), and a metallized polymer membrane (38). The components (32-38) are compressed against the spring (30) by an upper ring (40) that bears against the film (38) and threadably engages a base member (42) that supports the spring (30). The module (29) comprises a plurality of electrostatic transducers, corresponding with the respective apertures (36) in the polymer spacer (34).

media160.png

For example: sound reproduction for a TV, one parametric loudspeaker and one conventional nonparametric loudspeaker per channel.

media161.png

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used with the meaning indicated:

"parametric loudspeaker"

"superdirective loudspeaker".

Aspects of the use of accumulators in hearing aids, e.g. rechargeable batteries or fuel cells
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Rechargeable battery (31) and battery charger 5 with charging contacts (51, 51')

media162.png

For example: Fuel cell (6) with fuel cell tank (8). Valve (9) is used for filling the tank and with the help of window (10) the amount of fuel can be checked.

media163.png

For example: Thermic semiconductor elements (2) arranged on the outer surface of hearing aid.

media165.pngmedia166.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For earphones and headphones

H04R 1/1025

Reduction of energy consumption in hearing aids

H04R 2460/03

Electrical supply for implants

A61N 1/378

Fuel cells

H01M 8/00

Secondary cells (accumulators)

H01M 10/00

Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries

H02J 7/00

Aspects relating to adaptation of the battery voltage, e.g. its regulation, increase or decrease
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: A hearing aid comprises a step-down/step-up converter (3) as voltage regulator, which transforms both higher as well as lower operating voltage into at least one stabilised supply voltage.

media167.png

For example: Power source (206) is connected to a charge pump and voltage regulator (208), which generates a larger or smaller output voltage depending on the value of the power source (206) and stabilises the output voltage.

media168.png

Aspects relating to automatic logging of sound environment parameters and the performance of the hearing aid during use, e.g. histogram logging, or of user selected programs or settings in the hearing aid, e.g. usage logging
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Hearing aid with data logger (60) which logs data relating to sound environment, programs used, etc. The data stored can be used by subsequent fitting.

media169.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hearing aid fitting

H04R 25/70

Adaptation of hearing aid parameters to listening situation

H04R 2225/41

Detection or adaptation of hearing aid parameters or programs to listening situation, e.g. pub, forest
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Acoustic scene identification method for hearing device, which involves extracting characteristic feature of input signal and generating revised class information in processing stages to characterize and identify acoustic scenes. The settings can be adapted to the encountered acoustic scene, if its characteristics are detected.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Listening situation

Acoustic scene, acoustic environment

Signal processing in hearing aids to enhance the speech intelligibility
Definition statement

This place covers:

Application of speech processing techniques, e.g. formant processing, determination or use of speech intelligibility threshold, detection of voiced speech, to control a hearing aid to enhance speech intelligibility.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Speech enhancement, e.g. noise reduction or echo cancellation

G10L 21/02

Speech enhancement using noise filtering characterised by the method used for estimating noise

G10L 21/0216

Special rules of classification

The mere mentioning of increasing speech intelligibility, which is a general aim for hearing aids, should not be classified.

Reducing the effects of electromagnetic noise on the functioning of hearing aids, by, e.g. shielding, signal processing adaptation, selective (de)activation of electronic parts in hearing aid
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Passive shielding of a microphone transducer (21) by metal jacket (30)

media170.png

For example: Active shielding by attenuation loops (8, 9) to attenuate electromagnetic interference resulting from supply lines (6C, 6D, coming from battery (6)) or the amplifier (3) and receiver (4) at the site of antenna (7)

media171.png

For example: Compensation for em-noise in signal processing:

A hearing aid receives the electromagnetic disturbance signal (14) via the detector element (12) and therefore detects the presence of, for example, a GSM telephone in the D1 network. The detector element (12) transmits the information about the detected noise field type (namely GSM telephone, D1 network) to the DSP element (3), so that the filter element (13) can be configured in a way that is adapted to the detected noise field type for the particularly effective noise field suppression.).

media172.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

MEMS packages for protecting against electromagnetic or electrostatic interferences

B81B 7/0064

Measuring electromagnetic field characteristics

G01R 29/08

Screening of apparatus or components against electric or magnetic fields

H05K 9/00

Aspects of antennas or their circuitry in or for hearing aids
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Construction of the antenna

media174.png

media173.png

For example: Circuitry for transmitting signal between hearing aid (2) and an external device (1):

media175.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adaptation of aerials for carrying or wearing by persons or animals

H01Q 1/273

Aerials using equipment having another main function to serve additionally as an aerial

H01Q 1/44

Loop aerials

H01Q 7/00

Hearing aid for unilateral hearing impairment using Contralateral Routing Of Signals [CROS]
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Sound delivered to the deaf ear (18) is sent to the other ear (19) and processed to maintain some directional hearing.

If the other ear is also impaired it is called Bi-CROS.

media178.png

Communication between hearing aids and external devices via a network for data exchange
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media179.png

media260.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Remote monitoring using telemetry, e.g. using a communication network

A61B 5/0002

Home automation networks, e.g. Home Audio Video Interoperability [HAVI] networks

H04L 12/2803

Arrangements for selective connection between one or more amplifiers and one or more receivers within one hearing aid
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: multiple amplifiers to one single receivers

media181.png

For example: multiple amplifiers to multiple receivers, with same or different characteristics

media182.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For stereophonic purposes

H04R 5/04

Connection circuits to selectively connect loudspeakers or headphones to amplifiers

H04R 2420/03

Aspects relating to mechanical or electronic switches or control elements, e.g. functioning
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media183.png

media184.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For earphones or headphones

H04R 1/1041

Electronic input selection or mixing based on input signal analysis, e.g. mixing or selection between microphone and telecoil or between microphones with different directivity characteristics (H04R 25/407 takes precedence)

H04R 25/43

Signal processing in hearing aids to enhance the speech intelligibility

H04R 2225/43

Switching (mechanical) in general

H01H

Switches in or for hearing aids in general

H01H 2300/004

Electronic switching in general

H03K 17/00

Implantable hearing aids or parts thereof not covered by H04R 25/606
Definition statement

This place covers:

Implantable hearing aids or parts thereof, e.g. receivers, housings, whereas in H04R 25/606 the emphasis is on the mounting of the transducers.

Design aspects, e.g. CAD, of hearing aid tips, moulds or housings
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media186.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Computer aided design in general

G06F 17/50

Aspects of electrical fitting of hearing aids related to problems arising from the emotional state of a hearing aid user, e.g. nervousness or unwillingness during fitting
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: The ohmic resistance of the skin is measured. Under stress the ohmic resistance reduces due to sweating. Thus this resistance can be taken as a measure of psychoacoustic variables, e.g. loudness, sharpness, audio stress, etc.

media187.png

Aspects of electrical fitting of hearing aids related to problems arising from growth of the hearing aid user, e.g. children
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: compensation for the change in characteristics of a child's ear during growth

Adaptation of signal processing in PA systems in dependence of presence of noise
Definition statement

This place covers:

Adaptation of the signal processing is generally done by sensing the interference signal or noise. For example: A PA system has two audio inputs (6, 7) provided for interference signal and a utility signal, respectively. An adjustment device (11) adjusts the utility signal with the interference signal in such manner that a modified utility signal is produced. An audio output is provided for the modified utility signal. The interference signal contains information about local distribution of static noises.

media188.png

Digital PA systems using, e.g. LAN or internet
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media190.png

media189.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Home automation networks, e.g. Home Audio Video Interoperability [HAVI] networks

H04L 12/2803

Audio distribution systems for home, i.e. multi-room use
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media191.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Receiver circuits for HiFi systems or audio/video combinations

H04B 1/20

Audio mixers

H04H 60/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Room

zone

Electronic adaptation of audio signals to reverberation of the listening space for PA
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: reverberation adaptation for indoor or outdoor venues for PA-systems.

media193.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring reverberation time; Room acoustic measurements

G01H 7/00

Arrangements for producing a reverberation or echo sound

G10K 15/08

For stereophonic systems

H04S 7/305

Signal processing in [PA] systems to enhance the speech intelligibility
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Amplifiers (312) have the amplification gain, which is the function of the bandwidth (308) of the filter (306), thus effectively augmenting the speech in noisy conditions, and hence preserving the overall sound pressure level and increasing speech intelligibility. The appropriate amplifier/filter combination is selected by a switch (304), which can be manually or automatically controlled by a switch controller (316) (cf. figure).

media194.png

For example: A method involves sensing the ambient sound in a region for a predetermined time interval, analyzing sensed ambient sound and overlaying ambient sound with test audio signals having predetermined characteristics. The overlaid ambient sound is sensed. The degradation of speech intelligibility beyond acceptable level is determined by analyzing ambient sound pressure level and ambient frequency domain characteristics (cf. figure).

media195.png

media196.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Speech enhancement using two microphones, one receiving mainly the noise signal and the other one mainly the speech signal

G10L 2021/02165

Moulding aspects of diaphragm or surround
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Polypropylene pellets (61) are grinded (S01) to prepare granulated polypropylene resin (62). Fibres 63 are partly cut (S02; 64) and mixed (S03) with the resin to produce a compound (15 which can be injection moulded (S04, S05) to produce a loudspeaker diaphragm.

media197.png

Manufacturing aspects of the outer suspension of loudspeaker or microphone diaphragms or of their connecting aspects to said diaphragms
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Surround press-moulded onto a loudspeaker diaphragm (7)

media199.png

Diaphragms comprising ceramic-like materials, e.g. pure ceramic, glass, boride, nitride, carbide, mica and carbon materials
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Anodizing of metals

C25D 11/00

Diaphragms comprising polymeric materials
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Moulding aspects of diaphragm or surround

H04R 2231/001

Moulding of plastics

B29C 43/00, B29C 45/00, B29C 48/00, B29C 49/00

Shaping of plastics in general

B29C 67/00

Diaphragms comprising metallic materials
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Damping aspects of the outer suspension of loudspeaker diaphragms by addition of additional damping means
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: membrane (2) is extended to form outer suspension (21), whose elastic properties are adapted by the elastic layer (22).

media64.png

For example: dampening material (20) for the edge (14a)

media201.png

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Outer suspension

surround

Shape aspects of the outer suspension of loudspeaker diaphragms
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Pleats (26,27, 28,32, 33,34, 38,39, 40) are provided in the outer suspension in such a way the vibration of membrane is more uniform over the frequency range the transducer is to be used for.

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Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Outer suspension

surround

Loudspeakers
Special rules of classification

Only for those cases where the classification does not allow specification the type of transducer and the type is important, e.g. frequency control circuit (H04R 3/04 and subgroups) may require different circuit for microphones or for loudspeakers

Transducers used as a loudspeaker to generate sound aswell as a microphone to detect sound
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: US2002137478.

For example: Cellular telephone (1) has pair of transducers (8A,8B) functioning as stereo speakers during sound reproduction and functioning separately as speaker (8A) and microphone (8B) during conversation.

media203.png

Transducers capable of generating both sound as well as tactile vibration, e.g. as used in cellular phones
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Moving coil loudspeaker transducers

H04R 9/06

Moving armature loudspeaker transducers

H04R 11/02

Generating mechanical vibrations with vibrating magnet, armature or coil system;

B06B 1/045

Tactile signalling systems

G08B 6/00

Suspension between moving magnetic core and housing
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: The transducer shown in the figure below, comprises magnetic circuit (103, 104, 105) and a movable diaphragm (101) to produce sound when the voice coil (102) is supplied with a signal having a higher frequency. When the magnetic circuit and a weight (106) constitute a vibrator which is elastically supported against the case (110) by an upper and a lower suspension (107, 108). If the voice coil is supplied with a low frequency signal the vibrator starts vibrating, resulting in a tactile vibration.

media204.png

For example: an inertial transducer with a flexible membrane (3') and magnetic circuit elastically supported by a suspension (9). Upon energising the voice coil (4b) the membrane starts producing sound and the magnetic circuit move as well, causing a tactile vibration to be simultaneously generated.

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Use or details of compression drivers
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Details of construction of a compression driver.

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Microphones
Special rules of classification

Only for those cases where the classification does not allow specification the type of transducer and the type is important, e.g. frequency control circuit (H04R 3/04 and subgroups) may require different circuit for microphones or for loudspeakers

Noise reduction using microphones having different directional characteristics
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: In this particular example the far field microphone is omnidirectional and the near field microphone is directional

media207.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electronic input selection in hearing aids based on input signal analysis

H04R 25/43

Reduction of intrinsic noise in microphones
Definition statement

This place covers:

Intrinsic noise is the noise which is generated inside the microphone (transducer) without any ambient acoustic signal (noise) being present, e.g. noise caused by parasitic capacitances in MEMS microphones or thermal noise.

Noise reduction with a separate noise microphone
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Speech enhancement using two microphones, one receiving mainly the noise signal, and the other one mainly the speech signal

G10L 2021/02165

Mechanical or electrical reduction of wind noise generated by wind passing a microphone
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: mechanical reduction with the help of a mesh (6,6',6'') over the sound openings (5,5',5'') of a microphone

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media209.png

For example: electrical reduction using primary microphone (1) and a reference microphone (2) placed closely together. The microphone signals are input to adaptive noise canceller (6) (cf. Figure below).

media210.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Speech enhancement using noise filtering

G10L 21/02

Speech enhancement using noise filtering characterised by the method used for estimating noise

G10L 21/0216

Input selection or mixing for amplifiers or loudspeakers (for hearing aids H04R 25/43)
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: selection

media211.png

For example: mixing

media212.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Audio mixers

H04H 60/00

Connection circuits to selectively connect loudspeakers or headphones to amplifiers
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media213.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Public address systems

H04R 27/00

Detection of connection of loudspeakers or headphones to amplifiers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Detection of state of connection of acoustic transducers, microphones, loudspeakers and headphones to amplifiers

For example: The information apparatus (100) includes speakers (FLS, FRS, RLS, RRS) connected to the amplifiers (12a-12d). An input switch circuit (22) performs the input of a predetermined inspection signal into the amplifier. A microcomputer (23) determines whether the speaker is connected to the amplifier based on a signal to be inspected which is produced from the input inspection signal in the input switch circuit (cf. Figure).

media214.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Means for preventing incorrect coupling by indicating incorrect coupling; by indicating correct or full engagement

H01R 13/641

Special rules of classification

To be used in combination with H04R 5/04 (stereophonic) or H04R 29/00 (not stereophonic) (or its subgroups) to indicate detection of connection.

Applications of wireless loudspeakers or wireless microphones
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: stand for a microphone (not shown) having an antenna (3) and a transmitter (45))

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For example: loudspeaker

media216.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Wireless connection for hearing aids

H04R 25/554

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless electrical link.

G08C 17/00

Portable transmitters

H04B 1/034

Near-field transmission systems using a receiver structurally associated with a loudspeaker or an earphone

H04B 5/0006

Near-field transmission systems using a portable transmitter associated with a microphone

H04B 5/06

Indoor or near-field type systems for optical communication

H04B 10/114

Hands-free substation equipment including a wireless connection or interface

H04M 1/6066; H04M 1/6091

Special rules of classification

The mere fact that a wireless connection for data transfer is used should not be classified.

Applications of special connectors, e.g. USB, XLR, in loudspeakers, microphones or headphones
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

External connectors, e.g. plugs, modules for hearing aids

H04R 25/556

Aspects of volume control, not necessarily automatic, in sound systems
Definition statement

This place covers:

Electronic aspects of volume control, e.g. for control based on sensor signals or for limiting the maximum sound level, or aspects of elements used for volume control, e.g. for simplicity in use or the construction of control element.

The mere presence of a volume control should not be classified.

Example (electronic aspects of volume control): The volume level set by the gain controller (205) of a headphone is determined in dependence of the ambient signal (B) picked up by a microphone (109) and an attenuated version (A) thereof.

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Example (aspects of the element used for control): The earphone 10 has a front side 12, from which sound is emitted from a speaker, and a back side 14 which the user can press with the user's finger or hand 15 in order to activate a switch that raises the volume level of the sound produced by the earphone 10.

media218.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of amplification per se

H03G

Automatic control of amplifiers dependent upon ambient noise level or sound level

H03G 3/24, H03G 3/32

Synergistic effects of band splitting and sub-band processing
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: EP1471765, US4953216, DE19632734.

Only if additional effects due to the combination of band splitting and sub-band processing are present (cf. the examples below).

The mere fact that band splitting and sub-band processing is applied should not be classified.

For example: Adaptive feedback cancellation for individual frequency band, which reduces computational effort, thus making cancellation faster and a good sound quality can be maintained.

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For example: For each frequency band (122a, 12b, ...) an automatic threshold switch (13a, 13b, ...) is opened if speech is present. Thus noise is only transmitted in the presence of louder speech in a frequency band and is suppressed if no speech is present in said band. Because the unwanted signals are transmitted only in those frequency channels wherein louder speech signals are simultaneously present, the unwanted signals are always covered by the louder speech signals, and the unwanted signals are thus no longer audible.

media220.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Crossover filters for loudspeakers

H04R 3/14

Digital filter banks

H03H 17/0266

Special rules of classification

The mere band splitting or presence of a filter bank (e.g. FFT or FIR) should not be classified.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Deaf aid

hearing aid, auditory prosthesis

Stereophonic system

two- or more channel system, e.g. quadraphonic, ambisonic or similar systems

Processing of the output signals of the acoustic transducers of an array for obtaining a desired directivity characteristic (H04R 2203/12 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Signal processing of the output signals of an array of microphones for direction finding or of the input signals of an array of loudspeakers for steering sound in a desired direction

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Beamforming aspects for stereophonic sound reproduction with loudspeaker arrays

H04R 2203/12

Array processing for suppression of unwanted side-lobes in directivity characteristics, e.g. a blocking matrix
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: microphone array

media222.png

For example: loudspeaker array comprising additionally high-directivity edge loudspeakers which are driven with only low-frequency signal, to cancel side-lobes.

media223.png

Acoustic transducers using travelling bending waves to generate or detect sound
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plane diaphragms using the distributed mode principle

H04R 7/045

Aspects relating to the positioning and way or means of mounting of exciters to resonant bending wave panels
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Repositioning of central exciter (42) which has to be positioned at the edge of a transparent panel to be used for a visual display.

media224.png

For example: mounting of the exciter (9) in the panel (2) (upper figure) or on the panel (2) (lower figure).

media227.png

media226.png

Loudspeakers using bending wave resonance and pistonic motion to generate sound
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Bending wave resonance speaker (1) for surround channels and pistonic loudspeaker transducer (7) for the main channel

media228.png

For example: The membrane (2) of loudspeaker (81) is actively driven with resonant bending waves by an exciter (9) for the high frequencies and is passively driven by a pistonic loudspeaker transducer (42) for the low frequencies.

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Hearing devices using active noise cancellation
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: US6661901 (earphone and hearing aid).

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Reduction of ambient noise in headphones in general

H04R 1/1083

Ear defenders (electric or acoustic)

A61F 11/06, A61F 11/14, A61F 2011/145

Active noise cancellation in general

G10K 11/175

Active noise control in general for earphones or microphones

G10K 2210/1081

Aspects of the reduction of energy consumption in hearing devices
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media230.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Battery saving arrangements in cordless telephones

H04M 1/73

Electronic compensation of the occlusion effect
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Fitting a hearing aid including occlusion compensation filter (C).

media231.png

media232.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-occlusive ear tips, i.e. leaving the ear canal open, for both custom and non-custom tips

H04R 2460/09

Aspects relating to vents, e.g. shape, orientation, acoustic properties in ear tips of hearing aids to prevent occlusion

H04R 2460/11

Non-occlusive ear tips, i.e. leaving the ear canal open, for both custom and non-custom tips (H04R 2460/11 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media233.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Aspects relating to vents, e.g. shape, orientation, acoustic properties in ear tips of hearing aids to prevent occlusion

H04R 2460/11

Aspects relating to vents, e.g. shape, orientation, acoustic properties in ear tips of hearing devices to prevent occlusion
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Improved venting of the ear canal due to the opposite orientation of valves (25, 26), which enables circulation (29) of air in the ear canal.

media235.png

For example: hearing aid device with a ventilation channel (5), cross-section of which can be adapted (6, 7) to the respective acoustic situation (e.g. acoustic feedback) in a fast and simple manner.

media237.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Prevention of acoustic feedback in hearing aids mechanically

H04R 25/456

Electronic compensation of the occlusion effect

H04R 2460/05

Determination of the acoustic seal of ear moulds or ear tips of hearing devices
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example:

media238.png

Hearing device specific tools used for storing or handling hearing devices or parts thereof, e.g. placement in the ear, replacement of cerumen barriers, repair, cleaning hearing devices
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: Haring aid (12) cleaning: a cleaning liquid (28) is pump up (with a pump system (252)) from a cartridge (224) into a reservoir (229) (cf. figure)

media239.png

For example: Tool for replacement of cerumen barriers: a cerumen barrier (19) is provided with two holes (21, 22) (upper figure). The tool (lower figure) (31) is provided with two pins (35, 36) which fit in said holes (21, 22) of the cerumen barrier. Thus the barrier can be easily screwed onto the outside thread (4) of the neck (3) of the ITE hearing aid module (1).

media255.png

For example: hearing aid storage box: When the lid (5) is closed the protrusion (7) pushes the on/off switch (3) in the off position.

media244.jpeg

For example: safety loop for securing an earbud to e.g. a shirt.

media245.png

Transducers incorporated or for use in hand-held devices, e.g. mobile phones, PDA's, camera's
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mountings specially adapted for telephone equipment

H04M 1/02

Improving the acoustic characteristics by means of constructional features of the housing (of telephone equipment), e.g. ribs, walls, resonating chambers or cavities

H04M 1/035

Supports for telephone transmitters and receivers

H04M 1/04

Substation equipment with increased funcionallity, e.g. for playing back music files

H04M 1/72558

Acoustic transducers and sound field adaptation in vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

For example: US6389147, EP1482763.

Subject matter relating to mounting of transducers on or within a vehicle, e.g. automobile, aircraft, motorcycle, and to electronic control of the sound field within a vehicle, e.g. automobile, aircraft, motorcycle.

For example: Mounting of transducers in vehicles

media246.png

For example: Sound control in vehicles

media256.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mounting of acoustic transducers in vehicles

B60R 11/0217

Automatic control of amplifiers dependent upon ambient noise level or sound level

H03G 3/24, H03G 3/32

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stereophonic system

two- or more channel system, e.g. quadraphonic, ambisonic or similar systems

Multi-channel system

three- or more channel system

Transducers incorporated in visual displaying devices, e.g. televisions, computer displays, laptops
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details related to the integrated loudspeakers in data processing equipment

G06F 1/1605

Loudspeakers in televisions

H04N 5/642