CPC Definition - Subclass H04N

Last Updated Version: 2019.01
PICTORIAL COMMUNICATION, e.g. TELEVISION
Definition statement

This place covers:

Television systems

  • Television systems, whether general or specially adapted for colour television
  • Details of television systems of general applicability, or specific to colour television, and also including scanning details of television systems
  • Coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing of digital video signals
  • Stereoscopic television systems, whether general or specially adapted for colour television, or details therefor
  • Selective distribution of pictorial content, in particular interactive television or video on demand [VOD]
  • Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems or details therefor
  • Transmission of pictures or their transient or permanent reproduction either locally or remotely, by methods involving both the following steps:
  • Step (a): the scanning of a picture, i.e. resolving the whole picture-containing area into individual picture-elements and the derivation of picture-representative electric signals related thereto, simultaneously or in sequence;
  • Step (b): the reproduction of the whole picture-containing area by the reproduction of individual picture-elements into which the picture is resolved by means of picture-representative electric signals derived therefrom, simultaneously or in sequence;
  • (In group H04N 1/00) Systems for the transmission or the reproduction of arbitrarily composed pictures or patterns in which the local light variations composing a picture are not subject to variation with time, e.g. documents (both written and printed), maps, charts, photographs (other than cinematograph films);
  • Circuits specially designed for dealing with pictorial communication signals, e.g. television signals, as distinct from merely signals of a particular frequency range.

Other pictorial communication

  • Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, in particular facsimile transmission
  • Details pertaining to scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, in particular details of facsimile transmission
Relationships with other classification places

Subclass G09G covers arrangements for control of display devices characterised by the type of display device or its components, whilst H04N covers the acquisition and control of the picture signal which is intended for display.

Photographic or cinematographic apparatus, or processes, that are specific to film-based photography or cinematography (e.g. film-strip handling) are covered in subclass G03B. The optical and mechanical features of cameras and projectors are typically – but not always – covered by subclass G03B, and due regard should be given to the multi-aspect classification rule stated below.

When the following subject matter is classified in this subclass, it is desirable to also classify it in Subclass G03B, when some aspects are considered of interest for search purposes:

  • Digital still cameras, or their details
  • Projectors or projection-type viewers using an electronic spatial light modulator, or their details
  • Video cameras, CCTV cameras, surveillance cameras and camcorders, or details thereof
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body combined with television appliances

A61B 1/04

Arrangements of television sets in vehicles; Arrangement of controls thereof

B60R 11/02

Mounting of cameras operative during drive of a vehicle;

B60R 11/04

Arrangements of cameras in aircraft

B64D 47/08

Controlling or regulating single-crystal growth by pulling from a melt, using television detectors

C30B 15/26

Inspecting textile materials by television means

D06H 3/08

Scanning a visible indication of a measured value and reproducing this indication at a remote place, e.g. on the screen of a cathode-ray tube

G01D 5/39

Burglar, theft, or intruder alarms using television cameras

G08B 13/196

Structural combination of reactor core or moderator structure with television camera

G21C 17/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Video games, i.e. games using an electronically generated display having two or more dimensions

A63F 13/00

Systems for the reproduction according to the above-mentioned step (b) of pictures comprising alphanumeric or like character forms and involving the generation according to the above-mentioned step (a) of picture-representative electric signals from a pre-arranged assembly of such characters, or records thereof, forming an integral part of the systems

B41B, G06K

Printing, duplication or marking processes, or materials therefor

B41C, B41J, B41M, G03C, G03F, G03G

Systems for the reproduction according to step (b) of Note (1) of pictures comprising alphanumeric or like character forms but involving the production of the EQUIVALENT of a signal which would be derived according to the above-mentioned step (a), e.g. by cams, punched card or tape, coded control signal, or other means

G01D, G06T, H04L

Systems for the direct photographic copying of an original picture in which an electric signal representative of the picture is derived according to the said step (a) and employed to modify the operation of the system, e.g. to control exposure,

G03

Systems in which legible alphanumeric or like character forms are analysed according to step (a) of Note (1) to derive an electric signal from which the character is recognised by comparison with stored information

G06K

Image data processing or generation, in general

G06T

Circuits or other parts of systems which form the subject of other subclasses

H03C, H03F, H03J, H04H

Broadcasting

H04H

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

television systems

Systems for the transmission and reproduction of arbitrarily composed pictures in which the local light variations composing a picture MAY change with time, e.g. natural "live" scenes, recordings of such scenes such as cinematograph films

CCD

Charge-coupled device, that is, a device made up of semiconductors arranged in such a way that the electric charge output of one semiconductor charges an adjacent one

MPEG

Motion Picture Experts Group; a family of standards used for coding audio-visual information in a digital compressed format

NTSC

National Television System Committee

PAL

Phase alternating line

Picture signal generator

Circuits or arrangements receiving as input an image of a scene and delivering as output an electric signal that contains all the information required to reproduce the image of the scene

Picture reproducer

Circuits or arrangements receiving as input an electric signal characteristic of an image of a scene and producing as output a visual display of that image

SECAM

Séquentiel couleur à mémoire (Sequential Colour with Memory)

Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission; Details thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • systems for the transmission or the reproduction of arbitrarily composed pictures or patterns in which the local light variations composing a picture are not subject to variation with time, e.g. documents (both written and printed), maps, charts, photographs (other than cinematograph films);
  • transmission of time-invariant pictures, e.g. documents (both written and printed), maps, charts, photographs (other than cinematograph films), or their transient or permanent storage or reproduction either locally or remotely by methods involving both scanning and reproduction;
  • systems involving the generation, transmission, storage or reproduction of time-invariant pictures; image manipulation for such reproduction on particular output devices;
  • devices applied to the transmission, storage or reproduction of time-invariant pictures, e.g. facsimile apparatus, digital copiers, (digital) scanners, multifunctional peripheral devices;
  • circuits specially designed for dealing with pictorial communication signals, e.g. facsimile signals or colour image signals, as distinct from merely signals of a particular frequency range;
  • storage or transmission aspects of still video cameras.
Relationships with other classification places
  • H04N 1/00 is an application place for a large number of IT technologies, which are covered per se by the corresponding functional places
  • Image servers, hosts and clients use internally specific computing techniques. Corresponding techniques used in general computing are found in G06F or G06Q. This concerns data storage, software architectures, error detection or correction in general computing, monitoring, image retrieval, browsing, Internet browsing, computer security, billing or advertising
  • Image servers, hosts and clients use specific telecommunication techniques for the image transmission process. Corresponding techniques used in generic telecommunication networks are found in subclasses H04B, H04H, H04L, H04M, H04W. This concerns monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers, broadcast or multicast, maintenance, administration, testing, data processing in data switching networks, home networks, real-time data network services, data network security, applications for data network, wireless networks per se
  • Image scanners use specific scanning techniques. Corresponding techniques are found in G02B. This concerns optical scanning systems
  • Image reproducers use specific reproduction techniques. Corresponding techniques are found in B41J, G03G, G06K. This concerns printing, electrography, producing a permanent visual presentation of output data
  • General image processing techniques are found in G06T
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning details of electrically scanned solid-state devices

H04N 3/14

Scanning of motion picture films

H04N 3/36

Capture aspects of still video cameras

H04N 5/225

Television signal recording

H04N 5/76

Circuits for processing colour television signals

H04N 9/64

Printing mechanisms

B41J

Supporting or handling copy material in printers

B41J 11/00, B41J 13/00, B41J 15/00

Handling thin or filamentary material

B65H

Colorimetry

G01J

Electrography; Magnetography

G03G

Handling of copy material in photocopiers

G03G 15/65

Constructional details of equipement or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application

G06F 1/1626

Power management in computer systems

G06F 1/3203

Input and output arrangements for computers

G06F 3/00

Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces

G06F 3/048

Storage management

G06F 3/0604

Digital output to printers

G06F 3/12

Adressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures

G06F 12/00

Image retrieval

G06F 16/50

Retrieval from Web

G06F 16/95

Computer security

G06F 21/00

Sensing record carriers

G06K 7/00

Character or pattern recognition

G06K 9/00

Methods or arrangements for acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions

G06K 9/00221

Methods or arrangements for recognising human body or animal bodies or body parts

G06K 9/00362

Methods or arrangements for recognising scenes

G06K 9/00624

Producing a permanent visual presentation of output data

G06K 15/00

Payment schemes, Commerce

G06Q 20/00, G06Q 30/00

General-purpose image data processing

G06T 1/00

Image watermarking

G06T 1/0021

Geometric image transformation in the plane of the image

G06T 3/00

Image enhancement or restoration

G06T 5/00

Image analysis

G06T 7/00

Image coding

G06T 9/00

Editing figures and text; Combining figures or text

G06T 11/60

Access-control involving the use of a pass

G07C 9/00007

Access-control by means of a password

G07C 9/00142

Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction

H03M 13/00

Monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers

H04B 17/00

Broadcast communication

H04H

Secret communication; Jamming of communication

H04K 1/00, H04K 3/00

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received

H04L 1/00

Arrangements for secret or secure communication; Encryption

H04L 9/00

Charging arrangements in data networks

H04L 12/14

Data processing in data switching networks

H04L 12/56

Real-time data network services

H04L 29/06176

Data network security

H04L 29/06551

Applications for data network services

H04L 29/08081

Simultaneous speech and telegraphic or other data transmission over the same conductors

H04M 11/06

Telephonic metering arrangements

H04M 15/00

Connection management in wireless communications networks

H04W 76/00

Special rules of classification

In this main group Indexing Codes are used:

The numbering of the codes is based on the numbering of the subgroups;

  • codes, e.g. H04N 1/0455 , which have a numbering the first part of which corresponds to a subgroup which is at the tip end of a subgroup branch, e.g. H04N 1/0402, are used to classify detailed information and may be applied to that subgroup, e.g. H04N 1/0455 may be used in combination with H04N 1/0402;
  • codes, e.g. H04N 2201/0402, which have a numbering the first part of which corresponds to a subgroup which is at the head or node end of a subgroup branch, e.g. H04N 1/04, are used to classify orthogonal information and may be applied to any subgroups in the corresponding subgroup branch, e.g. H04N 2201/0434 may be used in combination with H04N 1/0402 and/or H04N 1/1013.
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Additional information

any information other than the still picture itself, but nevertheless associated with the still picture

Documents or the like

documents (both written and printed), maps, charts, photographs (other than cinematograph films)

Main-scan

the first completed scan

Mode

way or manner of operating

Scanning

the displacement of active reading or reproducing elements relative to the original or reproducing medium, or vice versa

Still picture apparatus

any apparatus generating, storing, transmitting or reproducing non-transient images

Single-mode communication

a communication in which the mode is not changed

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

IP

Internet Protocol

OS

Operating System

PC

Personal Computer

GPS

Global Positioning System

MFP

Multifunctional peripheral

MFD

Multifunctional device

RFID

Radio-frequency identification

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • Complex device and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Complex machine and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Hybrid device and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Hybrid machine and Multifunctional peripheral
  • Digital camera and Still video camera
  • Metadata and Additional information
  • Fast scan and Main scan
  • Slow scan, Subscan and Sub scan
{Diagnosis, testing or measuring; Detecting, analysing or monitoring not otherwise provided for (error detection, error correction or monitoring in digital computers or digital computer components G06F 11/00)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Determining the necessity for preventing unauthorised reproduction

H04N 1/0084

Detecting scanning velocity or position

H04N 1/047

Fault detection in circuits or arrangements for control supervision between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device

H04N 1/32609

Discrimination between different image types

H04N 1/40062

Discrimination between the two tones in the picture signal of a two-tone original

H04N 1/403

Control or modification of tonal gradation or extreme levels, e.g. dependent on the contents of the original or references outside the picture,

H04N 1/407

{Systems or arrangements for the transmission of the picture signal}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transmitting or receiving computer data via an image communication device

H04N 1/00206

Transmitting or receiving image data via a computer or computer network

H04N 1/00209

Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver

H04N 1/32

{in a digital photofinishing system, i.e. a system where digital photographic images undergo typical photofinishing processing, e.g. printing ordering}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data processing systems for commerce

G06Q 30/00

{Transmitting or receiving image data, e.g. facsimile data, via a computer, e.g. using e-mail, a computer network, the internet, I-fax}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Message switching systems, e.g. e-mail systems

H04L 51/00

{using an image reading or reproducing device, e.g. a facsimile reader or printer, as a local input to or local output from a computer (image input to or image output from a computer via a network H04N 1/00209)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Portable computers comprising integrated printing or scanning devices

G06F 1/1696

{with a photographic apparatus, e.g. a photographic printer or a projector (photographic apparatus per se G03B, G03D)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Photographic apparatus per se

G03B, G03D

Special rules of classification

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in G03B, G03D or G03G.

{with an electrophotographic copying machine, i.e. a photocopier}
Special rules of classification

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in G03G.

{with a printing apparatus, e.g. a laser beam printer}
Special rules of classification

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in B41J or G06K 15/00.

{with a telecommunication apparatus, e.g. a switched network of teleprinters for the distribution of text-based information, a selective call terminal (details of transmission H04N 1/00095; establishing a communication with one of a facsimile machine or another apparatus sharing a single line H04N 1/32704; interfacing cordless telephone terminals with an accessory to increase the functionality of user interface H04M 1/72527)}
Special rules of classification

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in other H04 subclasses or other H04N main groups.

{with a television apparatus}
Special rules of classification

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in other H04N main groups.

{with studio circuitry, devices or equipment, e.g. television cameras (television studio circuitry, devices or equipment per se H04N 5/222)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television studio circuitry, devices or equipment per se

H04N 5/222

Special rules of classification

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in H04N 5/222 and subgroups.

{with receiver circuitry (television receiver circuitry per se H04N 5/44)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television receiver circuitry per se

H04N 5/44

Special rules of classification

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in H04N 5/44 and subgroups.

{with a data reading, recognizing or recording apparatus, e.g. with a bar-code apparatus (arrangements for the associated working of recording or reproducing apparatus with related apparatus G11B 31/00)}
Special rules of classification

Typically with apparatus of the kind classified in G06K or G11B.

{Handling of original or reproduction media, e.g. cutting, separating, stacking}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Supporting or handling copy material in printers

B41J 11/00, B41J 13/00, B41J 15/00

Handling thin or filamentary material

B65H

Handling of copy material in photocopiers

G03G 15/65

{Preventing unauthorised reproduction}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Marking an unauthorised reproduction with identification

H04N 1/32101

Restricting access

H04N 1/4406

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preventing copies being made in photocopiers

G03G 21/04

Details of scanning heads {; Means for illuminating the original}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of scanning arrangements

H04N 1/04

for picture information pick-up
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television cameras

H04N 5/225

{with means for collecting light from a line or an area of the original and for guiding it to only one or a relatively low number of picture element detectors}
Definition statement

This place covers:

No longer used for classification

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Light-guides per se

G02B 6/00

Heads optically focused on only one picture element at a time {(H04N 1/0281 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

No longer used for classification

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Means for collecting light from a line or an area of the original and for guiding it to only one or a relatively low number of picture element detectors

H04N 1/0281

with photodetectors arranged in a substantially linear array
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning arrangements using multi-element arrays

H04N 1/19

for picture information reproduction
Definition statement

This place covers:

No longer used for classification.

This subject matter is now classified in B41J or G06K 15/00.

Scanning arrangements {, i.e. arrangements for the displacement of active reading or reproducing elements relative to the original or reproducing medium, or vice versa} (H04N 1/387 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals

H04N 1/387

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of scanning heads

H04N 1/024

Optical scanning systems

G02B 26/10

Projection optics in photocopiers

G03G 15/0409

Character printers involving the fast moving of a light beam in two directions

G06K 15/1228

Special rules of classification

Where possible both the main and sub scanning arrangements should be classified, using a class for the invention and an Indexing Code for subsidiary information. Manual scanning and scanning using two-dimensional arrays are exceptions to this rule.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Main scan direction

The direction of the first completed scan line

Detection, control or error compensation of scanning velocity or position ({H04N 1/0402 and } H04N 1/17 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning different formats; Scanning with different densities of dots per unit length, e.g. different numbers of dots per inch (dpi); Conversion of scanning standards

H04N 1/0402

The scanning speed being dependent on content of picture

H04N 1/17

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Detection, control or error compensation of scanning velocity or opposition in photographic character printers involving the fast moving of an optical beam in the main scan direction

G06K 15/1219

Special rules of classification

Where possible, when classifying in this subgroup, details of the main and subscan should also be classified using other subgroups of H04N 1/04.

{in subscanning direction, e.g. picture start or line-to-line synchronisation}
Special rules of classification

Where possible, when classifying in this subgroup, details of the main scan should also be classified using other subgroups of H04N 1/04.

in main scanning direction, e.g. synchronisation of line start or picture elements in a line
Special rules of classification

Where possible, when classifying in this subgroup, details of the subscan should also be classified using other subgroups of H04N 1/04.

using cylindrical picture-bearing surfaces {, i.e. scanning a main-scanning line substantially perpendicular to the axis and lying in a curved cylindrical surface}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Feeding a sheet in the subscanning direction by rotation about its axis only

H04N 1/12

using flat picture-bearing surfaces {(H04N 1/113, H04N 1/195 take precedence)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for the main-scanning

H04N 1/12

{using two-dimensional electrical scanning, e.g. cathode-ray tubes (using two-dimensional arrays H04N 1/195)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

No longer used for classification

using oscillating or rotating mirrors
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Optical details of the scanning system

G02B 26/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Character printers involving the fast moving of a light beam in two directions

G06K 15/1228

{for the main-scan only}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Optical details of the scanning system

G02B 26/10, G02B 26/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical printers using dot sequential main scanning by means of a light deflector

B41J 2/471

Character printers involving the fast moving of an optical beam in the main scan direction

G06K 15/1204

using the sheet-feed movement {or the medium-advance or the drum-rotation movement} as the slow scanning component, {e.g. arrangements for the main-scanning} ({sheet-feed movement by translatory movement of a flat picture-bearing surface H04N 1/1008; main-scanning using oscillating or rotating mirrors H04N 1/113; } using multi-element arrays H04N 1/19)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning arrangements using multi-element arrays

H04N 1/19

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Character printers involving the fast moving of an optical beam in the main scan direction

G06K 15/1204

{using a device, e.g. an optical fibre bundle, converting rectilinear scanning into circular line scanning or vice versa}
Definition statement

This place covers:

No longer used for classification

using a rotating endless belt carrying the scanning heads {or at least a part of the main scanning components}
Definition statement

This place covers:

No longer used for classification

using a rotating helical element
Definition statement

This place covers:

No longer used for classification

using multi-element arrays
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical printers using arrays of radiation sources

B41J 2/447

Photographic character printers simultaneously exposing more than one point

G06K 15/1238

{Simultaneously or substantially simultaneously scanning picture elements on more than one main scanning line, e.g. scanning in swaths}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Photographic character printers simultaneously exposing more than one point on more than one main scanning line

G06K 15/1257

Simultaneously {or substantially simultaneously} scanning picture elements on one main scanning line
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of the sub-scanning

H04N 1/10, H04N 1/12

Photographic character printers simultaneously exposing more than one point on one main scanning line

G06K 15/1242

Intermediate information storage (H04N 1/387, H04N 1/41 take precedence {; for control between transmitter and receiver or between image input and image output device H04N 1/32358; indexing, editing G11B 27/00})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Where the storage results in a record that is not merely transient.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Storage resulting in a transient record, for control or supervision between image input and image output device

H04N 1/32358

Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals

H04N 1/387

Bandwidth or redundancy reduction

H04N 1/41

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Intermediate

having no limiting meaning

{using still video cameras}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image capture in digital cameras

H04N 5/225

Still video cameras

H04N 2101/00

Reproducing arrangements
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements providing the output copy of a document in a system performing the scanning, transmission and reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. printing arrangements integrated within a facsimile device

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of scanning heads

H04N 1/024

Scanning arrangements

H04N 1/04

Perforating or marking objects by electrical discharge

B26F 1/28

Selective printing mechanisms per se

B41J

involving production of a magnetic intermediate picture
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Magnetography

G03G 19/00

involving production of an electrostatic intermediate picture
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electrography

G03G

Mechanical arrangements for picture transmission, e.g. adaptation of clutches, gearing, gear transmissions {contains no documents}
Special rules of classification

The subject matter concerned is classified in H04N 1/00567 or H04N 1/04.

Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver {or between image input and image output device (H04N 1/38, H04N 1/387 take precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Circuits or arrangements for blanking or otherwise eliminating unwanted parts of pictures

H04N 1/38

Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals

H04N 1/387

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digital output from electrical digital data processing unit to print unit

G06F 3/12

Communication control for transmission of digital information in general

H04L 29/02

{Automation of particular receiver jobs, e.g. rejecting unwanted calls (requesting a communication from a transmitter H04N 1/32771; with picture signal storage for forwarding messages H04N 1/32358)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Automatic arrangements for answering calls in telephonic equipment

H04M 1/64

{Automation of particular transmitter jobs, e.g. multi-address calling, auto-dialing}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Telephonic equipment for signalling identity of wanted subscriber

H04M 1/26

{Display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information, e.g. ID code, date and time or title}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation, using bandwidth reduction involving the insertion of extra data

H04N 19/467

Television bitstream transport arrangements involving transporting of additional information

H04N 21/23614

Broadcast communication systems specially adapted for using meta-information

H04H 60/73

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "metadata" for "additional information"
{embedded in the image data, i.e. enclosed or integrated in the image, e.g. watermark, super-imposed logo or stamp}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image watermarking

G06T 1/0021

Audio watermarking

G10L 19/018

{Transform domain methods (H04N 1/32309 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

In colour image data

H04N 1/32309

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transmission of digital television signals using bandwidth reduction and involving the insertion of extra data

H04N 19/467

{using picture signal storage, e.g. at transmitter (H04N 1/17 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Storage results in a transient record, e.g. buffering

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning speed being dependent on content of picture

H04N 1/17

Storage resulting in a record which is other than merely transient

H04N 1/21

{intermediate the transmitter and receiver terminals, e.g. at an exchange}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stored and forward switching systems in transmission of digital information

H04L 12/54

{related to a single-mode communication, e.g. at the transmitter or at the receiver}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coding, decoding or code conversion, for error detection or error correction

H03M 13/00

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in received digital information

H04L 1/00

{Establishing a communication with one of a facsimile and another telecommunication apparatus sharing a single line}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Simultaneous speech and other data transmission over the same conductors in telephonic communication systems

H04M 11/06

Mode signalling or mode changing; Handshaking therefor
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Negotiation of communication capabilities for communication control in transmission of digital information

H04L 29/06537

{during transmission, input or output of the picture signal; within a single document or page}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems modifying digital information transmission characteristics according to link quality

H04L 1/0001

for coin-freed systems {; Pay systems}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coin-freed or like apparatus per se

G07F

Telephonic metering

H04M 15/00

for synchronising or phasing transmitter and receiver
Definition statement

This place covers:

Obsolete subject matter, analog facsimile communication.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronisation of pulses

H03K 4/90

Circuits or arrangements for blanking or otherwise eliminating unwanted parts of pictures (H04N 1/387 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Removing parts of the image e.g. smudges, extracting part of an image, screen out unwanted image regions, removing finger shadow, removing perforated holes when copying a perforated paper.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals

H04N 1/387

Special rules of classification

Drop out for parts of the image while changing color is in H04N 1/62, form drop out data in H04N 1/4177.

Composing, repositioning or otherwise {geometrically} modifying originals
Definition statement

This place covers:

Composing e.g. combining 2 images. Reading of books and correction for geometric distortions due to curved (book page) original. Geometric modifications caused through warping of image.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Photoelectric composing of characters

B41B 19/00

Editing, producing a composite image by copying with focus on copy machine

G03G 15/36

Text processing

G06F 17/20

Pagination/imposition

G06F 17/217

Image data processing or generation, in general

G06T

Geometric modification and warping in general

G06T 3/00

Teaching/communicating with deaf, blind, mute people

G09B 21/00

{the composed originals being of different kinds, e.g. low- and high-resolution originals}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Eg. combining chart, text, logo (low resolution/bit depth) and photo (high resolution/bit depth) or foreground and background, with focus on image processing. Also high dynamic range (HDR) imagery when combined with H04N 1/407.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Inserting foreground into background with focus on camera

H04N 5/272

Combining objects while rendering PDL

G06T 11/60

{Repositioning or masking}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Image cropping, cutting out, masking with arbitrary shape.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Selection / ordering of images (from movies)

G11B 27/034

{defined only by a limited number of coordinate points or parameters, e.g. corners, centre; for trimming}
Definition statement

This place covers:

User defines the corner coordinates to extract image for repositioning. Cutting out, cropping, number of points is important. Low resolution pre-scan and high-resolution main scan of part of platen.

{combined with enlarging or reducing (enlarging or reducing per se H04N 1/393)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Part of the image is enlarged/reduced to fit new position. Reducing for medium, zoom, belief map.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Corrections or small zoom factors

H04N 1/3873

Enlarging or reducing

H04N 1/393

{Recombination of partial images to recreate the original image}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Combining two images which have been scanned by a scanner which does not cover the entire image. Panoramic image creation, combination, stitching. Process is done digitally and not mechanically.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical corrections

H04N 2201/0402

Mosaic images or mosaicing.

G06T

Determination of transform parameters for the alignment of images, i.e. image registration

G06T 7/30

{Image rotation}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Rotating the image by any amount, e.g. 90degree. Also when printing double sided or 4 images on 1 page.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

When focus is on image processing.

G06T 3/60

{Skew detection or correction}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Limited to detecting and correcting skew, i.e. errors during scanning: normally less than 45degree.

Relationships with other classification places

See also in G06K 9/3275.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical skew detection

H04N 1/00681

Enlarging or reducing
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mainly the mechanical enlargement process, whole image, DIN A4 to DIN A3 (larger than DIN A4).

Special rules of classification

This subgroup takes precedence over H04N 1/04.

{with modification of image resolution, i.e. determining the values of picture elements at new relative positions}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Digitally enlarging or reducing images with a change of resolution including e.g. interpolation (digital).

Relationships with other classification places

Beware of H04N 1/40068 which has resolution conversion where physical size is irrelevant.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Interpolation in general

G06T 3/40

Picture signal circuits (H04N 1/387 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

General documents regarding quality aspects, quantization (errors), scanning either B/W or color, video printer, frame grabber, memory arrangement or management, smear reduction for CCD.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Composing, repositioning or otherwise modifying originals

H04N 1/387

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Moving images, e.g. television

H04N 5/14

{Conversion of colour to monochrome}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Converting coloured documents into B&W so they can be printed on monotone printers, e.g. changing green into stripes, red into dots.... Converting from RGB via thresholding to grayscale.

{Circuits exciting or modulating particular heads for reproducing continuous tone value scales (H04N 1/401, H04N 1/407 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Writing: control of print heads, stilus heads, electrostatic heads. Continuous driving signals.

Relationships with other classification places

Overlap with G06K 15/12.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compensating positionally unequal response of the pick-up or reproducing head

H04N 1/401

Control or modification of tonal gradation or of extreme levels

H04N 1/407

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multipass inkjet

G06K 15/102

{for a plurality of reproducing elements simultaneously}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Writing: multiple print elements, essentially LED or thermal printheads, but also using several lasers in parallel.

{the reproducing element being a laser}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mainly continuous tone laser printers.

{Circuits for driving or energising particular reading heads or original illumination means (H04N 1/401, H04N 1/407 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Control of light during reading of a document; circuits for driving diodes, analogue switches for light control. Also exposure time of sensor etc.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compensating positionally unequal response of the pick-up or reproducing head

H04N 1/401

Control or modification of tonal gradation or of extreme levels

H04N 1/407

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical details

H04N 1/028

Lamps per se

H05B 39/041, H05B 41/38

{Discrimination between different image types, e.g. two-tone, continuous tone}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Image segmentation, finds regions in bitmap image e.g. text, table, photo, line image; also "mixed raster content" or "MRC".

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Character recognition, OCR

G06K 9/00442

Segmentation; Edge detection in general

G06T 7/10

{Modification of image resolution, i.e. determining the values of picture elements at new relative positions (H04N 1/3935 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Change resolution while physical size is irrelevant, e.g. original image is 600dpi and printer is only capable of printing 300dpi, so conversion is necessary.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

With modification of image resolution, i.e. determining the values of picture elements at new relative positions

H04N 1/3935

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Increasing or decreasing spatial resolution

G06K 15/1872

{Descreening, i.e. converting a halftone signal into a corresponding continuous-tone signal; Rescreening, i.e. combined descreening and halftoning}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Descreening and/or rescreening, self-explanatory.

{Soft dot halftoning, i.e. producing halftone dots with gradual edges}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Resolution enhancement by intelligently pacing sub-pixels when focus is on write head control.

H04N 1/40025

General edge enhancement

H04N 1/409

{Multi-toning, i.e. converting a continuous-tone signal for reproduction with more than two discrete brightnesses or optical densities, e.g. dots of grey and black inks on white paper}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Provides more than just level 0 and level 255 for image, e.g. has levels 0, 127 and 255, i.e. multi-level halftoning. Typical documents: EP817464 (Seiko) shows two types of ink C1 and C2 (color multi-toning in H04N 1/52), EP889639 (Xerox) shows levels of white, light gray, dark gray and black.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Variation of dot size

H04N 1/4057

General bit depth reduction

H04N 19/90

{Modification of content of picture, e.g. retouching (geometric modifications H04N 1/387)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Very few applications. Local modifications, e.g. making lighter and posterization of natural images.

Compensating positionally unequal response of the pick-up or reproducing head (H04N 1/403 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Limited to image readers, mostly line sensors. Shading correction, illumination profile, head calibration, positionally varying noise etc. Also defects in the image sensors. Compensation of ambient illumination.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Discrimination between the two tones in the picture signal of a two-tone original

H04N 1/403

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ambient illumination also in

H04N 1/00835

Control of light source

H04N 1/40056

Correction of isolated defects in image

H04N 1/409

Defect maps for area sensors

H04N 5/2176

{of the reproducing head}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Printers, corrects misaligned or defective heads; head calibration.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Malfunctioning inkjet nozzles

B41J 2/165

Discrimination between the two tones in the picture signal of a two-tone original
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Shaping pulses by limiting or thresholding, in general

H03K 5/08

Halftoning, i.e. converting the picture signal of a continuous-tone original into a corresponding signal showing only two levels
Definition statement

This place covers:

Halftoning in general, either B&W only or each color layer separately. Examples are EP126782, EP673150.

{producing a dispersed dots halftone pattern, the dots having substantially the same size (different sizes H04N 1/4057)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Dispersed dots, i.e. dots that are not concentrated in clusters which spread out from a central point. Examples are US5317418 - e.g. Gaussian filter, blue noise; US5426122 - FM rasters.

{by error diffusion, i.e. transferring the binarising error to neighbouring dot decisions}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Error diffusion for halftoning, note that error diffusion is also used for other purposes in other parts of H04N 1/00. Examples are EP507354, EP808055.

{with threshold modulated relative to input image data or vice versa}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Illustrative examples of subject matter classified in this group are WO8906080, EP715451.

{producing a clustered dots or a size modulated halftone pattern}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Halftone dots grow from a central point and spread in all directions. Also dispersed clusters. Illustrative examples are US3688033, EP651560.

{the pattern varying in one dimension only, e.g. dash length, pulse width modulation [PWM]}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Growth of halftone dot in one direction only, includes Pulse Width Modulation. Illustrative examples are EP212990, US4951152.

{the pattern being a mixture of differently sized sub-patterns, e.g. spots having only a few different diameters (multi-toning H04N 1/40087)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Different dot sizes, each dot has the same density. Illustrative examples are EP647059 (fig.5), US4680645 (fig.1).

Special rules of classification

For dots of different densities (inks) classify in H04N 1/40087.

{with details for producing a halftone screen at an oblique angle (H04N 1/4056 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Illustrative examples are GB2026283, WO9307709.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Pattern varying in one dimension only

H04N 1/4056

Control or modification of tonal gradation or of extreme levels, e.g. background level
Definition statement

This place covers:

Selection of particular gamma correction table, correction depending on media scanned or printed on, film type correction, correction of tone scale for dot gain.

Relationships with other classification places

Similar to H04N 1/6027 for colour.

{dependent on the contents of the original}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Analysis of image content to determine final correction to be applied, e.g. automatic background deletion.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conversion to binary

H04N 1/403

{using histograms}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Histogram analysis to determine tone correction parameters.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

In context of pure image processing

G06T 5/40

{dependent on references outside the picture}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Pre-scanning to read reference strips (B&W), which is used to set max and min levels. Very limited test patterns containing only black (offset correction) and white (gain correction), e.g. printed next to an image or as separate image. Standard pattern on monitor (no light for black reference and light on for white reference).

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monitor calibration per se

H04N 5/202, H04N 9/69

{using gradational references, e.g. grey-scale test pattern analysis}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Test pattern analysis for gray scale corrections.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Edge or detail enhancement; Noise or error suppression
Definition statement

This place covers:

Noise or error correction. Elimination of "streaky effects".

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning correction due to reader error

H04N 1/401

Image processing per se

G06T 5/001, G06K 9/40

{Edge or detail enhancement}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fairly self-explanatory. Has also first edge detection and then correction. Edge emphasis, sharpness correction, unsharp masking, smoothing.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For color

H04N 1/58

For cameras

H04N 5/208

Image processing per se

G06T 5/003

{Correction of errors due to scanning a two-sided document, i.e. show-through correction}
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "show-through" and "see-through"
{Removing errors due external factors, e.g. dust, scratches}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Removal of streaks, dust, blemishes, tears, scratches, hairs. Removing scratches from photographs using infrared image.

Bandwidth or redundancy reduction (by scanning H04N 1/17 {; methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals H04N 19/00})
Definition statement

This place covers:

General coding groups for still images, B&W, gray scale or each color component separately. This head group has using different coding techniques within the same document, combination of different techniques, or choosing from different available coding methods (e.g. characters with technique 1, pictures with technique 2).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Bandwidth or redundancy reduction by scanning

H04N 1/17

Television systems for the transmission of television signals using bandwidth reduction

H04N 19/00

For mixed image compression

H04N 19/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coding of color images

H04N 1/64

Bandwidth or redundancy reduction for data acquisition

G06F 17/40

Coding for image data processing in general

G06T 9/00

Data Compression in general

H03M 7/30

{for halftone screened pictures}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Image to be coded must be halftoned image only.

for the transmission {or storage} or reproduction of two-tone pictures, e.g. black and white pictures
Definition statement

This place covers:

B&W images, i.e. binary coding.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Continuous tone compression

H04N 19/00

{involving the recognition of specific patterns, e.g. by symbol matching}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Eg. huffman coding.

Systems or arrangements allowing the picture to be reproduced without loss or modification of picture-information
Definition statement

This place covers:

Lossless coding, has a variety of coding methods, e.g. comparing different codings of a line and choosing shortest code; universal coding.

in which the picture-elements are subdivided or grouped into fixed one-dimensional or two-dimensional blocks
Definition statement

This place covers:

Block coding, also mix of Huffman and run-length coding.

using predictive or differential encoding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Predictive coding, arithmetic coding.

{Progressive encoding, i.e. by decomposition into high and low resolution components}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Different resolutions of the image, wavelet coding for binary images.

{involving the encoding of tone transitions with respect to tone transitions in a reference line}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Differential coding, i.e. coding the change data between two lines.

{encoding document change data, e.g. form drop out data}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Templates, encodes the data change only; encode difference of image when template is known, e.g. scanned images of filled out form sheets.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Color form drop-out

G06K 9/2018

in which encoding of the length of a succession of picture-elements of the same value along a scanning line is the only encoding step {(H04N 1/4135 - H04N 1/417 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

B&W runlength encoding.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Baseband signal showing more than two values or a continuously varying baseband signal is transmitted or recorded

H04N 1/4135

Systems or arrangements allowing the picture to be reproduced without loss or modification of picture-information using predictive or differential encoding

H04N 1/417

Systems for two-way working {, e.g. conference systems (H04N 1/32 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver

H04N 1/32

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television systems for two-way working

H04N 7/14

Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television

H04N 21/00

Secrecy systems
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Preventing unauthorised reproduction

H04N 1/00838

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Analogue secrecy television systems

H04N 7/16

Security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity

G06F 21/00

Secret communication in general

H04K

Arrangements for secret or secure communication in transmission of digital information

H04L 9/00

{Restricting access, e.g. according to user identity (mechanisms actuated y cards, PIN or the like in apparatus for dispensing G07F 7/08)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Restricting access to computer systems

G06F 21/30

Access-control involving the use of a pass

G07C 9/00007

Verifying the identity or authority of a user of a system for the transmission of digital information

H04L 9/32

Protecting transmitted digital information from access by third parties

H04L 29/06632

Access control in transmission of digital information

H04L 29/06823

{Rendering the image unintelligible, e.g. scrambling}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems rendering a television signal unintelligible and subsequently intelligible

H04N 7/167

Ciphering or deciphering apparatus for cryptographic purposes

G09C

Secret communication by adding a second signal to make the desired signal unintelligible

H04K 1/02

{using digital data encryption}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for secret or secure communication using public key encryption algorithm

H04L 9/30

Colour picture communication systems
Definition statement

This place covers:

Colour edit systems, printers with different recording modes for color and monochrome, decision as to print/scan color or B&W, general color applications for fax. Very general group.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Colorimetry

G01J 3/46

{Conversion of monochrome to colour}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Very straightforward, conversion into color documents, e.g. pattern chart to color (opposite to H04N 1/40012). Generating false color representations.

Picture signal generators (for halftone screening H04N 1/52)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Color image readers, hardware of apparatuses.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Circuits or arrangements for halftone screening

H04N 1/52

{using the same detector device sequentially for different colour components}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Filter wheels to separate components.

{with sequential colour illumination of the original}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The use of different lights to read the image, e.g. first R, then G, finally B, e.g. successive RGB LED lighting.

{with separate detectors, each detector being used for one specific colour component}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Using separate R, G and B sensor elements, typically line sensors. Has also documents on correcting chromatic aberrations of 3-line CCD sensor, also RGB sensor with additional monochrome sensor.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For area sensors (Bayer matrix)

H04N 9/04

Demosaicing

G06T 3/4015, H04N 9/045

{using beam-splitters}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Splitting light using prisms, half (dichroic) mirrors, diffraction grating - most applications deal with line sensors.

Picture reproducers (for halftone screening H04N 1/52)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Color printers, hardware of apparatuses.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Circuits or arrangements for halftone screening

H04N 1/52

{Reproducing the colour component signals dot-sequentially or simultaneously in a single or in adjacent picture-element positions}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Dot by dot printing, point-wise scanning, essentially either inkjet or laser beam printer.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

More details on inkjets

B41J 2/21

{Reproducing the colour component signals line-sequentially}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Line-by-line printing.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alignment of dots

B41J 2/2135

{Reproducing the colour component signals picture-sequentially, e.g. with reproducing heads spaced apart from one another in the subscanning direction}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Picture-by-picture printing, i.e. one complete color separation after the other. Focus on image signal circuits, e.g. start-of-scan determination, sync marks on print medium, misregistration correction correcting misalignment of individual print heads with respect to each other. Facet or face-to-face errors. This is the typical way color laser printers work, when one latent image is generated after the other and one after the other developped and transferred.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Trapping is also used against misregistration, but is an image modification

H04N 1/58

Temperature

G02B 26/121

Purely mechanical corrections

G09G15/01

{using the same reproducing head for two or more colour components}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Using one drum for more than one color, thermal transfer printers.

Circuits or arrangements for halftone screening
Definition statement

This place covers:

Colour halftoning, colour multi-toning e.g. with use of more than one cyan (C1 and C2), screens, error diffusion.

Special rules of classification

H04N 1/40087 or some subgroup of H04N 1/405 may be applied additionally to H04N 1/52.

Conversion of colour picture signals to a plurality of signals some of which represent particular mixed colours, e.g. for textile printing
Definition statement

This place covers:

Printing with additional colours, e.g. using orange and brown pigments additionally or white or gold, CMYKRGB printers.

Processing of colour picture signals (H04N 1/52 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

General color image processing, color to 2-color converstion (e.g.. RGB to black/red). Film type, document type, slide type, text+image, detection of mouse marker.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Circuits or arrangements for halftone screening

H04N 1/52

Edge or detail enhancement; Noise or error suppression, e.g. colour misregistration correction (H04N 1/62 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Self-explanatory regarding noise and edge. A substantial part of this subgroup deals with trapping (spreading and choking image objects), either on bitmap or on page description language (PDL) level.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Retouching, i.e. modification of isolated colours only or in isolated picture areas only

H04N 1/62

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For integration of trapping in PDL workflow

G06K 15/1826

Colour correction or control {(H04N 1/54 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All kinds of color correction. Estimating spectrum from XYZ input.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Conversion of colour picture signals to a plurality of signals some of which represent particular mixed colours

H04N 1/54

{with simulation on a subsidiary picture reproducer (H04N 1/622 takes precedence; matching two or more picture reproducers H04N 1/6052)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Color corrections involving representation of the image on monitor, e.g. for interactive correction or for use as soft proofer.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Matching printer and monitor for softproofing per se

H04N 1/6052, H04N 1/6055

With simulation on a subsidiary picture reproducer

H04N 1/622

{by simulating several colour corrected versions of the same image simultaneously on the same picture reproducer}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fairly self-explanatory, typically the user selects one of the several similated, corrected images.

{Conversion to subtractive colour signals}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Usually transformations from RGB to CMY, but also used generally for transformations to output device values, as far as the focus is on the transformation. Here (matrix) equations are used.

{using look-up tables (H04N 1/6025 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Look-up tables for color conversion, typically to CMY. Also interpolation methods to calculate the in-between values not stored in the tables, e.g. tetrahedal or cubic interpolations.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Generating a fourth subtractive colour signal using look-up tables

H04N 1/6025

{Generating a fourth subtractive colour signal, e.g. under colour removal, black masking}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Essentially the transformations to CMYK which involve use of equations. Gray component replacement (GCR), undercolor removal (UCR).

{using look-up tables}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Four-colour look-up tables, also their interpolation.

{Correction or control of colour gradation or colour contrast (H04N 1/6058 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

General control and correction of tone reproduction curves. Gray balance, white balance as result thereof. Aspects of saturation correction.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Reduction of colour to a range of reproducible colours

H04N 1/6058

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

When focus is on white balance per se.

H04N 1/6077

White balance in cameras

H04N 9/73

{controlled by characteristics of the picture signal generator or the picture reproducer}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Device profiles, e.g. ICC profiles, profile management for several devices, profile editing.

{using test pattern analysis (H04N 1/6055 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Printer or scanner calibration using color test patterns.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Matching two or more picture signal generators or two or more picture reproducers using test pattern analysis

H04N 1/6055

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For B&W

H04N 1/4078

Camera calibration

H04N 17/02

Color charts as such

G01G3/52

In electrophotography

G03G 15/5041

{Matching two or more picture signal generators or two or more picture reproducers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Specifically matching two (or more) devices to each other, e.g. for proofing, i.e. printer to printer or printer to monitor.

{using test pattern analysis}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Limited to the two device scenario.

{Reduction of colour to a range of reproducible colours, e.g. to ink- reproducible colour gamut}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Gamut mapping and gamut conversion. Mainly within a device-independent space in order to map color reproducability of one device onto that of another device.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

In relation to general image processing and computer graphics

G06T 11/001

{adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Corrections to an image which depends on the type of image object, i.e. different corrections within one page, e.g. text and picture differently corrected.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Discrimination of image (object) types per se - (B&W),

H04N 1/40062

Discrimination of image (object) types per se - (colour).

H04N 1/56

{Corrections to the hue}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Only hue changes, not luminance or chroma or saturation.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Saturation correction

H04N 1/6027

{Colour balance, e.g. colour cast correction}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Correction of e.g. color fog or blue shift in image.

Special rules of classification

H04N 1/6027 has precedence.

{within the L, C1, C2 colour signals}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Eg. histogram technique in L*a*b* color space.

{controlled by factors external to the apparatus}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Environmental factors.

{by viewing conditions, i.e. conditions at picture output}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Eg. correction for sunlight on monitor, artifical lighting, flare.

{depending on characteristics of the input medium, e.g. film type, newspaper}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Different film types have different properties, thus need to be corrected. For newspaper, correction due to the yellowing is necessary.

Retouching, i.e. modification of isolated colours only or in isolated picture areas only
Definition statement

This place covers:

Correction limited to particular colors, e.g. the red of a red apple is selected and enhanced. Changing color information in a region.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For skin color

H04N 1/628

{with simulation on a subsidiary picture reproducer}
Definition statement

This place covers:

With display of image on monitor for user selection and editing.

Systems for the transmission or the storage of the colour picture signal; Details therefor, e.g. coding or decoding means therefor {(H04N 19/00 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Colour coding closely related to apparatus.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compression of B&W

H04N 1/41

Compression per se

H04N 19/00

{Adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

For different coding for different image types, but limited to B&W

H04N 1/41

Similar but for colour correction and not coding

H04N 1/6072

{using a reduced set of representative colours, e.g. each representing a particular range in a colour space}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Palletized colors, including methods of obtaining the palletization and their coding. Rounding, change from true color to 8bit using a pallette.

{Transmitting or storing colour television type signals, e.g. PAL, Lab; Their conversion into additive or subtractive colour signals or vice versa therefor (H04N 1/642, H04N 1/644 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Limited to e.g. YUV, Lab, etc.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions

H04N 1/642

Using a reduced set of representative colours, e.g. each representing a particular range in a colour space

H04N 1/644

{Transmitting or storing the primary (additive or subtractive) colour signals; Compression thereof (H04N 1/642 - H04N 1/646 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Limited to CMY or RGB, raw sensor data.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Adapting to different types of images, e.g. characters, graphs, black and white image portions

H04N 1/642

Transmitting or storing colour television type signals

H04N 1/646

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning details of television systems; Combination thereof with generation of supply voltages
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Scanning arrangements using moving aperture, refractor, reflector or lens
  • Scanning arrangements using switched light sources, solid-state devices or cathod-ray tube by deflecting elctron beams
  • Scanning arrangements for motion picture films
by optical-mechanical means only (H04N 3/36 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning of motion picture films

H04N 3/36

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Picture signal generators using optical-mechanical scanning means only, for colour television systems

H04N 9/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning systems using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light

G02B 26/10

by means not exclusively optical-mechanical (H04N 3/36 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning of motion picture films

H04N 3/36

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices or arrangements for the control of the direction of light arriving from an independent light source

G02F 1/00

by means of electrically scanned solid-state devices (for picture generation H04N 5/335)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Scanning details of electrically scanned solid-state picture reproducers.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transforming light or analogous information into electric information using solid-state image sensors

H04N 5/335

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Picture reproducers using solid-state colour display devices

H04N 9/30

by deflecting electron beam in cathode-ray tube {, e.g. scanning corrections}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Deflection circuits for cathode-ray tubes, when specially adapted for television

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Picture reproducers, specially adapted for colour television systems, using cathode-ray tubes

H04N 9/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cathode ray oscillographs

G01R 13/20

Deflection circuits, of interest only in connection with cathode-ray tube indicators

G09G 1/04

Control arrangements or circuits using single beam cathode-ray tubes, the beam directly tracing characters, the information to be displayed controlling the deflection as a function of time in two spatial coordinates

G09G 1/08

Electric discharge tubes of discharge lamps

H01J

Linearisation of ramp of a sawtooth shape pulse

H03K 4/90

Maintaining dc voltage constant
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Regulation of dc voltage in general

G05F

Controlling dimensions (by maintaining the cathode-ray tube high voltage constant H04N 3/185)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Circuits for controlling dimensions of picture on screen by maintaining the cathode-ray tube high voltage constant

H04N 3/185

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control arrangements or circuits using single beam cathode-ray tubes, the beam tracing a pattern independent of the information to be displayed, this latter determining the parts of the pattern rendered respectively visible and invisible

G09G 1/14

Modifications of scanning arrangements to improve focusing
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Arrangements for convergence or focusing in cathode-ray tubes specially adapted for colour television systems

H04N 9/28

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Focussing circuits in general

H01J

Circuits special to multi-standard receivers
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuitry of multi-standard receivers in general

H04N 5/46

Scanning of motion picture films, e.g. for telecine
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Scanning of colour motion picture films, e.g. for telecine

H04N 9/11

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Picture signal generating by scanning motion picture films or slide opaques, e.g. for telecine

H04N 5/253

Details of television systems (scanning details or combination thereof with generation of supply voltages H04N 3/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hardware-related or software-related aspects of television signal processing at the transmitter side or the receiver side

Relationships with other classification places
  • H04N 5/00 distinguishes itself from synchronising techniques in transmission of a digital video signal with one or more other digital signals, which are found in H04N 7/00
  • H04N 5/00 distinguishes itself from picture signal processing and corresponding techniques, which are found in subclasses G06T, G09G. This concerns image processing not specific to a television signal (G06T) or video signal processing specific to visual displays (G09G), e.g. LCD or plasma panels
  • H04N 5/00 features transmitter techniques specially adapted to analog transmission of television signals. The corresponding function place for generic transmission are found in subclasses H04N 21/00, H04B, H04H, H04L, H04W. This concerns servers, broadcast or multicast, home networks, wireless networks per se.
  • H04N 5/00 features receiver techniques specially adapted to the reception of analog television signals. The corresponding place for digital television receivers is H04N 21/00.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning details of television systems; Combination thereof with generation of supply voltages

H04N 3/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Details of colour television systems

H04N 9/00

Wall TV displays

H04N 9/12

Details of stereoscopic television systems

H04N 13/00

Servers specifically adapted for the selective distribution of content

H04N 21/20

Client devices specifically adapted for the reception of, or interaction with, content in selective content distribution

H04N 21/40

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Selective content distribution

H04N 21/00

Constructional details related to the housing of computer displays

G06F 1/1601

Constructional details or arrangements for portable computers

G06F 1/1613

Power management in computer systems

G06F 1/3203

Image enhancement or restoration

G06T 5/00

Image analysis

G06T 7/00

Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with visual indicators other than cathode-ray tubes

G09G 3/00

Control arrangements or circuits for visual indicators common to cathode-ray tube indicators and other visual indicators

G09G 5/00

Diversity receivers

H04B 7/08

Broadcast synchronizing

H04H 20/18

Broadcast receivers

H04H 20/38

Synchronizing in TDMA

H04J 3/06

Receiver synchronizing

H04L 7/0012, H04L 7/0083

Home automation networks

H04L 12/2803

Special rules of classification

H04N 5/00 features a number of symbols corresponding to a same number of Indexing Codes (e.g., H04N 5/4448 as symbol and H04N 5/4448 as Indexing Code symbol).

Allocation of symbols and/or Indexing Code symbols:

  • A document containing invention information relating to details of television elements will be given a H04N 5/00 group.
  • A document containing additional information relating to details of television elements will be given a H04N 5/00 group.
  • A document merely mentioning further details of television elements will not be given a group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant, e.g. when conversion of interlace to progressive scanning (H04N 7/012 ) involves motion estimation, H04N 5/145 is added.
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Edging

detection of edges

Movement estimation

motion vector generation

KTC

Thermal noise on capacitor

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

GPS

global positioning system

PC

personal computer

STB

set top box

Synchronising (for television systems using pulse code modulation H04N 7/56)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Synchronising systems used in the transmission of pulse code modulated video signals with other pulse code modulated signal

H04N 7/56

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Colour synchronization

H04N 9/44

Synchronisation processes at server side for selective content distribution

H04N 21/242

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronisation between a display unit and other units, e.g. other display units, video-disc players

G09G 5/12

Synchronisation of pulses having essentially a finite slope or stepped portions

H03K 4/90

Synchronisation of generators of electronic oscillations or pulses

H03L 7/00

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter in the transmission of digital information

H04L 7/00

Circuitry for reinsertion of dc and slowly varying components of signal; Circuitry for preservation of black or white level
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Circuits for reinsertion of dc and slowly varying components of colour signals

H04N 9/72

Circuitry for controlling amplitude response
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Circuits for controlling the amplitude of colour signals

H04N 9/68

Circuitry for suppressing or minimising disturbance, e.g. moiré or halo
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Suppression of noise in television signal recording

H04N 5/911

in picture signal generation {in cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. in digital cameras, TV cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, or to be embedded in other devices, e.g. in mobile phones, computers or vehicles}
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Noise reduction or noise suppression involving solid-state image sensors

H04N 5/357

Studio circuitry; Studio devices; Studio equipment {; Cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, TV cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, camera modules for embedding in other devices, e.g. mobile phones, computers or vehicles}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Circuitry, devices and other equipment specially adapted to be used in television studio e.g. for mixing images or generation of special effects. This group covers further process and apparatus related to the concept of electronic image capturing using an electronic image sensor and the related control and processing of the generated electronic image signals

Image pickup devices using electronic image sensors (EIS) like e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, TV cameras, CCTV camera, surveillance camera, camcorders, digital cameras embedded in mobile phones, aspects peculiar to the presence of EIS in electronic still cameras, digital still cameras etc.

Electronic image capture by methods or arrangements involving at least the following step: the scanning of a picture, i.e. resolving the whole picture-containing area or scene into individual picture-elements and the derivation of picture-representative electric signals related thereto, simultaneously or in sequence, e.g. by reading an electronic solid-state image sensor (SSIS) pickup device (e.g. CCD or CMOS image sensor) as electronic image sensor converting optical image in formation into said electrical signals;

in colloquial speech said step is frequently formulated as e.g. capturing a video sequence, digital photographing, etc

Concerning cameras:

  • video cameras, TV cameras (e.g. in studios), CCTV cameras, surveillance cameras, camcorders; constructional and mechanical details related to such cameras even when not peculiar to the presence of the EIS e.g. housings
  • arrangements/methods for image capture using an electronic image sensor (EIS), i.e.((i) sensor read-out; (ii) processing or use of electrical image signals from the EIS for the generation of camera control signals,
  • for controlling the EIS or its read-out for e.g. exposure, scene selection for auto focusing, or electronic image enhancement or processing of image signals captured by the EIS, e.g. white balance, electronic motion blur correction, noise suppressing,
  • for controlling other camera functions, e.g. exposure, shaking by influencing optical parts of the camera, focusing,
  • in-camera image processing e.g. correction of lens distortion, defect pixel correction, noise suppression, removal of motion blur, improving the dynamic range of the final image;
  • electronic viewfinders, control of image pickup devices based on information displayed by the electronic viewfinder;
  • electrical and mechanical aspects of camera modules using electronic image sensors and related constructional details as in webcams or mobile phones;
  • remote control of cameras peculiar to the EIS, e.g. affecting their operation, or being based on a generated image signal;
  • adaptations peculiar to the presence or use of an EIS, the transmission, recording or other use of electrical image data and related circuitry, e.g. mounting of EIS, integrated cleaning system for the EIS, dust mapping, cooling of the EIS, controlling the operation of the EIS by external input signals;
  • cameras wherein the inventive contribution lies in the interaction of features covered above with those covered by G03B e.g. switch-over between electronic motion-blur correction of electronic viewfinder during focusing and optical motion-blur correction of the lens during exposure, electronic-motion blur correction of the electronic image signal based on output signals of additional sensor, or interaction between mechanical shutter and electronic control of the charge accumulation period of the EIS;
  • applications concerning studios and image capturing devices that can not be classified in lower groups such as camera operation in general, like in studio or for TV events (sports,...), processing for simulating film look, virtual studio, virtual depth image, video assist system, other studio equipment e.g. prompter.
Relationships with other classification places

Groups in G03B are to be considered when the following aspects are concerned:

  • apparatus/methods for taking photographs using light sensitive film for image capture, apparatus/methods for printing, for projecting or viewing images using film stock, photographic film or slides by optical means, e.g. mounting of optical elements, flashes, and their related controls, e.g. exposure, focus, (opto-)mechanical motion blur (anti-shake), cooling, beam shaping;
  • aspects of apparatus/methods for taking photographs using a electronic image sensor (EIS) for image capture, insofar as they correspond to those of said apparatus/methods for taking photographs using light sensitive film, i.e. insofar not peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS, e.g. mounting of optical elements or flashes, and their related controls insofar as they are not peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS, e.g. exposure, focus, (opto-)mechanical motion blur correction (anti-shake);
  • optical viewfinders;
  • remote control of cameras insofar not peculiar to the EIS, e.g. not affecting their operation, or being based on a generated image signal;
  • optical aspects of camera modules using electronic image sensors and related constructional details (e.g. lens actuators)

The following scheme is intended to illustrate the relationship between H04N and G03B:

media0.png

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Videophones

H04N 7/14

Closed circuit television system

H04N 7/18

Camera adapted for vehicles

B60R 1/00

Pattern recognition (e.g. details of face detection algorithms)

G06K 9/00

Surveillance systems with alarm

G08B 13/194 - G08B 13/196

Mobile phones

H04M 1/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Intermediate information storage using still video cameras

H04N 1/2112

Use of solid state image sensors

H04N 5/335

Video recording

H04N 5/76, H04N 9/76

Aspect related to colour cameras

H04N 9/04

Testing of cameras

H04N 17/00

Radiation diagnosis, diagnostic aspect of medical imaging devices

A61B, A61C

Pyrometry, measuring temperature

G01J 5/00

Measuring X-rays, gamma radiation

G01T 1/00

Optical systems

G02B

Pattern recognition

G06K

Image processing in general, i.e. not being exclusively adapted to be used in an image pickup device containing an EIS or in studio devices or equipment

G06T

Editing of recorded image information

G11B 27/00

Solid state imaging devices, e.g. CMOS image sensors

H01L 27/146

Optical elements or arrangements associated with solid state imager structures

H01L 27/14625

CCD image sensors

H01L 27/148

Broadcasting

H04H

Mounting structure in mobile phones

H04M 1/0264

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Photography

the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, e.g. silver halide based chemical or an electronic image sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose such a light sensitive medium during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera

Camera

a device capturing image information represented by light patterns reflected or emitted from objects, and exposing a light sensitive film or an electronic image sensor during a timed exposure, usually through an optical lens, and producing an image on a light sensitive film or an electrical image information signal respectively

Projector

a device displaying image information by projection of light patterns, usually through an optical lens, wherein the light patterns are generated by illuminating an image, e.g. film or slide, or by converting an electric image signal into an optical signal using an electronic spatial light modulator

EIS

Electronic image sensor: optoelectronic transducer, converting optical image information into an electrical signal susceptible of being processed, stored, transmitted or displayed

Additional sensor

a sensor, other than the electronic image sensor, used for controlling a camera

ESLM

Electronic spatial light modulator: optoelectronic transducer converting electric signals representing image information into optical image information

Record

A registration (e.g. of sound or images) in permanent form by optical or electrical means for later reproduction

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

SSIS

Solid State Image Sensor

CCD

Charge-Coupled Device

APS

active pixel sensor

CDS

correlated double sensing

CMOS

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor

CIS

CMOS image sensor

AE

automatic exposure control

FPN

fixed pattern noise

NUC

non uniformity correction

HDR

high dynamic range

GUI

graphics user interface

AF

autofocus

AFE

analog front end

AGC

automatic gain control

DSP

digital signal processor

ENG

electronic news gathering

PTZ

pan tilt zoom

EVF

electronic viewfinder

OVF

optical viewfinder

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "digital photography", "digital camera", "camcorder", "video camera", "still video", "camera" and "digital still camera"
Television cameras {; Cameras comprising an electronic image sensor, e.g. digital cameras, video cameras, camcorders, webcams, camera modules specially adapted for being embedded in other devices, e.g. mobile phones, computers or vehicles (constructional details of electronic still picture cameras or digital still picture cameras not peculiar to the presence or use of the electronic image sensor G03B)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Constructional details of cameras (housing, mounting of optical parts, mounting of image sensing part, other camera parts). For example: camera module, endoscopes, borescopes.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Constructional details in electronic still picture cameras, digital still picture cameras not peculiar to the presence or use of the electronic image sensor

G03B

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cameras used as input-only client peripherals for selective content distribution

H04N 21/4223

Optical systems

G02B

Associated working of recording or reproducing apparatus with TV camera or receiver in which the television signal is not significantly involved

G11B 31/006

Tubes

H01J

{Constructional details}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangement comprising a plurality of cameras

H04N 5/247

Devices for controlling television cameras, e.g. remote control {; Control of cameras comprising an electronic image sensor} (H04N 5/235 takes precedence {; Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements G02B 7/00})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Internal and external camera control. For example, autofocus, computer aided image capture, camera with further processing without influencing image capture process, camera control programs, detect malfunction, dust removal, face recognition aid, GUI (graphics user interface), modes like viewfinder or playback mode, autofocus mode, video mode, still capture mode, etc., panoramic field of view, power saving or management, shutter delay, image capture speed, synthesis of images in camera, image resolution change, zoom, remote control, camera shake detection and correction, control via network, etc.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Circuitry for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object

H04N 5/235

Mountings, adjusting means, or light-tight connections, for optical elements

G02B 7/00

{Focusing based on image signals provided by the electronic image sensor}
Relationships with other classification places

Focusing aids not based on image signals provided by an electronic image sensor are classified in G03B 13/18. Constructional details of means for focusing for cameras are classified in G03B 13/32.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Generation of focusing signals in general

G02B 7/28

{and on active ranging signals, e.g. using light or sound signals emitted toward objects}
Relationships with other classification places

Rangefinders coupled with focusing arrangements are classified in G03B 13/20.

{Bracketing relating to the capture of varying focusing conditions}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bracketing for compensating for variations in the brightness

H04N 5/2356

{Control of parameters, e.g. field or angle of view of camera via graphical user interface, e.g. touchscreen}
Definition statement

This place covers:

User interfaces to control camera parameters which can be separated from or integrated in the camera.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

GUI specifically adapted for controlling image capture or setting capture parameters, e.g. using a touchscreen

H04N 5/232933

{Control of camera operation based on recognized objects}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Object recognition per se

G06K 9/00

{where the recognized objects include parts of the human body, e.g. human faces, facial parts or facial expressions}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Face recognition per se

G06K 9/00221

{Control of camera operation in relation to power supply}
Relationships with other classification places

Details of energy supply or management for digital still cameras not peculiar to the electronic image sensor are classified in G03B 7/26 or G03B 2217/007.

{Electronic viewfinders}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Camera viewfinders displaying image signals provided by an electronic image sensor and optionally displaying additional information related to control or operation of the camera.

Relationships with other classification places

Camera viewfinders not displaying image signals provided by an electronic image sensor are classified in G03B 13/02.

{Graphical User Interface [GUI] specifically adapted for controlling image capture or setting capture parameters, e.g. using a touchscreen}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A graphical user interface, e.g. a touchscreen, which is integrated on an electronic viewfinder.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of parameters, e.g. field/angle of view of camera via graphical user interface, e.g. touchscreen

H04N 5/23216

{Controlling the position of the camera for changing the field of view, e.g. panning, tilting or tracking of objects (TV type tracking systems G01S 3/7864; tracking movement of a target in burglar, theft or intruder alarms, using TV cameras G08B 13/19608)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

TV type tracking system

G01S 3/7864

Tracking of movement using TV cameras of a target in burglar, theft, or intruder alarms

G08B 13/19608

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Analysis of motion by image processing in general

G06T 7/20

Determining position or orientation of objects by image processing in general

G06T 7/70

Circuitry {or methods} for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object {, e.g. based on electric image signals provided by an electronic image sensor}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Circuitry for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object. For example, dynamic range increase, bracketing, use of brightness histograms or brightness compensation by controlling shutter, filter, gain, or illumination means.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Control of the solid-state image sensors depending on the scene, e.g. brightness

H04N 5/351

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Exposure control for film cameras or cameras using an additional sensor

G03B 7/00

{Bracketing, i.e. taking a series of images with varying exposure conditions}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bracketing for focusing

H04N 5/232133

Arrangements of television cameras {(constructional details of cameras H04N 5/2251)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems using several cameras.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Constructional details of cameras

H04N 5/2251

Picture signal generating by scanning motion picture films or slide opaques, e.g. for telecine (scanning details therefor H04N 3/36 {; standard conversion therefor H04N 7/0112})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Picture signal generation by scanning motion picture films i.e. cinematographic films in video signals e.g. telecine.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning details therefor

H04N 3/36

Standards conversion therefor

H04N 7/0112

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Scanning of colour motion picture films, e.g. for telecine

H04N 9/11

Picture signal generators using flying-spot scanners (H04N 5/253 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Obsolete technology.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Picture signal generating by scanning motion picture films or slide opaques

H04N 5/253

Studio circuits, e.g. for mixing, switching-over, change of character of image, other special effects {; Cameras specially adapted for the electronic generation of special effects}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Studio circuits providing video special effects like combining different images, changing image aspect (geometric, orientation, etc.) or aesthetic/artistic aspect, providing transitions between images, background and foreground images synthesizing, mixing and switching.

Signal distribution or switching
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Arrangements for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast

H04H 20/00

Mobile studios
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mobile studios, e.g. television studio equipment installed in vehicles for outdoor broadcasting.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Broadcast communication aspects of mobile studios

H04H 60/05

Transforming light or analogous information into electric information (H04N 5/222 takes precedence; scanning details H04N 3/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Photoelectric converting image sensors not classified in others subgroups.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning details

H04N 3/00

Studio circuitry; Studio devices; Studio equipment

H04N 5/222

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Light transforming elements

H01J, H01L

Transforming X-rays {(image transformers H01J 31/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices and applications with image sensors transforming X-rays.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Image transformers

H01J 31/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Investigating or analyzing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation, e.g. X-rays, by transmitting the radiation through the material and forming a picture

G01N 23/04

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-uniformity correction

H04N 5/357

Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment

A61B 6/00

Transforming infra-red radiation
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices and applications with image sensors transforming infra-red radiation.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-uniformity correction

H04N 5/357

Detection of the presence or absence of infrared radiation, not otherwise provided for

G01J

using solid-state image sensors [SSIS] (H04N 5/32, H04N 5/33 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Circuitry and processing specific to e.g. CMOS or CCD solid state image sensors; includes particular sampling pattern e.g. windowing; includes noise correction e.g. defect pixels, dark current correction; includes particular functions achieved by scanning e.g. electronic shutter, control of the dynamic range.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transforming X-rays

H04N 5/32

Transforming infra-red radiation

H04N 5/33

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Imager structures consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common substrate

H01L 27/146

Charged coupled imagers

H01L 27/148

Special rules of classification
  • In this group, the first place priority rule is applied, i.e. at each hierarchical level, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the first appropriate place.
  • In many cases it is useful to supplement an identified function covered in the range [H04N 5/335-H04N 5/3675] with an Indexing Code corresponding to the sensor technology CCD/MOS covered in H04N 5/372, H04N 5/374 or H04N 5/3745. As an example a dark current correction for CCD would be classified in H04N 5/361 and additionally Indexing Code H04N 5/372.
  • The sensor matrix defined in H04N 5/3745 is not meant to include the associated circuits. An A/D converter in an output register is classified in H04N 5/3742 or H04N 5/378 but not in H04N 5/37455.
  • Although not always specific to SSIS the noise/distortion produced by a lens is nevertheless classified in H04N 5/3572 and not in H04N 5/217. This has been done to facilitate the search. Corrections of chromatic aberrations, which can also be related to lenses are classified in H04N 9/045. All other noise suppression or disturbance minimisation in picture signal generation e.g. in a camera having an EIS should be classified in H04N 5/217.
  • Two groups specific to colour aspects are presently defined in H04N 9/04511 and H04N 5/3537, it avoids splitting an identical function between the H04N 5/335 and H04N 9/045.
Control of the SSIS depending on the scene, e.g. brightness or motion in the scene
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuitry for compensating for variation in the brightness of the object

H04N 5/235

Noise processing, e.g. detecting, correcting, reducing or removing noise
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuitry for suppressing or minimizing disturbance in picture signal generation

H04N 5/217

applied to dark current
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter related to dark current noise, also referred to as black level or optical black, which is generated electrons within the image signals of the pixels of an electronic image sensor that are not generated from the light received at the pixels during capture of an image. It is generally due to generation of electrons within the pixels from the surrounding circuitry and can also vary with respect to operational temperature of the electronic image sensor.

SSIS architecture; Circuitry associated therewith
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Imager structures, as devices consisting of a plurality of semiconductor or other solid-state components formed in or on a common surface, per se

H01L 27/146

{the other type of pixels are pixels for depth measurement, e.g. RGBZ where Z is the depth pixel or embedded time-of-flight pixels (depth pixels used only for focusing H04N 5/36961)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Depth pixels used only for focusing

H04N 5/36961

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time-of-flight in general

G01S 7/4865

Addressed sensors, e.g. MOS or CMOS sensors
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

CMOS imager structures

H01L 27/14643

Charged coupled imagers per se

H01L 27/148

Addressing circuits
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for selecting an address in a digital store

G11C 8/00

Readout circuits, e.g. correlated double sampling [CDS] circuits, output amplifiers or A/D converters
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Amplifiers per se

H03F

Analogue/digital conversion per se

H03M 1/00

Transmitter circuitry (H04N 5/14 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Picture signal circuitry for video frequency region

H04N 5/14

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transmitter circuits per se

H04B 1/04

Modulation circuits
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digital communication modulator circuits

H01L 27/04, H01L 27/12, H01L 27/20

Modulation per se

H03C

Receiver circuitry (H04N 5/14 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Picture signal circuitry for video frequency region

H04N 5/14

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Receiver circuits per se

H04B 1/16

Demodulation-circuits
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digital communication demodulator circuits

H01L 27/06, H01L 27/14, H01L 27/22

Demodulation per se

H03D

for receiving on more than one standard at will (deflecting circuits of multi-standard receivers H04N 3/27)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Deflecting circuits of multi-standard receivers

H04N 3/27

Tuning indicators; Automatic tuning control
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tuning resonant circuits per se

H03J

Automatic frequency control per se

H03J 7/02

Automatic gain control
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Automatic gain control in amplifiers per se

H03G 3/20

Generation or supply of power specially adapted for television receivers
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Generation of supply voltages, in combination with electron beam deflecting

H04N 3/18

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Regulating of voltage or current in general

G05F

Transformers

H01F 29/00; H01F 30/00

Supplying or distributing electric power, in general

H02J

Static converters

H02M

Constructional details of receivers, e.g. cabinets or dust covers (furniture aspects {of television cabinets} A47B 81/06)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Furniture aspects of television cabinets

A47B 81/06

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Combinations of a television receiver with apparatus having a different main function

H05K 11/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Constructional details of communication receivers, in general

H04B 1/08

Casings, cabinets or drawers for electric apparatus, in general

H05K 5/00

Transforming electric information into light information (scanning details H04N 3/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning details of television systems

H04N 3/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

electro- or magneto optic devices

G02F 1/00

CRT's

H01J

Circuit details for cathode-ray display tubes {(deviation circuits H04N 3/16)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Circuit details of cathode-ray display tubes pertaining to the conversion of electrical information into light information, when specially adapted for television displays.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning in television systems by deflecting electron beam in cathode-ray tube

H04N 3/16

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control arrangements or circuits, of interest only in connection with cathode-ray tube indicators

G09G 1/00

Generating pulses having essentially a finite slope or stepped portion

H03K 4/00

Circuit details for electroluminescent devices
Definition statement

This place covers:

Circuit details of the conversion of electric information into light information in electroluminescent television displays.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control arrangements or circuits using electroluminescent elements for presentation of a single character by selection from a plurality of characters, or by composing the character by combination of individual elements

G09G 3/12

Control arrangements or circuits using electroluminescent panels for presentation of an assembly of a number of characters, by composing the assembly by combination of individual elements arranged in a matrix

G09G 3/30

Modifying the appearance of television pictures by optical filters or diffusing screens
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Diffusing elements per se

G02B 5/02

Optical filters per se

G02B 5/20

Projection arrangements for image reproduction, e.g. using eidophor
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Projection devices for colour picture display

H04N 9/31

Television signal recording
Definition statement

This place covers:

Video data recording:

  • Specially adapted recording devices such as a VCR, PVR, high speed camera, camcorder or a specially adapted PC
  • Interfaces between recording devices and other devices for input and/or output of video signals such as TVs, video cameras, other recording devices
  • Video recorder programming
  • Adaptations of the video signal for recording on specific recording media such as HDD, tape, drums, holographic support, semiconductor memories
  • Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate such as trick play modes and stroboscopic recording
  • Processing of the video signal for noise suppression, scrambling, field or frame skip, bandwidth reduction
  • Impairing the picking up, for recording, of a projected video signal
  • Regeneration of either a recorded video signal or for recording the video signal
  • Video signal recording wherein the recorded video signal may be accompanied by none, one or more video signals (stereoscopic signals or video signals corresponding to different story lines)
  • Production of a motion picture film from a television signal

Details specific to this group:

Relationships with other classification places
  • The subject-matter in the range H04N 5/92 - H04N 5/956 deals with recording and processing for recording of only black and white video signals while H04N 9/79 - H04N 9/898 deals with recording and processing for recording colour video signals.
  • H04N 5/76 (video recording) distinguishes itself from editing, which is found in G11B 27/00, in that the signals recorded and reproduced are video signals.
  • H04N 5/76 is a function place for recording or processing for recording. H04N 21/433 describes applications for recording in a distribution system.
  • H04N 5/76 features recording devices specially adapted to video data recording that can be programmed. The programming may be done by a user or a using an algorithm. Business methods where the video recording feature or step is well known is generally classified in G06Q 30/02 .
  • H04N 5/76 contains recording devices that are characterised by the connection to other devices through an interface. Typically information is sent or received by a recorder through an interface that impacts the recording or playback function. Interfaces in general are found in H04N 5/44.
  • H04N 5/76 contains video cameras that record video data to a recording medium. Video cameras constructional details are found in H04N 5/225.
  • H04N 5/76 is an application place for video data trick play. Reproducing data in general at a rate different from the recording rate is found in G11B 27/005.
  • H04N 5/76 contains applications of video data processing for scrambling/encrypting video data for recording. Systems for rendering a video signal unintelligible are found in H04N 7/16 and H04N 21/00.
  • H04N 5/76 is an application place for video data reduction for recording. Video data compression is found in H04N 19/00.
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Controlling video cameras

H04N 5/232

Video surveillance

H04N 7/18

Selective content distribution

H04N 21/00

Alarm system using video cameras

G08B 13/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Video camera constructional details

H04N 5/225

Production of a video signal from a motion picture film

H04N 5/253

Interfaces

H04N 5/44

User interface of set top boxes

H04N 5/44543

Video data coding

H04N 19/00

Network video distribution

H04N 21/236

Personal video recorder in selective content distribution systems

H04N 21/4147

Video data processing for printing

G03F 1/00

Systems for buying and selling, i.e. video content

G06Q 30/00

Business methods related to the distribution of video data content

G06Q 30/02

Information storage based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer

G11B

Video editing

G11B 27/034

Recording techniques specially adapted to a recording medium for recording digital data in general

G11B 27/10

Control of video recorders where the video signal is not substantially involved

G11B 31/00

Static stores

G11C

Special rules of classification

A document does not explicitly mention that the video signal is a monochrome video signal is to be interpreted as being a colour video signal. As a consequence some classes in H04N 5/76 specific to monochrome signal recording have fallen out of use. Instead the corresponding colour symbols should be given to such documents:

Allocation of CPC symbols:

  • A document containing invention information relating to video data recording will be given an H04N 5/76 CPC group.
  • A document containing additional information relating to video data recording (in particular, if the document discloses a detailed video recording device) will be given a H04N 5/76 Indexing Code symbol.
  • A document containing invention information for more than one invention it may be given more than one H04N 5/76 CPC group.
  • A document merely mentioning recording will not be given an CPC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Allocation of Indexing Code symbols in combination with CPC:

  • When assigning H04N 5/76 as CPC group, giving an additional Indexing Code is mandatory.

Combined use of Indexing Code symbols:

  • Indexing Code symbols maybe allocated as necessary to describe additional information in document.

Symbol allocation rules:

  • Documents defining recording devices that have an interface, e.g., connected to a network, should have at least one of the more specific H04N 5/765 Indexing Code symbols.
  • Documents dealing with invention information about measures to prevent recording of projected images should be given the H04N 2005/91392 Indexing Code symbol.
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Video or video data

Video signal, analogue or digital, with or without accompanying audio

Interface circuits between an apparatus for recording and another apparatus
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for the associated working of recording or reproducing apparatus with related apparatus

G11B 31/00

{the recording apparatus and the television camera being placed in the same enclosure}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Video cameras as recording devices.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television cameras

H04N 5/225

between a recording apparatus and a television receiver
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

TV-receiver details

H04N 5/44

Recording/reproduction devices integrated in TV-receivers

H04N 5/445

Synchronisation between a display unit and video-disc players

G09G 5/12

on disks or drums
Definition statement

This place covers:

Magnetic disks.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recording on, or reproducing or erasing from, magnetic drums

G11B 5/004

Recording on, or reproducing or erasing from, magnetic disks

G11B 5/012

Magnetic drum carriers

G11B 5/76

Magnetic disk carriers

G11B 5/82

on tape
Definition statement

This place covers:

Video recording programming applications, although it reads (recording) "on tape".

Video recorder programming (reservation recording).

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recording on, or reproducing or erasing from, magnetic tapes

G11B 5/008

Magnetic tape carriers

G11B 5/78

Arrangements for device control affected by the broadcast information

H04H 60/13

with stationary magnetic heads
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fixed mountings of heads relative to magnetic record carriers

G11B 5/49

with rotating magnetic heads
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Disposition or mounting of heads on rotating support

G11B 5/53

Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Trick play modes as well as processing for recording to enable the reproduction of video data at a rate different from the recording rate.
  • High speed recording cameras.
  • Speed control during recording, reproducing, reproducing at variable speed.
using electrostatic recording (H04N 5/91 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television signal processing recording

H04N 5/91

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recording or reproducing using electrostatic charge injection; record carriers therefor

G11B 9/08

using optical recording (H04N 5/80, H04N 5/89, H04N 5/91 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television signal recording using electrostatic recording

H04N 5/80

Television signal recording using holographic recording

H04N 5/89

Television signal processing for recording

H04N 5/91

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recording or reproducing by optical means; record carriers therefor

G11B 7/00

on discs or drums
Definition statement

This place covers:

Optical discs.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recording or reproducing by optical means with cylinders

G11B 7/0025

Recording or reproducing by optical means with disks

G11B 7/0037

using holographic recording (H04N 5/91 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television signal processing recording

H04N 5/91

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recording, reproducing or erasing by using optical interference patterns, e.g. holograms

G11B 7/0065

using variable electrical capacitive recording (H04N 5/91 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television signal processing recording

H04N 5/91

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recording or reproducing using record carriers having variable electrical capacitance; Record carriers therefor

G11B 9/06

using static stores, e.g. storage tubes or semiconductor memories (H04N 5/91 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television signal processing recording

H04N 5/91

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television signal recording based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer

H04N 5/78 -H04N 5/903

Static stores per se

G11C

Television signal processing therefor
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Processing of colour television signals in connection with recording

H04N 9/79

for the suppression of noise {(H04N 5/932 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Regeneration of analogue synchronisation signals

H04N 5/932

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuitry for suppressing or minimizing disturbance in television systems in general

H04N 5/21

for scrambling {; for copy protection}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Scrambling and encryption of video data for recording.
  • Copy-protection systems.
Special rules of classification

At least one Indexing Code H04N 5/913 symbol should be allocated to such document to further specify the scrambling method.

for bandwidth reduction
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compression of analogue video signals.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transformation of the television signal for recording by pulse code modulation

H04N 5/926, H04N 9/804

Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal

H04N 7/12

Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation

H04N 7/24

Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals

H04N 19/00

by dividing samples or signal segments, e.g. television lines, among a plurality of recording channels
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Processing of colour television signals for recording the signal in a plurality of channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the signal

H04N 9/797

Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Transformation of the colour television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback

H04N 9/80

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transmitter circuitry

H04N 5/38

Receiver circuitry

H04N 5/44

Modulation

H03C

Demodulation or transference of modulation from one carrier to another

H03D

Special rules of classification

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/82

by pulse code modulation (H04N 5/919 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television signal processing for recording for bandwidth reduction by dividing samples or signal segments

H04N 5/919

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Transformation of the television signal for recording involving pulse code modulation of the colour picture signal components

H04N 9/804

Transformation of the television signal for recording involving pulse code modulation of the composite colour video-signal

H04N 9/808

the sound signal being pulse code modulated and recorded in time division multiplex with the modulated video signal
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Transformation of the television signal for recording involving pulse code modulation of the colour picture signal components with processing of the sound signal

H04N 9/806

Regeneration of the television signal or of selected parts thereof
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Regeneration of colour television signals by assembling picture element blocks in an intermediate memory

H04N 9/87

Special rules of classification

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/87

by assembling picture element blocks in an intermediate store
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Regeneration of colour television signals

H04N 9/877

Signal drop-out compensation
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Signal drop-out compensation in the regeneration of colour television signals

H04N 9/88

Special rules of classification

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/88

for signals recorded by pulse code modulation
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Signal drop-out compensation for signals recorded by pulse code modulation in the regeneration of colour television signals

H04N 9/888

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Error detection or correction of digital signals for recording in general

G11B 20/18

Time-base error compensation {(H04N 5/932 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Regeneration of analogue synchronisation signals

H04N 5/932

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Time-base error compensation in the regeneration of colour television signals

H04N 9/89

Special rules of classification

The corresponding colour symbol should be allocated: H04N 9/89

by using an analogue memory, e.g. a CCD shift register, the delay of which is controlled by a voltage controlled oscillator
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Time-base error compensation using an analog memory, e.g. a CCD-shift register, the delay of which is controlled by a voltage controlled oscillator, in the regeneration of colour television signals

H04N 9/893

by using a digital memory with independent write-in and read-out clock generators
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Time-base error compensation using a digital memory with independent write-in and read-out clock generators, in the regeneration of colour television signals

H04N 9/898

Television systems (details H04N 3/00, H04N 5/00; methods or arrangements, for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals H04N 19/00; selective content distribution H04N 21/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • structural or hardware-related aspects of television systems, involving
  • analogue television signals or digital television signals processed at low level (e.g. physical layer in the OSI model);
  • details on conversion of television standards;
  • circuits for recovering digital non-picture data in analogue television signals;
  • specific arrangements allowing transmission of television signals via electric cables, optical fibres or using a GHz frequency band.
Relationships with other classification places

H04N 5/00 covers details of television systems and circuitry for processing analogue television signals or digital television signals processed at pixel level. Conversion between television standards and circuits for recovering digital non-picture data (slicers) are however classified in H04N 7/00.

H04N 9/00 and H04N 11/00 are to be considered when the focus is on colour aspects.

Aspects of diagnosis, testing and measuring for television systems are covered by H04N 17/00.

Television systems involving digital television signals not processed at low level should normally be classified in H04N 21/00.

Broadcast systems which are not specifically adapted for television signals should be classified in H04H.

Systems foreseen for the transmission/reception of data which may comprises inter alia television or video signals should be classified in respective telecommunication areas H04B, H04L, H04M and H04W.

General image processing not specific to television signals belongs to G06T. Video signal processing specific to visual displays belongs to G09G.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning details of television systems; Combination thereof with generation of supply voltages

H04N 3/00

Generation of supply voltages, in combination with electron beam deflecting

H04N 3/18

Details of television systems

H04N 5/00

Details of systems specific to colour television

H04N 9/00

Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals

H04N 19/00

Selective content distribution

H04N 21/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Colour television systems

H04N 11/00

Stereoscopic television systems

H04N 13/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes

A61B 1/00

Aspects of video games

A63F 13/00

Arrangements in vehicles for holding or mounting or controlling radio sets, television sets, telephones, or the like

B60R 11/02

Mounting of cameras operative during drive (of a vehicle)

B60R 11/04

Arrangements for entertainment or communications for passenger or crew in aircraft, e.g. radio, television

B64D 11/0015

Recognition of data in general

G06K

Commerce, e.g. shopping or e-commerce

G06Q 30/00

Image data processing or generation, in general

G06T

Remote control devices

G08C 17/00

Electrically-operated teaching apparatus or devices working with questions and answers

G09B 7/00

Simulators for teaching or training purposes

G09B 9/00

Miscellaneous advertising or display means not provided for elsewhere

G09F 19/00

Combined visual and audible advertising or displaying, e.g. for public address

G09F 27/00

Broadcast communication in general

H04H

Wireless networks in general

H04W

Special rules of classification

A document containing invention information relating to one of the subgroups will be given the relating CPC symbol.

A document containing additional information relating to one of the subgroups will be given the relating Indexing Code.

A document merely mentioning a television system will not be given aCPC symbol, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

3:2 pull-down pattern

a pattern of images where the first image is repeated 3 times and the second image is repeated twice

HDTV

High Definition TeleVision

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): a circuit-switched telephone network system

Letter-box system

television system which displays images comprising a central part and black bars above and below the central part

MAC

Multiplexed Analogue Components (MAC): a satellite television transmission standard

Video signal

television signal

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

CRT

Cathode Ray Tube, a technology of display

CATV

Community Antenna Television

CCTV

Closed Circuit TeleVision

EPG

Electronic Programme Guide

GUI

Graphics User Interface

MATV

Master Antenna TeleVision

MPEG

Motion Picture Experts Group; a family of standards used for coding audio-visual information in a digital compressed format

PC

Personal Computer

PVR

Personal Video Recorder

STB

Set-Top Box

URL

Uniform Resource Locator

VOD

Video On Demand

{Special television systems not provided for by H04N 7/007 - H04N 7/18 (still pictures via a television channel H04N 1/00098)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transmission of still pictures via a television channel

H04N 1/00098

References out of a residual place

Examples of places in relation to which this place is residual:

Systems with supplementary picture signal insertion during a portion of the active part of a television signal, e.g. during top and bottom lines in a HDTV letter-box system

H04N 7/007

Conversion of standards

H04N 7/01

High-definition television systems

H04N 7/015

Systems for the transmission of digital non-picture data, e.g. of text during the active part of a television frame

H04N 7/025

Systems for the transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by a single carrier

H04N 7/04

Systems for the simultaneous transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by more than one carrier

H04N 7/06

Systems for the simultaneous or sequential transmission of more than one television signal, e.g. additional information signals, the signals occupying wholly or partially the same frequency band

H04N 7/08

Adaptations for transmission by electric cable

H04N 7/10

Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal

H04N 7/12

Systems for two-way working

H04N 7/14

Analogue secrecy systems; Analogue subscription systems

H04N 7/16

Closed circuit television systems, i.e. systems in which the signal is not broadcast

H04N 7/18

Adaptations for transmission via a GHz frequency band, e.g. via satellite

H04N 7/20

Adaptations for optical transmission

H04N 7/22

Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation

H04N 7/24

{Systems with supplementary picture signal insertion during a portion of the active part of a television signal, e.g. during top and bottom lines in a HDTV letter-box system}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • systems with auxiliary information data allowing improved picture quality transmitted during the active part of the TV signal, e.g. in black bands at the upper and lower edges of the picture;
  • letter-box systems.
Conversion of standards {, e.g. involving analogue television standards or digital television standards processed at pixel level}
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Conversion of colour television standards

H04N 11/20

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Studio circuits for television systems involving alteration of picture size or orientation

H04N 5/2628

Receiver circuitry for receiving on more than one standard at will

H04N 5/46

Saving bandwidth in low bit-rate video transmission

H04N 7/0115

Circuits specific for processing colour signals

H04N 9/64

Processing specific to video coder/decoder: subsampling at the coder and/or sample restitution by interpolation at the coder or decoder

H04N 19/00, H04N 19/59, H04N 19/587

Processing specific to video coder/decoder: transcoding to realise interoperability between different video coding standards

H04N 19/40

Image scaling in general

G06T 3/40

Video signal processing specific to visual displays

G09G

Adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal

G09G 5/005

Frame rate conversion for reducing blurring effect in a hold-type liquid crystal display (LCD)

G09G 2320/0257

Interpolation filters

H03H 17/0444, H03H 17/0657

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

FRC

Frame Rate Converter

FRUC

Frame Rate Up-Converter

MC-FRC

Motion Compensation - Frame Rate Converter

NTSC

National Television System Committee

PAL

Phase alternating line

SECAM

Séquentiel couleur à mémoire (Sequential Colour with Memory)

High-definition television systems
Definition statement

This place covers:

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

High-definition colour television systems

H04N 11/24

Systems for the transmission of digital non-picture data, e.g. of text during the active part of a television frame {(transmission of digital non-picture data during the vertical blanking interval only H04N 7/088)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems using the active part of a television signal or part of it for transmitting digital non-picture data not foreseen to be watched as such on a display.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transmission of still pictures via a television channel

H04N 1/00098

Transmission of digital non-picture data during the vertical blanking interval

H04N 7/088

Circuits for the digital non-picture data signal, e.g. for slicing of the data signal, for regeneration of the data-clock signal, for error detection or correction of the data signal
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Circuits for recovering data transmitted during the non-active part of the television signal, e.g. vertical or horizontal blanking interval;
  • Circuits for recovering data transmitted during the active part of the television signal instead of the pictorial signal.
Systems for the transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by a single carrier {(H04N 7/084, H04N 7/087 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems for transmitting in a particular way both picture and sound by a single carrier.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the horizontal blanking interval

H04N 7/084

Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the vertical blanking interval

H04N 7/087

Systems for the simultaneous transmission of one television signal, i.e. both picture and sound, by more than one carrier {(H04N 7/084, H04N 7/087 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems for transmitting in a particular way both picture and sound by more than one carrier.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the horizontal blanking interval

H04N 7/084

Systems for the transmission of more than one television signal of with signal insertion during the vertical blanking interval

H04N 7/087

Systems for the simultaneous or sequential transmission of more than one television signal, e.g. additional information signals, the signals occupying wholly or partially the same frequency band {, e.g. by time division (H04N 7/007 takes precedence)}
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Systems with supplementary picture signal insertion during a portion of the active part of a television signal, e.g. during top and bottom lines in a HDTV letter-box system

H04N 7/007

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

CC

Closed Caption

CRI

Clock Run-In

HBI

Horizontal Blanking Interval

RIC

Run-In Clock

VBI

Vertical Blanking Interval

Adaptations for transmission by electrical cable (H04N 7/12 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal

H04N 7/12

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coaxial connectors for coaxial cables

H01R 24/40

Networks for connecting several sources or loads, working on different frequencies or frequency bands, to a common load or source, particularly adapted for use in common antenna systems

H03H 7/461

Networks for connecting several sources or loads, working on the same frequency or frequency band, to a common load or source, particularly adapted for use in common antenna systems

H03H 7/482

Line transmission systems, in general

H04B 3/00

Repeater circuits for signals in two different frequency ranges transmitted in opposite directions over the same transmission path

H04B 3/38

Arrangements of wired systems for broadcast

H04H 20/76, H04H 60/93

CATV systems

H04H 20/78

Home automation networks

H04L 12/2803

Distribution of signals within a home automation network, e.g. involving splitting/multiplexing signals to/from different paths

H04L 12/2838

Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal (H04N 7/24 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation

H04N 7/24

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Colour television systems with bandwidth reduction

H04N 11/02

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning details of television systems

H04N 3/00

High-definition television systems

H04N 7/015

Systems for two-way working ({H04N 7/12, } H04N 7/173 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal

H04N 7/12

Analogue secrecy or subscription systems with two-way working, e.g. subscriber sending a programme selection signal

H04N 7/173

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Client devices specifically adapted for the reception of, or interaction with, content, e.g. STB [set-to-box]; Operations thereof

H04N 21/40

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems for two-way working in the scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like

H04N 1/42

Telephonic communication systems combined with television receiver for reception of entertainment or information matter

H04M 11/085

Conference systems
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems for two-way working between two video terminals, e.g. videophone

H04N 7/141

Arrangements for conference in data switching networks

H04L 12/18, H04L 12/1813

Telephonic conference arrangements

H04M 3/56

Multimedia conference systems

H04M 3/567

Analogue secrecy systems; Analogue subscription systems
Definition statement

This place covers:

Television systems, where transmitters such as head-ends distribute analog television signals to television receivers. Typically, the access to analog television information is restricted based on a subscription system, where the television viewer will be charged for accessing the programs he/she has selected. To prevent eavesdropping, the transmitted analog signals are scrambled by the transmitter, e.g. in the time or amplitude domain, and descrambled at reception. Such systems can work in a unidirectional mode, where the transmitter decides which analog television programs the subscriber is entitled to view or in a bidirectional mode, where the user can request to view a movie.

Relationships with other classification places

Unidirectional or bidirectional television systems involving the distribution of digital video signals fall within the scope of H04N 21/00.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Secrecy systems in the scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like

H04N 1/44

Secret communication

H04K

{Constructional details of the subscriber equipment (H04N 7/164 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Coin-freed apparatus

H04N 7/164

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coin-freed and like apparatus in general

G07F

{Authorising the user terminal, e.g. by paying; Registering the use of a subscription channel, e.g. billing}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Entitlement systems, where the receiver is entitled to access the analog television program. Usually the user is billed therefor
  • Analog conditional access systems
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Payment schemes

G06Q 20/00

E-commerce

G06Q 30/00

{by receiver means only}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Television programs are broadcast in a scrambled form and only receivers fitted with e.g. a conditional access card can descramble them.

{Centralised control of user terminal (subsequent to an upstream request signal H04N 7/17345); Registering at central (by two-way working H04N 7/17309)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems where typically head-ends select which receivers are entitled to receive the analog television programs.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Registering at central by two-way working

H04N 7/17309

Centralised control of user terminal subsequent to an upstream request signal

H04N 7/17345

Systems rendering the television signal unintelligible and subsequently intelligible
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Systems operating in the time domain, e.g. by displacing synchronisation signals relative to active picture signals or vice versa or by changing or reversing the order of active picture signal portions
  • Systems operating in the amplitude domain, e.g. by modifying synchronisation signals or by inverting the polarity of active picture signal portions
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Secret communication by adding a second signal to make the desired signal unintelligible

H04K 1/02

{Providing digital key or authorisation information for generation or regeneration of the scrambling sequence (pseudo-random number generators in general G06F 7/58)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Scrambling or descrambling of analog television signals based on digital keys

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Pseudo-random number generators in general

G06F 7/58

Computer security

G06F 21/00

Cryptography in general

H04L 9/00

Network security

H04L 29/06551

with two-way working, e.g. subscriber sending a programme selection signal
Definition statement

This place covers:

Bidirectional systems

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems for two-way working in the scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like

H04N 1/42

Client devices specifically adapted for the reception of, or interaction with, content, e.g. STB [set-top-box]; Operations thereof

H04N 21/40

{Transmission or handling of upstream communications}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of analog signal processing, coding or modulating in the upstream channel

{Direct or substantially direct transmission and handling of requests}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Typically on-demand systems for analog TV programs

{Handling of requests in head-ends}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of analog Video-on-Demand servers

Closed circuit television systems, i.e. systems in which the signal is not broadcast {(television transmission of measured quantities G01D 5/39; intruder alarm or detection by television surveillance G08B 13/196)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Signal generation from motion picture films

H04N 5/253

Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body combined with television appliances

A61B 1/04

Arrangements in vehicles for holding or mounting or controlling radio sets, television sets, telephones, or the like

B60R 11/02

Mounting of cameras operative during drive of a vehicle; Arrangements of control thereof relative to the vehicle

B60R 11/04

Arrangements for entertainment or communications for passenger or crew in aircraft, e.g. radio, television

B64D 11/0015

Scanning a visible indication of a measured value and reproducing this indication at a remote place, e.g. on the screen of a cathode-ray tube

G01D 5/39

Recognition of data in general

G06K

Image processing in general

G06T

Burglar, theft, or intruder alarms using television cameras

G08B 13/196

Adaptations for transmission via a GHz frequency band, e.g. via satellite
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Space-based or airborne stations for radio transmission systems

H04B 7/185

Arrangements of satellite networks for broadcast

H04H 20/74

Adaptations for optical transmission
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. light

H04B 10/00

Arrangements of optical systems for broadcast

H04H 20/69

Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation (H04N 21/00 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Source coding or decoding of a digital video signal

H04N 19/00

Error protection or correction of a digital video signal

H04N 19/89

Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television

H04N 21/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Colour television systems using pulse code modulation

H04N 11/04

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transmission systems using pulse code modulation, in general

H04B 14/04

Special rules of classification

H04N 21/00 takes precedence, except for source coding or decoding of a digital video signal (H04N 19/00 takes precedence in this case), and for error protection, detection or correction of a digital video signal (H04N 19/89 takes precedence in this case):

Systems for transmission of a pulse code modulated video signal with one or more other pulse code modulated signals, e.g. an audio signal or a synchronizing signal (assembling of a multiplex stream by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, assembling of a packetised elementary stream at server side H04N 21/236; disassembling of a multiplex stream, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, extraction or processing of Service Information, disassembling of packetised elementary stream at client side H04N 21/434)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Assembling of a multiplex stream, by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, assembling of a packetised elementary stream at server side

H04N 21/236

Disassembling of a multiplex stream, remultiplexing of multiplex streams, extraction or processing of Service Information, disassembling of packetised elementary stream at client side

H04N 21/434

Definition statement

This place covers:

older multiplexing/demultiplexing and transport technologies which were used before the introduction of MPEG system layer, based on a format, e.g. a frame format, usable for transmission or recording of compressed or uncompressed video data, possibly combined with other content, e.g. audio

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Multiplexing/demultiplexing of asynchronous signals, e.g. MPEG system layer type signals, involving the use of transport streams, program streams

H04N 21/236, H04N 21/434

Use of PCR for clock recovery

H04N 21/242, H04N 21/4305

Use of time stamps (PTS, DTS) for content synchronisation

H04N 21/242, H04N 21/4307

Special rules of classification

Multiplexing/demultiplexing video and audio: H04N 21/2368, H04N 21/4341 take precedence;

multiplexing/demultiplexing video and additional data: H04N 21/23614,

H04N 21/4348 take precedence;

multiplexing/demultiplexing several video streams: H04N 21/2365, H04N 21/4347 take precedence;

multiplexing/demultiplexing isochronously with video sync, e.g. according to bit-parallel or bit-serial interface formats, as SDI: H04N 21/23602, H04N 21/4342 take precedence.

Synchronising systems therefor
Definition statement

This place covers:

Synchronisation for signals falling under H04N 7/54

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Use of PCR for clock recovery

H04N 21/242, H04N 21/4305

Use of time stamps (PTS, DTS) for content synchronisation

H04N 21/242, H04N 21/4307

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronising of television systems, in general

H04N 5/04

Synchronisation of generators of electronic oscillations or pulses

H03L 7/00

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter in the transmission of digital information

H04L 7/00

Details of colour television systems
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Picture signal generators
  • Picture reproducers using opto-mechanical scanning, cathode-ray tubes, solid-state colour displays or projection devices
  • Conversion of monochrome to colour image signals
  • Colour synchronisation
  • Processing brightness and chrominance signal in relation with each other
  • Processing of colour signals in general as well as specifically for recording
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Details of stereoscopic colour television systems

H04N 13/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning details of television systems, in general

H04N 3/00

Details of television systems, in general

H04N 5/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

ESLM

Electronic Spatial Light Modulator

DMD

Deformable mirror device

LCLV

Liquid Crystal Light Valve

D-ILA

Direct Drive Image Light Amplifier

HDR

High Dynamic Range

LCOS

Liquid Crystal On Silicon

DSP

Digital Signal Processor

DLP

Digital Light Processor

CRT

Cathode Ray Tube

RGB

Red Green Blue

CYM

Cyan Yellow Magenta

{Demosaicing, e.g. interpolating colour pixel values (Computational demosaicing G06T 3/4015)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Demosaicing, i.e. interpolating colour pixel values, only if jointly performed in combination with pixel scanning, image readout or different video processing operations within the image sensor.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Computational demosaicing

G06T 3/4015

{including elements transmitting or passing infrared wavelengths}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transforming infrared radiation

H04N 5/33

Optical arrangements associated therewith, e.g. for beam-splitting, for colour correction
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Beam splitting or combining systems per se

G02B 27/10

using optical-mechanical scanning means only (H04N 9/11 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning of colour motion picture films, e.g. for telecine

H04N 9/11

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning by optical-mechanical means only, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 3/02

Scanning of colour motion picture films, e.g. for telecine
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of scanning of motion picture films, e.g. for telecine, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 3/36

Picture signal generating by scanning motion picture or slide opaques, e.g. for telecine

H04N 5/253

Picture reproducers (H04N 9/11 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Video walls (excluding multi-projection displays)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning of colour motion picture films, e.g. for telecine

H04N 9/11

Video walls or multiscreen displays when each modular display is a projection device.

H04N 9/3147

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices or arrangements for the electro-, magneto- or acousto-optical modulation or deflection of light beams

G02F

Control arrangements or circuits for visual indicators characterised by the way in which colour is displayed, common to cathode-ray tubes and other visual indicators

G09G 5/02

using optical-mechanical scanning means only
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning of colour motion picture films, e.g. for telecine

H04N 9/11

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning by optical-mechanical means only, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 3/02

using cathode ray tubes (H04N 9/11 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scanning of colour motion picture films

H04N 9/11

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning by deflecting electron beam in cathode-ray tube, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 3/16

Control arrangements or circuits using colour cathode-ray tube indicators

G09G 1/28

Cathode-ray tubes per se

H01J 31/00

Arrangements for convergence or focusing
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Modification of scanning arrangements to improve focusing in cathode-ray tubes, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 3/26

using demagnetisation or compensation of external magnetic fields
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of degaussing circuits.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of CRT or electron-beam tubes

H01J 29/003

using solid-state colour display devices
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Scanning by means of electrically scanned solid-state devices, applicable to picture reproduction in television systems in general

H04N 3/14

Indicating devices using static means to present variable information

G09G

Projection devices for colour picture display {, e.g. using electronic spatial light modulators [ESLM]}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Image projection using an electronic spatial light modulator [ESLM], i.e. processing of electrical image signals provided to the ESLM for the generation of projector control signals, for controlling the ESLM, e.g. control of the light source
  • based on electronic image signal, light conditioning specially adapted for the ESLM
  • in-projector image processing, electronic image data manipulation, e.g. during display or projection
  • details of projectors peculiar to the use of an ESLM, e.g. dichroic
  • and polarizing arrangements specially adapted for the ESLM
  • remote control of projectors peculiar to the ESLM, e.g. affecting their operation, or based on a generated image signal;
  • adaptations peculiar to the use of an ESLM and/or the display, the transmission, recording or other use of electrical image data
  • and related circuitry, e.g. mounting of ESLM, integrated
Relationships with other classification places

Subclass G03B contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Aspects of apparatus/methods for projecting or viewing images using an electronic spatial light modulator [ESLM], insofar as they correspond to those of said apparatus/methods for projecting or viewing images using film stock, photographic film or slides, i.e. insofar as not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, e.g. mounting of optical elements not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, and their related controls not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, e.g. cooling, beam shaping, optical keystone correction;
  • (opto-)mechanical image enhancement in printers or projectors (e.g. keystone correction);
  • constructional aspects of projectors, e.g. cooling, beam shaping, light
  • integrating means not peculiar to the ESLM;

Subclass G02B contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Optical image modulation using direction light control e.g. deformable mirror devices (DMD's),
  • laser speckle optics,
  • head-up projection displays (head-mounted displays).

Subclass G02F contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Control of light using liquid crystals.

Subclass G09F 9/00 contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Indicating arrangements for variable information (e.g. street or stadium displays).
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Image reproducers

H04N 13/30

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Projection arrangements for image reproduction e.g. using eidophor

H04N 5/74 - H04N 5/7491

Optical systems in general

G02B

Devices for controlling direction of light e.g. DMD's

G02B 26/08

Head-up displays

G02B 27/01

Speckle reduction

G02B 27/48

Light control

G02F

Film projection and photography

G03B

Projection devices using film stock, photographic film or slides

G03B 21/00

Details of film projectors

G03B 21/14

Projection screens

G03B 21/56

Image processing per se

G06T

Displaying of variable information using colour tubes

G09G 1/28

Control of colour illumination sources

G09G 3/3413

Liquid crystal colour display with specific pixel layout

G09G 3/3607

Characterised by the way in which colour is displayed

G09G 5/02

Using circuits for interfacing with colour displays

G09G 5/04

Using colour palettes

G09G 5/06

{scanning a light beam on the display screen (scanning a light beam on a screen in displays other than projection devices G09G 3/02; scanning systems in general G02B 26/10; projectors using laser light sources in general H04N 9/3161)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Scanning projection devices wherein a light beam (e.g. a point beam or a linear beam from a laser or an LED) is scanned across a screen (e.g. using scanning mirrors).

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Projectors using laser light sources in general

H04N 9/3161

XY Scanning, scanning systems in general

G02B 26/10

Laser speckle optics

G02B 27/48

Semiconductors lasers

H01S 5/00

Colour synchronisation
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Synchronisation of the modulated colour signal in relationship with the colour subcarrier,
  • colour subcarrier generation in relationship with the extracted burst.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronising, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 5/04

Synchronisation of pulses

H03K 4/90

Circuits for processing colour signals (H04N 9/77 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Color video sampling format conversion e.g. 4:2:2 to 4:2:0
  • Gamut mapping and Colour Space Conversions
  • Multiprimary colour signal conversion
  • Colour sampling in digital video e.g. 4:4:4, 4:2:0, 4:1:1
  • Processing of the modulated or demodulated colour television signal
  • Input colour signal detection relating to the type and standard of colour signals
  • Synchronous modulation and demodulation of the colour signals
  • Image enhancement or disturbance suppression specific to the modulated or demodulated colour television signal
  • Colour space transformation of the demodulated colour signal
  • Amplitude contol and gamma control of the modulated or demodulated colour television signal
  • DC contol control of the modulated colour television signal according to vertical blanking reference
  • White balance control of the demodulated colour signal for display or at electronic image capture level
  • Mixing of foreground and background colour video signals using chroma keying
Relationships with other classification places

With respect to colour or chrominance aspects, subclass H04N 1/00 contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:

  • Aspects of apparatus/methods for controlling or correcting colour video signals originating from a scanned picture signal e.g. facsimile, document, photo.
  • Subclass G06T contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:
  • General purpose data processing of an image or enhancement of such image not particularly adapted to a motion video signal
  • Subclass H03D contains subject-matter relating to the following aspects:
  • Demodulation of amplitude modulated signals
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Colour picture communication system

H04N 1/46

Image processing per se

G06T

Amplitude modulated demodulation

H03D 1/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Colour picture signal processing

H04N 1/56

Facsimile colour picture signal processing

H04N 1/60

Colour TV processing for recording

H04N 9/79

Colour television signal testing

H04N 17/02

Image processing, image enhancement

G06T

Amplitude demodulation

H03D

Special rules of classification

Demodulation circuits adapted to a particular standard are classified in:

{Multi-purpose receivers, e.g. for auxiliary information (H04N 9/642 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Circuits for multiple input selection or for selecting a particular colour signal type.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Multi-standard receivers

H04N 9/642

{Multi-standard receivers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Multistandard colour decoding circuits.

{Hue control means, e.g. flesh tone control}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Face detection circuits,
  • Hue control.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions

G06K 9/00221

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hue control relating to non moving picture signals

H04N 1/6075

for synchronous demodulators
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Demodulation circuits adapted to the NTSC standard

H04N 11/146

Demodulation circuits adapted to the PAL standard

H04N 11/165

Demodulation circuits adapted to the SECAM standard

H04N 11/186

for matrixing
Definition statement

This place covers:

Colour space transformation circuits.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Color space transformation circuits relating to non moving picture signals

H04N 1/6077

for controlling the amplitude of colour signals, e.g. automatic chroma control circuits (H04N 9/71, H04N 9/73 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

For colour killing combined with colour gain control

H04N 9/71

Colour balance circuits

H04N 9/73

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuitry for controlling amplitude response, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 5/20

for reinsertion of dc and slowly varying components of colour signals
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuitry for reinsertion of dc and slowly varying components of signals, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 5/16

colour balance circuits, e.g. white balance circuits, colour temperature control
Definition statement

This place covers:

Colour balance control.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Color balance control relating to non moving picture signals

H04N 1/60

Circuits for processing the brightness signal and the chrominance signal relative to each other, e.g. adjusting the phase of the brightness signal relative to the colour signal, correcting differential gain or differential phase (circuits for matrixing H04N 9/67)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Separation of luminance and chrominance signals from a multiplexed composite colour television signal
  • Processing of luminance and chrominance signals in relationship to each-other (differential gain, differential phase, luminance and chrominance correlated enhancement or noise suppression...)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Circuits for matrixing

H04N 9/67

Processing of colour television signals in connection with recording
Definition statement

This place covers:

Video data recording:

  • Specially adapted recording devices such as a VCR, PVR, high speed camera, camcorder or a specially adapted PC
  • Interfaces between recording devices and other devices for input and/or output of video signals such as TVs, video cameras, other recording devices
  • Video recorder programming
  • Adaptations of the video signal for recording on specific recording media such as HDD, tape, drums, holographic support, semiconductor memories
  • Adaptations for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate such as trick play modes and stroboscopic recording
  • Processing of the video signal for noise suppression, scrambling, field or frame skip, bandwidth reduction
  • Impairing the picking up, for recording, of a projected video signal
  • Regeneration of either a recorded video signal or for recording the video signal
  • Video signal recording wherein the recorded video signal may be accompanied by none, one or more video signals (stereoscopic signals or video signals corresponding to different story lines)
  • Production of a motion picture film from a television signal

Details specific to this group:

  • The recording equipment is for personal use and not for studio use
  • The subgroups of H04N 9/79 are for colour video signals
Relationships with other classification places
  • Recording and processing for recording of video signals covered by the subject-matter in the range H04N 5/76 - H04N 5/907 is classified in said range irrespectively of said video signals being in colour or black and white.
  • The range H04N 9/79 - H04N 9/898 deals with recording and processing for recording colour video signals while the corresponding range H04N 5/92 - H04N 5/956 deals with recording and processing for recording black and white video signals.
  • H04N 9/79 (video recording) distinguishes itself from editing, which is found in G11B 27/00, in that the signals recorded and reproduced are video signals.
  • H04N 9/79 is a function place for recording or processing for recording. H04N 21/433 describes applications for recording in a distribution system.
  • H04N 9/79 features recording devices specially adapted to video data recording that can be programmed. The programming may be done by a user or a using an algorithm. Business methods where the video recording feature or step is well known is generally classified in G06Q 30/02 .
  • H04N 9/79 contains recording devices that are characterised by the connection to other devices through an interface. Typically information is sent or received by a recorder through an interface that impacts the recording or playback function. Interfaces in general are found in H04N 5/44.
  • H04N 9/79 contains video cameras that record video data to a recording medium. Video cameras constructional details are found in H04N 5/225.
  • H04N 9/79 is an application place for video data trick play. Reproducing data in general at a rate different from the recording rate is found in G11B 27/005.
  • H04N 9/79 contains applications of video data processing for scrambling/encrypting video data for recording. Systems for rendering a video signal unintelligible are found in H04N 7/16 and H04N 21/00.
  • H04N 9/79 is an application place for video data reduction for recording. Video data compression is found in H04N 19/00.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Video camera constructional details

H04N 5/225

Production of a video signal from a motion picture film

H04N 5/253

Interfaces

H04N 5/44

User interface of set top boxes

H04N 5/44543

Video data coding

H04N 19/00

Network video distribution

H04N 21/236

Video data processing for printing

G03F 1/00

Video editing

G11B 27/034

Recording techniques specially adapted to a recording medium for recording digital data in general

G11B 27/10

Control of video recorders where the video signal is not substantially involved

G11B 31/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Controlling video cameras:

H04N 5/232

Video surveillance:

H04N 7/18

Selective content distribution

H04N 21/00

Alarm system using video cameras

G08B 13/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television signal processing in connection with recording, in general

H04N 5/91

Systems for buying and selling, i.a. video content

G06Q 30/00

Business methods related to the distribution of video data content

G06Q 30/02

Special rules of classification

A document does not explicitly mention that the video signal is a monochrome video signal is to be interpreted as being a colour video signal. As a consequence some classes in H04N 5/76 specific to monochrome signal recording have fallen out of use. Instead the corresponding colour symbols should be given to such documents.

Allocation of CPC symbols:

  • A document containing invention information relating to video data recording will be given an H04N 9/79 CPC group.
  • A document containing additional information relating to video data recording (in particular, if the document discloses a detailed video recording device) will be given a H04N 9/79 Indexing Code symbol.
  • A document containing invention information for more than one invention it may be given more than one H04N 9/79 CPC group.
  • A document merely mentioning recording will not be given an CPC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.
  • Allocation of Indexing Code symbols in combination with CPC:
  • When assigning H04N 9/79 or a subclass thereof as CPC group, giving an additional Indexing Code is optional.
  • Combined use of Indexing Code symbols:
  • Indexing Code symbols maybe allocated as necessary to describe additional information in document.
  • Symbol allocation rules:
  • Documents defining recording devices that have an interface, e.g., connected to a network, should have at least one of the more specific H04N 5/765 Indexing Code symbols.
  • Documents dealing with invention information about measures to prevent recording of projected images should be given the H04N 2005/91392 Indexing Code symbol.
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Video or video data

video signal analogue or digital with or without accompanying audio

{for more than one standard}
Special rules of classification

The symbols H04N 9/7925 and corresponding H04N 9/7925 are not used. Instead documents that deal with the subject-matter of recording a plurality of video formats should be given the H04N 9/7921 or the corresponding H04N 9/7921 symbol.

for recording the signal in a plurality of channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the signal (H04N 9/804, H04N 9/81, H04N 9/82 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transformation of the television signal for recording involving pulse code modulation of the colour picture signal components

H04N 9/804

Transformation of the television signal for recording the individual colour picture signal components being recorded sequentially only

H04N 9/81

Transformation of the television signal for recording the individual colour picture signal components being recorded simultaneously only

H04N 9/82

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television signal processing for bandwidth reduction, by dividing samples or signal segments among a plurality of recording channels, in general

H04N 5/919

Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing, in general; Inverse transformation for playback, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 5/92

Modulation

H03C

Demodulation or transference of modulation from one carrier to another

H03D

involving pulse code modulation of the colour picture signal components
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transformation of the television signal for recording by pulse code modulation, in general; Inverse transformation for playback thereof

H04N 5/926

{involving data reduction}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coding/decoding when done using an MPEG standard.

{involving the multiplexing of an additional signal and the colour video signal}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems, where additional information, necessary to retrieve the video data, e.g., chapter marks, navigation packs, time stamps is recorded with the video information, either on the same recording medium or on an associated recording medium.

Regeneration of colour television signals (H04N 9/80 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transformation of the television signal for recording, e.g. modulation, frequency changing; Inverse transformation for playback

H04N 9/80

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Regeneration of the television signal or of selected parts thereof, in general

H04N 5/93

by assembling picture element blocks in an intermediate memory
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Regeneration of the television signal or of selected parts thereof, by assembling picture element blocks in an intermediate store in general

H04N 5/937

Signal drop-out compensation
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Signal drop-out compensation, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 5/94

for signals recorded by pulse code modulation
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Signal drop-out compensation for signals recorded by pulse code modulation, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 5/945

error detection or correction of digital signals for recording in general

G11B 20/18

Time-base error compensation
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time-base error compensation, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 5/95

using an analogue memory, e.g. a CCD shift register, the delay of which is controlled by a voltage controlled oscillator
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time-base error compensation by using an analogue memory, e.g. a CCD-shift register, the delay of which is controlled by a voltage controlled oscillator, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 5/953

using frequency multiplication of the reproduced colour signal carrier with another auxiliary reproduced signal, e.g. a pilot signal carrier {(H04N 9/83 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transformation of the television signal for recording, the recorded chrominance signal occupying a frequency band under the frequency band of the recorded brightness signal

H04N 9/83

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time-base error compensation by using an analogue memory, e.g. a CCD-shift register, the delay of which is controlled by a voltage controlled oscillator, applicable to television systems in general

H04N 5/956

Colour television systems (details H04N 9/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hardware-related or software-related aspects specific to transmission of colour television signal, in particular for transmission of analog colour television signal (e.g. NTSC, PAL, SECAM)

Relationships with other classification places

H04N 11/00 distinguishes itself from transmission systems using pulse code modulation with bandwidth reduction, wherein the chrominance component or any type of colour component is submitted to a processing equivalent to the processing of the luminance component, e.g. MPEG standards, which are found in H04N 7/00, H04N 21/00.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Colour picture communication systems

H04N 1/46

Details of colour television systems

H04N 9/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

High-definition television systems

H04N 7/015

Special rules of classification

H04N 11/00 features a number of EC symbols corresponding to a same number of Indexing Codes (e.g., H04N 11/14 as EC symbol and H04N 11/14 as Indexing Code symbol)

Allocation of EC symbols and/or Indexing Code symbols:

A document containing invention information relating to colour television systems will be given a H04N 11/00 EC group

A document containing additional information relating to colour television systems will be given a H04N 11/00 EC group

A document merely mentioning details of colour television systems will not be given an EC group, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

with bandwidth reduction (H04N 11/04 {, H04N 11/24} take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Using pulse code modulation

H04N 11/04

High definition television systems

H04N 11/24

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems in which the television signal is transmitted via one channel or a plurality of parallel channels, the bandwidth of each channel being less than the bandwidth of the television signal, in general

H04N 7/12

Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals

H04N 19/00

using pulse code modulation {(H04N 11/24 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

High definition television systems

H04N 11/24

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation, in general

H04N 7/24

Pulse code modulation in general

H03K, H03M

Transmission systems using pulse code modulation, in general

H04B 14/04

using sequential signals only (dot sequential systems H04N 11/12)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Dot sequential systems

H04N 11/12

Conversion of the manner in which the individual colour picture signal components are combined, e.g. conversion of colour television standards
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conversion of standards in television systems in general

H04N 7/01

High-definition television systems
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

High-definition television systems in general

H04N 7/015

Stereoscopic video systems; Multi-view video systems; Details thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

Systems where a three-dimensional effect or different views according to the viewpoint location are provided to one or more viewers by means of electronic signals representing a plurality of images or signals including depth information, e.g. taken from different viewpoint locations representing the interocular distance.

In particular, this group covers systems which :

  • include electronic signal processing aspects, e.g. to provide signals for driving a stereoscopic display, or to generate signals by means of a stereoscopic camera; wherein
  • said processing aspects are specially adapted to stereoscopic (or multiview) devices, i.e. different from the corresponding normal, non-stereoscopic aspects due to the presence of different pictures to be sent to the viewers' eyes.

Examples:

  • Stereoscopic and multiview electronic image pick up devices (video cameras, digital still cameras)
  • Stereoscopic and multiview display devices
  • Electronic signal processors

- for stereoscopic television signal processing

- for monoscopic to stereoscopic conversion (including computer systems)

- for stereoscopic image generation (including from a computer model)

- for stereoscopic displays (e.g. left/right synchronization, stereoscopic format conversion, depth adaptation)

- for displays providing different 2D images to different viewers (e.g. for use in vehicles)

- for devices which generate a two-dimensional "look around" effect, e.g. non-stereoscopic multiview systems (see however exclusions here below).

  • Devices generating a real 3D image, i.e. an image having a volume (volumetric displays)
  • Pseudostereoscopic systems

Some systems falling under the definition set out above of "stereoscopic systems" but wherein the viewer's eyes do not see different images, may provide a pseudo-stereoscopic effect and are classified in H04N 13/00. The effect must go beyond that provided by the mere display of a 3D object on a 2D screen (like in a CAD system).

An Indexing Code (see below) is to be allocated to such systems, which in the main scheme are to be classified under the head group if no better class is found.

Example:Wiggle stereoscopy: pseudo-stereo systems providing a three-dimensional effect by means of normal 2D image signals, by periodic oscillating motion of a 3D object.

  • Multiview systems:

- systems providing different 2D or 3D views of the same scene to one or more viewers according to the viewpoint location (called "look around" effect)

- systems providing different 2D or 3D views of different scenes to different viewers (called "privacy")

These systems are classified in H04N 13/00 if they provide said views simultaneously or at least at a high frame rate so as to be simultaneously viewed by the observers.

However, multiview systems wherein said 2D views are provided to a viewer one at a time, e.g. by user selection, are not classified in H04N 13/00, because they are actually normal 2D systems although the viewpoint can be selected at will.

Examples of multiview devices falling under H04N 13/00:

- the so called "look-around" display systems including display with lenticular screen providing different views of a common scene at different viewing positions

- the so called "privacy" display systems including display with parallax barrier providing different views of different scenes to different viewers in 2D or 3D (for example in a vehicle, wherein on a common screen the driver is watching GPS while the passenger is watching a movie)

- Multi-user displays displaying different pictures for different viewers wearing shutter glasses to select one of said pictures (this is also "privacy"), wherein said pictures are 2D or 3D pictures.

Relationships with other classification places

Several sections in H04N 5/00 and H04N 7/00 relate to the basic monoscopic video aspects from which corresponding stereoscopic aspects are derived. Classification and search in these sections is therefore to be considered every time no specifically stereoscopic aspects are present.

G06T, image processing and generation in general, includes G06T 7/00 X which relates to stereoscopic image processing in general, i.e. not being adapted to be used with devices falling under H04N 13/00, e.g. stereoscopic image analysis, generation of depth values from stereoscopic images, stereoscopic image segmentation, generation of monoscopic images from stereoscopic images, etc.

Image processing adapted for driving or controlling stereoscopic image devices falling under H04N 13/00 may be classified in H04N 13/00 as well or even just in H04N 13/00. E.g. analysis of video signal to perform real time control of a stereoscopic video camera, or to identify the image transmission format to drive a stereoscopic display is classified just in H04N 13/00 if there are no image analysis aspects.

Sometimes a normal 2D display displaying solid objects, e.g. a CAD system wherein the viewer can rotate 3D objects to see them from any direction, is called "a 3D display". Of course such displays are not to be classified in H04N 13/00 because a viewer sees the same picture with both eyes and because, if there is more than one viewer, all viewers see the same picture. Such documents are classified in G06T 19/00.

Concerning G02B (optical systems), optical devices are often inextricably connected with the devices falling under H04N 13/00, because essential to provide the stereoscopic effect. Classification also in G02B should be considered every time a relevant optical aspect is present in a stereoscopic system. Classification only in G02B should be considered every time no electronic control aspects are present.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Stereoscopic endoscopes and medical devices

A61B

Vehicle mounted cameras, including stereoscopic cameras

B60R 11/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Television cameras

H04N 5/225

Arrangements of television cameras (not for capturing stereoscopic images)

H04N 5/247

Projection displays

H04N 5/74, H04N 9/31

Recording, including multiplexing another television signal

H04N 5/9205, H04N 9/8227

Video standard conversion

H04N 7/01

Colour signal processing circuits

H04N 9/64

Stereoscopic television signal compression encoding, including stereoscopic and multiview signal encoding

H04N 19/597

Video stream synchronization / multiplexing / packetization aspects

H04N 21/00

Video signal reformatting

H04N 21/4402, H04N 21/2343

Aspects concerning subtitles or other OSD information

H04N 21/488

Generation or processing of metadata

H04N 21/84

Stereoscopic endoscopes

A61B 1/00193, G02B 23/2415

Arrangements for determining or recording eye movement (e.g. for gaze detection)

A61B 3/113

Printing stereoscopic images

B41M 3/06

Illumination with structured light for measuring contours or curvature of an object

G01B 11/25

Optical systems (comprising elements used in stereoscopic systems)

G02B 27/00

Optical systems with means for monitoring data relating to the user, e.g. head-tracking, eye-tracking

G02B 27/0093

Head mounted displays

G02B 27/017

Optical systems for producing stereoscopic or other three dimensional effects

G02B 27/22

Spectacles having an electro-optical light valve (not switching at video field frequency)

G02C 7/101

Spectacles having passive polarizing filters

G02C 7/12

Stereoscopic film apparatus

G03B 35/00

Stereoscopic photographic or similar processes

G03C 9/00

Holographic imaging devices, even if providing a tv-like experience

G03H 1/00

Input/output in interaction with the human body (virtual reality)

G06F 3/011

Stereoscopic image processing in general, i.e. not being specially adapted to be used with devices falling under H04N 13/00, e.g. stereoscopic image analysis, generation of depth values from stereoscopic images, stereoscopic image segmentation, generation of monoscopic images from stereoscopic images

G06T 7/00

Calculation or rendering of a monoscopic view of a 3D graphics object

G06T 15/20

Generation of 3D graphical models or scenes

G06T 17/00

Special rules of classification

Classification of additional information corresponding to the contents of the orthogonal groups (see here below) is compulsory. If additional information relates to technical aspects which are not strictly connected with the main technical features classified, classification is not compulsory but advisable. On the other hand, embodiments equivalent to the main embodiments classified by default should not classified even if explicitly described; classification of the main embodiments is considered to be sufficient.

Example:

An invention concerning a time variant parallax barrier display is to be classified in H04N 13/315. If there are colour aspects, H04N 13/324 must be added. If in one of the embodiments the invention is applied to a lenticular screen display, additional classification in H04N 13/305 is not considered to be necessary. If on the other hand one of the embodiments discloses aspects concerning image processing, classification in the relevant subgroups of H04N 13/10 should be considered.

  • Orthogonal groups

Some H04N 13/00 groups are to be regarded as orthogonal. The orthogonal groups of each of the three main subsections H04N 13/10, H04N 13/20 and H04N 13/30 are listed therein.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Stereoscopic

Providing (exactly) two different views, one for the left eye and one for the right eye

2D

Two dimensional

3D

Three dimensional, sometimes also used to mean stereoscopic

Autostereoscopic display

A display device not requiring glasses to provide a stereoscopic effect to the viewer

Multiview

Providing more than two different views to one or more viewers according to their viewing position or direction; the views can be 2D or 3D

Volumetric display

A device generating a "solid" image, i.e. not an image on the surface of a display, but one having a real depth. Such systems have been considered to fall within the definition of stereoscopic systems because the viewer's eyes perceive two different pictures.

Lenticular lens (screen)

An array of very thin cylindrical lenslets (normally less than 1mm wide) placed vertically in front or behind a display or light modulator in order to generate optically directive views in autostereoscopic displays / cameras

Parallax barrier

An array of very thin slits performing the same function of the lenticular screen; it may be electronically generated, switchable, adaptive, etc

Fly-eye lenticular screen

An array of very small bidimensional lenses (typically circular / hemispherical) placed in front of a display, light modulator or image sensor like a normal lenticular screen, providing bidimensional parallax

Pseudostereo(scopic) effect

Stereoscopic or 3D visual effect obtained without sending different views to the viewer's eyes; the same term is sometimes used to denote the effect due to a wrong viewer's position in front of an autostereoscopic effect, whereby the right image is seen by the left eye and vice versa

Integral imaging

A technique of image capture or display which uses a fly's eye or a lenticular screen in front of the image sensor/display in order to capture/display images with parallax

Plenoptic camera

A camera, normally non-stereoscopic, using a technique allowing focussing after image capture, by means of a lenticular lens array combined with a plurality of (small) image sensors

Light-field camera

See plenoptic camera

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

LCD

Liquid Crystal Display

SLM

Spatial Light Modulator

OSD

On-Screen Display

CAD

Computer Aided Design

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "3D"and "stereoscopic"
  • "lenticular screen", "lenticular lens array" and "lenticular array"
Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems or their details
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hardware-related or software-related aspects specific to measuring or testing of values involved in the television signal processing at the transmitter side and/or the receiver side, for analog or digital television signal.

Relationships with other classification places

H04N 17/00 features test techniques for all the devices which belong to the television chain: television cameras, transmission path, television receivers or recorders, distribution systems which are found in H04N 5/00, H04N 7/00, H04N 9/00, H04N 11/00, H04N 21/00.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for locating faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere

G01R 31/00

Testing correct operation of photographic apparatus or parts thereof

G03B 43/00

Electronic inspection or testing of displays and display drivers, e.g. of LED or LCD displays

G09G 3/006

Monitoring of transmission systems; Testing of transmission systems

H04B 17/00

Special rules of classification

H04N 17/00 features a limited number of CPC symbols and has an associated Indexing Code scheme with additional subdivisions: H04N 17/00

Allocation of CPC symbols and/or Indexing Code symbols:

  • a document containing invention information relating to testing of television systems or details will be given an H04N 17/00 CPC symbol as invention information
  • a document containing additional information relating to testing of television systems or details will be given an H04N 17/00 CPC symbol as invention information
  • a document merely mentioning details of colour television systems will not be given a CPC symbol as invention information, but it may receive an Indexing Code if the disclosure is considered relevant.

Monitoring aspects are also covered in the appropriate main groups, e.g. H04N 5/00, H04N 7/00, H04N 21/00.

Methods or arrangements for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Methods or arrangements for coding or compressing an input digital video sequence for the purpose of onward transmission (e.g. by broadcasting), or of storage (e.g. at servers, set-top boxes or hard-disks) for subsequent reproduction in viewers' premises.
  • Processing in accordance with standards such as MPEG-x or H.26x.
  • Methods or arrangements for transform coding of static images.
  • The scope of H04N 19/00 and its subgroups is limited to the part of digital video coding and compression strictly comprised between the digital video input and the compressed video output.
Relationships with other classification places
  • Processing of the compressed video (e.g. fragmentation in packet units, encapsulation, medium adaptation for transport, video distribution) is covered by H04N 21/00 or H04H.
  • Processing of not yet compressed video signals or after decoding, such as re-sampling, interpolation, cropping, rotation, is generally covered by G06T, unless it interacts with aspects of processing for compression, in which case it is covered by relevant subgroups of H04N 19/00.
  • Computer graphics compression is covered by G06T 9/00.
  • General compression algorithms are covered by H03M 7/30.
  • Processing of documents or images for scanning, transmission or reproduction (e.g. telefax) is covered by H04N 1/00.
  • Details of digital television cameras, digital television receivers and digital video recorders are covered by H04N 5/00.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Information retrieval and database structures therefor, e.g. in image databases

G06F 16/00

Pattern recognition (characters, fingerprints)

G06K 9/00

General purpose image data processing, e.g. hardware for image processing

G06T 1/00

Geometric image transformation in the plane of the image

G06T 3/00

Image restoration

G06T 5/00

Image analysis, e.g. analysis of motion

G06T 7/00

Image coding

G06T 9/00

2D image generation

G06T 11/00

2D image animation (e.g. sprites in general)

G06T 13/80

3D image rendering

G06T 15/00

3D image modelling

G06T 17/00

Speech or audio signal analysis-synthesis techniques for redundancy reduction, e.g. in vocoders; Coding or decoding of speech or audio signals, using source filter models or psychoacoustic analysis

G10L 19/00

Editing; Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronising; Monitoring; Measuring tape travel, e.g. signal processing for video editing and recording on a special recording medium

G11B 27/00

General data coding

H03M

Details of multimedia broadcast systems

H04H

Processing of documents or images for scanning, transmission or reproduction (e.g. telefax)

H04N 1/00

Bandwidth or redundancy reduction for scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like, e.g. compression of two-tone or discrete tone static images

H04N 1/41

Colour conversion

H04N 1/60

Studio equipment, e.g. video cameras or devices for controlling television cameras

H04N 5/222

Television receivers

H04N 5/44

Video recording and play (e.g. trick play)

H04N 5/76

Closed circuit TV systems, details of video-surveillance cameras and circuits

H04N 7/18

Stereoscopic or multiview television systems

H04N 13/00

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television systems

H04N 17/00

Selective content distribution

H04N 21/00

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group

AVC

Advanced Video Coding

SVC

Scalable Video Coding

HEVC

High Efficiency Video Coding

using adaptive coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Static or dynamic adaptation in the interaction of the different building blocks or processes of the digital video compressor or decompressor, e.g. regulation of the parameters involved in the compression algorithm as a function of the channel capacity or of the desired quality of the reconstructed video signal.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling the complexity of the video stream at the transmitter side, e.g. by scaling the resolution or bitrate of the video stream

H04N 21/2662

Content or additional data management, e.g. controlling the complexity of the video stream at the receiver side

H04N 21/462

Special rules of classification

When classifying in this group, each aspect relating to adaptive coding should, insomuch as possible, be classified in each one of subgroups H04N 19/102, H04N 19/134, H04N 19/169, and H04N 19/189.

media1.png

characterised by the element, parameter or selection affected or controlled by the adaptive coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

The definition of the element, parameter or selection, which is affected by the adaptive coding, wherein element is to be understood as a functional block or process in the digital video compressor or decompressor.

Selection of the reference unit for prediction within a chosen coding or prediction mode, e.g. adaptive choice of position and number of pixels used for prediction
Definition statement

This place covers:

The selection of the reference unit (as contained e.g. in the memories in the figure below) for prediction within a chosen coding or prediction mode, e.g.:

  • weighted prediction
  • adaptive choice of position and number of pixels used for prediction
  • choice between different motion estimators or compensators (e.g. between diamond search and full search, between global and local motion compensation) skip mode, merge mode
  • adaptive choice of the reference frame or block in predictive encoding, e.g. spatial, temporal, interlayer or interview compensation.
  • adaptive reference picture list management
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Non-adaptive reference picture list management

H04N 19/50

media2.png

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multiple frame prediction

H04N 19/573

Bidirectional image interpolation, B-frames

H04N 19/577

Long-term prediction

H04N 19/58

between spatial and temporal predictive coding, e.g. picture refresh
Definition statement

This place covers:

The selection between spatial and temporal predictive coding, e.g. picture refresh by insertion of an intra-coded frame, as e.g. periodically or at scene change, or decision among intra-mode and inter-mode as in the figure.

media3.png

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Intra-frame, I-frame

Frame coded with spatial prediction

Inter-frame, P-frame

Frame coded with temporal prediction in one temporal direction

Bidirectional-frame, B-frame

Frame coded with temporal prediction in both temporal directions

Anchor frame

A frame usable for prediction of other frames, i.e. an intra-frame or an inter-frame

among a plurality of temporal predictive coding modes
Definition statement

This place covers:

The selection among a plurality of temporal predictive coding modes, e.g. a plurality of inter-prediction modes as in the standard H.263 or H.264.

among a plurality of spatial predictive coding modes
Definition statement

This place covers:

The selection among a plurality of spatial predictive coding modes, e.g. a plurality of intra-prediction modes as the directional block intra-prediction modes in the standard H.264 shown below.

media4.png

according to a given display mode, e.g. for interlaced or progressive display mode
Definition statement

This place covers:

The selection of a given display mode, e.g. interlaced or progressive as in the figure (as in MBAFF of H.264), and of the associated coding or prediction mode.

media5.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conversion of standards in television systems, e.g. at the pixel level of a picture from interlaced to progressive display mode and vice versa

H04N 7/01

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

MBAFF

Macroblock-adaptive frame-field coding

Adapting the group of pictures [GOP] structure, e.g. number of B-frames between two anchor frames (H04N 19/107 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • The adaptation of the length or the composition of a GOP, e.g. by changing the number of B-frames between anchor frames or by changing the number of P-frames between I-frames.
  • The selection of the structure of a group-of-pictures [GOP], e.g. of the number of P-frames, B-frames between two anchor frames, e.g. as in the figure below.

media6.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The selection between spatial and temporal predictive coding

H04N 19/107

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bidirectional image interpolation, B-frames

H04N 19/577

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Group-of-pictures

A group of successive pictures forming a logical unit within a coded video sequence in H.26x and MPEG standards.

Open GOP

A GOP which uses referenced pictures from the previous GOP at the current GOP boundary.

Closed GOP

A GOP that uses no referenced pictures from the previous GOP at the current GOP boundary (e.g. the classic GOP starting with an I frame).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

GOF

Group of frames.

GOP

Group of pictures.

Selection of the code volume for a coding unit prior to coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

The selection of the target rate or code volume assigned to a coding unit before coding the unit itself, e.g. to a picture or a group-of-pictures, as done within the rate controller in the figure below, or selection of frame rate.

media7.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Data rate or code amount at the encoder output

H04N 19/146

Filters, e.g. for pre-processing or post-processing (sub-band filter banks H04N 19/635)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter wherein the filtering is required to be part of an adaptive coding process, e.g. quantization controlling the filtering process, adaptive switching function after filtering process, optional filtering characteristics, adaptive selection of a filter type or of filter parameters, like strength and taps, as within the filter indicated in the figure below in function of a threshold determination.

media8.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sub-band based transform characterised by filter definition or implementation details

H04N 19/635

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of filtering operations specially adapted for video compression and not necessarily of adaptive nature

H04N 19/80

Pre-processing or post-processing specially adapted for video compression

H04N 19/85

Image enhancement or restoration by use of local operators

G06T 5/20

Impedance networks; Resonators

H03H

Adaptive subdivision aspects, e.g. subdivision of a picture into rectangular or non-rectangular coding blocks
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Adaptive segmentation aspects during video compression, e.g. ROI segmentation.
  • The selection of the subdivision of a picture into coding blocks, i.e. the determination of the grid of blocks covering a picture.
  • The selection may involve the shape, e.g. rectangular or non-rectangular, or the size of the blocks, e.g. in the standard H.264 with selection among 4 x 4, 4 x 8, 8 x 4, 8 x 8 pixel block sizes as shown in the figures below.

media9.png

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Macroblock

A MPEG coding unit including 16 x 16 pixels subdivided into four 8 x 8 blocks.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following expressions/words block", "sub-block", "tile" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the word "tile" is often used in the context of the standard JPEG 2000 and of transform coding of static images.

Selection from among a plurality of transforms or standards, e.g. selection between discrete cosine transform [DCT] and sub-band transform or selection between H.263 and H.264
Definition statement

This place covers:

Selection from a plurality of alternative compression algorithms within a video compressor, e.g.

  • Selection among discrete cosine transforms [DCT] and subband transforms.
  • Selection from a plurality of video compression standards, e.g. selection among H.263 and H.264, selection among MPEG-2 and MPEG-4.
  • Selection between lossy and lossless compression.
  • Transform skip mode (cf., hevc).

media10.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Video compression based on transform coding

H04N 19/60

Special coding techniques and algorithms

H04N 19/90

Selection of transform size, e.g. 8x8 or 2x4x8 DCT; Selection of sub-band transforms of varying structure or type
Definition statement

This place covers:

The selection of transform size within the same predetermined transform algorithm, e.g. 4x4 or 8x8 DCT as in the figure below, or 8x8 or 2x4x8 DCT for frame-based and for field-based block compression, respectively, or sub-band transforms of varying hierarchical structure or type.

media11.png

Quantisation
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter wherein specific details of a controlled quantiser is provided, e.g. frame type or input video characteristics controlling the quantiser, adaptive quantisation based on output or transmission buffer fullness, choice between fine or coarse quantisation.

media12.png

Details of normalisation or weighting functions, e.g. normalisation matrices or variable uniform quantisers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Special algorithms used for quantisation in video compression, e.g. the choice of normalisation parameters or matrices, details of variable uniform quantisers or the calculation of quantisation weighting matrices.

Prioritisation of hardware or computational resources
Definition statement

This place covers:

The control of resource allocation or assignment (e.g. CPU time, memory, allocation of digital processing units, workload distribution among processors), e.g. skipping of encoding or decoding steps or switching off computing or hardware units, like e.g. motion estimation/compensation or transform units.media13.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filtering control

H04N 19/117

Sampling, masking or truncation of coding units

H04N 19/132

Availability of hardware or computational resources, e.g. adapting coding based on assigned resources

H04N 19/156

Implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression

H04N 19/42

Scanning of coding units, e.g. zig-zag scan of transform coefficients or flexible macroblock ordering [FMO]
Definition statement

This place covers:

The adaptation of the scanning of coding units, e.g. the choice of a zig-zag scan of transform coefficients in a transform compressor, as in the figure, or the use of flexible macroblock ordering [FMO].

media14.png

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Definition of the coding unit

H04N 19/169

Video coding involving rearrangement of data among different coding units

H04N 19/88

Adaptive entropy coding, e.g. adaptive variable length coding [AVLC] or context adaptive binary arithmetic coding [CABAC]
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter wherein the entropy coding is adapted, e.g. frame type determining the coding table, CABAC, CAVLC, adaptive Huffman coding, choosing among different VLC methods for coding as in the figure.

media15.png

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Non-adaptive entropy coding for video compression

H04N 19/91

Non-adaptive run-length coding for video compression

H04N 19/93

Conversion to or from variable length codes in general

H03M 7/40

Conversion to or from run-length codes in general

H03M 7/46

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

VLC

Variable Length Coding

CABAC

Context-Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding

CAVLC

Context-Adaptive Variable Length Coding

Sampling, masking or truncation of coding units, e.g. adaptive resampling, frame skipping, frame interpolation or high-frequency transform coefficient masking
Definition statement

This place covers:

Adaptive sampling, masking or truncation of coding units, e.g. adaptive resampling, frame skipping, frame interpolation or high frequency transform coefficient masking, i.e. suppression or setting to zero, macroblock skipping, as in the figure.

media16.png

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Adaptive prioritisation of hardware or computational resources

H04N 19/127

Definition of the coding unit

H04N 19/169

Temporal sampling or interpolation for video coding

H04N 19/587

Spatial sampling or interpolation for video coding

H04N 19/59

characterised by the element, parameter or criterion affecting or controlling the adaptive coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

The definition of an element, a parameter or criterion, which exercises the control of an adapted element or selection as classified in H04N 19/102 in the adaptive coding, wherein element is to be understood as a functional block or process in the digital video compressor or decompressor.

Motion inside a coding unit, e.g. average field, frame or block difference
Definition statement

This place covers:

Determination of motion inside a coding unit, e.g. amount of temporal prediction errors, such as average difference calculated on a field, on a frame or on a block in two different time instants.

media17.png

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Motion estimation or compensation for video compression

H04N 19/51

Analysis of motion in general

G06T 7/20

Analysis of motion vectors, e.g. their magnitude, direction, variance or reliability
Definition statement

This place covers:

The measure of motion performed by explicitly using motion vectors (e.g magnitude, direction, variance, reliability measures).

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Motion estimation or compensation for video compression

H04N 19/51

Analysis of motion in general

G06T 7/20

Coding unit complexity, e.g. amount of activity or edge presence estimation (H04N 19/146 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Determination of coding unit complexity, e.g. by means of an activity detection, as in the figure below by means e.g. of flatness detection or energy of transform coefficients, by means of the detection of edge presence or by means of determination of the amount of spatial prediction error.

media18.png

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Measure of complexity defined by data rate or code amount at the encoder output

H04N 19/146

Detection of scene cut or scene change
Definition statement

This place covers:

The adaptive control of the video compression in response to detected scene cut or change.

media19.png

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Picture signal circuitry for video frequency region, e.g. scene change detection in television systems

H04N 5/14

Methods involving scene cut or scene change detection in combination with video compression

H04N 19/87

Data rate or code amount at the encoder output
Definition statement

This place covers:

The adaptive control of video compression by using information about the data rate or code amount at the encoder output.

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Adaptation of the selection of the code volume for a coding unit prior to coding

H04N 19/115

according to rate distortion criteria (rate-distortion as a criterion for motion estimation H04N 19/567)
Definition statement

This place covers:

The adaptation of encoding as a function of data rate or code amount determined according to rate-distortion criteria, e.g. as a function of a cost function.

References
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Rate distortion as a criterion for motion estimation

H04N 19/567

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Adaptation based on measured or subjectively estimated visual quality after decoding

H04N 19/154

Adaptation using optimisation based on Lagrange multipliers

H04N 19/19

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Cost function

A function of target parameters, as output rate and quality measurement after decoding (e.g. distortion).

by estimating the code amount by means of a model, e.g. mathematical model or statistical model
Definition statement

This place covers:

The estimation of the code amount by means of a model, e.g. a mathematical model or a statistical model, as done in the MPEG-2 Test Model 5 (TM5)

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Methods or arrangements, for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals using adaptive coding characterised by the adaptation method, adaptation tool or adaptation type used for the adaptive coding

H04N 19/189

by monitoring actual compressed data size at the memory before deciding storage at the transmission buffer
Definition statement

This place covers:

The estimation of the code amount by off-line encoding, i.e. encoding without storing at the transmission buffer, e.g. by means of a separate encoder as in the figure below, and counting of the actual data size of the compressed elementary stream.

media20.png

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Data rate or code amount at the encoder output by estimating the code amount by means of a model

H04N 19/149

by measuring the fullness of the transmission buffer
Definition statement

This place covers:

The control of the video coding by using the measurement of fullness in the transmission buffer, where the buffer may be implicit, as e.g. in the cases of a storage medium, a memory, a physical channel having a certain bit capacity.

media21.png

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Processing of video elementary streams

H04N 21/234

Measured or subjectively estimated visual quality after decoding, e.g. measurement of distortion (use of rate-distortion criteria H04N 19/147)
Definition statement

This place covers:

The control of video coding by means of quality after decoding, as measured, e.g. by means of distortion measurement, or as estimated by means of subjective tests.

This subgroup should be assigned, when quality is not particularly linked to output bit-rate.

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Use of rate-distortion criteria

H04N 19/147

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Data rate or code amount at the encoder output, e.g. where the quality measure is directly linked to output bit-rate

H04N 19/146

Availability of hardware or computational resources, e.g. encoding based on power-saving criteria
Definition statement

This place covers:

The control of video coding in dependence of the availability of hardware or computational resources, e.g. encoding based on power-saving criteria, time constrained encoding.

media22.png

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Prioritisation of hardware or computational resources, e.g. adaptively controlling the assignment of coding resources

H04N 19/127

implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression

H04N 19/42

Assigned coding mode, i.e. the coding mode being predefined or preselected to be further used for selection of another element or parameter
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • The control of video coding as a function of the coding mode assigned to the unit to be coded, i.e. the coding mode of the unit to be coded is predefined or preselected.
  • The subgroup H04N 19/159 covers the case that the coding mode is the prediction type used for the unit to be coded, e.g. intra, inter or bidirectional, as in the figure directly below.

media23.png

The subgroup H04N 19/16 covers the case that the assigned coding mode is for a given display mode, e.g. for interlaced or progressive display mode, as in the figure directly below.

media24.png

User input
Definition statement

This place covers:

The control of the video encoding by means of the input from a user, e.g. from a user interface.

Feedback from the receiver or from the transmission channel
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • The control of encoding the elementary video stream as a function of the feedback from the client/receiver or from the transmission channel, as e.g. in the figure below.
  • The subgroup H04N 19/166 covers in particular the case that the feedback contains a certain amount of transmission errors, e.g. by means of a bit- or packet-error-rate detection.

media25.png

Relationships with other classification places

The control of encoding as a function of the feedback from the receiver or from the transmission channel in a general telecommunication context is covered in H04L and H04W.

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Embedding additional information in the video signal during the compression process

H04N 19/46

Control signalling related to video distribution between receiver, transmitter, and network components

H04N 21/63

Transmission of management data between client and server

H04N 21/65

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

BER

Bit Error Rate

PER

Packet Error Rate

Position within a video image, e.g. region of interest [ROI]
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • The control of the video encoding as a function of a coding unit's position within a video image, e.g. the adoption of coding parameters adapted to a region of interest, different coding of foreground and of background, different coding at the image centre and at the image borders.
  • Adaptive video coding depends generally indirectly on the position within an image, e.g. coding parameters may be varied across coding units, e.g. blocks.
  • The present subgroup covers the case when the spatial position within the image is explicitly and directly defined as a criterion.
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Image region as coding unit

H04N 19/17

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ROI

Region Of Interest

characterised by the coding unit, i.e. the structural portion or semantic portion of the video signal being the object or the subject of the adaptive coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Definition of the video coding units that are controlled by or controlling the adaptive coding. The subgroups of H04N 19/169 define explicitly which coding units are meant.

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with respect to H04N 19/179, referring to scene or shot as coding unit:

Methods involving scene cut or scene change detection in combination with video compression

H04N 19/87

with respect to H04N 19/187, referring to scalable layer as coding unit:

Hierarchical and scalability techniques

H04N 19/30

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

(Video) Object

MPEG-4 object, i.e. a region of the image with arbitrary shape

Slice

A set of blocks within an image, e.g. a line of blocks.

Block

A rectangular matrix of pixels.

Macroblock

MPEG coding unit formed by four blocks arranged as a 2 x 2 matrix.

Group of pictures

MPEG coding unit formed by a set of consecutive pictures.

Scalable video layer

Coding unit of a scalable encoded video elementary stream

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

GOB

Group of Blocks

GOP

Group of Pictures

GOF

Group of Frames

FMO

H.264 Flexible Macroblock Ordering

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "slice" and "GOB"; "block" and "tile"
the unit being an image region, e.g. an object
Definition statement

This place covers:

Adaptive coding applied to regions of interest [ROI].

the region being a slice, e.g. a line of blocks or a group of blocks
Definition statement

This place covers:

Adaptive coding on any groups of blocks as long as these are linked to each other in a well-defined manner, such as slices in AVC and tiles in HEVC.

characterised by the adaptation method, adaptation tool or adaptation type used for the adaptive coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Special mathematical or algorithmic formulations for the methods or tools used for video coding adaptation.

Special rules of classification

This group is residual with respect to its subgroups.

using optimisation based on Lagrange multipliers
Definition statement

This place covers:

The formulation in terms of optimisation based on Lagrange multiplier techniques, as e.g. in the cost function defined as C = R + LD, where R is the output rate, L is the Lagrange multiplier, and D is the distortion after decoding.

the adaptation method, adaptation tool or adaptation type being iterative or recursive
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Iterative and recursive algorithms and techniques applied to the adaptation of video coding.
  • The special case of two-pass or two-step algorithms are covered by H04N 19/194.
being specially adapted for the computation of encoding parameters, e.g. by averaging previously computed encoding parameters (processing of motion vectors H04N 19/513)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of the mathematical laws or algorithms used for computation of encoding parameters (like e.g. quantisation step, coding mode), e.g. estimating a current encoding parameter by averaging previously computed encoding parameters, deriving the coding mode for the current coding unit from the coding mode of the neighbouring coding units. Neighbouring coding units may relate to views, layers, spatial or temporal neighbours.

References
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Formulations for processing of calculated motion vectors

H04N 19/513

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Formulations for initializing motion vector search

H04N 19/56

using video object coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of object-based video coding, as e.g. according to the standard MPEG-4.

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Hierarchical and scalability techniques (cf. H04N 19/29)

H04N 19/30

Processing of video elementary streams in the server, e.g. for generating or manipulating the scene composition of objects

H04N 21/234

Processing of video elementary streams in the server involving reformatting operations of video signals for distribution or compliance with end-user requests or end-user device requirements, e.g. by decomposing video signals into objects

H04N 21/2343

Processing of video elementary streams in the client device, e.g. involving rendering scenes according to scene graphs

H04N 21/44

Contour coding

G06T 9/20

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

(Video) Object

MPEG-4 object, i.e. a region of the image with arbitrary shape

Alpha-plane

A discrete bitmap (generally binary) defining the part of a frame constituting a given object, e.g. in terms of the position of the pixels belonging to the object or in terms of the position of the blocks covering the object.

Sprite

A unified background image derived by compositing the backgrounds of the single frames of a video sequence, e.g. having a camera motion throughout a video segment (within e.g. a scene, a shot, a GOP, a sequence). It may be static or dynamic.

Scene description coding

The coded representation of the spatiotemporal positioning of audio-visual objects as well as their behaviour in response to interaction, as e.g. in the standard MPEG-4 Part 11.

Synthetic/natural hybrid coding

Part of the MPEG-4 standard relating to coding facial animation and mesh compression.

Synthetic picture component

A picture component that is coded by geometric modelling with synthesizing at reconstruction (e.g. avatar).

Natural picture component

A picture component that is coded "as it stands" without geometric modelling.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

BIFS

BInary Format for Scenes

SNHC

Synthetic/Natural Hybrid Coding

VOL

Video Object Layer

VOP

Video Object Plane

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "object", "video object", and "video object plane (VOP)"
using hierarchical techniques, e.g. scalability (H04N 19/63 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Details of video coding, where the elementary video stream is coded so that it contains a hierarchy of different compressed representations of the same video sequence, wherein each representation may correspond e.g. to a different video resolution or video format. Layered coding is also covered here.
  • The hierarchy may be incremental, as e.g. in scalable video coding (like the extension of the standard H.264 called Scalable Video Coding [SVC]).
References
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Transform coding using sub-band based transform, e.g. wavelets

H04N 19/63

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Processing of video elementary streams in the server involving reformatting operations of video signals for distribution or compliance with end-user requests or end-user device requirements, e.g. by decomposing video signals into layers at the transmitter side

H04N 21/2343

Controlling the complexity of the video stream at the transmitter side, e.g. by scaling the resolution or bitrate of the video stream

H04N 21/2662

Processing of video elementary streams in the client device involving reformatting operations of video signals for household redistribution, storage of real-time display, e.g. by decomposing video signals into layers at the receiver side

H04N 21/4402

Content or additional data management, e.g. controlling the complexity of the video stream at the receiver side

H04N 21/462

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Temporal scalability

Scalability in terms of frame rate, meaning that a given bit stream includes different sub-streams each with a different frame rate or sub-streams that, when combined, increase the output frame rate.

Spatial scalability

Scalability in terms of spatial video sampling rate or resolution (e.g. quantisation step size, pixel bit depth), meaning that a given bit stream includes different sub-streams each with a different frame size or resolution or sub-streams that, when combined, increase the output frame size or resolution.

in the temporal domain
Definition statement

This place covers:

Performing hierarchical or layered coding by acting on temporal resolution, e.g. temporal scalability.

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Predictive coding using temporal sub-sampling or interpolation

H04N 19/587

in the spatial domain
Definition statement

This place covers:

Performing hierarchical or layered coding by acting on spatial resolution, e.g. spatial scalability.

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Predictive coding involving spatial sub-sampling or interpolation

H04N 19/59

with arrangements for assigning different transmission priorities to video input data or to video coded data
Definition statement

This place covers:

The preliminary organisation of the video elementary stream with assignment of different priorities or importance to data to be further transmitted, e.g. for transmission or dropping.

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Error resilience techniques for digital video coding involving data partitioning

H04N 19/66

Control signalling in networks for selective content distribution, e.g. multimode transmission

H04N 21/63

Communication control characterised by a protocol, e.g. protocols for client-server architecture

H04L 29/06

using video transcoding, i.e. partial or full decoding of a coded input stream followed by re-encoding of the decoded output stream
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transcoding of the elementary video stream at the level of digital video coding, i.e. partial or full decoding of a coded input stream and re-encoding of the decoded output stream.

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Video standard conversion at the pixel level, e.g. for analog television

H04N 7/01

Video conference systems, e.g. reformatting video signals

H04N 7/15

Processing of video elementary streams at a server involving reformatting operations of video signals

H04N 21/2343

Processing of video elementary streams at a client device involving reformatting operations of video signals

H04N 21/4402

Information retrieval, e.g. distillation of HTML documents for optimising the visualization of content or computer file format conversion

G06F 16/00

Communication protocols, e.g. transcoding therefor

H04L 29/06

characterised by implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression, e.g. dedicated software implementation (H04N 19/635 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Implementation details or hardware specific for elementary video compression or decompression, e.g. dedicated software implementation, memory arrangements, parallel processing or hardware for motion estimation or compensation.

References
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This place does not cover:

Filter definition or implementation details for defining sub-band transforms

H04N 19/635

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Decoder specific implementations

H04N 19/44

Binary arithmetic

G06F 7/60

Execution of machine instructions

G06F 9/30

Pipelines

G06F 9/38

Resource allocation

G06F 9/50

Transfer of information, buses

G06F 13/00

Digital computing

G06F 17/00

Complex mathematical operations

G06F 17/10

Software or hardware implementations of Fourier, Walsh or analogous domain transformations

G06F 17/14

characterised by memory arrangements (H04N 19/433 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Details of memory arrangements or management specifically dedicated to video compression.
  • The subgroup H04N 19/426 covers details of memory downsizing techniques.
References
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This place does not cover:

Techniques for memory access in motion estimation or compensation

H04N 19/433

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Accessing, addressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures in general

G06F 12/00

Memory management for general purpose image data processing

G06T 1/60

Control arrangements or circuits for visual indicators common to cathode-ray tube indicators and other visual indicators, e.g. display memories

G09G 5/00

Static storage for general purpose data processing, e.g. memories, shift registers

G11C

Decoders specially adapted therefor, e.g. video decoders which are asymmetric with respect to the encoder
Definition statement

This place covers:

Video decoders not symmetric with the corresponding encoders, i.e. decoding means or steps are not a mere reversal of the corresponding encoding means or steps, or specific hardware or software implementations details for the video decoder.

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Implementation details or hardware specific for video encoding and decoding

H04N 19/42

Complex mathematical operations

G06F 17/10

Embedding additional information in the video signal during the compression process (H04N 19/517, H04N 19/68, H04N 19/70 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Subject matter wherein additional information is provided and transmitted within the compressed video signal, e.g. flag information or ancillary encoding information without details of syntax related data structure, watermarking.
  • Encoding parameters are generally included for transmission in the video elementary stream.
  • This group or its subgroups should be assigned if special details are provided about their insertion for transmission in the stream, e.g. compression is covered by H04N 19/463.
References
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This place does not cover:

Motion vector coding and transmission

H04N 19/517

Insertion of resynchronisation markers into the bitstream

H04N 19/68

Syntax aspects related to video coding

H04N 19/70

characterised by the embedded information being invisible, e.g. watermarking
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of the embedding of additional information during the coding process, which is embedded into the image part or into the auxiliary information of the elementary video bit stream in order to be invisible, e.g. by watermarking.

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Circuits or arrangements for control or supervision between transmitter and receiver, e.g. display, printing, storage or transmission of additional information in scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents or the like

H04N 1/32

Generation or processing of content or additional data for video distribution by content creator independently of the distribution process; Content for video distribution per se

H04N 21/80

Generation of protective data involving watermarking as additional data for video distribution

H04N 21/8358

using compressed domain processing techniques other than decoding, e.g. modification of transform coefficients, variable length coding [VLC] data or run-length data (motion estimation in a transform domain H04N 19/547; processing of decoded motion vectors H04N 19/513)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of compressed domain processing techniques other than decoding, e.g. modification of transform coefficients, of VLC data or of run-length data, filtering in the compressed domain.

media26.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Processing of decoded motion vectors

H04N 19/513

Motion estimation in a transform domain

H04N 19/547

using predictive coding (H04N 19/61 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Predictive digital video coding techniques not otherwise provided in other subgroups.

References
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This place does not cover:

Transform coding (constitutes a significant non trivial detail) used in combination with predictive coding

H04N 19/61

involving temporal prediction (adaptive coding with adaptive selection between spatial and temporal predictive coding H04N 19/107; adaptive coding with adaptive selection among a plurality of temporal predictive coding modes H04N 19/109)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Predictive digital video coding techniques involving temporal prediction not otherwise provided in other subgroups.
  • Details of temporal prediction are classified here.
References
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This place does not cover:

Adaptive coding with adaptive selection between spatial and temporal predictive coding

H04N 19/107

Adaptive coding with adaptive selection among a plurality of temporal predictive coding modes

H04N 19/109

using conditional replenishment
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Temporal predictive coding using conditional replenishment, i.e. transmitting only a portion of a picture, in which a change has been detected with respect to the corresponding co-located portion of the immediately previous picture.
  • Conditional replenishment may be seen also as motion compensated temporal predictive encoding, using only skipping or transmission with zero motion vector.
Motion estimation or motion compensation
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Details of disparity estimation and compensation in stereoscopic or multi-view video coding are also covered in this subgroup and in its subgroups. For a synopsis of motion estimation techniques in video coding, see the figure below.

media27.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Picture signal circuitry for video frequency region, e.g. for movement detection in television systems not related to digital video coding

H04N 5/14

Conversion of standards for analogue television systems, e.g. at pixel level involving interpolation processes involving the use of motion vectors

H04N 7/01

Analysis of motion by image analysis in general

G06T 7/20

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Motion vector

A two-dimensional vector used for inter prediction that provides an offset from the coordinates in the decoded picture to the coordinates in a reference picture.

Global motion estimation

Process to estimate the part of motion in a video sequence caused by camera motion, e.g. background motion by panning or zooming.

Multiresolution motion estimation

Motion estimation performed on the same picture of a video sequence at different spatial sampling resolutions (coarse-to-fine: starting from the lowest resolution; fine-to-coarse: starting from the highest resolution).

Block-based matching motion estimation

Classic motion estimation based on the search of a best matching block in a reference frame.

Occlusion

A part of background or of a foreground object that is hidden in one frame and then uncovered in a following frame.

(Motion) Search window

A region in a reference frame, where the search for the block or feature best matching the current block or feature is performed.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

MV

Motion Vector

GMV

Global Motion Vector

MAE

Mean Absolute Error

MAD

Mean Absolute Difference

SAD

Sum of Absolute Differences

MSE

Mean Squared Error

CCF

Cross-Correlation Function

PDC

Pixel Difference Classification

DFD

Displaced Frame Difference

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "reference frame" and "anchor frame"
Processing of motion vectors
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Subject matter wherein the determined or existing motion vectors are subjected to further processing or modification, e.g. scaling of motion vectors for scalability or transcoding purposes, encoding of motion vectors, reducing or dropping of motion vectors.
  • Motion vector coding and predictive coding is covered in the subgroups.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processing of encoding parameters different from motion vectors

H04N 19/46

Motion estimation based on rate distortion criteria
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rate distortion as a criterion for adaptive coding

H04N 19/147

Motion compensation with multiple frame prediction using two or more reference frames in a given prediction direction
Definition statement

This place covers:

Uni-directional or bi-directional motion compensation with more than one reference frame per direction

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Bi-directional motion frame interpolation

Temporal interpolation where a frame is predicted as a function both of a preceding anchor frame and of a succeeding anchor frame, e.g. by averaging.

Motion compensation with bidirectional frame interpolation, i.e. using B-pictures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Bi-directional motion compensation with one or more than one reference frame per direction

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Bi-directional motion frame interpolation

Temporal interpolation where a frame is predicted as a function both of a preceding anchor frame and of a succeeding anchor frame, e.g. by averaging.

Motion compensation with long-term prediction, i.e. the reference frame for a current frame not being the temporally closest one (H04N 19/23 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Prediction of a frame (Ppred) from an anchor frame (Panc) that is not the closest anchor frame preceding or succeeding the frame to be predicted, cf. figure.

media28.png

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Video object coding with coding of regions that are present throughout a whole video segment, e.g. sprites, background or mosaic

H04N 19/23

involving temporal sub-sampling or interpolation, e.g. decimation or subsequent interpolation of pictures in a video sequence
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sub-sampling or interpolation in the temporal domain during digital video compression or decompression.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conversion of standards for analogue television systems, at pixel level involving interpolation processes

H04N 7/01

Adaptive sampling for adaptive digital video coding

H04N 19/132

Video compression using hierarchical techniques in the temporal domain

H04N 19/31

involving spatial sub-sampling or interpolation, e.g. alteration of picture size or resolution
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Sub-sampling or interpolation in the spatial domain during digital video compression or decompression.
  • Details of sub-sampling or interpolation operations during motion estimation and compensation with sub-pixel accuracy are also covered here.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Conversion of standards for analogue television systems, at pixel level involving interpolation processes

H04N 7/01

Adaptive sampling for adaptive digital video coding

H04N 19/132

Video compression using hierarchical techniques in the spatial domain

H04N 19/33

Motion estimation or motion compensation with sub-pixel accuracy

H04N 19/523

Scaling the whole image or part thereof, e.g. by interpolation based image scaling

G06T 3/40

involving spatial prediction techniques
Definition statement

This place covers:

Digital video compression involving spatial prediction techniques, e.g. details of intra prediction.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Adaptive coding with adaptive selection between spatial and temporal predictive coding

H04N 19/107

Adaptive coding with adaptive selection among a plurality of spatial predictive coding modes

H04N 19/11

specially adapted for multi-view video sequence encoding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of stereoscopic or multi-view digital video coding including processing (e.g. compression) of depth maps.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Motion estimation or compensation, e.g. details of vector based interview estimation and compensation.

H04N 19/51

using transform coding
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fourier, Walsh or analogous domain transformations in general, e.g. implementation details of DCT or wavelet transforms

G06F 17/14

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

DCT

Discrete Cosine Transform

KLT

Karhunen-Loève Transform

DST

Discrete Sine Transform

FFT

Fast Fourier Transform

WLT

Wavelet Transform

MCTF

Motion Compensated Temporal Filtering

EZW

Embedded Zerotrees of Wavelets

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "discrete cosine transform" and "cosine transform"
{the transform being operated outside the prediction loop}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transform based predictive video coders of the type displayed in the figure below, i.e. where the transform is operated before or after the prediction loop.

media29.png

characterised by filter definition or implementation details
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression

H04N 19/42

using error resilience
Definition statement

This place covers:

Techniques applied at the level of encoding the elementary video stream for the purpose of increasing the error resilience thereof.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems for detection or correction of transmission errors in the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation

H04N 19/89

Selective content distribution, e.g. error resilience techniques for storage at video servers or for channel coding adapted to video distribution

H04N 21/00

Channel coding of digital bit-stream for video distribution

H04N 21/2383

Coding, decoding or code conversion, e.g for error correction in general

H03M 13/00

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received, e.g. preventing errors by adapting the channel coding

H04L 1/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Resynchronisation marker

A special Variable Length Coding binary word inserted to allow re-initialisation of VLC decoding, which is forced by the marker.

Reversible Variable Length Coding

VLC allowing backward decoding of the stream, i.e. decoding of a VLC coded binary string starting from the end to the beginning.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Resync marker

Resynchronisation marker

RVLC

Reversible Variable Length Coding

UEP

Unequal Error Protection

characterised by syntax aspects related to video coding, e.g. related to compression standards
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter wherein details about standards related coding syntax or about using the syntax in the coding process are provided, e.g. H.264 supplemental enhancement information [SEI], headers definitions, details of elementary stream parsing.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Syntax

The definition of the binary codes and values that make up a conforming elementary video bit stream.

Semantics

The definition of the meaning of the syntax and of the process flow for decoding the syntax elements to produce the digital video output.

Profile/Level

Operational level of a standard compliant decoder, which uses a predefined subset of the features defining the complete decoder according to the standard. The definition of the predefined subset falls also within the prescriptions of the standard.

Details of filtering operations specially adapted for video compression, e.g. for pixel interpolation (H04N 19/635, H04N 19/86 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter wherein a filtering operation specifically adapted to video compression is included but not necessarily adaptive in the video compression or decompression process, with details of the filtering operation provided.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Filter definition or implementation for sub-band based transform

H04N 19/635

Filtering for removal of coding artifacts

H04N 19/86

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adaptive filtering operation

H04N 19/117

Pre-processing or post-processing specially adapted for video compression

H04N 19/85

Image filtering for image enhancement or restoration using local operators

G06T 5/20

Impedance networks, e.g. resonant circuits, filters in general

H03H

involving filtering within a prediction loop
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • The insertion of the filtering within a prediction loop and details of such filter.
  • This subgroup is of relevance, only if it contributes to define non trivial details of the filtering operation as in-loop filtering, regardless whether the filtering is adapted in the sense of H04N 19/117 or not.

media30.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adaptive filtering operation

H04N 19/117

Filter definition or implementation for sub-band based transform

H04N 19/635

using pre-processing or post-processing specially adapted for video compression
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Subject matter wherein the pre or post processing operation is present as a functional block but not necessarily adaptive in the video coding process, e.g. the pre or post processing is respectively performed prior to the input of, or after the output of, the video coding process.
  • This subgroup is of relevance, only if the subject-matter to be classified contributes to define non trivial details of pre- or post-processing, regardless whether the filtering is adapted in the sense of H04N 19/117 or not.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

In-loop filtering

H04N 19/82

involving reduction of coding artifacts, e.g. of blockiness
Definition statement

This place covers:

Processing techniques (e.g. filtering or interpolation in the spatial or in the temporal domain) adapted to reduce artefacts caused by digital video compression, e.g. blockiness from block-based transform compression, frame freeze or jerkiness from dropping frames at compression or transmission, false contours from limited bit depth resolution.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuitry for suppressing or minimising disturbance (e.g. moiré, halo) in television systems

H04N 5/21

In-loop filtering

H04N 19/82

Filtering or interpolation as an error concealment technique

H04N 19/895

involving scene cut or scene change detection in combination with video compression
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Picture signal circuitry for video frequency region, e.g. circuitry for scene change detection in television systems.

H04N 5/14

Scene cut detection in adaptive video coding

H04N 19/142

involving rearrangement of data among different coding units, e.g. shuffling, interleaving, scrambling or permutation of pixel data or permutation of transform coefficient data among different blocks
Definition statement

This place covers:

Techniques for the rearrangement of data among different coding units at the level of a single elementary video stream within the operation of the video coder, e.g. shuffling, interleaving, scrambling, permutation of pixel data or permutation of transform coefficient data among different blocks.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Analogue secrecy systems in television systems

H04N 7/16

Adaptive scanning of coding units

H04N 19/129

Processing of video elementary streams for video distribution involving video stream encryption at the transmitter side

H04N 21/2347

Processing of video elementary streams involving video stream decryption

H04N 21/4405

Processing of video elementary streams involving video stream encryption at the receiver side

H04N 21/4408

involving methods or arrangements for detection of transmission errors at the decoder
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Techniques for detecting transmission errors at the digital video decoder and at the level of the elementary video stream.
  • The subgroup H04N 19/895 covers details of detection in combination with error concealment.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Decoders specifically adapted for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals

H04N 19/44

Methods or arrangements, for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals using error resilience

H04N 19/65

Interfacing the downstream path of the transmission network originating from a server, e.g. channel decoding in selective content distribution

H04N 21/438

Monitoring of processes or resources, e.g. of downstream path of the transmission network at the receiver side

H04N 21/442

Monitoring of client processing errors or hardware failure in selective video distribution

H04N 21/4425

Control signalling between network components and server or clients, e.g. monitoring network process errors by the network

H04N 21/647

Coding, decoding or code conversion for error detection or error correction in general

H03M 13/00

using coding techniques not provided for in groups H04N 19/10-H04N 19/85, e.g. fractals
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Methods or arrangements, for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals

H04N 19/10

using adaptive coding

H04N 19/10

using video object coding

H04N 19/20

using hierarchical techniques, e.g. scalability

H04N 19/30

using video transcoding

H04N 19/40

Implementation details or hardware specially adapted for video compression or decompression

H04N 19/42

Decoders specifically adapted for coding, decoding, compressing or decompressing digital video signals

H04N 19/44

Embedding additional information in the video signal during the compression process

H04N 19/46

using compressed domain processing techniques other than decoding

H04N 19/48

using predictive coding

H04N 19/50

using transform coding

H04N 19/60

using error resilience

H04N 19/65

characterised by syntax aspects related to video coding

H04N 19/70

Details of filtering operations specially adapted for video compression

H04N 19/80

Pre-processing or post-processing specially adapted for video compression

H04N 19/85

Entropy coding, e.g. variable length coding [VLC] or arithmetic coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter wherein the entropy coding is especially adapted to video compression, e.g. specifics of table entries for fixed and variable length coding, details of MPEG Huffman coding, details of H.264 arithmetic coding.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Adaptive entropy coding, e.g. adaptive variable length coding [AVLC] or context adaptive binary arithmetic coding [CABAC]

H04N 19/13

Run-length coding for video compression

H04N 19/93

Conversion to or from variable length codes in general

H03M 7/40

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

VLCA

Variable Length Coding

Run-length coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Subject matter wherein the run-length coding is especially adapted to video compression.
  • In run-length coding a run, i.e. a sequence of identical data values, is coded by a representation of the data value together with the length of the sequence.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Variable length coding in an adaptive video coding process

H04N 19/13

Conversion to or from run-length codes in general

H03M 7/46

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

RLE

Run-Length Encoding

Vector quantisation
Definition statement

This place covers:

Video compression using vector quantisation, i.e. by dividing a large set of points into groups (vectors) having approximately the same number of points closest to them and by representing each group by a single code, which is associated with its centroid point.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compression in general, e.g. vector coding

H03M 7/30

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

VQ

Vector Quantisation

Tree coding, e.g. quad-tree coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Video compression using tree coding.
  • Two-dimensional tree coding is called quad-tree coding and is performed by partitioning an image or a video frame by recursively subdividing it into four quadrants or regions, until each region may be represented by a single colour or code word, and coding the resulting tree data structure in which each internal node has exactly four children and each termination node (leaf) corresponds to a resulting region with the colour or code word associated to it, cf. R. Finkel and J.L. Bentley (1974). "Quad Trees: A Data Structure for Retrieval on Composite Keys". Acta Informatica 4 (1): 1–9.
  • Tree coding in higher dimension is defined correspondingly (e.g. octree, performed in three-dimensions by subdivision into eight volumetric regions).

media31.png

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Image coding using tree coding, e.g. quadtree, octree

G06T 9/40

Matching pursuit coding
Definition statement

This place covers:

Video compression using matching pursuit coding, cf. G. Mallat and Z. Zhang, "Matching Pursuits with Time-Frequency Dictionaries", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, December 1993, pp. 3397–3415.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

MP

Matching Pursuit

Adaptive-dynamic-range coding [ADRC]
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Video compression using adaptive-dynamic-range coding, cf. Kondo et al., "Adaptive dynamic range coding scheme for future HDTV digital VTR", Proceedings of Signal Processing of HDTV, III. Fourth International Workshop on HDTV and Beyond, Turin, Italy, 4-6 Sept. 1991, p. 43-50.

The term "adaptive" in the "Adaptive-Dynamic-Range Coding" refers to the dynamic range being adaptive and not to the coding being adaptive, which is covered by H04N 19/10 and subgroups.

media32.png

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ADRC

Adaptive-Dynamic-Range Coding

{involving fractal coding}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Lossy video compression using fractal algorithms, as described in Y. Fisher, D. N. Rogovin and T.-P. J. Shen, "Fractal (Self-VQ) Encoding of Video Sequences", Proc. of the Conference on Visual Communications and Image Processing '94, Chicago, IL, USA, 25-29 Sept. 1994, SPIE, vol. 2308, p.1359-1370 (1994).
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Methods for coding digital video signals using vector quantisation

H04N 19/94

Selective content distribution, e.g. interactive television or video on demand [VOD] (real-time bi-directional transmission of motion video data H04N 7/14 {; broadcast or conference over packet switching networks H04L 12/18})
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Interactive video distribution processes, systems, or elements thereof, which are characterised by point-to-multipoint system configurations, and which are mainly used for motion video data unidirectional distribution or delivery resulting from interactions between systems operators, e.g. access or service providers, or users e.g. subscribers, and system elements
  • Such systems include dedicated communication systems, such as television distribution systems, which primarily distribute or deliver motion video data in the manner indicated, which may, in addition, provide a framework for further, diverse data communications or services in either unidirectional or bi-directional form. However, video will occupy most of the downlink bandwidth in the distribution process.
  • Typically, system operators interface with transmitter-side elements or users' interface with receiver-side elements in order to facilitate, through interaction with such elements, the dynamic control of data processing or data flow at various points in the system. This interaction is typically occasional or intermittent in nature.
  • Processes, systems or elements thereof specially adapted to the generation, distribution and processing of data, which is either associated with video content, e.g. metadata, ratings, or related to the user or his environment and which has been actively or passively gathered. This data is either used to facilitate interaction or to alter or target the content.
Relationships with other classification places
  • H04N 21/00 is an application place for a large number of IT technologies, which are covered by the corresponding functional places
  • Video servers and clients use internally specific computing techniques. Corresponding techniques used in general computing are found in G06F. This concerns data storage, software architectures, error detection or correction, monitoring, video retrieval, browsing, Internet browsing, computer security, billing or advertising
  • Video servers and clients use specific telecommunication techniques for the video distribution process. Corresponding techniques used in generic telecommunication networks are found in subclasses H04B, H04H, H04L, H04W. This concerns monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers, synchronisation in time-division multiplex, broadcast or multicast, maintenance, administration, testing, data processing in data switching networks, home networks, real-time data network services, data network security, applications for data network, wireless networks per se.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Real-time bi-directional transmission of motion video data

H04N 7/14

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronising circuits with arrangements for extending range of synchronisation at the transmitter end

H04N 5/067

Television picture signal circuitry for Scene change detection

H04N 5/147

Reproduction of recorded television signals

H04N 5/76

Interface circuits between an apparatus for recording television signals and a television receiver

H04N 5/775

Television signal recording using magnetic recording on tape for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate

H04N 5/783

Conversion of standards in analog television systems

H04N 7/01

Adaptations for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution in television systems

H04N 7/106

Signal processing in analog two-way television systems

H04N 7/173

Reproduction of recorded television signals

H04N 9/79

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television receivers

H04N 17/04

Systems for the transmission of television signals using pulse code modulation using bandwidth reduction involving transcoding

H04N 19/40

Flight-deck installations for entertainment or communications

B64D 11/0015

Resetting in general

G06F 1/14

Constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application

G06F 1/1626

Power management in computer systems

G06F 1/3203

Input arrangements for interaction with the human body based on nervous system activity detection

G06F 3/015

Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces

G06F 3/048

Storage management

G06F 3/0604

RAID arrays per se

G06F 3/0689

Interfaces to printers

G06F 3/12

Digital output for controlling a plurality of local displays

G06F 3/1423

Software architectures; Program control

G06F 9/44, G06F 9/46

Error detection or correction; Monitoring

G06F 11/00

Addressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures

G06F 12/02

Prefetching while addressing of a memory level in which the access to the desired data or data block requires associative addressing means within memory systems or architectures

G06F 12/0862

Retrieval of video data

G06F 16/70

Retrieval from the web

G06F 16/95

Computer security

G06F 21/00

Methods or arrangements for acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions

G06K 9/00221

Methods or arrangements for recognising movements or behaviour

G06K 9/00335

Methods or arrangements for recognising human body or animal bodies or body parts

G06K 9/00362

Methods or arrangements for recognising scenes

G06K 9/00624

Printing data

G06K 15/02

Computer systems using learning methods

G06N 3/08

Billing; Advertising

G06Q 20/00, G06Q 30/00

Banking in general

G06Q 30/02

Image watermarking in general

G06T 1/0021

Image enhancement or restoration in general

G06T 5/00

Adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal

G09G 5/005

Details of formatting and decoding of an encoded audio signal representation into a data stream for transmission or storage purposes

G10L 19/167

Details of audio signal transcoding

G10L 19/173

Arrangements for data linking, networking or transporting, or for controlling an end to end session in a satellite broadcast system

H04B 7/18526

Arrangements for wireless networking or broadcasting of information in indoor or near-field type systems

H04B 10/114

Monitoring or testing of transmitters/receivers

H04B 17/00

Broadcast communication

H04H

Synchronisation in time-division multiplex

H04J 3/06

Allocation of channels according to the instantaneous demands of the users in time-division multiplex systems

H04J 3/1682

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by adapting the channel coding

H04L 1/0009

ARQ protocols

H04L 1/18

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter

H04L 7/00

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter by comparing receiver clock with transmitter clock

H04L 7/0012

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter wherein the receiver takes measures against momentary loss of synchronisation

H04L 7/0083

Key distribution for secret or secure communication

H04L 9/08

Key distribution for secret or secure communication, using a key distribution center, a trusted party or a key server

H04L 9/083

Arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system

H04L 9/32

Charging arrangements in data networks

H04L 12/14

Broadcast or multicast in data switching networks

H04L 12/18

Data processing in data switching networks

H04L 12/56

Analog front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line

H04L 27/0002

Real-time data network services

H04L 29/06176

Data network security

H04L 29/06551

Applications for data network services

H04L 29/08081

Maintenance or administration in data switching networks

H04L 41/00

Message switching systems

H04L 51/00

Wireless networks

H04W

Special rules of classification

In this main group, the first place priority rule is applied, i.e. at each hierarchical level, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the first appropriate place.

  • According to IPC rules, the full disclosure of the document is considered for classification. However classification should be limited to:

- Features providing a contribution to the invention or

- Non-claimed features, which clearly stand out from what is well known in this field and are sufficiently disclosed (thus excludes features appearing only in a list of possible alternatives, e.g. the video client being a TV receiver, Set-Top-Box, PC, mobile phone, ..)

  • The scheme uses multi-dimensional classification, allowing to allocate symbols to describe a system. A short document focussing solely on one specific aspect may receive 1 or 2 symbols whereas a lengthy document with a very complex system architecture and a lot of non-trivial non-claimed features may receive 10-12 symbols
  • When a whole system is disclosed its structural and functional aspects should be described according to their location in the video distribution chain (entity model):

H04N 21/2x:

for details of servers or processes related to the reception of the content from the content provider or related to the distribution of content to clients. Network interfaces are included but not the communication aspects with clients

H04N 21/4x:

for structural details of client devices or processes related among others to the processing, storing or displaying of the received content as well as user interfaces for accessing video services

H04N 21/6x:

for the nature of the downlink / uplink or the exchange of control signals or data between clients, servers, network

H04N 21/8x:

for specific multimedia content or processes taking place before distribution (usually by the content provider)

  • And independently according to their appropriate layer:

H04N 21/x[1-2]:

System architecture and topology

H04N 21/x[3-4]:

Functional and application aspects related to bit-stream processing or elementary operations

H04N 21/x[5-6]:

Functional and application aspects related to system management

H04N 21/x[7-8]:

Services and functionalities offered to the end-user

  • The classification scheme has thus a matrix structure and symbols taken from its different cells allow to classify the relevant aspects of a document as seen above.
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Additional data

designates still pictures, textual, graphical or executable data such as software. It is used to convey supplemental information and can be generated prior to or during the distribution process itself, e.g. metadata, keys.

Content

designates video or audio streams, which may be combined with additional data. Video data will always be present and occupy most of the downlink bandwidth in the distribution process

Server

designates an apparatus designed for adapting the content received from the content provider to the distribution network. It also manages the distribution to client devices or intermediate components over a network. Further servers may also be present for gathering or generating additional data, e.g. rights management server

Additional data server

designates a server, which sole purpose is the distribution or management of additional data. It is not in charge of the distribution of video or audio data

Client

designates an apparatus such as a TV receiver, a set-top-box, a PC-TV, a mobile appliance (e.g. mobile phone or receiver in a vehicle), for receiving video, audio and possibly additional data from one or several servers or intermediate components via a network for further processing, storing or displaying. It can also transmit this data on a home-based local network to further devices, e.g. a home server transmitting video to PCs and set-top-boxes within a home.

Local network

pertains to a restricted area, e.g. a home or a vehicle, and designates the link between a client and its peripheral devices

Network

is to be distinguished from "local network": "network" designates the link between the server and the clients, or between the server and the intermediate components, or between the intermediate components and the clients, or between remotely located clients

Distribution

encompasses broadcasting, multicasting and unicasting techniques for transmitting content from one or more sources to one or more receiving stations. The distribution follows a request by a receiving station to the source, e.g. VOD or from a customization of the content by the source, e.g. targeting advertisements to a demographic group in a unidirectional or bidirectional system. Additionally, distribution encompasses techniques where the client acts as a source and another client acts as a receiving station, e.g. a peer-to-peer system for sharing video among client devices

End-user

designates a physical person, e.g. a TV viewer, who consumes the content using the client device. He is the final recipient of the content distributed by the server

Interaction

covers actions occurring between or among two or more objects that have an effect upon one another, wherein objects comprise users, system operators, system elements, or content. The user may interact with content locally at the client device, e.g. for requesting additional data stored within the client device. The user may interact with content remotely through a server e.g. for VOD playback control or for uploading video to a server. The client device may interact with the content e.g. selecting content based upon the user profile. The client device may interact with a server using a return channel, e.g. for authenticating client or uploading client hardware capabilities. The server may interact with a client device, e.g. to force a client to tune to an advertisement channel

Upstream

designates the direction of data flow towards the source, e.g. a server receiving a request via a mobile phone network

Downstream

designates the direction of data flow towards a client, e.g. a client receiving data originating from a server

Elementary stream

An elementary stream (ES) as defined by the MPEG communication protocol designates the output of an audio or video encoder

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

VOD

Video On Demand

SI

Service Information

IP

Internet Protocol

OS

Operating System

PCR

Program Clock References

STB

Set-top-box

PC

Personal Computer

PVR

Personal Video Recorder

GPS

Global Positioning System

ECM

Entitlement Control Message

EMM

Entitlement Management Message

ROI

Region Of Interest

PIN

Personal identification number

DSM-CC

Digital Storage Media - Command and Control Protocol

RTP

Real-time Transport Protocol

UMID

Unique Material Identifier

MHEG

Hypermedia information coding Expert Group

XML

eXtensible Markup Language

Servers specifically adapted for the distribution of content, e.g. VOD servers; Operations thereof
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter comprising methods and components in the main broadcast server, headend, video-on-demand server, or server associated with the headend/video-on-demand server, which includes services, management and operations performed on the bitstream for distribution to client devices or an intermediate component over a network. The server adapts the content received from the content provider to the distribution network and only provides a network interface. Addressing issues and the exchange of control signals with the clients or the network are placed by definition in the T-model. The first layer of this subgroup pertains to the physical description of the server, e.g. its internal components, the sources of the content. The server may consist of a single physical entity or of a plurality of interconnected sub-servers. The second layer is directed to elementary specialized functions such as the storage and retrieval of the content, the processing of the elementary multimedia streams, the multiplexing thereof, the insertion of additional data, the processing of the data at the downstream and upstream network interfaces (e.g. channel coding, network adaptation, handling of clients requests), the monitoring of internal processes, e.g. server load, or of network interfaces, e.g. downstream bandwidth. The third layer describes the management of the content and of the system, such as client device or user management, scheduling issues e.g. according to bandwidth or billing policies, creation of virtual channels, management of services not directly linked to the distribution of multimedia content, e.g. billing, shopping, rights. The last layer is directed to data services directly accessible by the user, such as hosting of private data. The subgroup is directed to documents related to the insertion of server related data into a signal, such as time information inserted into EPG information. Raw multimedia data per se, is placed in H04N 21/80. The subgroup is directed to documents related to server functions, such as transmitting data to the user however, server characteristics initiated or performed on behalf of a user request is placed in the H04N 21/60. Examples of documents placed in the S-model (1) This subgroup is directed towards a server, which could be the source of additional information related to the World Wide Web. (2) This subgroup is directed towards alteration of the scene composition in regards to video objects (e.g. MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 objects). (3) This subgroup is directed towards multiplexing of video and audio streams for transmission. (4) This subgroup is directed towards the distribution of video data throughout a dwelling where the user is unaware of other users (e.g. a Hotel, Airplane or Train). Systems that provide video distribution within a dwelling where the user is aware of other users (e.g. a home gateway) is classified elsewhere. (5) This subgroup is directed to local storage built into (or next to) the server (H04N 21/218) and placement of the data onto the local storage device (H04N 21/231) (note: this is typically used in a VOD environment). Systems which are concerned about the specific details of storage or recording of video data, where the claimed invention is directed to how the video is stored or recorded (e.g. placement of the recording heads within a local storage device on a server), are classified elsewhere. (6) The subgroup is directed to documents related to the insertion of server related data into a signal, such as time information inserted into EPG information.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Streaming audio/video via internet

H04N 21/6125

Generation of the timestamps used for synchronization purposes

H04N 21/8547

URLs sent in the video signal

H04N 21/8586

Server components or server architectures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Physical description of the multimedia server. As most of the components are always present (e.g. modulator, memory), a symbol should be allocated only if one of the component has a critical function in the invention. It should be further noted, that most of the components have already an entry in other technical fields and that for example the circuitry of a modulator is not part of this model. The server is used to distribute the content in a very limited geographical area, such as a single building. It is localized in the same building. It can be for example a hotel or hospital. The server and clients are localized in a movable object, such as an aircraft, a train or a bus.

Specialised server platform, e.g. server located in an airplane, hotel, hospital {(arrangements specially adapted for local area broadcast systems H04H 20/61)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Servers been specially adapted to systems located in a confined environment.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements specially adapted for local area broadcast systems

H04H 20/61

{located in a single building, e.g. hotel, hospital or museum (arrangements specially adapted for plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems H04H 20/63; adaptations for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution in television systems H04N 7/106)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The server is used to distribute the content in a very limited geographical area, such as a single building. It is localized in the same building. It can be for example a hotel, multiple dwelling units, hospital or museum, movie theater if serving different projection rooms.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: GB2411329

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Adaptations for transmission by electric cable for domestic distribution in television systems

H04N 7/106

Arrangements specially adapted for plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems

H04H 20/63

{located in mass transportation means, e.g. aircraft, train or bus (flight-deck installations for entertainment or communications B64D 11/0015; arrangements specially adapted for transportation systems in broadcast systems H04H 20/62; moving wireless networks H04W 84/005)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Server and clients are localized in a movable object, such as an aircraft, a train or a bus.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1903800

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Flight-deck installations for entertainment or communications

B64D 11/0015

Arrangements specially adapted for transportation systems in broadcast systems

H04H 20/62

Moving wireless networks

H04W 84/005

Source of audio or video content {, e.g. local disk arrays (details of retrieval in video databases G06F 16/739)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The source, from which the multimedia server accesses the multimedia content.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details of retrieval in video databases

G06F 16/70

{enabling multiple viewpoints, e.g. using a plurality of cameras}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • The same scene shot by different cameras under different angles.
  • Panoramic video.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: GB2355137

{comprising remotely distributed storage units, e.g. when movies are replicated over a plurality of video servers (distributed storage of data in a network H04L 29/08549)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The source located remotely, like in other video servers, when all available movies are distributed over a plurality of video servers of same importance.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO0158163

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Systems involving a hierarchy between servers

H04N 21/222

Distributed storage of data in a network

H04L 29/08549

{comprising local storage units}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The video source is built into the server or next to it. It is typical for a VOD server. Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2003229684

{involving memory arrays, e.g. RAID disk arrays (RAID arrays per se G06F 3/0689; use of parity to protect data in RAID systems G06F 11/1008)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Videos stored on disk arrays.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US6587640

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

RAID arrays per se

G06F 3/0689

Use of parity to protect data in RAID systems

G06F 11/1008

{involving removable storage units, e.g. tertiary storage such as magnetic tapes or optical disks}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Videos retrieved from magnetic or optical tapes.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO9935562, XP001159230

Cache memory {(caches in web servers or browsers G06F 16/9574; intermediate storage and caching in data networks H04L 29/08801)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Physical aspects of the cache.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1315091

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Caching operation on the server side

H04N 21/23106

Caches in web servers or browsers

G06F 16/9574

Intermediate storage and caching in data networks

H04L 29/08801

Live feed
Definition statement

This place covers:

Live feeds from cameras, or satellite at a headend.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2007216783

Secondary servers, e.g. proxy server, cable television Head-end {(intermediate processing or storage in data networks H04L 29/08702)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Local servers for serving mobile terminals.
  • The concept of secondary server is used to describe a hierarchy among several servers, as for example in distributed systems.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Intermediate processing or storage in data networks

H04L 29/08702

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Secondary server

A server belonging to a hierarchy of servers, e.g. servers forming part of distributed systems or local servers for serving mobile terminals

{being a cable television head-end (CATV in broadcast systems H04H 20/78)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Local server in a broadcast system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US7269841

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

CATV in broadcast systems

H04H 20/78

{being a public access point, e.g. for downloading to or uploading from clients (arrangements specially adapted to plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems H04H 20/63)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Public access point, where content can be downloaded to / uploaded from clients. Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO0150401

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements specially adapted to plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems

H04H 20/63

Local VOD servers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Local VOD server to serve a small area.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP0740470

{Characteristics of the server or} Internal components of the server
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2003026280

{Server identification by a unique number or address, e.g. serial number (addressing and naming in data networks H04L 29/12009)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Identification number of the server. It can be used for authenticating the server.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO2006101380

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Addressing and naming in data networks

H04L 29/12009

Processing of content or additional data; Elementary server operations; Server middleware
Definition statement

This place covers:

Elementary specialized functions. They can be implemented in software or hardware. Their task is to control the corresponding hardware component and to provide a service to the upper layer. e.g. network synchronization using a master clock for downstream/upstream transmissions. Synchronization of transmitters.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Handling or recovery of errors occurring in the server

H04N 21/2404

Content storage operation, e.g. caching movies for short term storage, replicating data over plural servers, prioritizing data for deletion
Definition statement

This place covers:

Organization and the action of storage as well as writing actions. Storage can be performed in disk arrays as found in VOD servers as well as internal databases, caching of movies or data or any memory related problem.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 7,017,174 B1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Retrieving and reading data in the server

H04N 21/232

Server-side memory management

H04N 21/241

{using load balancing strategies, e.g. by placing or distributing content on different disks, different memories or different servers (storage management G06F 3/0604; allocation of resources considering the load in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/505; techniques for rebalancing the load in a distributed system G06F 9/5083; access to distributed or replicated servers, e.g. load balancing, in data networks H04L 29/08144)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods describing the placement or distribution of content on different disks or different servers with the aim of providing a balanced load within the (distributed) system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0202444 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Data replication on different disks or servers

H04N 21/23116

Storage management

G06F 3/0604

Allocation of resources considering the load in multiprogramming arrangements

G06F 9/505

Techniques for rebalancing the load in a distributed system

G06F 9/5083

Access to distributed or replicated servers, e.g. load balancing, in data networks

H04L 29/08144

{involving caching operations (prefetching while addressing of a memory level in which the access to the desired data or data block requires associative addressing means within memory systems or architectures G06F 12/0862; caching at an intermediate stage in a data network H04L 29/08801)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Caching action, for example of movies in a local VOD server. The storage has a temporary aspect and must be distinguished from buffering as performed in the video encoder which holds the multimedia data for a brief period of time.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0169926 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Buffering on the encoder side

H04N 21/23406

Prefetching while addressing of a memory level in which the access to the desired data or data block requires associative addressing means within memory systems or architectures

G06F 12/0862

Caching at an intermediate stage in a data network

H04L 29/08801

{by placing content in organized collections, e.g. EPG data repository (details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video databases G06F 16/739)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of the generation and the management of a local database because it is trivial that local data are always stored in some kind of database (from simple lists to complex structures).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video databases

G06F 16/71

{involving housekeeping operations for stored content, e.g. prioritizing content for deletion because of storage space restrictions (storage management, e.g. defragmentation G06F 3/0604; snloading stored programs G06F 9/445; housekeeping operations in file systems, e.g. deletion policies G06F 16/10; buffering arrangements in a network node or in an end terminal in packet networks H04L 49/90)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Algorithms, describing which data are prioritized for deletion (e.g. oldest or less used data) are classified here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0169926 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Storage management, e.g. defragmentation

G06F 3/0604

Unloading stored programs

G06F 9/445

Housekeeping operations in file systems, e.g. deletion policies

G06F 16/10

Buffering arrangements in a network node or in an end terminal in packet networks

H04L 49/90

{involving data replication, e.g. over plural servers (synchronization of replicated data G06F 11/1658; error detection or correction by means of data replication G06F 11/2053; replication in distributed file systems G06F 16/10; replication in distributed file systems G06F 16/27; replication or mirroring of data in data networks H04L 29/0854)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Content replicated over different servers or over different hard disks.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0202444 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Synchronization of replicated data

G06F 11/1658

Error detection or correction by means of data replication

G06F 11/2053

Replication in distributed file systems

G06F 16/10

Replication in distributed file systems

G06F 16/27

Replication or mirroring of data in data networks

H04L 29/0854

Data placement on disk arrays {(data placement in general G06F 3/0604)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Data block placement strategies in the disk array of video servers.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 028 587 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Data placement in general

G06F 3/0604

using interleaving
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Successive file blocks stored on different disks.
  • A whole sector localized on one disk only.
using striping
Definition statement

This place covers:

A data sector distributed over several disks (RAID technology).

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

RAID

Redundant array of independent disks. A storage technology that combines multiple disk drive components into a logical unit

Content retrieval operation {locally} within server, e.g. reading video streams from disk arrays {(storage management G06F 3/0604; details of querying and searching of video data from a database G06F 16/739)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Operations linked to the retrieval of the multimedia stream from the disks. It covers disk scheduling and file mapping

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0172205 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Content storage

H04N 21/231

Storage management

G06F 3/0604

Details of querying and searching of video data from a database

G06F 16/73

{using file mapping}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 992 992 A1

{Scheduling disk or memory reading operations}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0186951 A1

Processing of audio elementary streams {(monitoring, identification or recognition of audio in broadcast systems H04H 60/58)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Audio stream management.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: FR 2 850 821 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Monitoring, identification or recognition of audio in broadcast systems

H04H 60/58

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of formatting and decoding of an encoded audio signal representation into a data stream for transmission or storage purposes:

G10L 19/167

{involving reformatting operations of audio signals, e.g. by converting from one coding standard to another (details of audio signal transcoding G10L 19/173)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Reformatted audio stream, e.g. by converting from one coding standard to another.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0013270 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details of audio signal transcoding

G10L 19/173

Processing of video elementary streams, e.g. splicing of video streams, manipulating MPEG-4 scene graphs
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Video stream management.
  • The control of the encoder, video scaling and transcoding aspects, synchronization, interactive control of playback, composition of MPEG-4 objects or embedding of graphics or text.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Video encoding or transcoding processes per se

H04N 19/00

Processing of video elementary streams, e.g. splicing a video clip retrieved from local storage with an incoming video stream or rendering scenes according to MPEG-4 scene graphs

H04N 21/44

{involving management of server-side video buffer}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Buffer level control.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0193350 A1, US 2006/0262813 A1

{for generating or manipulating the scene composition of objects, e.g. MPEG-4 objects}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Spatial composition of MPEG-4 objects at the program generation using a scene graph.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0110297 A1, US2006222071

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scene rendering using a scene graph

H04N 21/44012

{involving operations for analysing video streams, e.g. detecting features or characteristics (filtering for image enhancement G06T 5/00; methods or arrangements for recognising scenes G06K 9/00624; arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of video in broadcast systems H04H 60/59; television picture signal circuitry for scene change detection H04N 5/147)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Detection of features (e.g. logo) in a video stream, extraction of characteristics directly from the video stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 301 039 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television picture signal circuitry for Scene change detection

H04N 5/147

Methods or arrangements for recognising scenes

G06K 9/00624

Image analysis per se

G06T 7/00

Arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring,identification or recognition of video in broadcast systems

H04H 60/59

{involving splicing one content stream with another content stream, e.g. for inserting or substituting an advertisement}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Splicing of at least one video stream with another stream (video or not) at the server level. It can be used for inserting or substituting a piece of video such as a commercial.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0033633 A1, XP 2098561 A1

involving reformatting operations of video signals for distribution or compliance with end-user requests or end-user device requirements {(media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06489; video transcoding H04N 19/40)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The original A/V stream received from the content provider is reformatted.The output format is defined here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/001791 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details of conversion of video standards at pixel level

H04N 7/01

Video transcoding

H04N 19/40

Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications

H04L 29/06489

{by transcoding between formats or standards, e.g. from MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 or from Quicktime to Realvideo (conversion of standards in analog television systems H04N 7/01)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transcoding between standards (e.g. MPEG-2 to MPEG-4) or between format such as Quicktime to Realvideo.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,747,706 B1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Conversion of standards in analog television systems

H04N 7/01

{by decomposing into objects, e.g. MPEG-4 objects}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The components have been coded according to MPEG-4 and become objects.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2006221178

{by decomposing into layers, e.g. base layer and one or more enhancement layers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Content divided in layers (e.g. base layer and one or more enhancement layers).
  • MDC (multiple description coding).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO2009002303

{by media transcoding, e.g. video is transformed into a slideshow of still pictures or audio is converted into text}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Transcoding between modalities (e.g audio to text).
  • Slideshow of still pictures transformed in a video.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0163317 A1

{the reformatting operation being performed only on part of the stream, e.g. a region of the image or a time segment}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The reformatting operation is performed on part of the stream, the part being spatial region of the image or a time segment.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0080878 A1

{by altering signal-to-noise ratio parameters, e.g. requantization}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • New quantization parameters are introduced allowing to change the resolution of each video frame.
  • Degradation of the signal by addition of noise.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0152317 A1

{by altering the spatial resolution, e.g. for clients with a lower screen resolution}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The server provides a video with a spatial resolution commensurate with, e.g. the display capabilities of the client

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0039478 A1

{for performing aspect ratio conversion}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Server reformats video to alter aspect ratio, e.g. between 4:3 and 16:9

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 679 893 A2

{by altering the temporal resolution, e.g. decreasing the frame rate by frame skipping}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alteration of the frame rate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,510,554 B1

{for generating different versions}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Different versions of the same audio/video stream are created and stored for later immediate retrieval.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 796 394 A2

involving video stream encryption
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Scrambling of the video stream, encryption of the content stream.
  • Scrambling of multimedia content in general.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0085734 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Multiplex stream encryption in the server

H04N 21/23895

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

H04H 60/23

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Analogue secrecy systems

H04N 7/16

Arrangements for secret or secure communication

H04L 9/00

Arrangements for preventing the taking of data from a data transmission channel without authorisation

H04L 12/22

Security arrangements in wireless networks

H04W 12/00

{by pre-encrypting}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Covering encryption of content before storage in a (VOD) server, also known as off-line encryption.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO0215578

{by partially encrypting, e.g. encrypting the ending portion of a movie}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Not all of the signal is scrambled or different parts are encrypted differently, e.g. to reduce processor load or to enable a reduced quality presentation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0021412 A1

Processing of additional data, e.g. scrambling of additional data or processing content descriptors
Definition statement

This place covers:

Insertion of software modules and additional data in the video stream. The specific nature of the additional data is not considered.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,636,890 B1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Calculation of the repetition rate and of the timing of insertion of additional data by the server-side scheduler

H04N 21/262

Processing of additional data on the client side

H04N 21/435

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for simultaneous

H04H 20/28

{involving encryption of additional data (arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2005/013126 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

H04H 60/23

{specifically adapted to content descriptors, e.g. coding, compressing or processing of metadata}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Coding/compression or more generally modification of additional data associated with the content.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP2037684

{involving reformatting operations of additional data, e.g. HTML pages (optimising the visualization of content for information retrieval from the Internet G06F 16/9577; media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06489; message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities in stored and forward packet switching H04L 51/34)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Additional informations such as an HTML page are reformatted by the server. Translation in a different language.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 02/071264 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Optimising the visualization of content for information retrieval from the Internet

G06F 16/9577

Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the source in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications

H04L 29/06489

Message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities in stored and forward packet switching

H04L 51/06

{by altering the spatial resolution}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Modified resolution of the additional information. It can be used, e.g. to reformat additional data for different destination client devices.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 02/33976 A1

{for generating different versions, e.g. for different recipient devices}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The server generates at least one other version of the original additional data, which is available together with the orginal version.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 860 880 A2

Assembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. transport stream, by combining a video stream with other content or additional data, e.g. inserting a URL [Uniform Resource Locator] into a video stream, multiplexing software data into a video stream; Remultiplexing of multiplex streams; Insertion of stuffing bits into the multiplex stream, e.g. to obtain a constant bit-rate; Assembling of a packetised elementary stream {(multiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP H04L 65/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transport stream generation. Takes as input video or audio streams or already multiplexed AV stream (remultiplexing) and outputs a single Transport Stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 363 439 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Multiplexing of data packets for data networks

H04L 65/00

{Multiplexing isochronously with the video sync, e.g. according to bit-parallel or bit-serial interface formats, as SDI}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 777 383 A1

{Remultiplexing multiplex streams, e.g. involving modifying time stamps or remapping the packet identifiers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Modification of bitstream parameters, e.g. restamping, transmultiplexing, remapping of PIDs.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: XP 2040478 A1

{Insertion of stuffing data into a multiplex stream, e.g. to obtain a constant bitrate (synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems using bit stuffing for systems with different or fluctuating information rates H04J 3/073)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Insertion of stuffing bits/bytes/packets in the packetised stream to e.g. obtain a constant bitrate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0008736 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems using bit stuffing for systems with different or fluctuating information rates

H04J 3/07

{Multiplexing of additional data and video streams (arrangements for simultaneous broadcast of plural pieces of information H04H 20/28)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Multiplexing in an MPEG stream according to the DVB standard or generally speaking, insertion of additional data in the streaming of a digital TV system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,976,266 B1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for simultaneous broadcast of plural pieces of information

H04H 20/28

{by inserting additional data into a data carousel, e.g. inserting software modules into a DVB carousel (arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems H04H 20/16)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Insertion in a DVB carousel.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2004/082289 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems

H04H 20/16

Generation or processing of Service Information [SI]
Definition statement

This place covers:

Generation of MPEG SI and PSI tables.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 917 370 A2

Multiplexing of several video streams
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0018379 A1

{Statistical multiplexing, e.g. by controlling the encoder to alter its bitrate to optimize the bandwidth utilization}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The typical structure of a stat mux is a multiplexer which sends command signals back to the video coder(s) to make them change parameters (e.g. bitrate) so as to optimise the global use of the bandwidth.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 928 115 A1

Multiplexing of audio and video streams
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0237187 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Generation of timestamps for synchronization purposes

H04N 21/8547

Communication with additional data server
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 9953689 A1

Interfacing the downstream path of the transmission network, e.g. adapting the transmission rate of a video stream to network bandwidth; Processing of multiplex streams {(hybrid Fiber Coaxial HFC networks for downstream channel allocation for video distribution H04L 12/2801; formation of RTP packets H04L 29/06176; application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing H04L 29/08945; flow control in packet networks H04L 47/10)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Processing the transport stream after its assembly and sending it over the network.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0229365 A1, WO 002/5219 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hybrid Fiber Coaxial [HFC] networks for downstream channel allocation for video distribution

H04L 12/2801

Formation of RTP packets

H04L 29/06176

Application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing

H04L 29/08945

Flow control in packet networks

H04L 47/10

{Controlling the feeding rate to the network, e.g. by controlling the video pump}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The video pump is responsible for feeding the program content to the network at the correct data rate, for example after having received a control signal from the network.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0262813 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Video streams retrieval

H04N 21/232

Adapting the multiplex stream to a specific network, e.g. an Internet Protocol [IP] network {(transmission of MPEG streams over ATM H04L 12/5601)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Bitstream adapted to a specific network. The type of network or protocol used is classified elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 953 936 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transmission of MPEG streams over ATM

H04L 12/5601

Channel coding {or modulation} of digital bit-stream, e.g. QPSK modulation (arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by adapting the channel coding H04L 1/0009; analogue front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line H04L 27/0002)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Protection of the digital bitstream (e.g. RS coding) and modulation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,591,391 B1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received by adapting the channel coding

H04L 1/0009

Analog front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line

H04L 27/0002

Channel allocation (H04N 21/266 takes precedence); Bandwidth allocation (H04N 21/24 takes precedence {; allocation of channels according to the instantaneous demands of the users in time-division multiplex systems H04J 3/1682; admission control, resource allocation in open networks H04L 12/5692; arrangements for maintenance or administration in data switching networks involving bandwidth and capacity management H04L 41/0896; negotiating bandwidth in wireless networks H04W 28/16})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Channel and bandwidth allocation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/088667 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Allocation of channels according to the instantaneous demands of the users in time-division multiplex systems

H04J 3/1682

Admission control, resource allocation in open networks

H04L 12/5692

Arrangements for maintenance or administration in data switching networks involving bandwidth and capacity management

H04L 41/0896

Negotiating bandwidth in wireless networks

H04W 28/16

Stream processing in response to a playback request from an end-user, e.g. for trick-play
Definition statement

This place covers:

Management of the video stream after receiving an upstream playback control signal from the client, for example in a VOD system to pause or ffwd the video stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 5864682 A1

Multiplex stream processing, e.g. multiplex stream encrypting
Definition statement

This place covers:

Processing of the transport stream as received from the network and before being adapted to the delivery medium.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0217452 A1

{involving embedding information at multiplex stream level, e.g. embedding a watermark at packet level}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Embedding of data in a piece of content, for example picture, text in a video.
  • The operations performed by a content provider at a workstation to create an interactive multimedia presentation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1255249

{involving multiplex stream encryption}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Only the descrambling/decrypting of the transport stream is described here. The descrambling/decrypting of the video stream is described elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0075285 A1

{by partially encrypting, e.g. encrypting only the ending portion of a movie}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0160218 A1

Interfacing the upstream path of the transmission network, e.g. prioritizing client {content} requests (hybrid Fiber Coaxial [HFC] networks for upstream channel allocation for video distribution H04L 12/2801; formation of RTP packets H04L 29/06176; application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing of client requests H04L 29/08945; flow control in data networks H04L 47/10)
Definition statement

This place covers:

This interface manages the uplink signals coming from all the clients and is used for example to handle requests (e.g requests for a particular multimedia service).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0028897 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hybrid Fiber Coaxial [HFC] networks for upstream channel allocation for video distribution

H04L 12/2801

Formation of RTP packets

H04L 29/06176

Application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing of client requests

H04L 29/08945

Flow control in data networks

H04L 47/10

{involving handling client requests (scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in data switching networks H04L 29/08945)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0078218 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in data switching networks

H04L 29/08945

{characterized by admission policies (admission control, resource allocation in open networks H04L 12/5692; arrangements for network security using user profiles for access control H04L 29/06836; access security in wireless networks H04W 12/08)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Admission policies of clients in video servers.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Admission control, resource allocation in open networks

H04L 12/5692

Arrangements for network security using user profiles for access control

H04L 29/06836

Access security in wireless networks

H04W 12/08

Monitoring of processes or resources, e.g. monitoring of server load, available bandwidth, upstream requests {(monitoring of server performance or load G06F 11/34; arrangements for observation, testing or troubleshooting for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast H04H 20/12)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Monitoring is an internal process, which checks permanently user requests, the bandwidth available at the different network interfaces or any internal processes. It can generate reports of system usage.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0270598 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Monitoring of server performance or load

G06F 11/34

Monitoring or testing of transmitters in general

H04B 17/10

Arrangements for observation, testing or troubleshooting for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast

H04H 20/12

{Monitoring of the client buffer}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The server monitors the client buffer.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0237187 A1

{Monitoring of the downstream path of the transmission network, e.g. bandwidth available (traffic monitoring in data switching networks H04L 43/00; monitoring data switching networks utilization H04L 43/0876)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Monitoring of the available bandwidth or bit rate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/054926 A1, US 2007/0153692 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Traffic monitoring in data switching networks

H04L 43/00

Monitoring data switching networks utilization

H04L 43/0876

{Monitoring of server processing errors or hardware failure (error or fault detection G06F 11/07; monitoring in general G06F 11/30)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Detection of an error during content distribution, content loading, multiplex management, hardware failure.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2006218600,WO0031975,US 2002/0066050 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Error or fault detection

G06F 11/07

Monitoring in general

G06F 11/30

{Monitoring of the internal components or processes of the server, e.g. server load (allocation of resources in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/50; performance measurement of computer activity G06F 11/34)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The load or processing capabilities of the server are monitored.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0202444,WO2010058215, US2008209481,

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Allocation of resources in multiprogramming arrangements

G06F 9/50

Performance measurement of computer activity

G06F 11/34

{Monitoring of transmitted content, e.g. distribution time, number of downloads (arrangements for monitoring programmes for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast H04H 20/14)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Monitoring of aired content for logging and verification purposes. It can be sent to a rights server or an advertiser for billing. Includes the number of times content has been downloaded (not requested, which is classified elsewhere).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/017640 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for monitoring programmes for broadcast or for distribution combined with broadcast

H04H 20/14

{Monitoring of the upstream path of the transmission network, e.g. client requests (protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08945; monitoring data switching networks utilization H04L 43/0876)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Requests from clients received at the upstream interface are monitored.
  • Includes log files of client requests.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0116067 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests in network applications in communication control or processing

H04L 29/08945

Monitoring data switching networks utilization

H04L 43/0876

Operating system [OS] processes, e.g. server setup
Definition statement

This place covers:

Basic functions provided by the operating system like memory management, event handling, multitasking, multithreading, setup.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0197073 A1

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

OS processes, e.g. booting a STB, implementing a Java virtual machine in a STB or power management in a STB

H04N 21/443

Program loading or initiating in general

G06F 9/445

Multiprogramming arrangements

G06F 9/46

Synchronization processes, e.g. processing of PCR [Program Clock References] {(arrangements for synchronising broadcast or distribution via plural systems in broadcast distribution systems H04H 20/18)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Synchronization issues.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 339 182 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for synchronising broadcast or distribution via plural systems in broadcast distribution systems

H04H 20/18

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synchronising circuits with arrangements for extending range of synchronisation at the transmitter end

H04N 5/067

Synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems

H04J 3/06

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter

H04L 7/00

Management operations performed by the server for facilitating the content distribution or administrating data related to end-users or client devices, e.g. end-user or client device authentication, learning user preferences for recommending movies {(maintenance or administration in data networks H04L 41/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Server-side system management

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Maintenance or administration in data networks

H04L 41/00

{Learning process for intelligent management, e.g. learning user preferences for recommending movies (details of learning user preferences for the retrieval of video data in a video database G06F 16/739; computer systems using learning methods G06N 3/08)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Server-side agents are similar to the agents implemented on the client and perform similar operations.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Client-side agents

H04N 21/466

Details of learning user preferences for the retrieval of video data in a video database

G06F 16/735

Computer systems using learning methods

G06N 3/08

{Processing of multiple end-users' preferences to derive collaborative data}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Preference data are processed to determine similarities between users. They can be clustered to have a limited number of grous of viewers. They are used to enrich the profile of one user by adding data from similar users.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Deriving a common profile for several users on the same client, e.g. family profile

H04N 21/4661

Management at additional data server, e.g. shopping server, rights management server {(protocols involving third party service providers for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08666; arrangements for maintenance or administration in data networks H04L 41/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Non-video distribution application.
  • A whole range of services, which do not deal directly with the distribution of multimedia content. They play a crucial part of the associated business model but because of their non-technical nature, they are separated from the other management functions. They can also be provided by a 3rd party.
  • Support/help center, the HLR of a mobile phone network for collecting the position of a mobile client.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Protocols involving third party service providers for network applications in communication control or processing

H04L 29/08666

Arrangements for maintenance or administration in data networks

H04L 41/00

{Rights Management (protecting software against unauthorised usage in a vending or licensing environment G06F 21/10; security management or policies for network security H04L 29/06986; security in data switching network management H04L 41/28; access security in wireless networks H04W 12/08)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

External server specially adapted to perform rights management operations.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Client-side monitoring of content usage

H04N 21/44204

Definition of usage data

H04N 21/8355

Protecting software against unauthorised usage in a vending or licensing environment

G06F 21/10

Security management or policies for network security

H04L 29/06986

Security in data switching network management

H04L 41/28

Access security in wireless networks

H04W 12/08

{for selling goods, e.g. TV shopping (payment schemes, payment architectures or payment protocols for electronic shopping systems G06Q 20/12)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Shopping and product management aspect. The shopping application is classified elsewhere.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Payment schemes, payment architectures or payment protocols for electronic shopping systems

G06Q 20/12

Billing {, e.g. for subscription services (payment schemes, architectures or protocols G06Q 20/00; e-commerce G06Q 30/00; arrangements for billing for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/21)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Billing aspects.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for billing for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

H04H 60/21

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Billing systems or methods specially adapted for commercial purposes

G06Q 30/04

Charging arrangements in data networks

H04L 12/14

{involving characteristics of content or additional data, e.g. video resolution or the amount of advertising}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The price depends on the nature of the program offered. It can be also inversely proportional to the amount of commercials inserted.

Third Party Billing, e.g. billing of advertiser
Definition statement

This place covers:

Billing aspects not pertaining to the end-user or subscriber but to a third party such as an advertiser. Billing can be performed according to monitored viewer selections.

Client or end-user data management, e.g. managing client capabilities, user preferences or demographics, processing of multiple end-users preferences to derive collaborative data {(arrangements for services using the result on the distributing side of broadcast systems H04H 60/66; data switching network applications involving user or terminal profiles H04L 29/08918)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Customer management. Maintains databases for storing data about the clients it is connected to and their users.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0231854 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for services using the result on the distributing side of broadcast systems

H04H 60/66

Data switching network applications involving user or terminal profiles

H04L 29/08918

{Management of client data (protocols involving terminal profiles for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08927)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The management system stores data pertaining to the client device, regardless of its user.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0066128 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Protocols involving terminal profiles for network applications in communication control or processing

H04L 29/08927

{involving client authentication (restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code G06F 21/33; authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing H04L 29/06755; authentication in wireless network security H04W 12/06)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The server authenticates the client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0118063 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code

G06F 21/33

Authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing

H04L 29/06755

Authentication in wireless network security

H04W 12/06

{involving client display capabilities, e.g. screen resolution of a mobile phone (optimising the visualisation of content during browsing in the Internet G06F 16/9577; processing of terminal status or physical abilities in wireless networks H04W 8/22; authentication in wireless network security H04W 12/06)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clients may being diverse by nature and have different display capabilities, e.g. TV, PC, mobile phone, PDA,..

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2009/002324 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Reformatting of the video stream by the server, e.g. based on client parameters

H04N 21/2343

Optimising the visualisation of content during browsing in the Internet

G06F 16/9577

Processing of terminal status or physical abilities in wireless networks

H04W 8/22

Authentication in wireless network security

H04W 12/06

{involving client hardware characteristics, e.g. manufacturer, processing or storage capabilities (allocation of resources considering hardware capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/5044; allocation of resources considering software capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/5055)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A hardware profile contains a client ID, a STB manufacturer, model, general processing and memory/storage capabilities, except for display.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Allocation of resources considering hardware capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements

G06F 9/5044

Allocation of resources considering software capabilities in multiprogramming arrangements

G06F 9/5055

{involving the geographical location of the client (retrieval from the Internet by querying based on geographical locations G06F 16/9537; arrangements for identifying locations of receiving stations in broadcast systems H04H 60/51; protocols in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal in communication control or processing H04L 29/08657; services making use of the location of users or terminals in wireless networks H04W 4/02; locating users or terminals in wireless networks H04W 64/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The server determines or is aware of the location of the client device. The determination can be performed by retrieving data from a HLR in a mobile phone network or by triangulation methods. This must be distinguished from user demographical data, classified elsewhere. It is typically used for targeting location dependent programs or additional informations.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/136109 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Retrieval from the Internet by querying based on geographical locations

G06F 16/9537

Arrangements for identifying locations of receiving stations in broadcast systems

H04H 60/51

Protocols in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal in communication control or processing

H04L 29/08657

Services making use of the location of users or terminals in wireless networks

H04W 4/02

Locating users or terminals in wireless networks

H04W 64/00

{Generation of a revocation list, e.g. of client devices involved in piracy acts}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The server keeps a list of client devices, which have been reported to been involoved in piracy acts, such as falsifying the decryption card.

{involving client software characteristics, e.g. OS identifier}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The software profile contains a record of the type of software installed on the client, including version number for automatic upgrades.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Detrails of operating systems in cients

H04N 21/443

Executable data per se

H04N 21/8166

{Management of end-user data (customer care in data networks H04L 41/5077)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The management system stores data related to its users regardless of the client device they use.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Customer care in data networks

H04L 41/5077

{involving end-user authentication (restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code G06F 21/33; arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system H04L 9/32; authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing H04L 29/06755; authentication in wireless network security H04W 12/06)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Storage of physical characteristics of the user (e.g. fingerprint). The server authenticates the user of the client device.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code

G06F 21/33

Arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system

H04L 9/32

Authentication mechanisms for network security in communication control or processing

H04L 29/06755

Authentication in wireless network security

H04W 12/06

{being end-user demographical data, e.g. age, family status or address (arrangements for identifying locations of users in broadcast systems H04H 60/52)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

When the user registers for the 1st time, he provides demographical data such as his gender, age, family status, profession, adress and ZIP code. Covers general interests but not viewing interests.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for identifying locations of users in broadcast systems

H04H 60/52

{being end-user preferences (retrieval of video data in a video database based on user preferences G06F 16/739; arrangements for recognizing users' preferences H04H 60/46; protocols involving user profiles for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08936; processing of user preferences or user profiles in wireless networks H04W 8/18)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Preferences may be derived from viewing history of the user and have been collected dynamically. Preferences can also be collected at user registration by providing general interests.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Client-side monitoring of end-user

H04N 21/44213

Uploading data stored on the client to server

H04N 21/658

Retrieval of video data in a video database based on user preferences

G06F 16/735

Arrangements for recognizing users' preferences

H04H 60/46

Protocols involving user profiles for network applications in communication control or processing

H04L 29/08936

Processing of user preferences or user profiles in wireless networks

H04W 8/18

Content or additional data distribution scheduling, e.g. sending additional data at off-peak times, updating software modules, calculating the carousel transmission frequency, delaying a video stream transmission, generating play-lists {(scheduling strategies for dispatcher in multiprogramming arrangements G06F 9/4881; arrangements for scheduling broadcast services or broadcast-related services H04H 60/06; protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby a time schedule is established for servicing the requests in network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08963; flow control in packet networks H04L 47/10)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The function of the scheduler is to plan the distribution of the multimedia content over time. It must guarantee, that the client can access the content, when it is supposed to. The scheduler considers a number of constraints, like different available bandwidths for example at day or night, or higher priorities if a user has paid a higher fee or the best timing for inserting a commercial (prime time). It has also to perform location resolution tasks, like for example assigning a time and channel to a TV program.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Scheduling strategies for dispatcher in multiprogramming arrangements

G06F 9/4881

Arrangements for scheduling broadcast services or broadcast-related services

H04H 60/06

Protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby a time schedule is established for servicing the requests in network applications in communication control or processing

H04L 29/08963

Flow control in packet networks

H04L 47/10

{the scheduling operation being performed under constraints}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The scheduling algorithm performs optimization operations under constraints recevied as input data.

{involving the channel capacity, e.g. network bandwidth (admission control, resource allocation in open networks H04L 12/5692; protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby quality of service and priority requirements are taken into account in network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08954; flow control in packet networks H04L 47/10)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The scheduler prioritizes the items to be transmiited according to the available network bandwidth.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Admission control, resource allocation in open networks

H04L 12/5692

Protocols for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, whereby quality of service and priority requirements are taken into account in network applications in communication control or processing

H04L 29/08954

Flow control in packet networks

H04L 47/10

{involving billing parameters, e.g. priority for subscribers of premium services}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The scheduler defines priorities for the different items to be sent, for example according to billing policy (the user, who has been charged most will be served first).

{involving content or additional data duration or size, e.g. length of a movie, size of an executable file}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Duration of a movie or TV program.

{involving the time of distribution, e.g. the best time of the day for inserting an advertisement or airing a children program}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Pertains to the time of the day, week,.., for example the best time of the day for inserting a commercial or airing a program suitable for children.

{for delaying content or additional data distribution, e.g. because of an extended sport event}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A TV program is delayed because of e.g. an expanded sport event.

{for generating a list of items to be played back in a given order, e.g. playlist, or scheduling item distribution according to such list (retrieval of multimedia data based on playlists G06F 16/40)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Generation of a playlist and scheduling content items according to a playlist.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Retrieval of multimedia data based on playlists

G06F 16/40

{for determining content or additional data repetition rate, e.g. of a file in a DVB carousel according to its importance (arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems H04H 20/16)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Algorithms considering at which frequency a piece of data should be repeated in the carousel, for example according to its importance. Also pertains to data which is repeated at a constant frequency.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for broadcast or for distribution of identical information repeatedly in broadcast distribution systems

H04H 20/16

{for distributing content or additional data in a staggered manner, e.g. repeating movies on different channels in a time-staggered manner in a near video on demand system}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Scheduling of NVOD services. Movies are repeated on different channels in a time-staggered manner.

{for associating distribution time parameters to content, e.g. to generate electronic program guide data}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Metadata, such as program descriptors is received from the content provider, which itself is not aware of a transmission schedule. Therefore the creation of the EPG data consisting of metadata and time information is performed by the scheduler. The EPG user interface for program selection by the user is classified elsewhere.

{for providing content or additional data updates, e.g. updating software modules, stored at the client (deployment, distribution, installation, update of software G06F 8/65; error detection or correction during software upgrading G06F 11/1433; arrangements for updating broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/25)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The scheduler decides to update data or software resident in the client for example on a regular basis or according to special events.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Deployment, distribution, installation, update of software

G06F 8/65

Error detection or correction during software upgrading

G06F 11/1433

Arrangements for updating broadcast information or broadcast-related information

H04H 60/25

Channel or content management, e.g. generation and management of keys and entitlement messages in a conditional access system, merging a VOD unicast channel into a multicast channel
Definition statement

This place covers:

Gathering multimedia content from different sources, analyzing it and creating appropriate channels for the clients. It receives input from the scheduler.

{for automatically generating descriptors from content, e.g. when it is not made available by its provider, using content analysis techniques}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Documents describing the processing of these descriptors, for example in case-based systems, where an incoming piece of content is classified with other similar ones.

{for generating or managing entitlement messages, e.g. Entitlement Control Message [ECM] or Entitlement Management Message [EMM] (arrangements for conditional access to broadcast information or to broadcast-related services H04H 60/14)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Generation and management of entitlement messages in a conditional access system. Pertains to ECM and EMM only.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for conditional access to broadcast information or to broadcast-related services

H04H 60/14

{using retrofitting techniques, e.g. by re-encrypting the control words used for pre-encryption}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Trans-encryption of the ECMs resulting from pre-encryption (or re-encryption of the control words used for pre-encryption) for use with a different transmission key, also known as encryption renewal.

{for generating or managing keys in general (key distribution for secret or secure communication involving central third party, e.g. key distribution center [KDC] or trusted third party [TTP] H04L 9/083; key management for security in wireless networks H04L 29/06707; key management for network security in communication control or processing H04W 12/04)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Generation and management of keys on the server side.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Key distribution for secret or secure communication, using a key distribution center, a trusted party or a key server

H04L 9/083

Key management for security in wireless networks

H04L 29/06707

Key management for network security in communication control or processing

H04W 12/04

{for merging a unicast channel into a multicast channel, e.g. in a VOD application, when a client served by unicast channel catches up a multicast channel to save bandwidth (data multicast over packet-switching network H04L 12/18)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Different channels can be merged in a single one. For example, in a VOD application, a client served by unicast channel catches up a multicast channel. Stream merging allows to minimize bandwidth.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Data multicast over packet-switching network

H04L 12/18

Controlling the complexity of the video stream, e.g. by scaling the resolution or bitrate of the video stream based on the client capabilities
Definition statement

This place covers:

The server controls the complexity of the video stream, for example based on its capabilities.

Gathering content from different sources, e.g. Internet and satellite
Definition statement

This place covers:

How content is retrieved from different sources (e.g. satellite and internet) or from different content providers.

Creating a channel for a dedicated end-user group, e.g. insertion of targeted commercials based on end-user profiles {(information retrieval from the Internet by querying with filtering and personalisation G06F 16/9535; arrangements for replacing or switching information during the broadcast H04H 20/10; push services over packet-switching network H04L 12/1859; adaptation of message content in packet-switching networks H04L 51/063)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Generation of a personalized channel for one or a group of clients, according to their preferences. It also receives data from the scheduler.
  • Describes the insertion of targeted commercials by the server (with no further details at bitstream level).
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Information retrieval from the Internet by querying with filtering and personalisation

G06F 16/9535

Arrangements for replacing or switching information during the broadcast

H04H 20/10

Push services over packet-switching network

H04L 12/1859

Adaptation of message content in packet-switching networks

H04L 51/063

Server based end-user applications
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aplications, where the end-user is aware that they are residing on the server, such as video hosting.

Storing end-user {multimedia} data in response to end-user request {, e.g. network recorder}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Storage of private data based on the explicit request of the end-user. The server holds private data received from the client as an extra service.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Management of user data for administrative purposes

H04N 21/25866

Video hosting of uploaded data from client
Definition statement

This place covers:

Personal videos have been uploaded by clients, for example to be viewed by other users.

Remote storage of video programs received via the downstream path, e.g. from the server
Definition statement

This place covers:

The source can be a storage dedicated for each user for example to record movies if the capacity of his hard disk is not sufficient.

Content descriptor database or directory service for end-user access {(details of content or meta data based information retrieval of video data in video databases G06F 16/739)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Creation of directory services, for example by indexing metadata for easy retrieval (keyword search of movies).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details of content or meta data based information retrieval of video data in video databases

G06F 16/70

Client devices specifically adapted for the reception of or interaction with content, e.g. set-top-box [STB]; Operations thereof {(arrangements for distribution where lower stations, e.g. receivers, interact with the broadcast H04H 20/38; arrangements specially adapted for receiving broadcast information H04H 40/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Subject matter directed to the structure or operation of the client or end user device, such as a TV receiver, a set-top-box, a PC-TV, a mobile appliance (e.g. mobile phone or vehicle), being defined as receiving video and possibly additional data from one or several servers or intermediate component via network for further processing, storing and displaying. This also includes the transmission of these data on a home-based local network to further devices. The client extracts the raw multimedia content from the streams received from possibly heterogeneous sources (e.g. internet, broadcast network) and only provides a network interface. Exchange of control signals with the server or the network are placed by definition in the T-model as well as the uploading of client data to the server.

The first layer of this subgroup pertains to the physical description of the client and attached devices, e.g. its internal components, plug-in cards, input means, peripherals.

The second layer is directed to elementary specialized functions such as the processing of the data received from the downstream network interface (e.g. channel decoding, descrambling) and transmitted from the upstream network interface, the demultiplexing into elementary streams and the processing thereof, the extraction of additional data, the local storage of the content within the client device or its forwarding to peripheral devices via a local network, the combined display of several pieces of content on the same screen (e.g. news ticker, advertisement in a separate window), the monitoring of e.g. internal processes, user actions, network bandwidth. This layer also encompasses the software structure of the client device.

The third layer describes high level functions such as the selection of content (e.g. in unidirectional systems where the whole content is sent to the client), the management of content usage (e.g. conditional access, rights), the creation of local virtual channels (e.g. by combining streams retrieved from the broadcast network and the hard disk), the adaptation by learning of internal parameters (e.g. viewer profile).

The last layer is directed to services or applications as provided to the end user of the system such as defining setting parameters, selecting programs, making requests to the server or accessing additional services (e.g. banking, shopping, WWW browsing, gaming).

The subgroup is directed to documents related to the reception and processing of received data.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transmission and reception details at the client device

H04N 21/40

Raw multimedia data per se

H04N 21/80

Arrangements for distribution where lower stations, e.g. receivers, interact with the broadcast

H04H 20/38

Arrangements specially adapted for receiving broadcast information

H04H 40/00

Structure of client; Structure of client peripherals
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hardware level. Physical description of the multimedia client. As most of the components are always present (e.g. tuner, memory), there is no need to describe them all to avoid unnecessary classification work. An index should be allocated only if one of the component has a critical function in the invention. It should be further noted, that most of the components have already an entry in other technical fields and that for example the circuitry of a tuner is not part of this model.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/017436 A2

{using peripherals receiving signals from specially adapted client devices}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A peripheral is considered here as an external device, which receives multimedia data from the client (which excludes cards) being in the immediate vicinity of the client (same room or house). The most common example is the video recorder but other devices on a home network are possible. Covered are also PDA, game console or remote controls with a display.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0143801 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Input-only peripherals

H04N 21/422

Communication aspects with peripherals

H04N 21/436

{characterized by an identification number or address, e.g. local network address (protecting specific internal or external computer components used for computing or processing information by creating or determining hardware identification G06F 21/73; addressing and naming in data networks H04L 29/12009)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Identification number of the peripheral device, network address on the local network.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0254651 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Protecting specific internal or external computer components used for computing or processing information by creating or determining hardware identification

G06F 21/73

Addressing and naming in data networks

H04L 29/12009

{PC}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device, typically a STB here, is connected to a personal computer, allowing e.g. to extract data or software multiplexed with the video signal and to forward it to a PC.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2005/ 0146598 A1

{for generating hard copies of the content, e.g. printer, electronic paper (interfaces to printers G06F 3/12; printing data G06K 15/02)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The printer can be used for printing coupons or any additional data received by the STB. Covers also electronic paper.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1492338 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Interfaces to printers

G06F 3/12

Printing data

G06K 15/02

{additional display device, e.g. video projector (digital output for controlling a plurality of local displays G06F 3/1423)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Additional display device, e.g. projector. Excludes the main display device (e.g. TV set), which is always present.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2009/0040233 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Digital output for controlling a plurality of local displays

G06F 3/1423

{portable device, e.g. remote control with a display, PDA, mobile phone (constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application G06F 1/1626)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Device receiving data from the client device, being typically a remote control with a display, a PDA or a mobile phone. Excludes PC, printer, additional display, recorder.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 2023350 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application

G06F 1/1626

{home appliance, e.g. lighting, air conditioning system, metering devices (home automation data switching networks exchanging configuration information on appliance services H04L 12/2807)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A home appliance can be a lighting or an air conditioning system or metering devices.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/0181 02 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Home automation data switching networks exchanging configuration information on appliance services

H04L 12/2807

{external recorder (interface circuits between an apparatus for recording television signals and a television receiver H04N 5/775)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A recording device can be a VCR an external hard disk. DVD players as source of video or additional data are also covered here. Personal video recorders with an internal hard disk are covered elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0002951 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Interface circuits between an apparatus for recording television signals and a television receiver

H04N 5/775

Specialised client platforms, e.g. receiver in car or embedded in a mobile appliance
Definition statement

This place covers:

different emodiments of video client platforms.

{embedded in a portable device, e.g. video client on a mobile phone, PDA, laptop (constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application G06F 1/1626; arrangements specially adapted for mobile receivers in broadcast systems H04H 20/57)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device is a mobile phone, a PDA or any portable device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/097006 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Constructional details of equipment or arrangements specially adapted for portable computer application

G06F 1/1626

Arrangements specially adapted for mobile receivers in broadcast systems

H04H 20/57

{involving a public display, viewable by several users in a public space outside their home, e.g. movie theatre, information kiosk}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Display device viewable by several users in a public space outside their home (e.g. movie theater, information kiosk). Excludes access points for downloading informations.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/067235 A1

{located in transportation means, e.g. personal vehicle (arrangements specially adapted for transportation systems in broadcast systems H04H 20/62)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device is located in a vehicle, e.g. car entertainment system.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/136109 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements specially adapted for transportation systems in broadcast systems

H04H 20/62

{embedded in a} Personal Computer [PC]
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device is a personal computer but not a portable device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 834798 A2

PVR [Personal Video Recorder] (H04N 5/76 takes precedence {; arrangements for broadcast with accumulation-type receivers H04H 20/40})
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device is a personal video recorder, STB with hard disk, Tivo,..

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO2006/015186 82

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television signal recording

H04N 5/76

Arrangements for broadcast with accumulation-type receivers

H04H 20/40

External card to be used in combination with the client device, e.g. for conditional access
Definition statement

This place covers:

A card is an external component, which can be inserted in a dedicated slot. It can be a smart card for a conditional access system or an extension module to upgrade the STB capabilities.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/141644 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

DVB common interfaces

H04N 21/43607

{for conditional access}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The card holds a key for Conditional Access purposes (descrambling) or other decryption operations.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1819163 A1

{for identification purposes, e.g. storing user identification data, preferences, personal settings or data (restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code in combination with an additional device, e.g. dongle or smart card G06F 21/123)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The card holds identification data of the user, preferences, personal settings or any kind of personal data.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1906650 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code in combination with an additional device, e.g. dongle or smart card

G06F 21/123

{providing its own processing capabilities, e.g. external module for video decoding}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The card has its own processing capabilities (e.g. external module for video decoding).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1309182 A2

{providing storage capabilities, e.g. memory stick}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Extension module or storage capabilities, e.g. memory stick.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0257101 A1

for payment
Definition statement

This place covers:

Bank, credit card or prepaid card, to be used e.g. in TV shopping applications.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Elementary client operations, e.g. monitoring of home network or synchronising decoder's clock

H04N 21/43

Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features for use in combination with accessories specially adapted for information-bearing cards

B42D 25/22

Payment schemes, architectures or protocols

G06Q 20/00

Payment architectures where the payment is settled via telecommunication systems

G06Q 20/16

Payment architectures, schemes or protocols characterised by the use of cards

G06Q 20/34

E-commerce

G06Q 30/00

Mechanisms actuated by coded identity card or credit card to free or to actuate vending, hiring, coin or paper currency dispensing or refunding apparatus

G07F 7/08

Charging arrangements in data networks

H04L 12/14

Input-only peripherals {, i.e. input devices connected to specially adapted client devices}, e.g. global positioning system [GPS] {(input devices also receiving signals from specially adapted client devices H04N 21/4104)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices used to send information and control signals from the user and its environment to the client. It includes remote controls, keyboards, mouses, microphones as well as cameras or biosensors.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Peripherals receiving signals from client devices

H04N 21/4104

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Input arrangements or combined input and output arrangements for interaction between user and computer

G06F 3/01

{biosensors, e.g. heat sensor for presence detection, EEG sensors or any limb activity sensors worn by the user (input arrangements for interaction with the human body based on nervous system activity detection G06F 3/015)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Can be used as passive input from the user. Such devices can be heat sensor for presence detection, EEG sensors or any limb activity sensors worn by the user.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1991001 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Input arrangements for interaction with the human body based on nervous system activity detection

G06F 3/015

{environmental sensors, e.g. for detecting temperature, luminosity, pressure, earthquakes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sensors connected to the client allow to determine e.g. temperature, luminosity, pressure, earthquakes. Includes position sensors (e.g. GPS).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0142722 A1

{sound input device, e.g. microphone}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any sound input device. Can be used to generate audio streams or to enter voice commands.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2009/0030681 A1

{User interfaces specially adapted for controlling a client device through a remote control device; Remote control devices therefor (interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces in general, see G06F 3/048; computer pointing devices in general, see G06F 3/033; user interfaces for controlling a tuning device of a television receiver through a remote control H03J 9/00; constructive details of casings for the remote control device H01H 9/0235; remote control of peripheral devices connected to a television receiver through the remote control device of the television receiver H04B 1/205; remote control devices in general G08C)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Only remote control devices transmitting input data to the client device and located in the direct vicinity thereof are classified here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: DE 10 2006 028 505 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Computer pointing devices in general

G06F 3/033

Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces in general

G06F 3/048

Remote control devices in general

G08C

Constructive details of casings for the remote control device

H01H 9/0235

User interfaces for controlling a tuning device of a television receiver through a remote control

H03J 9/00

Remote control of peripheral devices connected to a television receiver through the remote control device of the television receiver

H04B 1/205

Cameras (H04N 5/225 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

The camera allows the client to become a video source, for example for uploading videos to a server, or identification purposes. Camera has the meaning of image generating device and covers also scanner (paper, fingerprint, retina) or any kind of imaging device. The camera allows the client to become a video source. It can be used for identifying the user or uploading videos to the server.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/105246 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television cameras

H04N 5/225

{Providing} Remote input by a user located remotely from the client device, e.g. at work
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device is controlled by an input device located at a distant location. A possible application could be that a user uses a mobile phone, a PDA or an office PC to program his STB at home. Input and client device are connected by a wide area network (e.g. internet).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0099560 A1

{Characteristics of or} Internal components of the client (H04N 5/44 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Internal components such as tuner, demodulator, demultiplexer, descrambler, video/audio decoder, CPU, volatile memory, hard disk, graphics board/circuitry, modem. It should be noted that certain components are typical for a multimedia client, like the ones used for video processing or the receiver circuitry.
  • Additonal built-in cards.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/057482 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Receiver circuitry

H04N 5/44

{for processing the incoming bitstream}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Pieces of hardware processing the incoming bitstream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0120676 A1

{involving specific demultiplexing arrangements}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0144747 A1

{involving specific decryption arrangements}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1487211 A3

{involving specific tuning arrangements, e.g. two tuners}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The presence of at least 2 tuners in a client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0035668 A1

{involving a hybrid front-end, e.g. analog and digital tuners}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0035668 A1

{for reading from or writing on a non-volatile solid state storage medium, e.g. DVD, CD-ROM}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Internal reader / writer for DVD's, CD-ROM's and similar disks

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/088511 A1

{for processing graphics}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 00/28518

{for reading from or writing on a magnetic storage medium, e.g. hard disk drive}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0108331 A1

{the medium being removable}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Removable hard disk within a client.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP1883234 A2

{for modulating an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information or demodulating it to decode digital information, e.g. ADSL or cable modem}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0123329 A1

{Client identification by a unique number or address, e.g. serial number, MAC address, socket ID (addressing and naming in data networks H04L 29/12009)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hardware identification or serial number, also MAC address, socket ID.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1359710 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Addressing and naming in data networks

H04L 29/12009

{for reading from or writing on a volatile storage medium, e.g. Random Access Memory [RAM]}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1758402 A1

Processing of content or additional data, e.g. demultiplexing additional data from a digital video stream; Elementary client operations, e.g. monitoring of home network, synchronizing decoder's clock; Client middleware {(demultiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP H04L 29/06176)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Elementary specialized functions. They can be implemented in software or hardware. Their task is to control the corresponding hardware component and to provide a service to the upper layer.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Demultiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP

H04L 29/06176

{Synchronizing client clock from received content stream, e.g. locking decoder clock with encoder clock, extraction of the PCR packets (arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter by comparing receiver clock with transmitter clock H04L 7/0012; arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter wherein the receiver takes measures against momentary loss of synchronisation H04L 7/0083)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clock recovery (extraction of the PCR packets).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0170593 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter by comparing receiver clock with transmitter clock

H04L 7/0012

Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter wherein the receiver takes measures against momentary loss of synchronisation

H04L 7/0083

{Synchronizing display of multiple content streams, e.g. synchronisation of audio and video output or enabling or disabling interactive icons for a given period of time}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Synchronised presentation of the multimedia content according to the time stamps. Additional data can be synchronized to the main content. Also locking items at given times.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/005268 A2

Generation of visual interfaces {for content selection or interaction}; Content or additional data rendering
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of the generation of visual interfaces on a video client, involving graphical features, screen space management. They must be differentiated from applications making use of them such as EPG

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Receiver circuitry for displaying additional information

H04N 5/445

End-user applications using user interfaces

H04N 21/47

Interaction techniques for graphical user interfaces

G06F 3/048

{involving specific graphical features, e.g. screen layout, special fonts or colors, blinking icons, highlights or animations}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Layout arrangement on the screen, overlays, menus in general

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0184047 A1

{for fitting data in a restricted space on the screen, e.g. EPG data in a rectangular grid}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Creation of a grid for e.g. an EPG application, where all the textual information is fitted, e.g. in a rectangular grid.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/078094 A2

{for displaying supplemental content in a region of the screen, e.g. an advertisement in a separate window}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A separate window or region is provided to display additional data, like a commercial or additional text

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0124057 A1

{by altering the content in the rendering process, e.g. blanking, blurring or masking an image region (image enhancement or restoration in general G06T 5/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • The displayed image can be altered according to certain parameters provided for example by an access control or censoring system. The image can be totally blanked or blurred or a region can be masked.
  • Only details of the filtering action.
  • Damping of brightness.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0222994 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

High-level filtering performed on a region of the image

H04N 21/45455

Image enhancement or restoration in general

G06T 5/00

Content retrieval operation from a local storage medium, e.g. hard-disk {(details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video databases G06F 16/739)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Retrieval from local storage.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 796 374 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video databases

G06F 16/73

{by playing back content from the storage medium (reproduction of recorded television signals H04N 5/76; reproduction of recorded television signals H04N 9/79)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Playback of media data from fixed or removable local storage devices.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 968 318 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Reproduction of recorded television signals

H04N 5/76

Reproduction of recorded television signals

H04N 9/79

Content storage operation, e.g. storage operation in response to a pause request, caching operations
Definition statement

This place covers:

Local storage. The client uses part of his volatile or non volatile memory (e.g. hard disk) to store a part of the received multimedia data or data it has generated itself (e.g. monitored data).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 848 214 A1

{Caching operations, e.g. of an advertisement for later insertion during playback}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Caching operations, for example of commercials for later insertion or the generation of an internal database, for example for holding EPG data. The storage has a temporary aspect and must be distinguished from recording, which aims more at a long term archiving on request of the user. It is not meant either to describe buffering as performed in the video decoder, which holds the multimedia data for a brief period of time. Caching is an action, which is transparent to the end-user unlike recording.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 331 810 A1

{by placing content in organized collections, e.g. local EPG data repository (interfaces, Database management systems or updating for information retrieval G06F 16/23; details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video database G06F 16/739)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Particular details of the use of a local database. Also generation of directory structure, within the file system of the client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0288988 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Interfaces, Database management systems or updating for information retrieval

G06F 16/23

Details of retrieval of video data and associated meta data in video database

G06F 16/71

{Processing operations in response to a pause request}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The incoming video stream (e.g. from live broadcast) can be paused. It is stored locally to allow the user to resume viewing later on.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 269 752 B1

{Recording operations (recording of a television signal H04N 5/76; arrangements for recording or accumulating broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/27)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The received data is recorded for archiving purposes. This should be distinguished from caching, which has a temporary aspect.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/129818 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for recording or accumulating broadcast information or broadcast-related information

H04H 60/27

Housekeeping operations, e.g. prioritizing content for deletion because of storage space restrictions {(storage management, e.g. defragmentation G06F 3/0604; unloading stored programs G06F 9/445; storage management in file systems G06F 16/10; buffering arrangements in a network node or in an end terminal in packet networks H04L 49/90)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device has a limited memory. Algorithms, describing which data are prioritized for deletion (e.g. oldest or less used data) are classified here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2005/0193414 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Storage management, e.g. defragmentation

G06F 3/0604

Unloading stored programs

G06F 9/445

Storage management in file systems

G06F 16/10

Buffering arrangements in a network node or in an end terminal in packet networks

H04L 49/90

Disassembling of a multiplex stream, e.g. demultiplexing audio and video streams, extraction of additional data from a video stream; Remultiplexing of multiplex streams; Extraction or processing of SI; Disassembling of packetised elementary stream {(demultiplexing of data packets for data networks, e.g. RTP/UDP H04L 65/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transport stream demultiplexing It takes as input transport streams and generates after demultiplexing A/V streams or remultiplexes several TS into a new transport stream. Demultiplexing includes PID filtering.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 965 591 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Multiplexing of data packets for data networks

H04L 65/00

{Demultiplexing of audio and video streams}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 776 134 A2

{Demultiplexing isochronously with video sync, e.g. according to bit-parallel or bit-serial interface formats, as SDI}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Isochronously with the horizontal video sync, according to bit-parallel or bit-serial interface formats.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 777 383 A1

{Remultiplexing of multiplex streams, e.g. by modifying time stamps or remapping the packet identifiers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Modification of bitstream parameters, e.g. restamping, transmultiplexing, remapping of PIDs.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 0 917 355 A1

{Extraction or processing of SI, e.g. extracting service information from an MPEG stream}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Retrieval of the system informations (SI).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/108570 A1, US 2005/0060758 A1

{involving stuffing data, e.g. packets or bytes (synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems with different or fluctuating information rates H04J 3/073)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Extraction of the software or additional data that have been inserted in the packetised stream by replacement of (or by using the bandwidth occupied by) the stuffing bits/bytes/packets.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 555 826 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Synchronisation arrangements in time-division multiplex systems with different or fluctuating information rates

H04J 3/07

{Demultiplexing of several video streams}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0026423 A1

{Demultiplexing of additional data and video streams}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Extraction of the additional data from a digital video stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/088645 A1

{by extracting from data carousels, e.g. extraction of software modules from a DVB carousel}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Extraction process of the data out of the DVB carousel.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2004/082289 A1

Processing of additional data, e.g. decrypting of additional data, reconstructing software from modules extracted from the transport stream
Definition statement

This place covers:

Software, additional data and generally speaking to non-streaming data. This part is dedicated to the retrieval of software modules and non audio-video information, such as additional data (descriptors, WWW pages,..)for example by extracting them from a DVB carousel or received from an internet site. Modules are reordered according to a directory module, checked for consistency and eventually the complete package is rebuilt.

{involving reassembling additional data, e.g. rebuilding an executable program from recovered modules}
Definition statement

This place covers:

After recovery, all modules are ordered and the initial package rebuilt.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO9962248,WO2004082289,WO 2008/143447 A1

{involving decryption of additional data (arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2005/013126 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

H04H 60/23

{involving reformatting operations of additional data, e.g. HTML pages on a television screen (optimising the visualization of content for information retrieval from the Internet G06F 16/9577; media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the destination in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06496; adaptation of message content in packet-switching networks H04L 51/066)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Additional informations such as an HTML page are reformatted by the client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/142648 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Optimising the visualization of content for information retrieval from the Internet

G06F 16/9577

Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the destination in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications

H04L 29/06496

Adaptation of message content in packet-switching networks

H04L 51/066

{by altering the spatial resolution, e.g. to reformat additional data on a handheld device, attached to the STB}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The resolution of the additional informations is modified. It can be used, e.g. to reformat additional data on a handheld device, attached to the STB.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0148314 A1

{for generating different versions, e.g. for different peripheral devices}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device generates at least one other version of the original additional data, which is available together with the orginal version.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2004/008739 A1

Interfacing a local distribution network, e.g. communicating with another STB or inside the home {; Interfacing an external card to be used in combination with the client device (arrangements specially adapted plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems H04H 20/63)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • A series of interfaces allowing to communicate with cards and peripheral devices. It includes for example the DVB common interface, secure local communication, e.g. with a smart card or a video recorder, Firewire (IEEE 1394) connection to other video devices.
  • Communication aspects with these devices when the client becomes a home server.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0124766 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements specially adapted plural spots in a confined site in broadcast systems

H04H 20/63

{Interfacing a plurality of external cards, e.g. through a DVB Common Interface [DVB-CI]}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Connection via common interface (DVB-CI), multiple conditional access.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 921 857 A2

{Interfacing a Home Network, e.g. for connecting the client to a plurality of peripherals (home Audio Video Interoperability [HAVI] data switching networks H04L 12/2805)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Several peripherals connected to a home network.
  • Documents describing communication aspects on the home network or describing a home network with no special emphasis on the connected peripheral devices.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/097563 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Home Audio Video Interoperability (HAVI) data switching networks

H04L 12/2805

{Interfacing an external recording device}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Communication between the client and an external connected recording device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 950 966 A1

Adapting the video {or multiplex} stream to a specific local network, e.g. a IEEE 1394 or Bluetooth® network
Definition statement

This place covers:

Adaptation of the bitstream to the local network: e.g. transport of video over firewire.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0007616 A1

{involving a wired protocol, e.g. IEEE 1394 (high-speed IEEE 1394 serial bus H04L 12/40052)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices and peripherals connected via a firewire (IEEE1394) link.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0007616 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

High-speed IEEE 1394 serial bus

H04L 12/40052

{HDMI}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices and peripherals connected via an HDMI connection.

{involving a wireless protocol, e.g. Bluetooth or wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11; arrangements for wireless networking or broadcasting of information in indoor or near-field type systems H04B 10/114; wireless local area data switching networks H04W; flow control in wireless networks H04W 28/10)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Device and peripherals connected via a wireless link, such as Bluetooth or wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0273118 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for wireless networking or broadcasting of information in indoor or near-field type systems

H04B 10/114

Wireless local area data switching networks

H04W

Flow control in wireless networks

H04W 28/10

Establishing a secure communication between the client and a peripheral device or smart card
Definition statement

This place covers:

Secure communication with the peripheral or with a smart card.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Security arrangements for protecting computers or computer systems against unauthorised activity

G06F 21/00

Arrangements for secret or secure communication per se

H04L 9/00

Security arrangements in wireless networks

H04W 12/00

Interfacing the upstream path of the transmission network, e.g. for transmitting client requests to a VOD server {(formation of RTP packets H04L 29/06176; application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing of client requests H04L 29/08945; flow control in data networks H04L 47/10)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Non physical details of phone or cable modems. Communication aspects with the server are to be found elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/007611 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Formation of RTP packets

H04L 29/06176

Application layer Quality of Service and content dependent routing of client requests

H04L 29/08945

Flow control in data networks

H04L 47/10

Interfacing the downstream path of the transmission network originating from a server, e.g. retrieving MPEG packets from an IP network {(transmission of MPEG streams over ATM H04L 12/5601; processing of real-time packets H04L 29/06176; flow control in data networks H04L 47/10)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The Downstream network interface processes the electromagnetic waves received from the network and outputs multimedia streams. It comprises channel tuning to get the baseband signal, channel decoding, descrambling.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 02/069581 A1, US 2007/0006259

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transmission of MPEG streams over ATM

H04L 12/5601

Processing of real-time packets

H04L 29/06176

Flow control in data networks

H04L 47/10

{Recovering the multiplex stream from a specific network, e.g. recovering MPEG packets from ATM cells (transmission of MPEG streams over ATM H04L 12/5601)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The bitstream is adapted to a specific network. The type of network or protocol used is classified elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0210939 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transmission of MPEG streams over ATM

H04L 12/5601

{Demodulation or channel decoding, e.g. QPSK demodulation (analog front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line H04L 27/0002)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Demodulation and error correction.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/006833 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Analog front ends or means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line

H04L 27/0002

{Accessing a communication channel, e.g. channel tuning (tuning indicators; automatic tuning control H04N 5/50)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Channel selection.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/130116 A1

{involving operations to reduce the access time, e.g. fast-tuning for reducing channel switching latency}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Fast channel change or rapid tuning relate to techniques, where the STB tries to display as quick as possible an image in the time interval starting after the user has issued a channel change command and before the decoding buffer could be filled. Those techniques comprise for example, decoding a low resolution stream, or a stream sent a higher rate,..

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/121801 A1

Multiplex stream processing, e.g. multiplex stream decrypting
Definition statement

This place covers:

Processing of the transport stream as received from the network and before being sent to the demultiplexer.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 2 023 497 A1

{involving multiplex stream decryption (arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/23)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Only the descrambling/decrypting of the transport stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0269063 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Multiplex stream encryption

H04N 21/23895

Video stream decryption

H04N 21/4405

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

H04H 60/23

{by partial decryption, e.g. decrypting a multiplex stream that has been partially encrypted}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/011766 A1

Processing of audio elementary streams
Definition statement

This place covers:

Audio stream management.

{involving audio buffer management}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Buffering of the audio signal.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/031918 A2

{involving operations for analysing the audio stream, e.g. detecting features or characteristics in audio streams (arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of audio in broadcast systems H04H 60/58)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The audio stream is parsed to extract or recognize some features or to detect embedded triggers.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0209055 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of audio in broadcast systems

H04H 60/58

{by muting the audio signal}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The audio stream is muted because, for example, rights have been violated or for censoring purposes.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2005/0278732 A2

{involving reformatting operations of audio signals (details of audio signal transcoding G10L 19/173)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Reformatted audio stream, e.g. by converting from one coding standard to another.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 775 959 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details of audio signal transcoding

G10L 19/173

Processing of video elementary streams, e.g. splicing a video clip retrieved from local storage with an incoming video stream, rendering scenes according to MPEG-4 scene graphs
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Video stream management. Receives the video stream from the demultiplexer and performs MPEG decoding, synchronization with other streams.
  • Management of the video decoder buffer.
{involving video buffer management, e.g. video decoder buffer or video display buffer}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Buffer level control.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 107 601 A2

{involving operations for analysing video streams, e.g. detecting features or characteristics in the video stream (arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of video in broadcast systems H04H 60/59)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Detection of features (e.g. logo) in a video stream, extraction of characteristics or generation of metadata in the client directly from the video stream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: GB 2447876 A

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements characterised by components specially adapted for monitoring, identification or recognition of video in broadcast systems

H04H 60/59

{involving rendering scenes according to scene graphs, e.g. MPEG-4 scene graphs}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Spatial composition of a scene according to the scene graph in the rendering process. Scene graph updating following client/user control is covered here as well as the animation of objects.
  • Specific to the processing of MPEG-4 objects.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 715 681 A2

{involving splicing one content stream with another content stream, e.g. for substituting a video clip}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Splicing of at least one video stream with another stream (video or not) at the client level. It can be used for inserting or substituting a piece of video such as a commercial.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/046212 A1

involving reformatting operations of video signals for household redistribution, storage or real-time display {(adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal G09G 5/005; media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the destination in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications H04L 29/06496; details of conversion of video standards at pixel level H04N 7/01; video transcoding H04N 19/40)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2004/008289 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details of conversion of video standards at pixel level

H04N 7/01

Video transcoding

H04N 19/40

Adapting incoming signals to the display format of the display terminal

G09G 5/005

Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion at the destination in one way streaming for real-time multimedia communications

H04L 29/06496

{for formatting on an optical medium, e.g. DVD}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The MPEG stream is preprocessed for formatting and recording on a DVD.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0081778 A1

{by transcoding between formats or standards, e.g. from MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 (conversion of standards in analogue television systems H04N 7/01)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transcoding between standards (e.g. MPEG-2 to MPEG-4).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 372 333 A2

{by decomposing into layers, e.g. base layer and one or more enhancement layers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device generates a layered video stream from the original one.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2006/0117371 A1

{by media transcoding, e.g. video is transformed into a slideshow of still pictures, audio is converted into text}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transcoding between modalities (e.g audio to text).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 03/049447

{the reformatting operation being performed only on part of the stream, e.g. a region of the image or a time segment}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The reformatting operation is performed on part of the stream, the part being spatial region of the image or a time segment.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/067731

{by altering signal-to-noise parameters, e.g. requantization}
Definition statement

This place covers:

New quantization parameters are introduced allowing to change the resolution of each video frame.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,441,754 B1

{by altering the spatial resolution, e.g. for displaying on a connected PDA}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Client-side alteration of the spatial resolution, mainly for dispalying on peripheral device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/085874 A2

{for performing aspect ratio conversion}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Conversion of signal for displaying with a different aspect ratio or with a different resolution.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 02/13507 A2

{by altering the temporal resolution, e.g. by frame skipping (television signal recording using magnetic recording on tape for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate H04N 5/783)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Alteration of the frame rate.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 956 840 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Television signal recording using magnetic recording on tape for reproducing at a rate different from the recording rate

H04N 5/783

{for generating different versions}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device generates at least one other version of the original content, which is available together with the orginal version.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 901 293 A1

involving video stream decryption
Definition statement

This place covers:

Descrambling of the video stream, decryption of the content stream.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

H04H 60/23

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for secret or secure communication

H04L 9/00

{by partially decrypting, e.g. decrypting a video stream that has been partially encrypted}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Not all of the signal is scrambled or different parts are encrypted differently, e.g. to reduce processor load or to enable a reduced quality presentation.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2009/021953 A1

involving video stream encryption, e.g. re-encrypting a decrypted video stream for redistribution in a home network
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client device reencrypts the decrypted video stream, usually with another key. It can be used for secure recording.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 410 342 B1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements using cryptography for the use of broadcast information or broadcast-related information

H04H 60/23

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for secret or secure communication

H04L 9/00

Acquiring end-user identification {, e.g. using personal code sent by the remote control or by inserting a card}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The user identification can be used to retrieve his settings, viewing preferences or in financial transactions. Monitoring of the user actions are to be classified elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0244665 A1, US 2007/0150832 A1

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using a predetermined code

G06F 21/33

Authentication in wireless communication networks

H04W 12/06

using biometric characteristics of the user, e.g. by voice recognition or fingerprint scanning {(authentication mechanisms using biometrical features for network security H04L 29/06809)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The user is passively identified by facial/fingerprint/voice recognition. A corresponding symbol should be added to describe the type of sensor/input device used.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2008/157684 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Authentication mechanisms using biometrical features for network security

H04L 29/06809

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Restricting access to computer systems by authenticating users using biometric data

G06F 21/32

Methods or arrangements for recognising patterns

G06K 9/00

Authentication in wireless network security

H04W 12/06

Monitoring of processes or resources, e.g. detecting the failure of a recording device, monitoring the downstream bandwidth, the number of times a movie has been viewed, the storage space available from the internal hard disk {(arrangements for monitoring broadcast services or broadcast-related services H04H 60/29; arrangements for identifying or recognising characteristics with a direct linkage to broadcast information H04H 60/35; monitoring of user activities for profile generation for accessing a video database G06F 16/739; monitoring in wireless networks H04W 24/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Monitoring is an internal process, which checks permanently user inputs, the bandwidth available at the different network interfaces or any internal processes. It can generate history data, which is later processed for example by a recommender system to build automatically a user profile (implicit profile). Since profiles can be also defined explicitely by the user via a menu, only the passive monitoring of user selections are to be classified here. Creation of explicit profiles is indexed elsewhere.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/052711 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Monitoring of user activities for profile generation for accessing a video database

G06F 16/78

Arrangements for monitoring broadcast services or broadcast-related services

H04H 60/29

Arrangements for identifying or recognising characteristics with a direct linkage to broadcast information

H04H 60/35

Monitoring in wireless networks

H04W 24/00

{Monitoring of content usage, e.g. the number of times a movie has been viewed, copied or the amount which has been watched (monitoring of user activities for profile generation for accessing a video database G06F 16/739; protecting generic digital content where the protection is independent of the precise nature of the content G06F 21/10; arrangements for monitoring the use made of the broadcast services in broadcast systems H04H 60/31)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client keeps track of how often a piece of content has been viewed or copied or recorded. Covers also records of content ID, percentage of viewed/recorded program.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 737 236 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Monitoring of user activities for profile generation for accessing a video database

G06F 16/78

Protecting generic digital content where the protection is independent of the precise nature of the content

G06F 21/10

Arrangements for monitoring the use made of the broadcast services in broadcast systems

H04H 60/31

{Monitoring of downstream path of the transmission network originating from a server, e.g. bandwidth variations of a wireless network (arrangements for maintenance or administration in data switching networks involving bandwidth and capacity management H04L 41/0896)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The connection to the server is monitored, for example availability, bandwidth.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0104653 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Measuring or estimating channel quality parameters

H04B 17/309

Arrangements for maintenance or administration in data switching networks involving bandwidth and capacity management

H04L 41/0896

{Monitoring of end-user related data (arrangements for monitoring the users' behaviour or opinions in broadcast systems H04H 60/33)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2004/0117815 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for monitoring the users' behaviour or opinions in broadcast systems

H04H 60/33

{Detecting physical presence or behaviour of the user, e.g. using sensors to detect if the user is leaving the room or changes his face expression during a TV program (methods or arrangements for acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions G06K 9/00221; methods or arrangements for recognising movements or behaviour G06K 9/00335; methods or arrangements for recognising human body or animal bodies or body parts G06K 9/00362; arrangements for identifying users in broadcast systems H04H 60/45)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sensors are used to detect for example the presence of individuals in front of the TV set, as well as if somebody is entering or leaving the room. Also user reactions, like movements, face expression should be classified here.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/146089 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Methods or arrangements for acquiring or recognising human faces, facial parts, facial sketches, facial expressions

G06K 9/00221

Methods or arrangements for recognising movements or behaviour

G06K 9/00335

Methods or arrangements for recognising human body or animal bodies or body parts

G06K 9/00362

Arrangements for identifying users in broadcast systems

H04H 60/45

{Monitoring of user selections, e.g. selection of programs, purchase activity (monitoring of user selections in data processing systems G06F 11/34; monitoring of user activities for profile generation for accessing a video database G06F 16/739; tracking the activity of the end-user H04L 29/08675; arrangements for monitoring the user's behaviour or opinions in broadcast systems H04H 60/33)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

User selections using for example a remote control are monitored. It covers the selection of programs, duration of viewing, purchase activity, setting reminders answers to quiz, questionaires, advertisements. A log file is generated. Covers clickstream.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/126988 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Monitoring of user selections in data processing systems

G06F 11/34

Monitoring of user activities for profile generation for accessing a video database

G06F 16/78

Arrangements for monitoring the user's behaviour or opinions in broadcast systems

H04H 60/33

Tracking the activity of the end-user

H04L 29/08675

{Monitoring of local network, e.g. connection or bandwidth variations; Detecting new devices in the local network (configuring of peripheral devices in general G06F 9/4411; monitoring connectivity in data switched networks H04L 43/0811)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The status of the connection or bandwidth variations on the local network are monitored. Also detection of new devices in the local network

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/093426 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Configuring of peripheral devices in general

G06F 9/4411

Monitoring connectivity in data switched networks

H04L 43/0811

{Monitoring of peripheral device or external card, e.g. to detect processing problems in a handheld device or the failure of an external recording device (configuring of peripheral devices in general G06F 9/4411; reporting information sensed by appliance or service execution status of appliance services in a home automation network H04L 12/2823; monitoring the status of connected device in data switched networks H04L 43/0817)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The status of the connected peripheral devices is monitored, e.g. to detect the failure of a VCR or the hard disk problem of an external storage device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 7,035,363 B1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Configuring of peripheral devices in general

G06F 9/4411

Reporting information sensed by appliance or service execution status of appliance services in a home automation network

H04L 12/2823

Monitoring the status of connected device in data switched networks

H04L 43/0817

{Monitoring of piracy processes or activities (protecting computer platforms against harmful, malicious or unexpected behaviour or activities using intrusion detection and counter measures G06F 21/566; computer virus detection and handling G06F 21/56)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Computer virus detection and handling

G06F 21/56

Protecting computer platforms against harmful, malicious or unexpected behaviour or activities using intrusion detection and counter measures

G06F 21/566

{Monitoring of the internal components or processes of the client device, e.g. CPU or memory load, processing speed, timer, counter or percentage of the hard disk space used (error monitoring in general G06F 11/30; arrangements for monitoring conditions of receiving stations in broadcast systems H04H 60/32; diagnosis, testing or measuring for television receivers H04N 17/04)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • The client monitors if all its components, internal processes are running properly and reports possible troubles.
  • CPU and memory load, processing speed, buffer (other than decoder buffer), timer, counter, percentage of the hard disk space used, authentication of internal components.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US2009244290, EP2043373, EP1722 555A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Diagnosis, testing or measuring for television receivers

H04N 17/04

Error monitoring in general

G06F 11/30

Monitoring or testing of receivers with feedback of measurements to the transmitter

H04B 17/24

Arrangements for monitoring conditions of receiving stations in broadcast systems

H04H 60/32

{Monitoring the upstream path of the transmission network, e.g. its availability, bandwidth}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Monitoring of the upstream connection, e.g. its availability, bandwidth,..

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2005/053303 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Measuring or estimating channel quality parameters

H04B 17/309

Monitoring of client processing errors or hardware failure
Definition statement

This place covers:

Monitoring of errors related e.g. to content uploading, demultiplexing or due to hardware failure.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Monitoring in electrical digital data processing

G06F 11/00

Error detection in general

G06F 11/07

Monitoring in general

G06F 11/30

OS processes, e.g. booting an STB, implementing a Java virtual machine in an STB or power management in an STB
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Operating system aspects.
  • Basic functions provided by the operating system like memory management, event handling or details of dedicated software libraries.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Boot device selection; Loading of operating system

G06F 9/4406

Arrangements for program loading or initiating

G06F 9/445

Program loading or initiating in general using non-volatile memory from which the program can be directly executed

G06F 9/44568

{characterized by the use of Application Program Interface [API] libraries}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of dedicated software libraries or APIs.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 890 492 A2

{Powering on the client, e.g. bootstrap loading using setup parameters being stored locally or received from the server (resetting in general G06F 1/14; program loading or initiating in general G06F 9/445; bootstrapping in general G06F 9/4401; secure boots of computer platforms G06F 21/57)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Setup parameters can be stored locally or received from the server.

Describes the action of powering on or booting the client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 942 658 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Resetting in general

G06F 1/14

Bootstrapping in general

G06F 9/4401

Program loading or initiating in general

G06F 9/445

Secure boots of computer platforms

G06F 21/57

{Implementing client middleware, e.g. Multimedia Home Platform [MHP]}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: XP/002416424

{Memory management (allocation of memory to service a request G06F 9/5016; addressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures G06F 12/02)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of memory access. Pertains only to the RAM and not the hard disk.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 739 672 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Allocation of memory to service a request

G06F 9/5016

Addressing or allocating within memory systems or architectures

G06F 12/02

{Power management, e.g. shutting down unused components of the receiver (power management in computer systems G06F 1/3203; hibernate or awake process in computer systems G06F 9/4418)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Battery power management of the receiver (e.g. DVB-H, stand-by mode, shutting down unused parts of the receiver)

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 814 280 A2

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Power management in computer systems

G06F 1/3203

Hibernate or awake process in computer systems

G06F 9/4418

{Implementing a Virtual Machine [VM] (virtual machines in general G06F 9/45533)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Presence or details of the implementation of a virtual machine.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0283391 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Virtual machines in general

G06F 9/45533

{Window management, e.g. event handling following interaction with the user interface}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • A window manager represents a technical evolution with respect to older techniques of displaying non video data on a screen such as PiP or OSD.
  • The creation, management of windows or drawing primitives and generally speaking the management of the interaction with a GUI including event handling.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0150964 A1

Management operations performed by the client for facilitating the reception of or the interaction with the content or administrating data related to the end-user or to the client device itself, e.g. learning user preferences for recommending movies, resolving scheduling conflicts
Definition statement

This place covers:

System management. This layer describes high-level functions of the multimedia client, but which are still transparent for the end-user.

{Management of client or end-user data}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Management functions implemented in the client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0205857 A1

{involving client characteristics, e.g. Set-Top-Box type, software version, amount of memory available (allocation of resources considering hardware capabilities G06F 9/5044; allocation of resources considering software capabilities G06F 9/5055; protocols involving terminal profiles for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08927; message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities in packet switching networks H04L 51/06; processing of terminal status or physical abilities in wireless networks H04W 8/22)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The hardware profile describing the processing capabilities of the client is used to discard data streams, which the client can not handle and to retrieve software modules or streams compatible with its capabilities.

It covers hardware and software resources, like the version of the software installed.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0148314 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Allocation of resources considering hardware capabilities

G06F 9/5044

Allocation of resources considering software capabilities

G06F 9/5055

Protocols involving terminal profiles for network applications in communication control or processing

H04L 29/08927

Message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities in packet switching networks

H04L 51/06

Processing of terminal status or physical abilities in wireless networks

H04W 8/22

{involving the geographical location of the client (retrieval from the Internet by querying based on geographical locations G06F 16/9537; systems specially adapted for using geographical information in broadcast systems H04H 60/70; protocols in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal in communication control or processing H04L 29/08657; services making use of the location of users or terminals in wireless networks H04W 4/02; locating users or terminals in wireless networks H04W 64/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The geographical position of the client, which can be a regional or ZIP code for a fixed client or data provided by a GPS for a mobile client is used to provide the user with information related to its geographical environment (regional news or ads).

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 6,948,183 B1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Retrieval from the Internet by querying based on geographical locations

G06F 16/9537

Systems specially adapted for using geographical information in broadcast systems

H04H 60/70

Protocols in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal in communication control or processing

H04L 29/08657

Services making use of the location of users or terminals in wireless networks

H04W 4/02

Locating users or terminals in wireless networks

H04W 64/00

{involving end-user characteristics, e.g. viewer profile, preferences (monitoring of user activities for profile generation for accessing a video database G06F 16/739; protocols involving user profiles for network applications in communication control or processing H04L 29/08936; processing of user preferences or user profiles in wireless networks H04W 8/18)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The viewer profile is either compiled from history data or defined explicitely by the user or received from the server as demographic data.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/1296988 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Monitoring of user activities for profile generation for accessing a video database

G06F 16/735

Protocols involving user profiles for network applications in communication control or processing

H04L 29/08936

Processing of user preferences or user profiles in wireless networks

H04W 8/18

Content {or additional data} filtering, e.g. blocking advertisements
Definition statement

This place covers:

The server sends the same content to a plurality of clients as it does not have any prior knowledge of their requirements. The filtering module will extract the part relevant to the client according to criteria.Advanced filtering systems use learning algorithms to adapt the criteria according to explicit user inputs and/or monitored data. Details of image filtering are described elsewhere.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Filtering and selective blocking of messages over packet-switching networks

H04L 51/12

{Blocking scenes or portions of the received content, e.g. censoring scenes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Usually the filter will extract a small portion of the data from the incoming stream. As this operation is trivial, it does not need to be described. However, some applications consider removing a small part of the information from the incoming stream. Examples can be censoring of scenes, image regions or blocking of advertisements.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/051956 A1

Input to filtering algorithms, e.g. filtering a region of the image
Definition statement

This place covers:

Once the filtering criterion is defined, the filter needs to know on which kind of streaming or additional data it has to apply.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2002/0108128 A1

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Filtering for image enhancement or restoration

G06T 5/00

{applied to an object-based stream, e.g. MPEG-4 streams}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The filter could process MPEG-4 streams, for example to delete some objects.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2003/0219708 A1

{applied to a region of the image}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A Region Of Interest is defined and displayed, blurred or masked. This can be applied to analog or MPEG-2 streams, where the image has been encoded as a whole and not as a set of objects. Therefore, the region is marked and tracked. Censoring systems can require to mask or blur some regions of the image.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2007/0162922 A1

{applied to a time segment}
Definition statement

This place covers:

A time segment of the video is filtered out.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 00/31973

Scheduling content for creating a personalised stream, e.g. by combining a locally stored advertisement with an incoming stream; Updating operations, e.g. for OS modules {; time-related management operations (arrangements for replacing or switching information during the broadcast or during the distribution H04H 20/10)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The scheduler has a similar function to the scheduler on the server side. It processes incoming streams of data as well as data cached on an internal disk and creates virtual channels. It can also be controlled by the server. It can generate a stream of personalized content.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2007/072368 A1

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for replacing or switching information during the broadcast or during the distribution

H04H 20/10

{Automatically resolving scheduling conflicts, e.g. when a recording by reservation has been programmed for two programs in the same time slot}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client solves automatically conflicts in scheduling issues, like having to perform 2 operations at the same time (e.g.recording 2 different movies in the same time slot)

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: WO 2006/127211 A2

{Content update operation triggered locally, e.g. by comparing the version of software modules in a DVB carousel to the version stored locally (deployment, distribution, installation, update of software G06F 8/65; program updating while running in general G06F 8/656; error detection or correction of the data by redundancy during software upgrading G06F 11/1433; arrangements for updating broadcast information or broadcast-related information H04H 60/25)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The client checks itself if an update operation needs to be performed. This could be implemented by comparing the version of software modules in a DVB carousel with the local version.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 005666293A

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Deployment, distribution, installation, update of software

G06F 8/65

Program updating while running in general

G06F 8/656

Error detection or correction of the data by redundancy during software upgrading

G06F 11/1433

Arrangements for updating broadcast information or broadcast-related information

H04H 60/25

Content or additional data management, e.g. creating a master electronic program guide from data received from the Internet and a Head-end, controlling the complexity of a video stream by scaling the resolution or bit-rate based on the client capabilities
Definition statement

This place covers:

Management functions implemented in the client device.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: US 2008/0205857 A1

{Controlling the complexity of the content stream or additional data, e.g. lowering the resolution or bit-rate of the video stream for a mobile client with a small screen (arrangements for using the results of monitoring on user's side in broadcast systems H04H 60/65; flow control in packet networks H04L 47/10)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Scalability control is performed by the client device, for example to forward the data to a low-resolution device on a home network.

Example(s) of documents found in this subgroup: EP 1 717 976 A2, US 2003/0126238 A1

Refe