Cooperative Patent Classification


CPC Definition - Subclass F03D

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Last Updated Version: 2018.05
WIND MOTORS
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mechanisms for converting the energy of wind into useful mechanical power.

In particular:

Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the flow of air entering the machine

Wind motors with rotation axis substantially at right angle to the flow of air entering the machine

Other wind motors

Controlling wind motors

Adaptations of wind motors for special use

Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby

Other details, component parts, or accessories of wind motors

Relationships with other classification places

F03D covers mechanisms for converting natural wind energy into useful mechanical energy, and the transmission of such mechanical energy to its point of use. Electrical power generation aspects of wind motors (e.g. dynamo-electric conversion and electric generators) are classified in H02P. Arrangements or systems for supplying or distributing electric power are classified in H02J. Circuit arrangements or sy

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Circuit arrangements or systems for supplying or distributing electronic power

Control or regulation of electric generators, or dynamo-electric converters

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicles for transportation

Propulsive devices of ships or other waterborne vessels directly acted on by wind, using the Magnus effect

Rotors for airplanes and helicopters

Handling by cranes, hoisting, lifting

Machines or engines for liquids, Water turbines

Ventilators

Dynamo-electric machines

Structural association of electric generator with mechanical driving motor in dynamo-electric machines, e.g. turbine

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Rotor

Wind engaging parts of the wind motor and the rotary member carrying them

Rotation axis

Axis of rotation of the rotor

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

HAWT

Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

VAWT

Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "wind turbine", and "windmill"
  • "azimuth angle", and "yaw angle"
  • "rotor hub", "rotor cone" and "spinner"
Wind motors with rotation axis substantially parallel to the air flow entering the rotor  (controlling thereof F03D 7/02)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wind motors having their rotation axis substantially parallel to the flow of air entering the machine. When the flow has been guided into a direction other that the original wind direction, the final flow into the wind motor should be considered for classification.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Controlling of wind motors

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Solar updraft

Wind motors with rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor  (controlling thereof F03D 7/06)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wind motors having their rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the flow of air entering the machine. When the flow has been guided into a direction other that the original wind direction, the final flow into the wind motor should be considered for classification.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Controlling of wind motors

{with augmenting action, i.e. the guiding means intercepting an area greater than the effective rotor area (F03D 3/0463, F03D 3/049 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wind motors characterised by the "effective area" of the rotor which is the cross section area of the rotor which contributes positively, i.e. causes a torque in/ to the desired rotation. The "augmenting" guiding means are those guiding means which intercept an area of flow greater than this "effective rotor area", and direct the flow into the rotor. The guiding means which fulfil this intercepting role are bounded on all sides from inlet to outlet into rotor, and therefore also accelerate or "concentrate" the flow into the rotor.

Example:

EP0226526

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$

GB2420831

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Special rules of classification

When the guiding means form also a shield means on one side of the rotor F03D 3/0463 or F03D 3/049 take precedence.

{and only with concentrating action, i.e. only increasing the airflow speed into the rotor (F03D 3/0463 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wind motors with a concentrating means, i.e. the guiding means only increase the flow speed into the rotor without intercepting an area of flow greater than the effective rotor area (see definition of this effective area in F03D 3/0427 entry). These concentrating guiding means can be either bounded on all sides or only on some.

US1596373

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AU597755B (see channel 12)

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{the wind engaging parts having a cyclic movement relative to the rotor during its rotation}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wind motors wherein the wind engaging parts, i.e. the blades, vanes, paddles or cups, undergo a change of orientation within each cycle of rotation of the wind rotor, coming back to their original position after each revolution. This change of orientation happens of itself, passively, the direct result of the wind acting on the wind engaging parts as the relative wind direction changes with the rotation.

Example:

WO2010102517

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{the cyclic relative movement being coupled to the movement of rotation; Controlling same, e.g. according to wind direction or force}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wind motors whereby the cyclic movement of the wind engaging parts during each revolution of the rotor are forcibly and actively related to the rotor rotation, not the result of the action on the part by the wind flow itself .

Examples:

US2011091322

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DE202008006980U

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Other wind motors (controlling thereof F03D 7/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Controlling of wind motors

{Wind motors having a single vane which axis generate a conus or like surface}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Illustrated example of subject matter classified in F03D 5/005.

US4561826

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the wind-engaging parts being attached to endless chains or the like
Definition statement

This place covers:

Illustrated example of subject matter classified in F03D 5/02.

WO2010060911

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the wind-engaging parts being attached to carriages running on tracks or the like
Definition statement

This place covers:

Illustrated example of subject matter classified in F03D 5/04.

EP078853

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the wind-engaging parts swinging to-and-fro and not rotating
Definition statement

This place covers:

Illustrated example of subject matter classified in F03D 5/06.

US2009/0224553

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Controlling wind motors
Definition statement

This place covers:

Control of wind motors and related control arrangements.

F03D 7/02 and F03D 7/06 covers essentially the two main types of wind motors according groups F03D 1/00 and F03D 3/00. Main group F03D 7/00 covers all other types of wind motors.

Subgroups F03D 7/0204 - F03D 7/0296 cover the purpose of the control or the type of control actuators. Subgroups under F03D 7/04 cover the type of controllers and/or the control methods.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Supplying or distributing electric power

Controlling electric generators

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling in general

Special rules of classification

Multi-aspect classification should be applied in this group. Documents should be classified in F03D 7/02 for purpose of control or the type of controller and in addition according the control method or type of controller in group F03D 7/04. For example, a model-based controller acting on the pitch system to reduce rotor noise should be classified in groups F03D 7/045, F03D 7/0224 and F03D 7/0296.

the wind motors having rotation axis substantially perpendicular to the air flow entering the rotor
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rotor construction, the wind engaging parts having a cyclic movement relative to the rotor during its rotation, the cyclic relative movement being coupled to the movement of rotation; Controlling same, e.g. according to wind direction or force

Adaptations of wind motors for special use; Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby; Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations (hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy systems for the generation of electric power H02S 10/12)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Adaptations of wind motors for special use, e.g. for converting solar radiation into useful energy by producing heat or for producing heat in heat pump systems;

Combinations of wind motors with water energy converters, e.g. water turbines;

Combinations of wind motors with apparatus driven thereby, e.g. pumps or compressors, electrical generators, heat pump systems or apparatus storing energy.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hybrid wind-photovoltaic energy systems for the generation of electric power

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Arrangements in connection with vehicle propulsion units with power supply from wind

Propulsion of ships or other waterborne vessels by wind motors driving water-engaging propulsive elements

Pumps characterised by combination with wind motors

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Supplying or distributing electric power, Grid connection

Systems for storing electric energy

Structural association of electric generator and wind motor

Wind motors characterised by the driven apparatus (F03D 9/10 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Combinations of wind motors with apparatus storing energy

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Arrangements of propulsion units in vehicles in connection with power supply derived from wind power

Electric propulsion of vehicles using wind power

Propulsion of ships or other waterborne vessels by wind motors driving water-engaging propulsive elements

Driving auxiliaries on ships of other waterborne vessels using wind power

Wind motors specially adapted for installation in particular locations (means for mounting or supporting wind motors F03D 13/20)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Arrangements for mounting or supporting wind motors

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Anchoring arrangements for special vessels

on moving objects, e.g. vehicles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Wind motors specially adapted for installation on moving objects, e.g. vehicles, in which the movement of the object causes air flow through the rotor.

Arrangements for mounting or supporting wind motors; Masts or towers for wind motors
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Foundations for poles, masts or chimneys

Towers; Masts, poles; Methods of erecting such structures

specially adapted for offshore installation
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Anchoring arrangements for special vessels

Vessels or like floating structures adapted for special purposes

Artificial islands mounted on piles or like supports

Arrangements or methods specially adapted for transporting wind motor components
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicles adapted to transport or carry special loads or objects

Transmission of mechanical power
Definition statement

This place covers:

Transmission of mechanical power, i.e. mechanisms by which the wind-derived mechanical power is conveyed to its point of use

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gearing

Gearless transmission, i.e. direct-drive
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Direct-drive

Gearless transmission arrangement in which the rotor shaft is attached directly to the generator without intermediate gearing.

Monitoring or testing of wind motors, e.g. diagnostics (testing during commissioning of wind motors F03D 13/30)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Monitoring or testing of wind motors, e.g. diagnostics.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Testing during commissioning of wind motors

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Monitoring or testing

Overseeing or analysing the operating conditions of the wind motor mechanism, typically to identify problematic conditions. This may involve reference to wind motor sensor signals indicating, e.g. wind speed and direction, pitch angle, vibration, rotary torque, blade load and strain.

Arrangements for warning air traffic
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Traffic control systems for aircraft

Arrangements for avoiding shadow flicker
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Shadow flicker

Periodic flickering effect due to repetitive shadows cast by rotating wind turbine blades.

Lightning protection
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Installations of lightning conductors; Fastening thereof to supporting structure

Bearing or lubricating arrangements
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lubricating of machines in general

Bearings

Arrangement of components within nacelles or towers
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Nacelle

The protective outer housing enclosing wind motor components such as the transmission, associated gearing and turbine.