CPC Definition - Subclass C08L

Last Updated Version: 2021.08
COMPOSITIONS OF MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS (compositions based on polymerisable monomers C08F, C08G; artificial filaments or fibres D01F; textile treating compositions D06)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of macromolecular compounds, either with other macromolecular compounds or with other ingredients, including compositions of polysaccharides, rubbers or natural macromolecular compounds.

The use of macromolecular substances as compounding ingredients.

The above compositions and uses may involve macromolecular substances obtained by reactions which may or may not involve only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds and compositions.

C08L is the technical field for compositions of polymers. In general, compositions of single polymers in solution are classified in C08L, unless otherwise mentioned in specific groups.

Relationships with other classification places

Compositions of single polymers with organic or inorganic additives are classified in C08K.

Relationship with other subclasses of class C08 and C09

Subclasses C08B - C08L are generally function-oriented subclasses in relation to the polymers per se, while C09D - C09K are application-oriented subclasses in relation to the said polymers (see below for the special relationship with C09D and C09J).

Polysaccharides per se and their derivatives are classified in C08B.

Treatment and chemical modification of rubbers, including conjugated diene rubbers, are classified in C08C – however synthesis of rubbers and treatment or chemical modification of non-rubbers are classified in subclasses C08F or C08G.

Macromolecular compounds per se obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds (usually known as addition polymers) are in C08F. Compositions based on monomers of such polymers are also in C08F.

Macromolecular compounds per se obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds (usually known as condensation polymers) are classified in C08G. Compositions based on monomers of such polymers are also classified in C08G.

Derivatives of natural macromolecular polymers per se, e.g. derived from proteins or vulcanised oils, are classified in C08H.

Working-up, general processes of compounding and after-treatment are covered by subclass C08J. These include making solutions, dispersions etc., plasticising, compounding with additives, e.g. colouring or masterbatching, crosslinking, manufacture of articles or shaped materials, chemical treatment or coating of such articles, making porous, cellular or foamed materials, and recovery or working up of waste materials.

Coating compositions and other polymer compositions for similar uses, e.g. paints, inks, woodstains and printing pastes, are classified in C09D.

C09G covers the application of the compositions of C08L when used as polishes.

Adhesives and adhesive processes are classified in C09J.

Materials used in applications not otherwise provided for, are classified in C09K. These include sealing or anti-slip materials, heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials, drilling compositions, luminescent or tenebrescent materials, etching, surface-brightening or pickling materials, antioxidant materials, soil-conditioning or soil-stabilising materials, liquid crystal or fireproofing materials.

Relationship between C08FC08GC08LC09D and C09J

Polymers as such are classified in C08F or C08G. Polymers compositions are classified in C08L. Coating compositions or adhesive compositions are classified in C09D and C09J respectively.

C09D and C09J are seen as "related fields" of C08L which should be considered when classifying or searching for a document.

For classification:

  • If the claims only pertain to a "coating composition...", only C09D symbols are given.
  • If the claims pertain to a composition as such and to coating (e.g. "composition for use as coating..."), both the C09D and the corresponding C08L symbols are given.

For searching: Both C08L and C09D subclasses should be searched, regardless of the wording of the claims about a coating, since documents classified in C08L may have information relating to the use of the composition for coating.

These rules apply in analogy for the adhesive compositions of C09J and the related C08L.

Multiple Classification

Biocidal, pest repellant, pest attractant, or plant growth regulatory activity of chemical compounds or preparations is further classified in A01P.

Therapeutic activity of macromolecular compounds is further classified in subclass A61P.

The use of cosmetics or similar toilet preparations is further classified in subclass A61Q.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Application of macromolecular compositions as pesticides or herbicides

A01N

Application of macromolecular compositions as pharmaceutical compositions or cosmetics

A61K

Application of macromolecular compositions as explosive compositions

C06B

Application of macromolecular compositions in coating compositions

C09D

Application of macromolecular compositions in adhesive compositions

C09J

Application of macromolecular compositions in lubricants

C10M

Application of macromolecular composition in lubricants

C11D

Artificial filaments or fibres

D01F

Treatment of textiles

D06L - D06Q

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products

B32B

Liquid crystal compositions

C09K 19/00

Electrolytic processes, e.g. electrophoresis

C25

Special rules of classification

References C08F, C08G, D06 are non-limiting in the subclass C08L. CPC will be updated/corrected once this inconsistency in IPC is resolved.

Classification guidance:

  • Compositions of single polymers with organic or inorganic additives are not classified in this subclass but in C08K.
  • Compositions are classified according to the relative proportions by weight of only the macromolecular constituents; a single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion; if some or all of these constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.
  • In the case of copolymers, the main group in C08L is selected on the basis of the monomer in majority for each macromolecular component of the composition, unless otherwise stated.
  • The entire composition is also classified under the form of a C-Set (see C-Sets classification below).
  • All hydrogels including those from a single polymer are classified in the C08L 1/00 - C08L 5/00 and C08L 89/00 - C08L 97/00 group corresponding to the matrix polymer and C08J 3/075 and C08J 2300/00 - C08J 2399/00 (see definitions of C08L 1/00 - C08L 5/00 and C08L 89/00 - C08L 97/00).
  • While crosslinked hydrogels are classified in C08B, their compositions are in C08L. The crosslinking process for making gel/hydrogel is classified in C08J 3/24.

Allocation of indexing codes:

  • Orthogonal Indexing Codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86 are used to specify the role, applications and the characteristics of the polymer compositions.
  • Orthogonal Indexing codes may be allocated in conjunction with C-sets symbols. In these situations, allocations of specific indexing codes are indicated with the related C-Sets in C-Sets classification.
  • Breakdown indexing codes in C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 are used as single symbols for classification, but they are not used in forming of C-Set symbols (See C-Sets classification below).

Orthogonal symbols C08L 2666/00 - C08L 2666/86 are not used for classification after April 2012. However, they can be used for C-Sets searches for the documents classified prior to Aril 2012. See C-sets search below.

Combination sets (C-Sets):

In this subclass, C-Sets classification is applied to the following groups, listed in the table below, if the document discloses a pertinent combination of technical features that cannot be covered by the allocation of a single symbol. The fourth column of the table indicates the place where the detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules can be found, in the definition section "Special rules of classification".

C-SETS ID

BASE SYMBOL

SUBSEQUENT SYMBOLS

C-SETS FORMULA; LOCATION OF C-SETS RULES

#C8La

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C08L, C08L, …); a composition comprising two or more polymers; see C08L

#C8La(Si)

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 and excluding breakdown indexing codes)

C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00

(C08L, C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00, ...); a composition comprising one non Si-based polymer in majorityand two or more Si-based polymers; see C08L

#C8La(Si)2

C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16

C08L 83/00 and optionally C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 and excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00, …, C08L,...); a composition comprising one Si-based polymer in majority with one or more Si-based polymer(s) and optionally non Si-based polymer(s); see C08L 83/00

#C8Lb

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding breakdown indexing codes), C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C08L, C08L,…C08K); a composition comprising two or more polymers with additive(s); see C08L

#C8Lb(Si)

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 and excluding breakdown indexing codes)

C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00, C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C08L, C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00, ..., C08K, ...); a composition comprising one non Si-based polymer in majority and two or more Si-based polymers, and additive(s); see C08L

#C8Lb(Si)2

C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16

C08L 83/00 and optionally C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16, (excluding C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 and excluding breakdown indexing codes), C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00,..., C08L, ... C08K, ...); a composition comprising one Si-based polymer in majority with one or more Si-based polymer(s) and optionally non Si-based polymer(s) and additive(s); see C08L 83/00

#C8Lz

C08L

C08L 2666/00 - C08L 2666/26

(C08L, C08L 2666/00 - C08L 2666/26); a composition comprising two or more polymers; see C08L

#C8Ka

C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C08K, C08L); an additive with a single polymer; see C08K

#C9Dc

C09D 101/00 - C09D 201/10

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C09D, C08L, …); a coating composition of two or more polymers; see C09D 101/00

#C9Dc(Si)

C09D 101/00 - C09D 201/10(excluding C09D 183/02 - C09D 183/16)

C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00

(C09D, C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00, ...); a coating composition comprising one non Si-based polymer in majority and two or more Si-based polymers; see C09D 101/00

#C9Dc(Si)2

C09D 183/02 - C09D 183/16

C08L 83/00 and optionally C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 and excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C09D 183/02 - C09D 183/16, C08L 83/00, ..., C08L, ...); a coating composition comprising one Si-based polymer in majority with one or more Si-based polymers and optionally non Si-based polymer(s); see C09D 183/00

#C9Df

C09D 101/00 - C09D 201/10

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding breakdown indexing codes), C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C09D, C08L…, C08K,…); a coating composition of two or more polymers with additive(s); see C09D 101/00

#C9Df(Si)

C09D 101/00 - C09D 201/10(excluding C09D 183/02 - C09D 183/16)

C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00, C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C09D, C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00, ..., C08K, ...); a coating composition comprising one non Si-based polymer in majority and two or more Si-based polymers and additive(s); see C09D 101/00

#C9Df(Si)2

C09D 183/02 - C09D 183/16

C08L 83/00 and optionally C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 and excluding breakdown indexing codes), C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C09D 183/02 - C09D 183/16, C08L 83/00, ..., C08L,... C08K, ...); a coating composition comprising one Si-based polymer in majority with one or more Si-based polymers and optionally non Si-based polymer(s) and additive(s); see C09D 183/00

#C9Dz

C09D 101/00 - C09D 201/10

C08L 2666/00 - C08L 2666/26

(C09D, C08L 2666/00 - C08L 2666/26); a coating composition of two or more polymers; see C09D 101/00

#C9Jc

C09J 101/00 - C09J 201/10

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C09J, C08L, …); an adhesive composition of two or more polymers; see C09J 101/00

#C9Jc(Si)

C09J 101/00 - C09J 201/10 (excluding C09J 183/02 - C09J 183/16)

C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00

(C09J, C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00, ...); an adhesive composition comprising one non Si-based polymer in majority and two or more Si-based polymers; see C09J 101/00

#C9Jc(Si)2

C09J 183/02 - C09J 183/16

C08L 83/00 and optionally C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 and excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C09J 183/02 - C09J 183/16, C08L 83/00, ..., C08L, ...); an adhesive composition comprising one Si-based polymer in majority and one or more Si-based polymer(s) and optionally non-Si polymer(s); see C09J 183/00

#C9Jf

C09J 101/00 - C09J 201/10

C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding breakdown indexing codes), C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C09J, C08L,..., C08K,…); an adhesive composition comprising two or more polymers with additive(s); see C09J 101/00

#C9Jf(Si)

C09J 101/00 - C09J 201/10 (excluding C09J 183/02 - C09J 183/16)

C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00, C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C09J, C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, C08L 83/00, ..., C08K, ...); an adhesive composition comprising one non Si-based polymer in majority and two or more Si-based polymers and additive(s); see C09J 101/00

#C9Jf(Si)2

C09J 183/02 - C09J 183/16

C08L 83/00 and optionally C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 (excluding C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 and excluding breakdown indexing codes), C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (excluding breakdown indexing codes)

(C09J 183/02 - C09J 183/16, C08L 83/00, ..., C08L,... C08K, ...); an adhesive composition comprising one Si-based polymer in majority with one or more Si-based polymer(s) and optionally non Si-based polymer(s) and additive(s); see C09J 183/00

#C9Jz

C09J 101/00 - C09J 201/10

C08L 2666/00 - C08L 2666/26

(C09J, C08L 2666/00 - C08L 2666/26); an adhesive composition of two or more polymers; see C09J 101/00

The specific C-Sets rule is located at only one place of the base symbol in the section "Special rules of classification" in the definition. If the C-Sets rule is applicable to all groups of a subclass, it is located at the subclass level only. If the same C-Sets rule is applicable to multiple groups or subgroups within the same subclass, the C-Sets rule is placed at the highest group or subgroup of the multiple groups.

C-Sets statement: #C8La and #C8Lb

  • In groups C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16, the compositions of macromolecular compounds and any additives(s) are classified in the form of C-Sets.
  • In #C8La , the base symbol, representing the major polymer of the composition (in term of weight percentage) is taken from the groups C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16, whereas the subsequent symbol(s) representing the polymer(s) as minor component(s) of the composition (in term of weight percentage) is (are) taken from the groups C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16.
  • In the case that two polymers are present in equal amounts (50:50), two C-sets are given.
  • In #C8Lb, in addition to the polymers as shown in #C8La , further subsequent symbol(s), representing compound(s) used as an additive(s), are taken from the groups C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08 (for the additive(s)).

C-Sets syntax rules:

  • Each of these C-Sets should contain two or more symbols from C08L.
  • C-Sets of #C8La shall contain two or more symbols.
  • C-Sets of #C8Lb shall contain three or more symbols.
  • Duplicate symbols are allowed in these C-Sets.
  • Breakdown indexing codes are not allowed as either base or subsequent symbols.
  • The order of C08L symbols in C-Sets of # C8La and # C8Lb is relevant as it reflects the relative amounts of the polymers. The C08K symbols for the additives always appear after the symbols for the polymers (C08L). The order of C08K symbols of additives is not relevant if there are more than one additive in the composition. (Note: This does not apply for #C8Ka. See #C8Ka rules in C08K).
  • In addition, both #C8La and #C8Lb C-Sets can also be allocated in conjunction with orthogonal indexing codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86. For example, a composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a polyethylene is classified as (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 23/06) and in C08L 2205/03.
  • When the composition comprises one Si-based polymer of C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, one additional symbol is allocated in addition to the C-Set, which is selected from the range C08G 77/02 - C08G 77/62, corresponding to the Si-based polymer component detailed in the C-Set.
  • In all cases, a single symbol is also given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.

C-Sets examples:

C-Sets statement: #C8La(Si) and #C8Lb(Si)

  • #C8La (Si) and #C8Lb(Si) are a special use of #C8La and #C8Lb for a composition comprising two or more Si-based macromolecular compounds in the sense of C08G 77/00.
  • In groups C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16, the feature relating to a composition comprising one non Si-based polymer in majority with two or more Si-based macromolecular compounds is classified in the form of C-Sets.
  • In #C8La (Si) and #C8Lb(Si), the base symbol, representing the polymer in majority, is taken from the groups C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/10 (excluding C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16), whereas the subsequent symbols representing the polymers in minority are taken from the groups C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 (for the Si-based macromolecular compound in majority), and from C08L 83/00 (for the Si-based polymer(s) in minority).
  • In addition, #C8Lb(Si) further includes subsequent symbols representing compound(s) used as an additive(s) from the groups C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08.
  • In addition to C-Sets, one or more additional symbols are allocated, which are selected from the range C08G 77/02 - C08G 77/62 corresponding to each of the Si-based macromolecular compound components detailed in the C-Set.
  • In all cases, a single symbol is also given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.

C-Sets syntax rules:

  • C-Sets of #C8La(Si) shall contain at least three symbols.
  • C-Sets of #C8Lb(Si) shall contain at least four symbols.
  • While duplicate symbols are allowed in these C-Sets, only one symbol selected from the range C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 is permitted per C-Set.
  • Breakdown codes are not allowed either as base or as subsequent symbols.
  • The order of C08L symbols in C-Sets of # C8La(Si) and #C8Lb(Si) is relevant as it reflects the relative amounts of the polymers. The C08K symbols for the additives always appear after the symbols for the polymers (C08L). The order of C08K symbols of additives is not relevant if there is more than one additive in the composition.

C-Sets examples:

#C8La (Si): A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02, an amine-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/26 and an epoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/14 is classified as (C08L 67/02, C08L 83/08, C08L 83/00) and in C08G 77/14(ADD) and C08G 77/26 (ADD).

#C8Lb(Si): A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02, an amine-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/26 and an epoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/14 and carbon black is classified as (C08L 67/02, C08L 83/08, C08L 83/00, C08K 3/04) and in C08G 77/14 (ADD) and C08G 77/26 (ADD).

Also see C08L 83/00 for more examples of compositions comprising Si-containing polymers.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L, C08L 83/00 and related subclasses e.g. C09D and C09J.

In addition, Search rule #C8Lz, #C9Dz (see C09D), and #C9Jz (see C09J) may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Search rule #C8Lz

To search a composition of two polymers, build search queries as follows:(C08L of the polymer in majority, C08L 2666/00 - C08L 2666/26).

The subsequent symbol refers to the appropriate subgroup of C08L 2666/02 - C08L 2666/26 according to the last place rule.

The search statement can also be further refined by searching the polymer in minority by using its C08L as ADD (for documents classified between 2003 and April 2012).

In the case where two polymers are present in equal amounts (50:50), either polymer can be treated as majority, build to two C-Sets search queries wherein either polymer as majority.

Example 1: A composition comprising polystyrene in majority (C08L 25/06) and polyester (Polycaprolactone) (C08L 2666/18) in minority

Example 2: A composition comprising polystyrene in majority (C08L 25/06) and polymethylmethacrylate (C08L 2666/04) in minority.

#C8Lz search rules do not apply when polysiloxane is in majority and when there is a second polysiloxane, C08L 83/00 is used as subsequent symbol(s) in that case.

Example 3: A composition comprising epoxy functional polysiloxane (C08L 83/06) in majority and polydimethylsiloxane in minority (C08L 83/00).

To search for a composition of three or more polymers, build search queries as follows: (C08L of the polymer in majority, an appropriate subgroup of C08L 2666/02 - C08L 2666/26) and C08L 2205/03 (ADD)

The search statement can also be further refined by searching the polymers in minority by using their C08L as ADD for documents classified between 2003 and April 2012.

In the case of a composition of three or more polymers, the subsequent symbol is taken from the group of C08L 2666/00 - C08L 2666/26 that covers all minority polymers.

Example 4: A composition comprising polystyrene in majority (C08L 25/06) and polyester (Polycaprolactone) (C08L 2666/18) and polyamide (Nylon) (C08L 2666/20) in minority.

Example 5: A composition comprising polystyrene in majority (C08L 25/06) and polyester (Polycaprolactone) (C08L 2666/18) and natural rubber (C08L 2666/08) in minority.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Addition polymers

Polymers in which unsaturated monomer molecules join together to form a polymer in which the molecular formula of the repeat unit is identical (except for the double bond) with that of the monomer.

Aliphatic radical

Means an acyclic or non-aromatic carbocyclic carbon skeleton which is considered to be terminated by every bond to: an element other than carbon; a carbon atom having a double bond to one atom other than carbon; an aromatic carbocyclic ring or a heterocyclic ring. Examples: Polymers of CH2=CH-O-CH2-CH2-NH-COO- CH2 - CH2-OH are classified in group C08F 16/28; CH2=CH-CO-CH=CH2 are classified in group C08F 16/36 ;CH2=CH-C6H4-Cl are classified in group C08F 12/18.

Block polymers

Polymers formed by polymerization of monomers on to a macromolecule having groups capable of inducing the formation of new polymer chains bound at one or both ends of the starting macromolecule, or by polymerization using successively different catalyst types or successively different monomer systems without deactivating the intermediate polymer.

Condensation polymers

Polymers in which water or some other simple molecule is eliminated from 2 or more monomer molecules as they combine to form the polymer or crosslinks between polymer chains.

Copolymer

Usually denotes a polymer of 2 chemically distinct monomers, and sometimes denotes a terpolymer containing more than 2 types of monomer unit.

Graft polymers

Macromolecular compounds obtained by polymerizing monomers on to preformed polymers or on to inorganic materials. Such preformed polymers could be rubbers, polysaccharides, condensation polymers, homopolymers or copolymers of the addition polymer type.

Homopolymers

Polymers resulting from the polymerisation of a single monomer or polymer with a single type of repeating unit.

Repeat(ing) unit

The unit in an addition polymer which is repeated throughout the molecule; for example in polyethylene the repeat unit is:–CH2-CH2-

Rubber

a. Natural or conjugated diene rubbers; b. Rubber in general.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ABS

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer

AIBN

Azoisobutyronitrile (initiator)

AMMA

Acrylonitrile-methyl methacrylate copolymer

AMPS

Acrylamidomethylpropanesulfonic acid

BR

Butadiene rubber

CTFE

Chloro-trifluoroethylene

DVB

Divinylbenzene

EAA

Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer

EPDM

Ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer

EPR

Ethylene-propylene rubber

EVA

Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer

EVOH

Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer

HDPE

High-density polyethylene

HEMA

Hydroxyethyl methacrylate

LDPE

Low-density polyethylene

LLDPE

Linear low-density polyethylene

PAN

Polyacrylonitrile

PEEK

Polyetherether ketone, also named polyetheresterketone

PEI

Polyethylenimine

PMMA

Polymethyl methacrylate

PPE

Polyphenylene ether

PPO

Polyphenylene oxide or polypropylene oxide

PPS

Polyphenylene sulphide

PTFE

Polytetrafluoroethylene

PUR

Polyurethane

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate

PVAC

Polyvinyl acetate

Compositions of cellulose, modified cellulose or cellulose derivatives
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of cellulose, modified cellulose or cellulose derivatives corresponding to the following main groups: C08B 1/00 - C08B 17/00

Relationships with other classification places

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08B 15/005 and C08B 15/10 as they are considered as polysaccharide derivatives per se.

Coating compositions based on such polysaccharides are classified in C09D 101/00.

Adhesives or binders based on such polysaccharides are classified in

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Composition based on lignin-containing materials, e.g. lignin, cork, lignocellulose or wood

C08L 97/00

Composition of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof not provided for in groups C08L 89/00 - C08L 87/00, e.g. flours

C08L 99/00

Cellulose or derivatives thereof per se

C08B 1/00 - C08B 17/06

Coating composition comprising cellulose or cellulose derivative

C09D 101/00 - C09D 101/32

Adhesive or binder composition comprising cellulose or cellulose derivative

C09J 101/00 - C09J 101/32

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of the subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.
  • Cellulose or derivatives thereof either in solution or together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules outlined in subclass C08L.
  • Uncrosslinked hydrogels are classified in C08L 1/00 - C08L 1/32, together with C08J 3/075 and C08J 2301/02 - C08J 2301/32.

Example: Hydrogels of cellulose are classified in C08L 1/02, C08J 3/075 and C08J 2301/02.

The crosslinking process is classified in C08J 3/24 (see definition of C08J 3/00).

  • While crosslinked hydrogels are classified in C08B, their compositions are in C08L.

Example: Crosslinking of cellulose derivative is classified in C08B 15/005, the composition comprising crosslinked cellulose is classified in C08L 1/08.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • The compositions of this group are classified according to the relative proportions by weight percentage of only the macromolecular constituents.
  • In addition, a single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.
  • Compositions containing a cellulose and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets ((i.e. #C8Lb and #C8Ka. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclass C08L and C08K.

Example 1: Cellulose acetate in solution is classified in C08L 1/12.

Example 2: A composition consisting of 60 wt.% of microcrystalline cellulose and 40 wt.% of maltodextrin is classified as (C08L 1/04, C08L 3/02).

Example 3: A composition consisting of carboxymethyl cellulose and glycerol (plasticiser) is classified as (C08K 5/053, C08L 1/286) and in C08K 5/0016.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of starch, amylose or amylopectin or of their derivatives or degradation products
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of starch, amylose or amylopectin or of their derivatives or degradation products corresponding to the following groups:

Relationships with other classification places

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08B 31/003 as they are considered as polysaccharide derivatives per se.

Coating compositions based on such starches are classified in C09D 103/00.

Adhesives or binders based on such starches are classified in C09J 103/00.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Starch and derivatives thereof per se

C08B 30/00 - C08B 35/08

Coating composition comprising starch, amylose, amylopectin or their derivatives or degradation products

C09D 103/00 - C09D 103/20

Adhesive/Binder composition comprising cellulose or cellulose derivative starch, amylose, amylopectin or their derivatives or degradation products

C09J 103/00 - C09J 103/20

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.
  • Starch or derivatives thereof either in solution, together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L.
  • Uncrosslinked hydrogels are classified in C08L 3/00 - C08L 3/20 together with C08J 3/075 and in C08J 2303/02 - C08J 2303/20. Example: Hydrogels of oxidised starch are classified in C08L 3/10, C08J 3/075 and C08J 2303/10.
  • The crosslinking process is classified in C08J 3/24 (see definition of C08J 3/00) While crosslinked hydrogels are classified in C08B, their compositions are classified in C08L. Example: Crosslinking of starch is classified in C08B 31/003, the composition comprising crosslinked starch is classified in C08L 3/04.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • The compositions of this group are classified according to the relative proportions by weight percentage of only the macromolecular constituents.
  • In addition, a single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.
  • Compositions containing a starch and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Kb, if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules in subclasses C08K and C08L.

Example 1: Starch acetate in solution is classified in C08L 3/06.

Example 2: A composition consisting of 60 wt.% of crosslinked starch and 40 wt.% of maltodextrin is classified as (C08L 3/04, C08L 3/02) and in C08L 2205/02.

Example 3: A composition consisting of crosslinked carboxymethyl starch and crosslinked glycerol (plasticiser) is classified as (C08K 5/053, C08L 3/08) and in C08K 5/0016.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of polysaccharides or of their derivatives not provided for in groups C08L 1/00 or C08L 3/00
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of polysaccharides, other than cellulose and starch, and their derivatives corresponding to the following groups:

Relationships with other classification places

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08B as they are considered as polysaccharide derivatives per se.

Coating compositions based on such polysaccharides are classified in C09D 105/00.

Adhesives or binders based on such polysaccharides are classified in C09J 105/00.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polysaccharides per se

C08B 37/00 - C08B 37/0096

Coating composition comprising polysaccharide or polysaccharide derivative

C09D 105/00 - C09D 105/16

Adhesive/Binder composition comprising polysaccharide or polysaccharide derivative

C09J 105/00 - C09J 105/16

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.
  • Polysaccharides or derivatives thereof-either in solution, together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L.
  • Uncrosslinked hydrogels are classified in C08L 5/00 - C08L 5/16 together with C08J 3/075 and in C08J 2305/02 - C08J 2305/16.

Example: Hydrogels of alginate are classified in C08L 5/04, C08J 3/075 and C08J 2305/04.

  • The crosslinking process is classified in C08J 3/24.

Example: Crosslinking of Dextran is classified in C08B 37/0021; the composition comprising crosslinked dextran is classified in C08L 5/02.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • The compositions of this group are classified according to the relative proportions by weight percentage of only the macromolecular constituents.
  • In addition, a single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.
  • Compositions containing a polysaccharide and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in C08K as indicated in the rules for C08L in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb), if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules in subclasses C08K and C08L.

Example 1: Ethers of cyclodextrin in solution are classified in C08L 5/16.

Example 2: A composition consisting of 60 wt.% of hyaluronic acid and 40 wt.% of maltodextrin is classified as (C08L 5/08C08L 3/02).

Example 3: A composition consisting of carboxymethyl dextran and glycerol (plasticiser) is classified as (C08L 5/02, C08K 5/053) and in C08K 5/0016.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of natural rubber
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of natural rubber or natural rubber latex.

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of conjugated diene hydrocarbons
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Compositions based on diene rubbers corresponding to polymers of groups C08F 36/00, C08F 136/00 and C08F 236/00
  • Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of isoprene, butadiene and their latexes
  • Compositions of copolymers with acrylonitrile or latex
  • Compositions of copolymers with styrene or latex
Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

Example 1: A blend of 60 parts polybutadiene (C08L 9/00) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 9/00C08L 77/00).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts polybutadiene (C08L 9/00) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 9/00, C08L 77/00) and as (C08L 77/00, C08L 9/00).

Example 3: A blend of 60 parts polybutadiene (C08L 9/00), 40 parts natural rubber (C08L 7/00) and 40 parts of silica is classified as (C08L 9/00, C08L 7/00, C08K 3/36).

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of chloroprene
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of chloroprene or latex corresponding to groups C08F 36/16, C08F 36/18, C08F 136/16, C08F 136/18, C08F 236/16 and C08F 236/18

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of rubbers containing carboxyl groups
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of rubbers, corresponding to polymers of groups C08F 36/00, C08F 136/00 and C08F 236/00 containing carboxyl groups containing monomers in minority, e.g. acrylic acid or acrylic acid esters.

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of rubber derivatives (C08L 11/00, C08L 13/00 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of rubber derivatives, i.e., e.g. rubber treated according to C08C

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of chloroprene

C08L 11/00

Compositions of rubbers containing carboxyl groups

C08L 13/00

Special rules of classification

An additional symbol in C08C may be given for the treatment.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of reclaimed rubber
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of reclaimed rubber, i.e., e.g. reuse of unvulcanised or devulcanised rubber.

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of rubbers not provided for in groups C08L 7/00 - C08L 17/00
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions comprising vulcanised or crosslinked rubber

Compositions containing rubbers with functional groups e.g. telechelic diene rubbers.

Relationships with other classification places
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions of diene rubbers or their derivatives in minority

C08L 7/00 - C08L 21/00

Compositions of copolymers of ethene-propene or ethene-propene-diene, e.g. EPM or EPDM rubber

C08L 23/16

Compositions of copolymers of isobutene with minor part of conjugated dienes monomers, e.g. butyl rubber

C08L 23/22

Compositions of polyacrylates

C08L 33/00

Compositions of unconjugated dienes

C08L 47/00

Compositions of graft copolymers

C08L 51/00

Compositions of block copolymers

C08L 53/00

Compositions of ABS

C08L 55/02

Chemical compositions of tyres

B60C 1/00

Inorganic or non-macromolecular organic materials as compounding agents

C08K

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

"rubber" includes:

a. natural or conjugated diene rubbers;

b. rubber in general (for a specific rubber, other than a natural rubber or a conjugated diene rubber, see the group provided for compositions of such macromolecular compounds).

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

BR

Butadiene rubber

CR

Chloroprene rubber

EPM

Ethene propene rubber

EPDM

Ethene propene diene rubber

IR

Isoprene rubber

IIR

Butyl rubber

NBR

Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

NR

Natural rubber

SAN

Styrene acrylonitrile copolymer

SBR

Styrene butadiene rubber

Compositions of unspecified rubbers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of rubbers not provided for in groups C08L 7/00 - C08L 19/02.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons having only one carbon-corresponding to-carbon double bond; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers corresponding to groups C08F 10/00, C08F 110/00 and C08F 210/00.

Relationships with other classification places

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Application of macromolecular compositions as pesticides or herbicides

A01N

Application of macromolecular compositions as pharmaceutical compositions or cosmetics

A61K

Application of macromolecular compositions as explosive compositions

C06B

Application of macromolecular compositions in coating compositions

C09D 123/00

Application of macromolecular compositions in adhesive compositions

C09J 123/00

Application of macromolecular compositions in lubricants

C10M

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products

B32B

Chemical compositions of tyres

B60C 1/00

Post-polymerisation treatments

C08F 6/00 - C08F 6/28

Detergents

C11D

Artificial filaments or fibres

D01F

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

If the copolymer can be covered by more than one subgroups, the lowest alternative subgroups (last place) is used, i.e. terpolymers of ethylene, acrylic ester and vinyl acetate would be classified in C08L 23/0869 instead of C08L 23/0853 even when vinyl acetate would be present in a higher amount than acrylic ester.

Classification guidance:

  • Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, i.e. if the examples only describe compositions of polypropylene, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of polyolefin, the document is classified as composition of polypropylene C08L 23/12.
  • Single polymers and their preparation are to be classified in C08F 210/00 on the basis of sufficient disclosure in the document.

Choice of symbol for copolymer

  • A composition of copolymers is given the symbol according to the monomer in majority, except if there is a lower symbol which specifies the comonomer in minority (see last place rule), i.e. ethylene butene copolymers (ethylene in majority) would be classified in C08L 23/0815, and not in C08L 23/20, but ethylene vinylacetate (ethylene in majority) would be classified in C08L 23/0853, not in C08L 23/08 or C08L 31/04.
  • In addition, a separate C-Set representing the copolymer that is formed according to the monomers of C08F must also be given.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • C08L 23/00 relates to compositions comprising two or more polymers. The polymer in majority is given a symbol as a base symbol, and the polymers in minority are given symbols as subsequent symbols in the form of C-Sets.
  • In addition, a single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • In the case that several polymers can be in majority, separate C-Sets should be made based on each polymer in majority and its minor component(s).
  • Compositions containing polymers and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb), if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.
  • Orthogonal indexing codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86 are also given if applicable.

C-Sets examples:

Example 1: A blend of 60 parts polyethylene (C08L 23/06) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 23/06, C08L 77/00).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts polyethylene (C08L 23/06) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 23/06, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 23/06).

Example 3: A composition based on polyethylene and containing CaCO3 is classified as (C08K 3/26, C08L 23/06). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 23/06C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

Example 4: A composition based on a first polyethylene (C08L 23/04) and containing a second polyethylene, a phenol and silica is classified as (C08L 23/04, C08L 23/04C08K 5/13C08K 3/36) and in C08L 2205/02.

Example 5: A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a polyethylene is classified as (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00C08L 23/06) and in C08L 2205/03.

Example 6: Compositions containing two polymers of the same dot group, for example compositions of two ionomers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for a compositions of a K+ and a Na+ ionomer therefore would be (C08L 23/0876C08L 23/0876) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.).

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Aliphatic cyclic olefins

Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond

Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM

Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, i.e. 30 - 70 wt.% ethylene and 70 - 30 wt.% propene

Ionomer

Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids

Iso-olefin

Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene or isopentene

Modified by chemical after treatment

Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, with the exception of neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0876) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA ( C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00

Saponified vinylacetate

Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

LDPE

Low density polyethylene, prepared by radical process

ULDPE, VLDPE,

Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content

not modified by chemical after-treatment
Special rules of classification

This group should only be used in exceptional cases, i.e. no or too many examples.

{Copolymer of an unspecified olefin with a monomer other than an olefin}
Special rules of classification

This group should only be used in exceptional cases, i.e. no or too many examples.

Homopolymers or copolymers of ethene
Special rules of classification

This group should only be used if there are examples both of polymers of C08L 23/06 or C08L 23/0807 and C08L 23/0846.

Polyethene
Special rules of classification

Homopolymers can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/062, C08L 2207/066, C08L 2207/068, C08L 2207/07 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2314/08.

Copolymers of ethene (C08L 23/16 takes precedence)
Special rules of classification

This group should only be used if there are examples both of polymers of C08L 23/0807 and C08L 23/0846.

C08L 23/16 takes precedence over C08L 23/08.

{Copolymers of ethene with unsaturated hydrocarbons only containing more than three carbon atoms}
Special rules of classification

This group can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/062 - C08L 2207/07 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2314/08.

It is preferable to classify in C08L 23/0815 when possible.

{Copolymers of ethene with aliphatic 1-olefins}
Special rules of classification

This group can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/062 - C08L 2207/07 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2207/06 .

When ethylene is in majority, ethylene-propene copolymers are only classified when propene is clearly the minor component, e.g. LLDPE with comonomer propene is classified in C08L 23/0815, whereas EPR is classified in C08L 23/16.

{Copolymers of ethene with aliphatic cyclic olefins}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Copolymers of ethene with aliphatic cyclic olefins, e.g. ethylene norbornene copolymers, e.g. TOPAS® or copolymer of ethylene, propene and norbornene

Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0815.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

TOPAS®

TOPAS® is a cyclo olefin copolymer (COC) copolymerized from norbornene and ethylene using a metallocene catalyst

{Copolymers of ethene with aliphatic polyenes, i.e. containing more than one unsaturated bond}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Copolymers of ethylene with aliphatic polyenes, e.g. copolymer of ethene, butene (small amount) and norbornene (smaller amount)

Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0815.

{Copolymers of ethene with aromatic monomers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Copolymers of ethene with aromatic monomers , e.g. copolymer of ethene, butene (small amount) and styrene (smaller amount).

Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0815.

{Copolymers of ethene with unsaturated hydrocarbons containing other atoms than carbon or hydrogen atoms}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Copolymers of ethene with unsaturated hydrocarbons containing other atoms than carbon or hydrogen atoms, e.g. copolymer of ethylene, butene (small amount) and acrylate (smaller amount).

Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0815.

{Saponified vinylacetate}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Copolymers of ethene with saponified vinylacetate, e.g. copolymer of ethylene, vinylaceate (small amount) and vinylalcohol (smaller amount, e.g. partially saponified EVA

Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0853.

{Acids or derivatives thereof}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Copolymers of ethaneethylene and acids or derivatives, e.g. copolymer of ethene and vinyl sulfonic acids.

Special rules of classification

C08L 23/0892 takes precedence over this group.

{Neutralised polymers, i.e. ionomers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Copolymers of ethylene and carboxylic acid, where H+ is replaced by M+.

Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0892.

In this group, M+ is not regarded as "other atom" in the sense of C08L 23/0892.

{Epoxide containing esters}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Copolymers of ethylene with epoxide containing esters, e.g. glycidyl methacrylate.

{containing monomers with other atoms than carbon, hydrogen or oxygen atoms}
Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0869.

Homopolymers or copolymers of propene
Special rules of classification

Classification in this group can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/10 - C08L 2207/14 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2314/08

Polypropene
Definition statement

This place covers:

Homopolymers of propene

Special rules of classification

Classification in this group can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/10 - C08L 2207/14 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2314/08.

Copolymers of propene (C08L 23/16 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Copolymers of propene with the propene in majority, e.g. ethylene-propene copolymers when ethylene is clearly the minor component, i.e. EPR

Rubbery polymers, e.g. high olefin comonomer content, but not propene

Special rules of classification

Classification in this group can be further characterised by Indexing Codes C08L 2207/10 - C08L 2207/14 or C08L 2314/02 - C08L 2314/08.

C08L 23/16 takes precedence over this group.

{Copolymers of propene with monomers having more than one C=C double bond}
Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/14 or C08L 23/142 in the case of terpolymers even if the polyene unit is the monomer in the lowest concentration.

{Copolymers of propene with monomers containing other atoms than carbon or hydrogen atoms}
Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/14 or C08L 23/142 in the case of terpolymers even if the heteroatom carrying unit is the monomer in the lowest concentration.

{Elastomeric} ethene-propene or ethene-propene-diene copolymers, {e.g. EPR and EPDM rubbers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polymers comprising both ethylene and propylene on about the same amount.

Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/0815 and C08L 23/14;

Although these polymers are rubbers or elastomers, C08L 23/00 or subgroups are used if they not in majority.

modified by chemical after-treatment
Special rules of classification

C08L 23/0861 takes precedence in the case of saponified EVA. C08L 23/0876 takes precedence in the case of neutralised ethylene carboxylic acid copolymers (iononers).

by reaction with halogens or compounds containing halogen (C08L 23/32 takes precedence)
Special rules of classification

For chlorosulfonation C08L 23/32 takes precedence over this group.

by reaction with compounds containing phosphorus or sulfur
Special rules of classification

This group takes precedence over C08L 23/28.

Compositions of, homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by an aromatic carbocyclic ring; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 12/00, C08F 112/00 and C08F 212/00:

  • hydrocarbons
  • styrene, e.g. polystyrene
  • alkyl-substituted styrenes
  • aromatic monomers containing elements other than carbon and hydrogen
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

SBR rubber

C08L 9/06 - C08L 9/08

Grafted (co)polymers

C08L 51/00 - C08L 51/10

Block (co)polymers

C08L 53/02 - C08L 53/025

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ABS

C08L 55/02

Special rules of classification

Classification guidance:

Classification should be made based on the examples, but not the general claims, in the documents. The use of main group symbol should be avoided if there are subgroups cover the subject matter to be classified.

For example, a document claiming compositions of a polymer of an aromatic vinyl monomer, wherein the examples are limited to e.g. polystyrene, should be classified in C08L 25/06 and not in C08L 25/04, C08L 25/02 or in C08L 25/00

General purpose PS, GPS is classified in C08L 25/06.

High impact polystyrene HIPS is classified in C08L 25/06, unless the rubber or rubber content is of relevance, where it should be classified in C08L 51/04.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

GPS

General purpose polystyrene

HIPS

High impact polystyrene

PS

Polystyrene

SAN

Styrene acrylonitrile copolymer

SPS

Syndiotactic polystyrene

Copolymers of styrene (C08L 29/08, C08L 35/06, C08L 55/02 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Copolymers with allyl alcohol, even when allyl alcohol monomer is in minority

C08L 29/08

Copolymers with monomers according to C08L 35/00, even in minority

C08L 35/06

Copolymers with monomers according to C08L 41/00, even in minority

C08L 41/00

Copolymers with monomers according to C08L 43/00, even in minority

C08L 43/00 - C08L 43/04

with conjugated dienes
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Styrene butadiene rubber, i.e. SBR

C08L 9/06 - C08L 9/08

Grafted copolymers comprising styrene and dienes

C08L 51/00

Block copolymers comprising styrene and dienes

C08L 53/00

with unsaturated nitriles
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Copolymers of unsaturated nitriles

C08L 33/18 - C08L 33/22

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymers ABS

C08L 55/02

with unsaturated esters
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Copolymers with unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof

C08L 33/00 - C08L 33/26

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a halogen; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 14/00, C08F 114/00 and C08F 214/00:

Homopolymers or copolymers containing chloride, e.g. of vinyl chloride or of vinylidene chloride.

Homopolymers or copolymers containing bromine or iodine atoms

Homopolymers or copolymers containing fluorine atoms, e.g. of vinyl fluoride,

of vinylidene fluoride, of tetrafluoroethene or of hexafluoropropene.

Homopolymers or copolymers containing halogen, modified or not modified by chemical after-treatment.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chemically modified, (post)halogenated polymers e.g., halogenated polyolefins or halogenated polxyolefinspolyolefins

C08L 23/28, C08L 27/24

(Per)halogenated esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids

C08L 33/00

(Per)halogenated polyethers

C08L 71/00

Special rules of classification

Classification Guidance:

  • Classification should be made based on the examples, but not the general claims in the documents. The use of main group symbols should be avoided if there are subgroups which cover the subject matter to be classified.
  • For example, a document claiming compositions of a halogenated polymer, wherein the examples are limited to poly(vinyl chloride), should be classified in C08L 27/06 and not in C08L 27/04, C08L 27/02 or C08L 27/00.

C-Sets Classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

CTFE

Chlorotrifluoroethene; Chlorotrifluoroethylene

HFP

Hexafluoropropene; Hexafluoropropylene

PTFE

Poly (tetrafluoroethene); Poly (tetrafluoroethylene)

PVC

Poly (vinyl chloride)

PVDC

Poly (vinylidene chloride)

PVDF

Poly (vinylidene fluoride)

PVF

Poly (vinyl fluoride)

containing fluorine atoms
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of (co)polymers of fluorine containing unsaturated monomers other than those covered by C08L 27/14 - C08L 27/20.

Compositions of (co)polymers of fluorine containing unsaturated monomers having additional halogen atom(s) other than fluorine, e.g. (co)polymers of chlorotrifluoroethene.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by an alcohol, ether, aldehydo, ketonic, acetal or ketal radical; Compositions of hydrolysed polymers of esters of unsaturated alcohols with saturated carboxylic acids; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 16/00, C08F 116/00 and C08F 216/00:

Homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated alcohols, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol.

Partially hydrolysed homopolymers or copolymers of esters of unsaturated alcohols with saturated carboxylic acids, e.g. copolymers of allyl alcohol.

Homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated ketones.

Homopolymers or copolymers of acetals or ketals obtained by polymerisation of unsaturated acetals or ketals or by after-treatment of polymers of unsaturated alcohols.

Special rules of classification

Classification guidance:

  • Classification should be made based on the examples, but not the general claims in the documents. The use of main group symbols should be avoided if there are subgroups which cover the subject matter to be classified.
  • For example, a document claiming compositions of a polymer of an unsaturated alcohol monomer, wherein the examples are limited to polyvinyl alcohol, should be classified in C08L 29/04 and not in C08L 29/02 or C08L 29/00.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

EVA or E-VA

Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymerOR ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer

PVA

Poly(vinyl alcohol)OR poly(vinyl acetate)

PVB

Poly(vinyl butyral)

PVOH

Poly (vinyl alcohol)

Polyvinyl alcohol; Partially hydrolysed homopolymers or copolymers of esters of unsaturated alcohols with saturated carboxylic acids
Definition statement

This place covers:

Saponified or hydrolysed (co)polymers of vinyl esters of saturated acids, e.g. saponified or hydrolysed (co)polymers of vinyl acetate.

with vinyl-aromatic monomers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Copolymers with styrene, even when styrene is in majority.

Homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated ethers (C08L 35/08 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Copolymers with monomers according to C08L 35/08 (such as unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, anhydrides or esters) are classified in C08L 35/08 only, even when these monomers are in minority

C08L 35/08

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by an acyloxy radical of a saturated carboxylic acid, of carbonic acid or of a haloformic acid (of hydrolysed polymers C08L 29/00); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 18/00, C08F 118/00 and C08F 218/00:

  • esters of saturated monocarboxylic acids with unsaturated alcohols, e.g. of vinyl acetate
  • esters of polycarboxylic acids with unsaturated alcohols, e.g. of diallyl phthalate.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Hydrolysed or saponified polymers thereof

C08L 29/00

Special rules of classification

Classification guidance:

  • Classification should be made based on the examples, but not the general claims in the documents. The use of main group symbols should be avoided if there are subgroups which cover the subject matter to be classified.
  • For example, a document claiming compositions of a (co)polymer of an unsaturated ester of a saturated carboxylic acid monomer, wherein the examples are limited to e.g. polyvinyl acetate, should receive the class C08L 31/04 and not C08L 31/02 or C08L 31/00.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

EVA or E-VA

Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer or ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer

PVA

Poly(vinyl acetate) or poly(vinyl alcohol)

PVAC or PVAc

Poly (vinyl acetate)

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and only one being terminated by only one carboxyl radical, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides or nitriles thereof; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 20/00C08F 120/00 and C08F 220/00.

  • Homopolymers or copolymers of unsaturated acids e.g. of acrylic or methacrylic acid,
  • esters e.g. of (meth)acrylate esters,
  • nitriles e.g. of acrylonitrile,
  • amides or imides, e.g. of acrylamide or methacrylamide.
Relationships with other classification places

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01N.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds

C08J 3/00 - C08J 11/28

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients

C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08

Coating compositions

C09D 133/00

Adhesives

C09J 133/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Diene rubbers containing carboxylic groups with acrylic monomers in minority

C08L 13/00

Pesticides; Herbicides;

A01N

Pharmaceuticals; Cosmetics;

A61K

Moulding processes

B29C

Layered products

B32B

Chemical compositions of tyres

B60C 1/00

Use of polymers in building materials, e.g. mortars

C04B 16/00

Explosives

C06B

Post-polymerisation treatments

C08F 6/00 - C08F 6/28

Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers, e.g. polymer resulting from polymerisation of methyl methacrylate and acrylic

C08F 10/00 - C08F 301/00, e.g. C08F 220/00

Working-up, compounding, crosslinking, masterbatches or after-treatment of macromolecular compounds

C08J 3/00 - C08J 11/28

Coating thickening agents

C09D 7/43 - C09D 7/44

Transmission belts

F16G

Plastic pipes

F16L

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

If there is more than one subgroup that covers the subject matter to be classified, the lowest subgroup (last place) is used. For example, terpolymers of styrene, vinyl acetate and methyl methacrylate in similar proportions would be classified in C08L 33/12 instead of C08L 25/00 or C08L 31/00.

Classification guidance:

  • Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of acrylamide copolymers, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of acrylic copolymers, the document is classified as composition of acrylamide copolymers C08L 33/26.
  • Single polymers and their preparation are to be classified in C08F 220/00 on the basis of sufficient disclosure in the document.

Choice of symbol for copolymer:

  • In a composition comprising a copolymer, the copolymer is given the symbol on the basis of the major monomer of said copolymer, except if there is a lower symbol which specifies the comonomer in minority. For example, a composition based on a copolymer of ethylene and acrylic acid is classified in C08L 23/0869 when ethylene is in majority, but in C08L 33/02 when acrylic acid is in majority. However, a copolymer of acrylic ester and acrylonitrile (acrylic ester in majority) is classified in C08L 33/20.
  • The classification in C08L 33/00 should be done according to the most specific, or reactive monomer, even if this is a monomer in minority. Thus compositions of copolymers wherein anhydride, carboxylic acid or metal salt containing monomers are present are classified in C08L 33/064; copolymers wherein hydroxyl-containing monomers are present are classified in C08L 33/064, copolymers wherein glycidyl-containing monomers are present are classified in C08L 33/068.
  • In addition, a separate C-Set representing the copolymer that is formed according to the monomers of C08F must also be given.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • C08L 33/00 relates to compositions having two or more polymers
  • The polymer in majority is given a symbol as a base symbol, and the polymers in minority are given symbols as subsequent symbols in the form of C-Sets.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • In the case that several polymers can be in majority, separate C-Sets should be made based on each polymer in majority and its minor component(s).
  • Compositions containing polymers and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb), if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.
  • Orthogonal indexing codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86 are also given if applicable.

Example 1: A blend of 60 parts polymethyl methacrylate (C08L 33/12) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 33/12, C08L 77/00).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts polymethyl methacrylate (C08L 33/12) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 33/12, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00C08L 33/12).

Example 3: A composition based on polymethyl methacrylate and containing CaCO3 is classified as (C08K 3/26C08L 33/12). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then it is classified as (C08L 33/12, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

Example 4: A composition based on a first polymethyl methacrylate (C08L 33/12) and containing as a second polymer a copolymer of acrylic acid, a phenol and silica is classified as (C08L 33/12, C08L 33/02, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and in C08L 2205/02.

Example 5: A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a polymethyl methacrylate is classified as (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 33/12) and in C08L 2205/03.

Example 6: A composition containing a blend of a copolymer of acrylic ester, acrylamide and hydroxymethylmethacrylate as main component with polymethyl methacrylate as minor component therefore would be classified as (C08L 33/26, C08L 33/12), even if less acrylamide monomer is present than acrylic ester and hydroxymethylmethacrylate. A separate C-Set in C08F corresponding to the co-monomers of the main polymer is also given (C08F 220/14, C08F 220/26, C08F 220/20).

Example 7: Compositions containing two polymers of the same dot group, for example compositions of two polymers am hydroxyl containing acrylic ester, are characterised by the orthogonal indexing code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such a compositions therefore would be (C08L 33/066, C08L 33/066) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (e.g. molecular weight, density etc.).

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Aliphatic cyclic olefins

Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond

Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM

Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30 - 70 wt.% ethylene and 70 - 30 wt.% propene

Ionomer

Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids

Iso-olefin

Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene

Modified by chemical after treatment

Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA ( C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00

Saponified vinylacetate

Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

EVA

Ethylene-vinyl acetate

ULDPE, VLDPE

Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content

Homopolymers or copolymers of acids; Metal or ammonium salts thereof
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Copolymers of bicarboxylic acids in majority

C08L 35/00

Homopolymers or copolymers of esters {(C08L 43/04 takes precedence)}
Special rules of classification

Groups C08L 37/00 - C08L 43/04, C08L 33/064-C08L 33/068 and C08L 33/14 - C08L 33/26 take precedence over this group, even if the corresponding monomers are in minority; this group should be used if the nature of the acrylic ester polymer is not specified.

of esters containing only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which oxygen atoms are present only as part of the carboxyl radical
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polymers formed from alkyl alkylacrylate monomers.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Acrylic acid esters or methacrylic acid esters with alkaonols or phenols without having additional functional groups, e.g. methyl ethylacrylate

C08L 33/08 - C08L 33/12

{Copolymers with monomers not covered by C08L 33/06}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Polymers formed from monomers, which have OH, glycidyl, anhydride or additional acid groups

C08L 33/064- C08L 33/068

Polymers formed from monomers, which have halogen, nitrogen, sulphur or oxygen

C08L 33/14

{containing anhydride, COOH or COOM groups, with M being metal or onium-cation}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acrylic polymers containing maleic acid or an derivative in minority.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Polymers containing an olefin in majority

C08L 23/0869

Acrylic polymers containing maleic acid or a derivative in majority

C08L 35/00

{containing -OH groups}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polymers containing for e.g. hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA).

{containing glycidyl groups}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polymers containing for e.g. glycidyl methacrylate

Further details of subgroups

In C08L 33/08 - C08L 33/12 the only copolymers classified are esters of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid. Other alkylacrylates are classified in C09J 133/06.

All copolymers with other monomers are classified elsewhere.

Groups C08L 37/00 - C08L 43/04, C08L 33/062-C08L 33/068 and C08L 33/14 - C08L 33/26 take precedence over this group even if the corresponding monomers are in minority.

Homopolymers or copolymers of methacrylic acid esters
Special rules of classification

Groups C08L 37/00 - C08L 43/04, C08L 33/062-C08L 33/068 and C08L 33/14 - C08L 33/26 take precedence over this group even if the corresponding monomers are in minority.

of esters containing halogen, nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen atoms in addition to the carboxy oxygen
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acrylic esters of polyethylene ethers,

Polymers of methoxymethacrylates,

Polymers of amino substitued acrylate esters.

Special rules of classification

Groups C08L 37/00 - C08L 43/04, C08L 33/062-C08L 33/068 and C08L 33/14 - C08L 33/26 take precedence over this group even if the corresponding monomers are in minority.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a carboxyl radical, and containing at least one other carboxyl radical in the molecule, or of salts, anhydrides, esters, amides, imides or nitriles thereof; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 22/00, C08F 122/00 and C08F 222/00

  • Homopolymers or copolymers of esters,
  • Homopolymers or copolymers of nitriles,
  • Copolymers with vinyl aromatic monomers,
  • Copolymers with vinyl ethers.
Relationships with other classification places

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01N.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds

C08J 3/00 - C08J 11/28

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients

C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products

B32B

Explosives

C06B

Post-polymerisation treatments

C08F 6/00 - C08F 6/28

Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers,

C08F 10/00 - C08F 301/00

Working-up, crosslinking, masterbatches, foaming, compounding or after-treatment of macromolecular compounds

C08J 3/00 - C08J 11/28

Coating compositions

C09D 135/00

Adhesives

C09J 135/00

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of styrene-maleic anhydride, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of a vinyl aromatic copolymer, the document is classified as composition of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (C08L 35/06).
  • Single polymers and their preparation are to be classified in C08F on the basis of sufficient description in the document.

Choice of symbol for copolymer:

  • In a composition comprising a copolymer, the copolymer is given the symbol on the basis of the major monomer of said copolymer, except if there is a lower symbol which specifies the comonomer in minority, i.e. ethylene maleic anhydride copolymers (ethylene in majority) would be classified in C08L 23/0869, and not in C08L 35/00, but ethylene maleic anhydride copolymers (maleic anhydride in majority) would be classified in C08L 35/06, not in C08L 23/0869
  • In addition, a separate C-Set representing the copolymer that is formed according to the monomers of C08F must also be given.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • C08L 35/00 relates to compositions having two or more polymers. The compositions of polymers this group are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. # C8La).
  • The polymer in majority is given a symbol as a base symbol, and the polymers in minority are given symbols as subsequent symbols in the C-Sets.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • If the polymers are present in equal proportions, the composition is given separate C-Sets according to each polymer.
  • In the case that several polymers can be in majority, separate C-Sets should be made based on each polymer in majority and the related polymer in minority.
  • Compositions containing polymers and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb), if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.
  • Orthogonal indexing codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86 are also given if applicable.

Example 1: A blend of 60 parts styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (C08L 35/06) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 35/06, C08L 77/00).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (C08L 35/06) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 35/06, C08L 77/00) and as (C08L 77/00, C08L 35/06).

Example 3: A composition based on styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer and containing CaCO3 is classified as (C08K 3/26C08L 35/06). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then it is classified as (C08L 35/06, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

Example 4: A composition based on a first styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer (C08L 35/06) and containing a second styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer, a phenol and silica is classified as (C08L 35/06, C08L 35/06, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and in C08L 2205/025.

Example 5: A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer is classified as (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 35/06) and in C08L 2205/03.

Example 6: Compositions containing two polymers of the same dot group, for example compositions of two styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer polymers, are characterised by the orthogonal indexing code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 35/06C08L 35/06) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Aliphatic cyclic olefins

Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond

Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM

Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30 - 70 wt.% ethylene and 70 - 30 wt.% propene

Ionomer

Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids

Iso-olefin

Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene

Modified by chemical after treatment

Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA ( C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00

Saponified vinylacetate

Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

LDPE

Low density polyethylene, prepared by radical process

ULDPE, VLDPE

Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content

Homopolymers or copolymers of esters (C08L 35/06, C08L 35/08 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Copolymers of unsaturated esters, e.g. acrylic ester with a monomer of C08L 35/00, e.g. maleic anhydride which have the ester in majority

C08L 33/00

Special rules of classification

Maleic anhydride should be characterised by a further Indexing Code of C08F, e.g. C08F 222/04.

Groups C08L 35/06 and C08L 35/08 take precedence over this group.

Homopolymers or copolymers of nitriles (C08L 35/06, C08L 35/08 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Copolymers of unsaturated nitriles, e.g. acrylonitrile with a monomer of C08L 35/00, maleic anhydride which have the nitrile in majority

C08L 33/00

Special rules of classification

Maleic anhydride should be characterised by a further Indexing Code of C08F, e.g. C08F 222/04.

Groups C08L 35/06 and C08L 35/08 take precedence over this group.

Copolymers with vinyl aromatic monomers
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Copolymers of vinyl aromatic compounds, e.g. styrene, with a monomer of C08L 35/00, e.g. maleic anhydride, which have the vinyl aromatic compound in majority

C08L 25/00

Special rules of classification

Anhydrides, e.g. maleic anhydride, should be optionally classified as well in C08F 222/04 or its indented subgroups - whenever considered relevant.

Copolymers with vinyl ethers
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Copolymers of vinylethers with a monomer of C08L 35/00, maleic anhydride which have the vinylether in majority

C08L 29/10

Special rules of classification

Maleic anhydride should be characterised by a further Indexing Code of C08F, e.g. C08F 222/04.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a heterocyclic ring containing oxygen (of cyclic esters of polyfunctional acids C08L 31/00; of cyclic anhydrides of unsaturated acids C08L 35/00); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers corresponding to groups C08F 24/00C08F 124/00 or C08F 224/00.

Relationships with other classification places

Multiple classification

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01N.

Compositions based on polymerisable monomers are classified in C08F 10/00 - C08F 301/00 or C08G.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of polymers of cyclic esters of polyfunctional acids

C08L 31/00

Compositions of polymers of anhydrides of unsaturated acids

C08L 35/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds

C08J 3/00 - C08J 11/28

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients

C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products

B32B

Explosives

C06B

Post-polymerisation treatments

C08F 6/00 - C08F 6/28

Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers

C08F 10/00 - C08F 301/00

Coating compositions

C09D 137/00

Adhesives

C09J 137/00

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of diene vinyl furan, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of a diene copolymer, the document is classified as composition of diene vinyl furane copolymer (C08L 37/00).
  • Single polymers and their preparation are to be classified in C08F on the basis of sufficient description in the document.

Choice of symbol for copolymer:

  • C08L 37/00 may also be given when the monomer described therein is in minority in a copolymer. For example, a composition based on a copolymer of diene and vinylfuran, which has only a low content of vinyl furan, would be classified in C08L 37/00. Additional classification in C08L 9/00 should be considered.
  • In addition, a separate C-Set representing the copolymer that is formed according to the monomers of C08F must also be given.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • C08L 37/00 relates to compositions having two or more polymers.
  • The polymer in majority is given a symbol as a base symbol, and the polymers in minority are given symbols as subsequent symbols in the form of C-Sets.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • If the polymers are present in equal proportions, the composition is given separate C-Sets according to each polymer. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclass C08L.
  • In the case that several polymers can be in majority, separate C-Sets should be made based on each polymer in majority and the related polymer in minority.
  • Compositions containing polymers and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb), if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.
  • Orthogonal indexing codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86 are also given if applicable.

Example 1: A blend of 60 parts diene vinyl furan copolymer (C08L 37/00) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 37/00, C08L 77/00).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts diene vinyl furan copolymer (C08L 37/00) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 37/00, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00C08L 37/00).

Example 3: A composition based on diene vinyl furan copolymer and containing CaCO3 is classified as (C08K 3/26C08L 37/00). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then it is classified as (C08L 37/00, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

Example 4: A composition based on a first diene vinyl furan copolymer (C08L 37/00) and containing a second diene vinyl furan copolymer, a phenol and silica is classified as (C08L 37/00, C08L 37/00, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and in C08L 2205/025.

Example 5: A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a diene vinyl furan copolymer is classified as (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 37/00) and in C08L 2205/03.

Example 6: Compositions containing two polymers of the same dot group, for example compositions of two diene vinyl furan copolymer polymers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 37/00, C08L 37/00) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Aliphatic cyclic olefins

Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond

Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM

Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30 - 70 wt.% ethylene and 70 - 30 wt.% propene

Ionomer

Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids

Iso-olefin

Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene

Modified by chemical after treatment

Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA ( C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00

Saponified vinylacetate

Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

LLDPE

Linear low-density polyethylene, significant comonomer content

LDPE

Low density polyethylene, prepared by radical process

PVAC

Polyvinyl acetate

ULDPE, VLDPE,

Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a single or double bond to nitrogen or by a heterocyclic ring containing nitrogen; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers corresponding to C08F 26/00, C08F 126/00 and C08F 226/00, as e.g.:

  • Vinylamine
  • N-vinylpyrrolidones
  • Vinyl-pyridine

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 26/00, C08F 126/00 and C08F 226/00.

Relationships with other classification places

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01N.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Post-polymerisation treatments

C08F 6/00 - C08F 6/28

Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds

C08J 3/00 - C08J 11/28

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients

C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions of copolymers of acrylic amides or imides

C08L 33/24 - C08L 33/26

Post-polymerisation treatment

C08F 6/00 - C08F 6/28

Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers

C08F 10/00 - C08F 301/00

Coating compositions

C09D 139/00

Adhesives

C09J 139/00

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of acrylic ester - vinyl pyrrolidone copolymers, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of an acrylic ester copolymer, the document is classified as composition of vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer (C08L 39/06).
  • Single polymers and their preparation are to be classified in C08F on the basis of sufficient description in the document.

Choice of symbol for copolymer:

  • C08L 39/00 may also be given when the monomer described therein is in minority in a copolymer. A coating based on a copolymer of acrylic ester and vinyl pyridine, which has a lower content of vinyl pyridine than acrylic ester, would also be classified in C08L 39/08. Additional classification in C08L 33/08 should be considered.
  • In addition, a separate C-Set representing the copolymer that is formed according to the monomers of C08F must also be given.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • C08L 39/00 relates to compositions having two or more polymers.
  • The polymer in majority is given a symbol as a base symbol, and the polymers in minority are given symbols as subsequent symbols in the form of C-Sets.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • If the polymers are present in equal proportions, the composition is given separate C-Sets according to each polymer. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclass C08L.
  • In the case that several polymers can be in majority, separate C-Sets should be made based on each polymer in majority and the related polymer in minority.
  • Compositions containing polymers and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb), if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.
  • Orthogonal indexing codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86 are also given if applicable.

Example 1: A blend of 60 parts vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer (C08L 39/06) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 39/06, C08L 77/00).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer (C08L 39/06) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 39/06, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 39/06).

Example 3: A composition based on vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer and containing CaCO3 is classified as (C08K 3/26, C08L 39/06). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 39/06, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

Example 4: A composition based on a first vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer (C08L 39/06) and containing a second vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer, a phenol and silica is classified as (C08L 39/06, C08L 39/06, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and C08L 2205/025.

Example 5: A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a vinyl pyrrolidone copolymer is classified as (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00C08L 39/06) and C08L 2205/03.

Example 6: Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two vinyl pyrrolidone copolymers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 39/06, C08L 39/06) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Aliphatic cyclic olefins

Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond

Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM

Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30 - 70 wt.% ethylene and 70 - 30 wt.% propene

Ionomer

Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids

Iso-olefin

Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene

Modified by chemical after treatment

Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA ( C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00

Saponified vinylacetate

Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PVA, PVOH

polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate

PVAC

Polyvinyl acetate

ULDPE, VLDPE,

Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and at least one being terminated by a bond to sulfur or by a heterocyclic ring containing sulfur; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 28/00, C08F 128/00 or C08F 228/00

Relationships with other classification places

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01N.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

Textile treating compositions are classified in D06.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds

C08J 3/00 - C08J 11/28

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients

C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Post-polymerisation treatments

C08F 6/00 - C08F 6/28

Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers

C08F 10/00 - C08F 301/00

Coating compositions

C09D 141/00

Adhesives

C09J 141/00

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of an acrylic ester copolymer, the document is classified as composition of acrylic ester vinyl thioethanole copolymer (C08L 41/00).
  • Single polymers and their preparation are to be classified in C08F on the basis of sufficient description in the document.

Choice of symbol for copolymer:

  • C08L 41/00 may also be given when the monomer described therein is in minority in a copolymer A composition based on a copolymer of acrylic ester and vinyl thioethanol, which has only a low content of vinyl thioethanol, would be classified in C08L 41/00.
  • Additional classification in C08L 9/00 should be considered.
  • In addition, a separate C-Set representing the copolymer that is formed according to the monomers of C08F must also be given.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • C08L 41/00 relates to compositions having two or more polymers.
  • The polymer in majority is given a symbol as a base symbol, and the components in minority are given symbols as subsequent symbols in the form of C-Sets.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • If the polymers are present in equal proportions, the composition is given separate C-Sets according to each polymer. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclass C08L.
  • In the case that several polymers can be in majority, separate C-Sets should be made based on each polymer in majority and the related polymer in minority.
  • Compositions containing polymers and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb), if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.
  • Orthogonal indexing codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86 are also given if applicable.

Example 1: A blend of 60 parts acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer (C08L 41/00) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 41/00C08L 77/00).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer (C08L 41/00) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 41/00C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00C08L 41/00).

Example 3: A composition based on acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer and containing CaCO3 is classified as (C08K 3/26C08L 41/00). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 41/00, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

Example 4: A composition based on a first acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer (C08L 41/00) and containing a second acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer, a phenol and silica is classified as (C08L 41/00C08L 41/00C08K 5/13C08K 3/36) and in C08L 77/00.

Example 5: A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and an acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer is classified as (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 41/00).

Example 6: Compositions containing two polymers of the same .dot group, for example compositions of two acrylic ester vinyl thioethanol copolymer polymers, are characterised by the orthogonal indexing code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 41/00, C08L 41/00) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Aliphatic cyclic olefins

Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond

Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM

Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30 - 70 wt.% ethylene and 70 - 30 wt.% propene

Ionomer

Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids

Iso-olefin

Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene

Modified by chemical after treatment

Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA ( C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00

Saponified vinylacetate

Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate

PVAC

Polyvinyl acetate

ULDPE, VLDPE,

Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, each having only one carbon-to-carbon double bond, and containing boron, silicon, phosphorus, selenium, tellurium or a metal; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers (of metal salts, e.g. phenolates, alcoholates, see the parent compounds)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 30/00, C08F 130/00 or C08F 230/00.

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 30/00, C08F 130/00 or C08F 230/00.

Relationships with other classification places

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01N.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds

C08J 3/00 - C08J 11/28

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients

C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions of copolymers of ethylene with monomers used in C08L 43/00 in minority

C08L 23/0892

Compositions of copolymers of propene with monomers used in C08L 43/00 in minority

C08L 23/147

Post-polymeridsation treatments

C08F 6/00 - C08F 6/28

Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers

C08F 10/00 - C08F 301/00

Coating compositions

C09D 145/00

Adhesives

C09J 145/00

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, e.g. if the examples only describe compositions of acrylic ester - vinyl silane copolymers, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of a acrylic ester copolymer, the document is classified as composition of vinyl silane copolymer (C08L 43/04).
  • Single polymers and their preparation are to be classified in C08F on the basis of sufficient description in the document.

Choice of symbol for copolymer:

  • C08L 43/00 may also be given when the monomer described therein is in minority in a copolymer A coating based on a copolymer of acrylic ester and vinyl silane, which has a lower content of vinyl silane than acrylic ester, would also be classified in C08L 43/04.
  • Additional classification in C08L 33/08 should be considered.
  • However, if the major comonomer is ethylene or propene, the corresponding copolymer compositions are classified in C08L 23/0892 or C08L 23/147
  • In addition, a separate C-Set representing the copolymer that is formed according to the monomers of C08F must also be given.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • C08L 43/00 relates to compositions having two or more polymers.
  • The polymer in majority is given a symbol as a base symbol, and the components in minority are given symbols as subsequent symbols in the form of C-Sets.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • If the polymers are present in equal proportions, the composition is given separate C-Sets according to each polymer.
  • In the case that several polymers can be in majority, separate C-Sets should be made based on each polymer in majority and the related polymer in minority.
  • Compositions containing polymers and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb), if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.
  • Orthogonal indexing codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86 are also given if applicable.

Example 1: A blend of 60 parts vinyl silane copolymer (C08L 43/04) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 43/04, C08L 77/00).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts vinyl silane copolymer (C08L 43/04) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 43/04C08L 43/04) and (C08L 77/00C08L 43/04).

Example 3: A composition based on vinyl silane copolymer and containing CaCO3 is classified as (C08K 3/26, C08L 43/04). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then it is classified as (C08L 43/04, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

Example 4: A composition based on a first vinyl silane copolymer (C08L 43/04) and containing a second vinyl silane copolymer, a phenol and silica is classified as (C08L 43/04, C08L 43/04, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and in C08L 2205/025.

Example 5: A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a vinyl silane copolymer is classified as (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 43/04) and in C08L 2205/03.

Example 6: Compositions containing two polymers of the same dot group, for example compositions of two vinyl silane copolymers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 43/04, C08L 43/04) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Aliphatic cyclic olefins

Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond

Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM

Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, e.g. 30 - 70 wt.% ethylene and 70 - 30 wt.% propene

Ionomer

Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids

Iso-olefin

Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene

Modified by chemical after treatment

Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA ( C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00

Saponified vinylacetate

Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate

PVAC

Polyvinyl acetate

ULDPE, VLDPE,

Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having no unsaturated aliphatic radicals in side chain, and having one or more carbon-to-carbon double bonds in a carbocyclic or in a heterocyclic ring system; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers (of cyclic anhydrides or imides C08L 35/00; of cyclic esters of polyfunctional acids C08L 31/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 32/00, C08F 132/00C08F 232/00 or C08F 244/00.

(Co)polymers of cyclic olefins, e.g. norbornene or bicyclopentadiene, where the cyclic monomer is the major component in the copolymer.

Relationships with other classification places

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01N.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Copolymers of cyclic esters of polyfunctional acids

C08L 31/00

Copolymers of cyclic anhydrides or imides

C08L 35/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Working-up, compounding, after-treatment of macromolecular compounds

C08J 3/00 - C08J 11/28

Use of Inorganic of non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients

C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Copolymers of monomers terminated by a heterocyclic ring containing Oxygen

C08L 37/00

Post-polymerisation treatments

C08F 6/00 - C08F 6/28

Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers

C08F 10/00 - C08F 301/00

Coating compositions

C09D 145/00

Adhesives

C09J 145/00

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, i.e. if the examples only describe compositions of polynorbornene, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of polyolefin, the document is classified as composition of polynorbornene (C08L 45/00).
  • Additional monomers present in the main component can be characterised by a symbol of C08F
  • Single polymers and their preparation are to be classified in C08F on the basis of sufficient description in the document.

Choice of symbol for copolymer:

  • A composition of Copolymers is given the symbol of the major component, except if there is a lower symbol which specifies the comonomer in minority (see also last place rule), e.g. ethylene norbornene copolymers (ethylene in majority) would be classified in C08L 23/0823, and not in C08L 45/00, but ethylene norbornene (norbornene in majority) would be classified in C08L 45/00, not in C08L 23/08
  • In addition, a separate C-Set representing the copolymer that is formed according to the monomers of C08F must also be given.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • C08L 45/00 relates to compositions having two or more polymers
  • The polymer in majority is given a symbol as a base symbol, and the components in minority are given symbols as subsequent symbols in the form of C-Sets.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • If the polymers are present in equal proportions, the composition is given separate C-Sets according to each polymer.
  • In the case that several polymers can be in majority, separate C-Sets should be made based on each polymer in majority and the related polymer in minority.
  • Compositions containing polymers and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb). The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.
  • Orthogonal indexing codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86 are also given if applicable.

Example 1: A composition based on polynorbornene and containing CaCO3 is classified as (C08K 3/26, C08L 45/00). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 45/00, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts poly acetylene (C08L 49/00) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 49/00, C08L 77/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 49/00).

Example 3: A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a polynorbornene is classified as (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 45/00) and in C08L 2205/03.

Example 4: Compositions containing two polymers of the same dot group, for example compositions of two coumarone-indene polymers, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such compositions therefore would be (C08L 45/00, C08L 45/00) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties (i.e. molecular weight, density etc.)

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Aliphatic cyclic olefins

Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond

EPR or EPDM, elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers

Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, i.e. 30 - 70 wt.% ethylene and 70 - 30 wt.% propene

Ionomer

Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids

Iso-olefin

Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene

Modified by chemical after treatment

Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA ( C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00

Saponified vinylacetate

Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate

PVAC

Polyvinyl acetate

ULDPE, VLDPE,

Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals, at least one having two or more carbon-to-carbon double bonds; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers (C08L 45/00 takes precedence; of conjugated diene rubbers C08L 9/00 - C08L 21/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Copolymers of rubber or its derivatives

C08L 9/00 - C08L 21/00

Copolymers of compounds having no unsaturated aliphatic radicals in side chain and having one or more carbon to carbon double bonds in a carbocyclic or in a heterocyclic ring system

C08L 45/00

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in the C08L subclass definition.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers of compounds having one or more carbon-to-carbon triple bonds; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on homopolymers or copolymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08F 38/00C08F 138/00 and C08F 238/00.

Relationships with other classification places

Application of macromolecular compositions as biocides, pest-repellants, pest-attractants, or plant growth activity regulators is further classified in subclass A01N.

Paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives are classified in C09. Lubricants are classified in C10M.

Detergents are classified in C11D.

Artificial filaments or fibres are classified in D01F.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Coating compositions

C09D 149/00

Adhesives

C09J 149/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products

B32B

Single polymer products from compositions based on polymerisable monomers

C08F

Post-polymerisation treatments

C08F 6/00 - C08F 6/28

Homopolymers of acetylene derivatives

C08F 138/00

Copolymers of acetylene derivatives

C08F 238/00

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each group of this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • Documents are preferably classified according to the examples in the documents, not according to general claims, i.e. if the examples only describe compositions of polyacetylene, but subject matter of the claim is a composition of polyolefin, the document is classified as composition of polyacetylene (C08L 49/00).
  • Single polymers and their preparation are to be classified in C08F on the basis of sufficient description in the document.

Choice of symbol for copolymer:

  • A composition of Copolymers is given the symbol of the major component, except if there is a lower class which specifies the comonomer in minority (see also last place rule), i.e. ethylene copolymers (ethylene comonomer in majority) would be classified in C08L 23/0807, and not in C08L 49/00, but ethylene acetylene (acetylene in majority) would be classifed in C08L 49/00, not in C08L 23/08.
  • In addition, a separate C-Set representing the copolymer that is formed according to the monomers of C08F must also be given.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

  • C08L 49/00 relates to compositions having two or more polymers.
  • The polymer in majority is given a symbol as a base symbol, and the components in minority are given symbols as subsequent symbols in the form of C-Sets.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • If the polymers are present in equal proportions, the composition is given separate C-Sets according to each polymer.
  • In the case that several polymers can be in majority, separate C-Sets should be made based on each polymer in majority and the related polymer in minority.
  • Compositions containing polymers and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb), if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.
  • Orthogonal indexing codes C08L 2201/00 - C08L 2555/86 are also given if applicable.

Example 1: A blend of 60 parts poly-acetylene (C08L 49/00) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified in (C08L 49/00, C08L 77/00).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts poly acetylene (C08L 49/00) and 50 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 49/00C08L 49/00) and (C08L 77/00, C08L 49/00).

Example 3: A composition based on polyacetylene and containing CaCO3 is classified as (C08K 3/26, C08L 49/00). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 49/00, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

Example 4: A composition based on a first polyacetylene (C08L 49/00) and containing a second polyacetylene, a phenol and silica is classified as (C08L 49/00C08L 49/00, C08K 5/13, C08K 3/36) and in C08L 2205/03.

Example 5: A composition containing a polyamide in majority, a polyester and a polyacetylene is classified as (C08L 77/00, C08L 67/00, C08L 49/00) and in C08L 2205/03.

Example 6: Compositions containing two polymers of the same dot group, for example compositions of two polyacetylenes, are characterised by the Indexing Code C08L 2205/025. The complete classification for such a compositions therefore would be (C08L 49/00, C08L 49/00) and C08L 2205/025. The same applies for compositions of two polymers only distinguished by physical properties, e.g. molecular weight or density.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Aliphatic cyclic olefins

Carbocyclic monomer with an endocyclic double bond

Elastomeric ethylene propylene (diene) copolymers, e.g. EPR or EPDM

Elastomeric copolymer rubbers defined by similar amounts of ethylene and propene, i.e. 30 - 70 wt.% ethylene and 70 - 30 wt.% propene

Ionomer

Polymers containing monomers carrying ionic groups, usually salts of carboxylic acids

Iso-olefin

Non-linear olefinic monomers, e.g. isobutylene, isopentene

Modified by chemical after treatment

Modification of the polymer after polymerisation, exception: neutralisation of carboxylic acid containing polymers (C08L 23/0884) and saponification of vinylacetate in EVA ( C08L 23/0861) are not regarded as after treatments in the sense of C08L 23/00

Saponified vinylacetate

Ethylene copolymers with vinyl alcohol

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol or polyvinyl acetate

PVAC

Polyvinyl acetate

ULDPE, VLDPE,

Very low density polyethylene, d is less than 0.89, high comonomer content

Compositions of graft polymers in which the grafted component is obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds (for ABS polymers C08L 55/02); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on graft polymers corresponding to groups C08F 251/00 - C08F 292/00

Relationships with other classification places

Graft copolymers in which the grafted component is obtained by reactions involving C=C per se are classified in C08F 251/00 - C08F 292/00

Coating composition comprising graft polymers are classified in C09D 151/00 - C09D 151/10

Adhesive composition comprising graft polymers are classified in C09J 151/00 - C09J 151/10.

Compositions comprising graft polymers in which the graft polymer is in minority are classified in C08L 51/00 - C08L 51/10.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions comprising ABS polymers

C08L 55/02

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions comprising block or graft copolymers containing polysiloxane sequences, not obtained by reaction of C=C monomer(s) onto polysiloxane

C08L 83/10

Compositions comprising graft polymers obtained by interreacting polymers in the absence of monomers, e.g. graft polymer of C08G 81/00 - C08G 81/028

C08L 87/005

Cosmetic or toilet preparations comprising graft polymers

A61K 8/91

Graft polymers in membranes

B01D 71/78, B01D 2323/38

Graft or comb polymers in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 2103/0059, C04B 2103/006

Detergent composition comprising Graft polymers

C11D 3/3788

Developers with toner particles comprising graft polymers

G03G 9/133, G03G 9/08786

Special rules of classification

For compositions comprising grafted rubbers, several groups are given if the rubber is specific.

If the rubber is EPR: C08L 51/04 and C08L 51/06

If the rubber is EPDM, SBR or acrylate rubber: C08L 51/04 and C08L 51/003

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of block copolymers containing at least one sequence of a polymer obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of block polymers of classes C08F 293/00 - C08F 297/08

Compositions based on block polymers corresponding to groups C08F 293/00 - C08F 297/08

Relationships with other classification places

Block polymers obtained by reactions only involving C=C per se are classified in C08F 293/00 - C08F 297/08.

Coating compositions comprising block polymers are classified in C09D 153/00 - C09D 153/025.

Adhesive compositions comprising block polymers are classified in

Compositions comprising block polymers in which the block polymer is in minority are classified in

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions comprising block or graft copolymers containing polysiloxane sequences, not obtained by reaction of C=C monomer(s) onto polysiloxane

C08L 83/10

Compositions comprising block polymers obtained by interreacting polymers in the absence of monomers, e.g. block polymer of C08G 81/00 - C08G 81/028

C08L 87/005

Cosmetic or toilet preparations comprising block polymers

A61K 8/90

Block polymers in membranes

B01D 71/80

Block polymers in mortars, concrete or artificial stone

C04B 2103/0061

Developers with toner particles comprising block polymers

G03G 9/133, G03G 9/08788

Special rules of classification

C08L 53/005 and C08L 53/025 cover compositions comprising modified block polymers. In particular, compositions comprising hydrogenated styrene-diene block copolymers are classified in C08L 53/025.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of homopolymers or copolymers, obtained by polymerisation reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, not provided for in groups C08L 23/00 - C08L 53/00
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions comprising a minor amount of homopolymers or copolymers, obtained by polymerisation reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, not provided for in groups C08L 23/00 - C08L 53/00

C08L 55/00 - C08L 55/04

Polymerisation by the diene synthesis

C08F 2/60

ABS polymers per se

C08F 279/04

Macromolecular compounds obtained by polymerising monomers on to polymers modified by introduction of aliphatic unsaturated end or side groups

C08F 290/00 - C08F 290/14

Corresponding coatings and adhesives

C09D 155/00 - C09D 155/04, C09J 155/00 - C09J 155/04

Special rules of classification

C-Sets and C08L classes are used as specified in the Special rules of classification of class C08L.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of unspecified polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds which are not limited to a particular polymer type as defined in groups C08L 7/00 - C08L 55/00.

Compositions of polymers obtained by reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds which are not specific enough as to fit in the preceding groups C08L 7/00 - C08L 55/00.

Relationships with other classification places

The use of C08L 57/00 - C08L 57/12 symbols should be avoided by classifying the specific examples, whenever practicable, in the corresponding groups of C08L 7/00 - C08L 55/00.

Special rules of classification

Classification guidance:

  • Classification should be made based on the examples, but not the general claims in the documents. The use of main group symbols should be avoided if there are subgroups which cover the subject matter to be classified.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

containing halogen atoms
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions of (co)polymers of unsaturated halogen containing monomers as defined in

C08L 27/00

containing oxygen atoms
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polysaccharides

C08L 1/00 - C08L 5/00

Unsaturated alcohols, ethers, ketones, acetals, ketals

C08L 29/00

Saturated carboxylic acid, carbonic acid or haloformic acid esters of unsaturated alcohols

C08L 31/00

Unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters

C08L 33/00

Unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides

C08L 35/00

Unsaturated aliphatic radicals, terminated by a heterocyclic ring containing oxygen

C08L 37/00

containing nitrogen atoms
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polymers of unsaturated nitriles amides or imides

C08L 33/00

Unsaturated dicarboxylic amides, imides, nitriles

C08L 35/00

Unsaturated aliphatic radicals, terminated by a heterocyclic ring containing nitrogen

C08L 39/00

Compositions of polyacetals; Compositions of derivatives of polyacetals (of polyvinyl acetals C08L 29/14)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Composition based on polyacetals, which are addition polymers of aldehydes or cyclic oligomers thereof or of ketones and correspond to groups C08G 2/00 - C08G 16/00 and their subgroups.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Polyvinyl acetals

C08L 29/04

Special rules of classification

Attention is drawn to the rules of C-Sets which are explained after the C08L title.

Classification guidance:

  • When a document specifies polyacetal in general, or both homopolyacetals and copolyacetals, then main group C08L 59/00 is used; only when the document specifically mentions homopolyacetals or copolyacetals, then C08L 59/02 and C08L 59/04 respectively are used.
  • Classification should be made only based on the specific examples disclosed in the document.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones (with polyalcohols C08L 59/00; with polynitriles C08L 77/00); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on condensation polymers of

  • aldehydes or ketones with polyalcohols which correspond to subgroups C08G 4/00,
  • aldehydes or ketones only which correspond to subgroups C08G 6/00 - C08G 6/02,
  • aldehydes or ketones with phenols only which correspond to subgroups C08G 8/00 - C08G 8/38,
  • aldehydes or ketones with aromatic hydrocarbons or halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons only which correspond to subgroups C08G 10/00 - C08G 10/06,
  • aldehydes or ketones with only compounds containing hydrogen attached to nitrogen which correspond to subgroups C08G 12/00 - C08G 12/46,
  • condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with two or more other monomers covered by at least two of the groups C08G 8/00 corresponding to C08G 12/00, which correspond to subgroups C08G 14/00 - C08G 16/06.,
  • condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with monomers not provided for in the groups C08G 4/00 - C08G 14/00, which correspond to subgroups -C08G 16/00.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with polyalcohols

C08L 59/00

Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones with polynitriles

C08L 77/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Application in or for layered products

B32B

Peptides

C07K

Compounding ingredients

C08K

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of epoxy resins; Compositions of derivatives of epoxy resins
Definition statement

This place covers:

All compositions comprising epoxy resins and optionally other polymeric or non-polymeric compounds. The emphasis is on the epoxy resins.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions of homo- or copolymers of acrylic/methacrylic esters having pendent glycidyl groups

C08L 33/068

Polycondensates having more than one epoxy group per molecule

C08G 59/00 - C08G 59/72

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

Example 1: A blend of 60 parts non-specified epoxy resin (C08L 63/00) and 40 parts polyamide (C08L 77/00) is classified as (C08L 63/00, C08L 77/00).

Example 2: A blend of 50 parts non-specified epoxy resin (C08L 63/00) and 50 parts Novolak epoxy resin (C08L 63/04) is classified as (C08L 63/00, C08L 63/04), (C08L 63/04C08L 63/00) and C08L 2205/02.

Example 3: A composition based of a polyepoxide and containing CaCO3 is classified as (C08K 3/26, C08L 63/00). If this composition contains also a polyamide, then the classification will be (C08L 63/00, C08L 77/00, C08K 3/26).

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Epoxy resins

All polycondensates having more than one epoxy groups per molecule

Synonyms and Keywords

Bisphenol A

4,4'-(Propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol

Bisphenol F

2-[(2-Hydroxyphenyl)methyl]pheno

Bisphenol S

4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)sulfonylphenol

DGEBA

Diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A

Epoxide

Oxirane

Glycidyl-

2,3-Epoxypropyl-

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a carbon-to-carbon link in the main chain (C08L 7/00 - C08L 57/00, C08L 61/00 take precedence); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a carbon-carbon bond in the main chain other than polymers obtained by reactions only involving the polyaddition of carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds (wherein in the latter case the reactive carbon-carbon group stays intact without cleavage of fragments) corresponding to groups C08G 61/00 - C08G 61/12. The compositions comprise either other macromolecular compounds and/or other ingredients.

The use of such macromolecular substances as compounding ingredients is included, as well.

Relationships with other classification places

Relationship with other subclasses of classes C08 and C09:

Macromolecular compounds per se obtained by polyaddition reactions only involving carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds wherein the reactive carbon-carbon group stays intact without cleavage of fragments are classified in C08F. Compositions based on monomers of such polymers are also classified in C08F.

This main group includes metathesis polymerization products, but it does not include common addition polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate.

Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a carbon-carbon bond in the main chain other than polymers obtained by reactions only involving the polyaddition of carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are classified in C08G 61/00. Compositions based on monomers of such polymers are also placed in C08G 61/00.

Coating compositions and other polymer compositions for similar uses, e.g. paints, inks, woodstains and printing pastes, are classified in C09D.

Adhesives and adhesive processes are classified in C09J.

Relationship with other main groups of the same subclass C08L:

Compositions based on polymers prepared by condensation reactions of aldehydes or ketones with phenols only are classified in groups C08L 61/04 - C08L 61/16, since C08L 61/00 - C08L 61/34 takes preference. For the same reasons, compositions of condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones only are put in C08L 61/02. Compositions based on polymers, which may otherwise be formed by carbon-carbon bond formation, but which are prepared by condensation reactions other than those involving the formation of carbon-carbon bonds in the main chain are classified in the appropriate groups, e.g. C08L 79/04 for polypyrroles formed from amines and polyketones. Compositions of polyketones are classified in C08L 73/00.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The corresponding subclass C08L and this group does not cover:

Compositions of rubbers, of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving only carbon to carbon unsaturated bonds

C08L 7/00 - C08L 57/00

Condensation polymers of aldehydes or ketones

C08L 61/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Application of macromolecular compositions as pesticides or herbicides

A01N

Application of macromolecular compositions as pharmaceutical compositions or cosmetics

A61K, e.g. A61K 8/84

Application of macromolecular compositions in medical devices, such as stents

A61L, e.g. A61L 31/06

Application of macromolecular compositions as explosive compositions

C06B

Application of macromolecular compositions in coating compositions

C09D 165/00 - C09D 165/04

Application of macromolecular compositions in adhesive compositions

C09J 165/00 - C09J 165/04

Application of macromolecular compositions in lubricants

C10M

Artificial filaments or fibres

D01F

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Catalysts in general

B01J

Polyacetylenes prepared by polyaddition reactions

C08F 38/02, C08L 49/00

Condensation polymers of aldehydes with phenols only; compositions comprising such polycondensates

C08G 8/04, C08L 61/06

Condensation polymers of aldehydes with aromatic hydrocarbons or halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons only; compositions comprising such polycondensates

C08G 10/02, C08L 61/18

Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a carbon-to-carbon link in the main chain of the macromolecule

C08G 61/00 - C08G 61/127

Poly(ether ketones) obtained by reactions forming an ether link in the main chain of the macromolecule or compositions comprising such polycondensates

C08G 65/4012, C08L 71/00

Polycondensates having nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings in the main chain of the macromolecules obtained by reactions forming a linkage containing nitrogen, including polypyrroles or compositions comprising such polycondensates

C08G 73/06, C08L 79/04

Complementary aspects concerning C08G 61/00

C08G 2261/00 - C08G 2261/964

Preparation of ion-exchange films, membrane or diaphragms

C08J 5/2256

Electrically conductive paint compositions

C09D 5/24

Luminescent, e.g. electroluminescent or chemiluminescent materials containing organic luminescent materials

C09K 11/06 or C09K 2211/14 - C09K 2211/1491

Treatment of textiles

D06L - D06Q

Conductors characterised by the conductive material: Conductive polymers

H01B 1/124

Solid state devices using oligomeric or polymeric materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials including organic oligomers or polymers with other materials as the active part

H01L 51/0034

Electrode materials selected from organic compounds

H01M 4/60

Fuel cells, electrolyte layers, solid electrolyte capacitors, solid polymeric electrolyte materials for accumulators

H01M 8/1018, H01G 9/025, H01M 2300/0082 , H01M 10/0565

Special rules of classification

Classification guidance:

  • If a composition comprises a component which is a condensation polymer containing two or more different types of linkages, it is classified according to the linkage present in the greatest amount.
  • If such a component is an addition polymer containing two or more monomers, it is classified according to the monomer present in the greatest amount.
  • This group follows the special rules of classification outlined at subclass C08L.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Addition polymers

An addition polymer is a polymer which is formed by an addition reaction, where monomers bond together via rearrangement of bonds without the loss of any atom or molecule. This is in contrast to a condensation polymer which is formed by a condensation reaction where a molecule, such as water, is lost during the formation.

Condensation polymers

Condensation polymers are macromolecules formed my means of reactions in which water or some other simple molecule is eliminated from 2 or more monomer molecules as they combine to form the polymer. This is a polycondensation.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ADMET

Acyclic diene metathesis

ROMP

Ring-opening metathesis polymerisation

Compositions of polyesters obtained by reactions forming a carboxylic ester link in the main chain (of polyester-amides C08L 77/12; of polyester-imides C08L 79/08); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on polymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08G 63/00

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of polyester-amides

C08L 77/12

Compositions of polyester-imides

C08L 79/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Degradable polymer compositions

C08L 101/16

Preparation of medical dental or toilet purposes

A61K

Chemical aspects of and materials for bandages, dressings, absorbent pads or surgical articles

A61L

Layered products comprising polyesters

B32B 27/36

Dendrimers, hyperbranched polymers, polyrotaxanes, polycatenanes, supramolecular polymers

C08G 83/00

Coating compositions characterized by their physical nature or their effects produced

C09D 5/00

Coating compositions of polyesters

C09D 167/00

Adhesive compositions of polyesters

C09J 167/00

Polyester fibers

D01F 6/62, D01F 8/14

Binders for toners

G03G 9/08755

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

PBT

Polybutylene terephthalate

PCL

Polycaprolactone

PEA

Polyethylene adipate

PEN

Polyethylene naphthalate

PET

Polyethylene terephthalate

PGA

Polyglycolic acid

PHA

Polyhydroxyalkanoate

PLA

Polylactic acid

PTT

Polytrimethylene terephthalate

Compositions of polycarbonates; Compositions of derivatives of polycarbonates
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on polymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08G 64/00

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products comprising polycarbonates

B32B 27/00

Dendrimers, hyperbranched polymers, polyrotaxanes, polycatenanes, supramolecular polymers

C08G 83/00

Coating compositions of polycarbonates

C09D 169/00

Adhesive compositions of polycarbonates

C09J 169/00

Polycarbonate fibers

D01F 6/64

Polycarbonate lenses

G02B 1/041

Polycarbonate binders for toners

G03G 9/08757

Polycarbonate record carriers

G11B 2007/25304

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of polyethers obtained by reactions forming an ether link in the main chain (of polyacetals C08L 59/00; of epoxy resins C08L 63/00; of polythioether-ethers C08L 81/02; of polyether-sulfones C08L 81/06); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on polymers of polyalkylenes oxides, polyethers derived from hydroxy compounds, e.g. PPO

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of polyacetals

C08L 59/00

Compositions of epoxy resins

C08L 63/00

Compositions of polythioether-ethers

C08L 81/02

Compositions of polyether-sulfones

C08L 81/06

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Polyalkylene oxides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions containing (-O-R-O-) repeat unit where R is an alkyl group

e.g. polyethylene oxide, polypropylene oxide or polytetrahydrofuran.

Special rules of classification

Polyalkylene oxides can be made by either ring opening reactions as in C08G 65/02 and C08G 65/26 or much more rarely by a condensation reaction as in C08G 65/34. In either case, compositions of such polymers regardless of the method of synthesis should be classified in C08L 71/02.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a linkage containing oxygen or oxygen and carbon in the main chain, not provided for in groups C08L 59/00 - C08L 71/00; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on polyketones made by reaction of carbon monoxide with unsaturated aliphatic compound.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polyketones from carbon monoxide

C08G 67/02

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Polyanhydrides
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synthesis of polyanhydrides

C08G 67/04

Compositions of polyureas or polyurethanes; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on polymers of compounds corresponding to groups C08G 18/00 or C08G 71/00

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparations for medical, dental or toilet purposes

A61K

Processes for applying liquid materials to surfaces

B05D 1/00

Shaping or joining plastics

B29C

Mould release agents

B29C 33/60

Layered products comprising polyurethanes

B32B 27/40

Working up of polyurethanes to porous or cellular articles

C08J 9/00

Use of inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients

C08K

Coating compositions characterized by their physical nature or their effects produced

C09D 5/00

Coating compositions of polyurethanes or polyureas

C09D 175/00

Adhesives processes

C09J 5/00

Adhesive compositions of polyurethanes or polyureas

C09J 175/00

Materials for sealing

C09K 3/10

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Synonyms and Keywords

CPP

Copolymer polyol

DABCO

1,4-Diazabicyclo(2.2.2)octane

DMPA

Dimethylol propionic acid

EDA

Ethylene diamine

EO

Ethylen oxide

HDI

Hexane diisocyanate

H12M DI

Dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate

IEM

Isocyanato ethyl methacrylate

IPDI

Isophorone diisocyanate

Jeffamine

Amine capped polyether

MDI

4,4-Methylenebis(phenyl)isocyanate

PEG

Polyethyleneglycol

PIR

Polyisocyanurate

PMDI

Polymethylene poly(phenylisocyanate)

PO

Propylene oxide

PPG

Polypropylene glycol

PTMO

Polytetramethylene oxide

TDI

Toluene diisocyanate

TMP

Trimethylol propane

TMXDI

Trimethylol propane

TPU

Tetramethylxylylene diisocyanate

XDI

Xylylene diisocyanate

Compositions of polyamides obtained by reactions forming a carboxylic amide link in the main chain (of polyhydrazides C08L 79/06; of polyamideimides or polyamide acids C08L 79/08); Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on polyamides derived from

  • omega-amino carboxylic acids or from lactams which correspond to subgroup C08G 69/02, e.g. nylon 6,
  • alpha-amino carboxylic which correspond to subgroups C08G 69/10

polyamines and polycarboxylic acids which correspond to subgroup C08G 69/26, e.g. nylon 66,

  • aromatically bound amino and carboxyl groups of amino-carboxylic acids or of polyamines and polycarboxylic acids which correspond to subgroup C08G 69/32,
  • compositions of polyester-amides which correspond to subgroup C08G 69/44.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of polyhydrazides

C08L 79/06

Compositions of polyamideimides or polyamide acids

C08L 79/08

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hollow fibres membranes

B01D 69/08

Layered products

B32B

Treatment of rubber

C08C

Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving carbon to carbon bonds

C08F

Processes of polymerisation

C08F 2/00

Post-polymerisation treatments

C08F 6/00

Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon to carbon bonds

C08G

Processes of treating or compounding macromolecular substances

C08J 3/00

Processes of crosslinking

C08J 3/24

Manufacture of articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances, e.g. films

C08J 5/00, C08J 5/18

Coating of shaped articles made of macromolecular substances

C08J 7/00

Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular materials

C08J 9/00

Compounding ingredients

C08K

Tubes

F16L

Optical articles, optical parts, e.g. contact lenses

G02B 1/00

Photosensitive films

G03F 3/00

Printed circuits

H05K

Special rules of classification

Group C08L 77/10 takes precedence over C08L 77/02, C08L 77/04 and C08L 77/06.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming in the main chain of the macromolecule a linkage containing nitrogen with or without oxygen or carbon only, not provided for in groups C08L 61/00 - C08L 77/00
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of polymers formed by reactions forming a linkage containing nitrogen with or without oxygen or carbon in the main chain of the macromolecule not provided for in C08L 61/00 - C08L 77/00.

Examples:

Compositions of:

  • Polyamines or polyethyleneimines.
  • Polycondensates having nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings in the main chain, for e.g. polyhydrazides, polyhydrazides, polytriazoles, polyamino-triazoles, polybenzimidazoles or polyoxadiazoles.
  • Polyimides, polyester-imides, polyamide-imides, polyamide acids, (unsaturated) polyimide precursors.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hollow fibres membranes

B01D 69/08

Layered products

B32B

Treatment of rubber

C08C

Macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving carbon to carbon bonds

C08F

Processes of polymerisation

C08F 2/00

Post-polymerisation treatments

C08F 6/00

Macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions only involving carbon to carbon bonds

C08G

Processes of treating or compounding macromolecular substances

C08J 3/00

Processes of crosslinking

C08J 3/24

Manufacture of articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances, e.g. films

C08J 5/00, C08J 5/18

Coating of shaped articles made of macromolecular substances

C08J 7/00

Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular materials

C08J 9/00

Compounding ingredients

C08K

Tubes

F16L

Optical articles, optical parts, e.g. contact lenses

G02B 1/00

Photosensitive films

G03F 3/00

Printed circuits

H05K

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming in the main chain of the macromolecule a linkage containing sulfur with or without nitrogen, oxygen or carbon only; Compositions of polysulfones; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions based on polymers corresponding to group C08G 75/00.

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L subclass.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Polythioethers; Polythioether-ethers
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synthesis of aromatic polythioethers

C08G 75/0204

Polysulfides
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions containing polymers containing the (S-S)n repeat unit.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of polyphenylene sulphides

C08L 81/02

Polysulfones; Polyethersulfones
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of polyetherketones

C08L 71/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synthesis of polysulfones

C08G 75/20

Synthesis of polyethersulfones

C08G 75/23

Polysulfonates
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synthesis of polysulphonates

C08G 75/24

Polysulfonamides; Polysulfonimides
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synthesis of polysulphonamides

C08G 75/30

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming in the main chain of the macromolecule a linkage containing silicon with or without sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen or carbon only; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions comprising macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming in the main chain of the macromolecule a linkage containing silicon with or without sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen or carbon only (Si-based macromolecular compounds in the sense of C08G 77/00 or "Si-based polymers" here under), e.g.

  • polysilicates (corresponding to group C08G 77/02),
  • polysiloxanes (corresponding to group C08G 77/04),
  • block- or graft-copolymers containing polysiloxane sequences (corresponding to group C08G 77/42) or
  • polymers in which at least two but not all the silicon atoms are connected by linkages other than oxygen atoms (corresponding to group C08G 77/48);

Compositions of derivatives of such polymers.

Relationships with other classification places

The preparation of polymers containing Si in the main chain is classified in C08G 77/00.

Coating compositions comprising polymers containing Si in the main chain are classified in C09D 183/00 and adhesives based on polymers containing Si in the main chain are classified in C09J 183/00.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions of polymers of other C08L groups

C08L

Application for medical or pharmaceutical purposes

A61J

Application in cosmetics

A61K 8/89

Application in layered products

B32B

Application to construction materials

C04B 41/4905

Preparation of aqueous siloxane emulsions

C08J 3/03

Manufacturing of foams

C08J 9/00

Compounding ingredients

C08K

Application of siloxanes as pressure sensitive adhesives, i.e. PSA

C09J 7/38

Release coating composition on which the PSA is applied

C09J 7/40

Treating fibres and yarns

D06M 15/643

Application in optical articles, optical parts, e.g. contact lenses

G02B 1/043

Application in semiconductors e.g. as dielectric layer or encapsulation

H01L 21/3122, H01L 23/296

Special rules of classification

The following symbols are given if applicable:

C08G 77/70 for every document which uses the MDTQ nomenclature in the claims or the examples;

C08G 77/80 for polysiloxanes having aromatic substituents such as phenyl side groups.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, multiple C-Sets, specifically C-Sets #C8La, #C8Lb, #C8La(Si), #C8La(Si)2,#C8Lb(Si) and #C8Lb(Si)2, are used for classification. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" of following places:

  • See #C8La, #C8Lb, #C8La(Si), and #C8Lb(Si) in C08L
  • See #C8La(Si)2 and #C8Lb(Si)2 present in this group below.

C-Sets statement: #C8La(Si)2, #C8Lb(Si)2

  • C-Sets #C8La(Si)2 and #C8Lb(Si)2 are a special use of #C8La and #C8Lb for composition comprising two or more Si-based polymers in the sense of C08G 77/00.
  • In groups C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, the feature relating to a composition comprising one Si-based polymer in majority with one Si-based polymer in minority optionally with non Si-based polymer is classified in the form of C-Sets.
  • In #C8La(Si)2 and #C8Lb(Si)2, the base symbol, representing the polymer in majority, is taken from the groups C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16, whereas the subsequent symbol(s) representing the Si-based polymer(s) in minority is (are) taken from the group C08L 83/00 and optionally from the groups C08L 1/00 - C08L 101/16 for any other polymer. The second and each further Si-based macromolecular compound(s) is (are) each represented as subsequent symbol by the symbol C08L 83/00.
  • #C8Lb(Si)2 further includes subsequent symbols, representing compound(s) used as an additive(s), from the groups C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/08.
  • In addition to C-Sets, one or more additional symbols are allocated, which are selected from the range C08G 77/02 - C08G 77/62 corresponding to each of the Si-based macromolecular compound components detailed in the C-Set.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.

C-Sets syntax rules:

  • Each of C-Set should contain at least two symbols of C08L.
  • C-Sets of #C8La(Si)2 shall contain at least two symbols.
  • C-Sets of #C8Lb(Si)2 shall contain at least three symbols
  • While duplicate symbols are allowed in these C-Sets, only one symbol selected from the range C08L 83/02 - C08L 83/16 is permitted per C-Set.
  • Breakdown codes are not allowed either as base or as subsequent symbols.
  • The order of C08L symbols in C-Sets of #C8La(Si)2 and #C8Lb(Si)2 is relevant as it reflects the relative amounts of the polymers. The C08K symbols for the additives always appear after the symbols for the polymers (C08L). The order of C08K symbols of additives is not relevant if there is more than one additive in the composition.

C-Sets examples:

In this group, C-Sets #C8La, #C8La(Si), #C8La(Si)2, #C8Lb, #C8Lb(Si), and #C8Lb(Si)2 are applicable for classifications of compositions comprising one or more Si-based macromolecular compound(s). C-Sets examples according to these C-Sets rules are present as follows:

  • #C8La

Example 1: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, an epoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/14 and a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02 is classified as (C08L 83/06, C08L 67/02) and in C08G 77/14 (ADD).

Example 2: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02 and an alkoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/18 is classified as (C08L 67/02, C08L 83/04) and in C08G 77/18 (ADD).

  • #C8La(Si)

Example 3: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02, an amine-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/26 and an epoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/14 is classified as (C08L 67/02, C08L 83/08, C08L 83/00) and in C08G 77/14(ADD) and C08G 77/26 (ADD).

· #C8La(Si)2

Example 4: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a vinyl-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/20 and a polysiloxane bearing Si-H groups in accordance with C08G 77/12 is classified as (C08L 83/04, C08L 83/00) and in C08G 77/12 (ADD) and C08G 77/20 (ADD).

Example 5: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a vinyl-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/20, an epoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/14 and a polysiloxane bearing Si-H groups in accordance with C08G 77/12 is classified as (C08L 83/04, C08L 83/00, C08L 83/00) and in C08G 77/12 (ADD), C08G 77/14 (ADD) and C08G 77/20 (ADD).

Example 6: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a silanol-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/16, a polysiloxane bearing Si-H groups in accordance with C08G 77/12 and a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02 is classified as (C08L 83/04, C08L 83/00, C08L 67/02) and in C08G 77/12(ADD) and C08G 77/16 (ADD).

Example 7: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a halogen group-bearing polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/24, a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02 and an epoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/14 is classified as (C08L 83/08, C08L 67/02, C08L 83/00) and in C08G 77/04 (ADD) and C08G 77/24 (ADD).

  • #C8Lb:

Example 8: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, an epoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/14 and a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02 and a resorcinol phosphate is classified as (C08L 83/06, C08L 67/02, C08K 5/523) and in C08G 77/14 (ADD).

Example 9: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02 and an alkoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/18 and silica is classified as (C08L 67/02, C08L 83/04, C08K 3/36) and in C08G 77/18 (ADD).

  • #C8Lb(Si):

Example 10: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02, an amine-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/26 and an epoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/14 and carbon black is classified as (C08L 67/02, C08L 83/08, C08L 83/00, C08K 3/04) and in C08G 77/14 (ADD) and C08G 77/26 (ADD).

  • #C8Lb(Si)2

Example 11: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a vinyl-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/20 and a polysiloxane bearing Si-H groups in accordance with C08G 77/12 and silica is classified as (C08L 83/04, C08L 83/00, C08K 3/36) and in C08G 77/12 (ADD) and C08G 77/20 (ADD).

Example 12: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a vinyl-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/20, an epoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/14 and a polysiloxane bearing Si-H groups in accordance with C08G 77/12 and silica is classified as (C08L 83/04, C08L 83/00, C08L 83/00, C08K 3/36) and in C08G 77/12 (ADD), C08G 77/14 (ADD) and C08G 77/20 (ADD).

Example 13: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a silanol-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/16, a polysiloxane bearing Si-H groups in accordance with C08G 77/12 and a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02 and a phenol classified as (C08L 83/04, C08L 83/00, C08L 67/02, C08K 5/13) and in C08G 77/12 (ADD) and C08G 77/16 (ADD).

Example 14: A composition comprising, in descending amounts by weight, a halogen group-bearing polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/24, a polyester in accordance with C08G 63/02 and an epoxy-substituted polysiloxane in accordance with C08G 77/14 and a phenol is classified as (C08L 83/08, C08L 67/02, C08L 83/00, C08K 5/13) and in C08G 77/14 (ADD) and C08G 77/24 (ADD).

C-Sets searches:

Since multiple C-Sets classifications are applicable to this group C-Sets, search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and this group above, as well as other related subclasses, e.g. C09D and C09J.

In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

MDTQ nomenclature

The so called MDTQ nomenclature exists to facilitate the description of siloxane molecules. media0.png where R is an organic group; O is an oxygen connected to other silicon atoms; M (R3SiO1/2 ) stands for monofunctional unit , i.e. monofunctional with respect to the connection to other Si atoms; D (R2SiO2/2= R2SiO) is difunctional, T (RSiO3/2) Trifunctional and Q (SiO4/2= SiO2) is tetrafunctional

T-resin

Branched structure which contains only T-units, i.e. is prepared from trialkoxysilanes or trichlorosilanes

MQ-resin

Resin which contains M and Q units, i.e. prepared from tetraalkoxysilanes, e.g. TEOS and monoalkoxysilanes

MDTQ-resin

contain all four elements

Silsesquioxane

Resin which falls under the stochiometric formula RSiO3/2 (silsesqui means one and a half), e.g. a T-resin

Curing systems

The three most important ways to harden or cure siloxanes are hydrosilation-, condensation- or radical cure

Hydrosilation cure

The cure is established via the hydrosilation (or hydrosilylation or addition) reactionSi-CH=CH2 + H-Si → Si-CH2-CH2-Si , e.g. ViMDxMVi + MDH3DxM → elastomeric material (3d x-linked), which is done in most cases with the help of a platinum catalyst, e.g. platinic acid, platinum compounds or karstedt catalyst.

Condensation cure

The cure is established via condensation reactions such as Si-OR + HO-Si → Si-O-Si or Si-OH + HO-Si → Si-O-Si, e.g. HOMDxMOH + (RO)3SiR → elastomer which is performed with the help of a variety of condensation catalysts, e.g. tin compounds, acids or bases.

Radical or peroxide cure

the cure is established via the reaction Si-CH3 + CH3-Si → Si-CH2-CH2-Si which is done in most cases with the help of a peroxide catalyst.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions "platin" or" karstedt" are often used as synonyms when searching for "platinum catalyst"

MDxM

Non functional PDMS, i.e. polydimethylsiloxane

MM

Hexamethyldisiloxane

ViMDxMVi

PDMS having vinyl end groups

MDHxDxM

PDMS having SiH side groups

containing silicon bound to oxygen-containing groups (C08L 83/12 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polysiloxanes containing silicon bound to oxygen-containing groups, e.g. (meth)acrylates, epoxy groups, glycol or polyhydric alcohol substituents or carbinols, i.e. Si-CH2-OH.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of blok or graft copolymers containing polysiloxane sequences and containing polyether sequences

C08L 83/12

Special rules of classification

This group does not cover Si-OH and Si-OR groups that are classified in C08L 83/04.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions forming a linkage in the main chain of the macromolecule containing atoms other than silicon, sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon; Compositions of derivatives of such polymers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions comprising macromolecular compounds corresponding to groups C08G 79/00, e.g. containing Al or Sn.

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

containing phosphorus
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of polymers containing phosphorus, e.g. polyphosphates or polyphosphazenes.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synthesis of phosphorous containing polymers

C08G 79/02 - C08G 79/06

containing boron
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Synthesis of Boron containing polymers

C08G 79/08

Compositions of unspecified macromolecular compounds, obtained otherwise than by polymerisation reactions only involving unsaturated carbon-to-carbon bonds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions comprising unspecific macromolecular compounds, obtained by step polymerisation reactions and addition polymerization reactions.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Macromolecular compounds obtained by interreacting polymers in the absence of monomers

C08G 81/02 - C08G 81/024

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of proteins; Compositions of derivatives thereof (foodstuff preparations A23J 3/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of proteins or derivatives thereof corresponding to the following groups: C08H 1/00 - C08H 1/06

Relationships with other classification places

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08H as they are considered as protein derivatives per se.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Foodstuff preparations

A23J 3/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Composition of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof not provided for in groups C08L 89/00 - C08L 97/00, e.g. flours

C08L 99/00

Proteins or derivatives thereof per se

C08H 1/00 - C08H 1/06

Coating composition comprising proteins or protein derivatives

C09D 189/00 - C09D 189/06

Adhesive or binder composition comprising proteins or protein derivatives

C09J 189/00 - C09J 189/06

Special rules of classification

Reference A23J 3/00 is non-limiting in the subclass/main group/subgroup C08L 89/00. CPC will be updated/corrected once this inconsistency is resolved in IPC.

Last place priority rule:

Within each sub group of this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.
  • Hydrogels are classified in C08J 3/075 and C08J 2300/00 - C08J 2399/00 and the corresponding C08L.

Example: Hydrogel of collagen is classified in C08L 89/06, C08J 3/075 and C08J 2389/00.

C-sets classifications:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L.

  • The compositions of this group are classified according to the relative proportions by weight percentage of the macromolecular constituents.
  • If all the constituents are present in equal proportions, the composition is classified according to each of these constituents.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • Compositions containing a proteins or derivatives thereof and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb). The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.

Example 1: Composition consisting of gelatine and glass fibres (filler) is classified in C08L 89/06, C08K 7/14 and as (C08K 7/14, C08L 89/06).

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of oils, fats or waxes; Compositions of derivatives thereof
Relationships with other classification places

The use of oils, fats and waxes in cosmetics and other toilet preparations is further classified in one of A61Q together with A61K 8/92.

Galenical compositions comprising natural resins are classified in A61K 9/00.

The use of oils, fats and waxes as carriers in medicinal preparations is classified in A61K 47/44.

The use of oils, fats and waxes in lubricants is classified in C10M.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vulcanised oils; e.g. factice

C08H 3/00

Coating composition comprising oils, fats and waxes

C09D 191/00 - C09D 191/08

Adhesive or binder composition comprising oils, fats and waxes

C09J 191/00 - C09J 191/08

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each sub group of this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.
  • This group follows the special rules of classification in subclass C08L.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L.

Example 1: A composition consisting of mineral wax and glass fibres (filler) is classified as (C08K 7/14, C08L 91/08), in C08L 91/08 and C08K 7/14.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Linoxyn
Definition statement

This place covers:

Linoxyn: an elastic solid formed by oxidation of linseed oil

Compositions of natural resins; Compositions of derivatives thereof (of polysaccharides C08L 1/00 - C08L 5/00; of natural rubber C08L 7/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions comprising natural resins, e.g. shellac, rosin and their derivatives corresponding to the groups: C09F 1/00

Relationships with other classification places

Grafted natural resins obtained by reaction of an unsaturated monomer onto a natural resin are classified in C08F 253/00.

Galenical compositions comprising natural resins are classified in A61K 9/00.

Please refer also to the corresponding part in C09F 1/00.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of polysaccharides

C08L 1/00 - C08L 5/00

Compositions of natural rubber

C08L 7/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating composition comprising natural resins

C09D 193/00 - C09D 193/04

Purification or chemical modification of natural resins

C09F 1/00

Adhesive or binder composition comprising natural resins

C09J 193/00 - C09J 193/04

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each sub group of this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.
  • This group follows the special rules of classification in subclass C08L.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L.

Example 1: A composition consisting of shellac and glass fibres (filler) is classified in C08L 93/02 and C08K 7/14 as well as (C08K 7/14, C08L 93/02).

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of bituminous materials, e.g. asphalt, tar, pitch
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Pure bitumen or asphalt, since there is no corresponding single polymer class.
  • Compositions of bitumen or asphalt irrespective of their intended use as well as mixture design methods
  • Aqueous compositions of bitumen or asphalt, e.g. emulsions, irrespective of their intended use as well as mixture design methods for obtaining said aqueous compositions
Relationships with other classification places

Relationship with other subclasses of class C08 and C09

Attention is drawn to the corresponding paragraph after the C08L title.

C08K encompass the use of ingredients for bituminous materials.

B03B, B32B, C04B, C09D, C09J, C09K, D06N, E01C and E04D encompass applications of bituminous compositions.

C10C and C10G encompass the production or working-up of (pure) bitumen.

The rules of all these subclasses should be followed for reasons of consistency, nevertheless additional multiple classification might be mandatory.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

General arrangement of separating plant, e.g. flow sheets specially adapted for bitumen or recycling of bitumen or asphalt containing materials

B03B 9/02, B03B 9/065

Layered products essentially comprising bituminous or tarry substances

B32B 11/00

Treatment of fillers specially adapted to enhance their filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone by coating or impregnation with bituminous materials

C04B 20/1044

Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing bituminous materials

C04B 26/26

Use of inorganic or organic non-macromolecular substances as compounding ingredients, e.g. mixtures of bitumen and aggregate or bitumen and sulphur

C08K 3/00 - C08K 13/00

Printing inks based upon bitumen

C09D 11/12

Coating compositions based on bituminous materials

C09D 195/00

Adhesives based on bituminous materials

C09J 195/00

Working-up pitch, asphalt, bitumen

C10C 3/00

Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials

C10G 1/00

Roofing felt i.e. fibrous webs coated with bitumen

D06N 5/00

Coherent pavings made in situ of bituminous binders

E01C 7/18 - E01C 7/24, E01C 7/353

Special pavings and pavings for special parts of roads or airfields

E01C 9/00

Details of pavings, methods or materials for repairing pavings

E01C 11/005

Machines, tools or auxiliary devices for preparing or distributing paving materials, for working the placed materials, or for forming, consolidating, or finishing the paving

E01C 19/00

Roof covering by making use of flexible material, e.g. supplied in roll form by making use of compounded or laminated materials, e.g. metal foils or plastic films coated with bitumen

E04D 5/10

Roof covering like build-up roofs, i.e. consisting of two or more layers bonded together in situ, at least one of the layers being of watertight composition

E04D 11/02

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polymeric products of isocyanates or isothiocyanates characterised by the compounds used containing active hydrogen are bituminous compounds

C08G 18/6476

Sealing materials based upon bituminous compositions

C09K 3/10, C09K 3/12, C09K 3/18

Noise or sound or vibration damping materials based upon bituminous materials

See the appropriate classes

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L.

  • In addition to the C-sets, the relevant orthogonal indexing Code (C08L 2555/00 - C08L 2555/86) characterising essential features such as constituents and/or parameters should also be given.

Example 1: A blend of 80 parts bitumen and 20 parts polyethylene is classified as (C08L 95/00, C08L 23/06) and C08L 2555/86.

Example 2: A composition of 5 parts bitumen and 95 parts stone aggregate is classified as (C08K 3/36, C08L 95/00), in C08L 95/00 and C08L 2555/52.

Example 3: A composition of 4 parts bitumen, 1 part of polyethylene and 95 parts stone aggregate is classified as (C08L 95/00, C08L 23/06, C08K 3/36), in C08L 2555/52 and C08L 2555/86.

Example 4: A roofing felt comprising an undefined bitumen is classified in D06N 5/00. A roofing felt comprising bitumen having a certain needle penetration is classified in D06N 5/00 and C08L 95/00. A roofing felt comprising bitumen and vegetable oil is classified in D06N 5/00, as (C08K 5/103, C08L 95/00), in C08L 95/00 and in C08L 2555/64.

Example 5: A pavement structure comprising an undefined asphalt (an undefined mixture of bitumen and aggregate) is classified in E01C 7/18. A pavement structure comprising a designed asphalt mixture (a mixture of bitumen and stone aggregate obtained by applying a defined mixture design method) is classified in E01C 7/18, as (C08K 3/36, C08L 85/00), in C08L 95/00C08L 2555/10 and C08L 2555/52.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Warning: as a general rule it must be noted that terms are often interchangeable, have overlapping definitions and may have a different meaning in different parts of the world. Extending the definition of any term is generally better than maintaining a narrow definition. Guidance of term definitions can be found in (international) standards, e.g. EN, DIN, ASTM, ISO, GB, JIS or KS.

Aggregate

Granular or particulate, normally mineral, material, including dust, sand, gravel, crushed stone, cement, slag, glass or cullet for use in bituminous mixtures for roads, airfields or other trafficked areas.

Asphalt

Mixture of mineral aggregate and a bituminous binder (EN 12597); alternatively, asphalt is a dark brown to black cementitious material in which the predominating constituents are bitumens which occur in nature or are obtained in petroleum processing (ASTM D8-02).

Asphaltum

See Asphalt; old expression therefore.

Bitumen

Virtually involatile, adhesive and water-proofing material derived from crude petroleum, or present in natural asphalt, which is completely or nearly completely soluble in toluene, and very viscous or nearly solid at ambient temperatures (EN 12597); alternatively, bitumen is a class of black or dark-coloured (solid, semi-solid, or viscous) cementitious substances, natural or manufactured, composed principally of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, of which asphalts, tars, pitches and asphaltites are typical (ASTM D8-02).

Bitumen emulsion

Emulsion in which the dispersed phase is bitumen and the continuous phase is, unless stated otherwise, assumed to be water or an aqueous solution (EN 12597); alternatively, a suspension of minute globules of bituminous material in water or an aqueous solution, or, a suspension of minute globules of water or of an aqueous solution in a liquid bituminous material (ASTM D8-02)

Bituminous binder

Adhesive material containing any unmodified, modified, oxidised, cut-back, fluxed or emulsified bitumen. Tar and pitch are not included

Cold Mix Asphalt

Asphalt produced between 0°C and 35°C (32F- 86F)

Flux

Fluid added to another to reduce its viscosity (EN 12597); alternatively, a bituminous material, generally liquid, used for softening other bituminous materials (ASTM D8-02).

Half Warm Mix Asphalt

Asphalt which is produced between 65°C and 100°C (149F-212F)

Hot Melt Asphalt

Asphalt which is produced above 140°C (284F)

Low Energy Asphalt

Asphalt produced between 90°C and 105°C (194F-221F), most typically at 95°C (203F)

Low Temperature Asphalt

Asphalt produced at 90°C (194F)

Mixture design method

An iterating sequence of process steps and/or test methods to establish the optimal composition of a bituminous mixture for obtaining one or more preset characteristic(s) or property(-ies) of said bituminous mixture during the envisaged application

Oil

An oil is typically liquid at ambient temperatures and does not mix with water but may mix with other oils and organic solvents. The term oil encompasses vegetable oils, organic oils, mineral oils, volatile essential oils, petrochemical oils or synthetic oils.

Pitch

Petroleum-derived pitch is often called bitumen. Pitch produced from plants is often indicated as resin. It is obtained by dry-distillation. It is chemical distinct from bitumen. Tar and pitch are used interchangeably. Pitch is considered to be more viscous as tar.

Rejuvenating agent

Agent, component or composition which rejuvenates, i.e. alters or improves the properties of recycled or reclaimed asphalt or paving mixtures.

Renewable natural resource

Resources that are replaced by naturally processes and replenished with the passage of time. Said resources are part of our natural environment and form our eco-system. Plant or animal waxes are renewable, petroleum derived waxes are not.

Tar

Tar is produced from wood, roots or other organic origin or from petroleum or coal by destructive distillation under pyrolysis. It is chemical distinct from bitumen. Tar and pitch are used interchangeably, but tar is considered to be more liquid as pitch.

Warm Mix Asphalt

Asphalt produced between 100°C and 140°C (212F-284F)

Wax

Wax refers to a class of chemical compounds that are plastic, i.e. malleable near ambient temperatures. Waxes generally melt above 45°C and give low viscosity liquids. Plant and animal waxes are typically esters of fatty acids and long chain alcohols. Petroleum derived waxes are typically long-chain hydrocarbons lacking functional groups.

Synonyms and Keywords

Bitumen

Asphalt

Bituminous material

Bitumen, asphalt, tar or pitch

CMA

Cold mix asphalt or cold mix

Crumb rubber

Reclaimed or recycled tyre rubber, or other rubber waste or particles are also encompassed.

Cullet

Scraps of broken or waste glass, granular reclaimed or recycled glass

Cut-back bitumen

Cut-back asphalt

Emulsion

Aqueous or non-aqueous emulsion, anionic or cationic emulsion

HMA

Hot melt asphalt

HWMA

Half warm mix asphalt or half warm asphalt

Hydrocarbon binder

Adhesive material containing bitumen, asphalt, tar or pitch, or any combination thereof

LEA

Low energy asphalt, low emission asphalt or LEA-CO

LTA

Low temperature asphalt

Paving bitumen

Asphalt cement

PMA

Polymer modified asphalt or bitumen

RA

Recycling agent or rejuvenating agent

RAP

Reclaimed or recycled asphalt pavement or asphalt paving mixture

WMA

Warm mix asphalt

Compositions of lignin-containing materials (of polysaccharides C08L 1/00 - C08L 5/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions of lignin-containing materials corresponding to the following groups: C08H 6/00 or C08H 8/00

Relationships with other classification places

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08H.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Compositions of polysaccharides

C08L 1/00 - C08L 5/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Composition of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof not provided for in groups C08L 89/00 - C08L 97/00, e.g. flours

C08L 99/00

Macromolecular compounds derived from lignin

C08H 6/00

Macromolecular compounds derived from lignocellulosic materials

C08H 8/00

Coating composition comprising lignin-containing materials

C09D 197/00 - C09D 197/02

Adhesive or binder composition comprising lignin-containing materials

C09J 197/00 - C09J 197/02.

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each sub group of this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.
  • Hydrogels are classified in C08J 3/075 and C08J 2300/00 - C08J 2399/00 and the corresponding C08L.

Example: Hydrogel of lignocellulose is classified in C08L 97/02, C08J 3/075 and C08J 2397/02.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L.

  • Compositions containing a lignin-containing material and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb), if applicable. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.

Example 1: A composition consisting of lignocellulose and glass fibres (filler) is classified in C08L 97/02 and C08K 7/14, as well as (C08K 7/14, C08L 97/02).

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof not provided for in groups C08L 89/00 - C08L 97/00
Definition statement

This place covers:

Compositions comprising natural macromolecular compounds or derivatives thereof corresponding to the following group: C08H 99/00

Relationships with other classification places

Covalently or ionically crosslinked gels are classified in C08H.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions based on starch or derivatives thereof

C08L 3/00

Composition based on lignin-containing materials, e.g. lignin, cork, lignocellulose or wood

C08L 97/00

Natural macromolecular compounds or derivatives thereof

C08H 99/00

Coating composition comprising natural macromolecular compounds

C09D 199/00

Adhesive or binder composition comprising natural macromolecular compounds

C09J 199/00

Special rules of classification

Last place priority rule:

Within each sub group of this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

Classification guidance:

  • The subject-matter disclosed in both the claims and the examples of a patent document is to be classified.
  • Natural macromolecular materials either in solution, together with other macromolecular compounds, or together with an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive are considered as a composition and are thus classified according to the rules of C08L.
  • Hydrogels are classified in C08J 3/075 and C08J 2300/00 - C08J 2399/00 and the corresponding C08L.

Example: Hydrogel of flour is classified in C08L 99/00, C08J 3/075 and C08J 2399/00.

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L.

  • The macromolecular compound in majority is given a symbol as a base symbol, and the macromolecular compounds in minority are given symbols as subsequent symbols in the C-Sets.
  • A single symbol is given according to the macromolecular constituent present in the highest proportion.
  • Compositions containing a natural macromolecular material and an inorganic or non-macromolecular organic additive as compounding agent are classified in the form of C-Sets (i.e. #C8Ka and #C8Lb). The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the Special rules of subclasses C08K and C08L.

Example 1: A composition consisting of flour and glass fibres (filler) is classified in C08L 99/00 and C08K 7/14, as well as (C08K 7/14C08L 99/00).

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

Compositions of unspecified macromolecular compounds
Definition statement

This place covers:

Blends of polymers in which the polymer in majority is unspecified.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes for mixing polymers

C08J 3/005

Special rules of classification

C-Sets classification:

In this group, C-Sets (e.g. #C08L a, #C8La (Si), #C8Lb, and #C8Lb(Si)) are used. The detailed information about the C-Sets construction and the associated syntax rules are found in the "Special rules of classification" in C08L.

C-Sets searches:

C-Sets search queries may be made according to C-Sets classification rules described in C08L and related subclasses. In addition, #C8Lz, #C9Dz, and #C9Jz Search Rules may be followed to search for polymers in documents classified prior to April 2012.

{Dendritic macromolecules}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Blends of polymers in which the polymer in majority is unspecified and the polymer in minority is a dendritic polymer.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dendritic polymers

C08G 83/002

Dendrimers

C08G 83/003

Hyperbranched polymers

C08G 83/005

Coating compositions corresponding to compositions of C08L 101/005

C09D 201/005

Adhesive compositions corresponding to compositions of C08L 101/005

C09J 201/005

characterised by the presence of specified groups {, e.g. terminal or pendant functional groups}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of functional groups.

{containing nitrogen atoms}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of functional groups containing nitrogen, e.g. carbamates.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating compositions corresponding to compositions of C08L 101/025

C09D 201/025

Adhesive compositions corresponding to compositions of C08L 101/025

C09J 201/025

containing halogen atoms
Definition statement

This place covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of halogen atoms.

containing oxygen atoms {(C08L 101/025 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of functional groups containing oxygen, e.g. hydroxyl, or carboxyl groups.

Special rules of classification

C08L 101/025 takes precedence over this group.

Carboxyl groups
Definition statement

This place covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of carboxyl groups.

containing hydrolysable silane groups
Definition statement

This place covers:

Blends of polymers in which the unspecified polymer is characterised by the presence of functional groups containing silicone, e.g. silanes or silanol groups.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polymers of compounds having one or more unsaturated aliphatic radicals and containing silicon

C08L 43/04

Polysiloxane compositions

C08L 83/00 - C08L 83/16

Coating compositions of polymers classified in C08L 43/04

C09D 143/04

Polysiloxane coating compositions

C09D 183/00 - C09D 183/16

Coating compositions in which the unspecified polymer contains hydrolysable silane groups

C09D 201/10

Adhesive compositions of polymers classified in C08L 43/04

C09J 143/04

Polysiloxane adhesive compositions

C09J 183/00 - C09J 183/16

Adhesive compositions in which the unspecified polymer contains hydrolysable silane groups

C09J 201/10

characterised by physical features, e.g. anisotropy, viscosity or electrical conductivity (liquid crystal materials or compositions C09K 19/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polymer compositions characterised not by chemical nature, but by physical features.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Liquid crystal materials or compositions

C09K 19/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Liquid crystal materials

C09K 19/00

Intrinsically conductive polymers

H01B 1/124

the macromolecular compounds being water soluble or water swellable, e.g. aqueous gels
Definition statement

This place covers:

Super-absorbent polymer compositions.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Liquid-swellable gel-forming materials, e.g. super-absorbents

A61L 15/60

Processes for making macromolecular gels

C08J 3/075

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

SAP

Super absorbent polymer

SAH

Super-absorbent hydrogel

the macromolecular compounds being biodegradable
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polymer compositions where the polymer in majority is biodegradable.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compositions of cellulose

C08L 1/00- C08L 1/32

Compositions of starch

C08L 3/00- C08L 3/20

Compositions of dextran, alginic acid, pectin, etc.

C08L 5/00- C08L 5/16

Compositions of aliphatic polyesters

C08L 67/04

Compositions of proteins

C08L 89/00- C08L 89/06