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METHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES ( preservation of bodies or disinfecting characterised by the agent employed A01N ; preserving, e.g. sterilising, food or foodstuffs A23 ; preparations for medical, dental or toilet purposes A61K ; preparation of ozone C01B 13/10)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus or methods specifically adapted for use in treating air either:

  • by destroying noxious micro-organisms within the air,
  • by removing micro-organisms from the air,
  • by otherwise rendering air aseptic,
  • by removing unwanted odor constituents from air, or
  • by covering up unwanted odor constituents, or potential constituents, by adding scent to air.

Apparatus or methods of general applicability for use in destroying noxious micro-organisms on or otherwise rendering completely aseptic articles or materials (e.g., destroying bacteria or fungus).

Apparatus or methods that are not covered as a whole in another subclass and are specially adapted for use in destroying noxious micro-organisms on or otherwise rendering completely aseptic specific articles (e.g., contact lenses) or specific materials (e.g., refuse).

Materials that are specially adapted for devices that are to be affixed to, placed on, placed within, or cover either:

  • portions of the surfaces of human bodies having sores (e.g., blisters, boils) or wounds (e.g., cuts, abrasions) for extended periods of time (i.e. at least several minutes, but frequently for days) during their healing process to absorb fluids from, protect, or medicate them (e.g., poultices),
  • naturally occurring cavities of or passageways within human bodies to absorb bodily discharges or other fluids from bodies (e.g., urine), protect, or medicate them (e.g. sanitary towels, tampons), or
  • incisions or openings in human bodies formed during surgery.

Chemical compounds or compositions that are used in conjunction with, or compose a portion of, the above type of specially adaptive devices or their materials and increase their effectiveness by:

  • enhancing their ability to heal or treat sores, wounds, surgical incisions, or surgical openings,
  • changing in some manner the absorbability of the devices or materials, or
  • otherwise influencing their operation (e.g., prolongs useful life) of the devices or materials,
  • Materials specially adapted to be used in devices that:
  • joining together the edges of wounds, surgical incisions, or surgical openings (e.g., sutures) or
  • forming a tissue mass by compressively encircling the mass and holding it (e.g., ligatures).

Adhesives specially adapted for surgical uses.

Materials specially adapted for forming devices used as substitutes for a part of the body that is missing or non-functional or materials specially adapted for coating these devices (e.g., skin grafts).

Materials specially adapted to be used in:

  • surgical construction of artificial excretory openings from colons or
  • devices that travel up colons to inspect, clean, or treat them.

Materials specially adapted for use within the structure of hollow flexible tubes that are intended to be:

  • inserted into human bodies to put in or take out fluids (e.g. cannulae, catheters),
  • used to open up or close blood vessels, passageways, or body cavities, or
  • passed inside of blood vessels, passageways, or body cavities for diagnostic or treatment purposes (e.g. endoscopes).

Materials specially adapted to be used for other surgical uses or devices (e.g. stents, materials for adhesion prevention).

Materials specially adapted for use as antithrombogenic treatments for at least one of the above type of devices or materials or the chemical compounds or compositions that form, or compose a portion of, these antithrombogenic treatments.

Specially adapted components or steps for at least one of the above types of apparatus, methods, or devices.

Auxiliary appliances or accessories specially adapted for use with at least one of the above types of apparatus or devices (e.g., devices for testing effectiveness of sterilization).

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preservation of bodies or disinfecting characterised by the agent employed
Shape or structure of prostheses
Shape or structure of bandages, dressings, or absorbent pads
Preparations for medical, dental or toilet purposes
Shape or structure of catheters
Sterilisation of packages or package contents in association with packaging

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sterilising food or foodstuffs
Preservation of milk, milk preparations, or dairy products by sterilization
Devices specifically adapted for cleaning or disinfection shavers or razors
Apparatus or methods for destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste using sterilization into something useful or harmless
Devices for adding disinfecting agents to lavatories
Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages
Air conditioning systems including air purification or sterilisation means
Sanitary or hygienic devices for transducer mouthpieces or earpieces
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Surgical instruments
Operating gloves
Surgical drapes
Dental prosthetics
Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents
Bandages, dressings, or absorbent pads
Tracheal tubes
Catheters
Tubes, valves
Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless, or less harmful, by effecting a chemical change in the substance
Preparation of ozone
Special rules of classification within this subclass

Multiple classification

When enzymes or microorganisms are used within processes fully provided for in subclass A61L in order to liberate, separate or purify a preexisting compound or composition or to treat or clean textiles or solid material surfaces, they should also be classified in subclass C12S based upon its (1) Note to provide a complete search.

Sets of groups wherein Last-place rule is applied

Within each one of the following sets of groups, at each hierarchical level, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place:

Secondary classification based on use of materials characterised by particular function or physical properties when of interest.

When the inventive thing is classified based upon its chemical composition within one of the sets of groups A61L 15/08-A61L15/12A61L, A61L 15/18-A61L15/40A61L, A61L 27/02-A61L27/40A61L, A61L 29/02-A61L 29/12, or A61L 31/02-A61L 31/12; classification of this subject matter is also made to cover its function or physical properties for each set of groups into their corresponding group, (i.e., respectively group A61L15/14A61LA61L15/42A61LA61L27/50A61LA61L 29/14, or A61L 31/14) when this aspect is of interest.

Secondary classification based on use of materials with antithrombogenic properties.

When the inventive thing is fully provided for and classified within groups A61L17/00A61LA61L24/00A61LA61L26/00A61LA61L27/00A61LA61L28/00A61LA61L 29/00, and A61L 31/00 classification should also be made within group A61L 33/00 if a material used is antithrombogenic in nature.

Use of Indexing symbols.

When classifying in group A61L 2/00-A61L 12/00, it is desirable to add the Indexing symbols of group A61L101/00, relating to the chemical composition of materials used in disinfecting, sterilising or deodorising.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Antithrombogenic
A substance, composition, or material that prevents or reduces coagulation, clotting, depositing, or precipitation of blood, plasma protein, or a component of blood (e.g., anticoagulant).
Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs or contact lenses; Accessories therefor ( for contact lenses A61L 12/00 ; atomisers for disinfecting agents A61M ; sterilisation of packages or package contents in association with packaging B65B 55/00 ; treatment of water, waste water, sewage or sludge C02F ; disinfecting paper D21H 21/36 ; disinfecting devices for water closets E03D ; articles having provision for disinfection, see the relevant subclasses for these articles, e.g. H04R 1/12)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes and devices used for biocidal treatment of entities other than foodstuffs or contact lenses

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Biocides, e.g. as disinfectants, as pesticides, as herbicides
Sterilising, aseptic filling and closing
Sterilising, e.g. of complete packages

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sterilising food or foodstuffs
Preservation of foods or foodstuffs, in general, e.g. pasteurising, sterilising, specially adapted for foods or foodstuffs
Preservation of milk, milk preparations, or dairy products by sterilization
Devices specifically adapted for cleaning or disinfection shavers or razors
Apparatus or methods for destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste using sterilization into something useful or harmless
Devices for adding disinfecting agents to lavatories
Pasteurisation, sterilisation, preservation, purification, clarification, or ageing of alcoholic beverages
Air conditioning systems including air purification or sterilisation means
Sanitary or hygienic devices for transducer mouthpieces or earpieces
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
Cleaning in general
Sterilisation of air
Methods especially adapted for refuse
Treatment of blood
Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless or less harmful
Cleaning devices specially adapted for dental instruments
Sanitary doorknobs or handles, e.g. comprising a disinfectant
Preparation of ozone
Special rules of classification within this group

The substance which has a biocidal action is classified according to its state, liquid,, gaseous or solid. E.g. hydrogen peroxide may be used in liquid or gaseous form, it's then classified in group A61L 2/186 or A61L 2/208.

{Filtration}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of pharmaceuticals, biologicals or living parts for removing or inactivating micro organism, i.e. disinfection or sterilisation, by filtration.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for carrying-off, for treatment of, or for carrying-over, body-liquids (e.g. dialysis)
{Filtration}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising materials or objects other than foodstuffs, contact lenses, pharmaceuticals, biological or living parts by filtration

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Filters and filtering processes for gases
Filtering material for liquid or gaseous fluid
{Electrolysis}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Direct and indirect sterilisation by electrolysis, irrespective of the location of biocidal action in or downstream the electrolysis cell.

Steam
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pressure vessels, e.g. autoclaves, as such without its application in biocidal treatment
Liquid substances {or solutions comprising solids or dissolved gases}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cleaning devices specially adapted for surgical instruments
A61B19/00C
Cleaning devices specially adapted for dental instruments without its application in sterilisation or disinfection
{Ozone dissolved in a liquid}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Production of ozone without its application in sterilisation or disinfection
{Peroxide solutions}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Production of peroxides without its application in sterilisation or disinfection
{Ozone}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Production of ozone without its application in sterilisation or disinfection
Electrolytic production of ozone
{Ethylene oxide}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preparation of ethylene oxide
{Hydrogen peroxide}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Production of Peroxides; Peroxyhydrates; Peroxyacids or salts thereof; Superoxides; Ozonide as such without application in sterilisation or disinfection
Phase substances, e.g. smokes, aerosols {or sprayed or atomised substances}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Biocidal treatment using e.g. sprayed substances.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Spraying or atomising liquids as such without application in sterilisation or disinfection
Accessories {or devices or components used for biocidal treatment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices, which are used in methods or apparatuses for disinfection or sterilisation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Protective casings or covers for appliances or instruments, e.g. boxes or sterile covers; Instrument tables or cupboards
Instrument-protective drapes
Devices for testing the effectiveness or completeness of sterilisation, e.g. indicators which change colour ( apparatus involving enzymes or micro-organisms C12M 1/34 ; methods involving enzymes or micro-organisms C12Q 1/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices to indicate that sterilisation is complete or effective

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring or testing with condition measuring or sensing means for enzymology or microbiology
Testing for sterility conditions involving viable micro-organisms
Disinfection, sterilisation or deodorisation of air ( body deodorants A61Q 15/00 ; purifying air by respirators A62B , A62D 9/00 ; separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours B01D 45/00 to B01D 51/00 , B03C 3/00 ; chemical or biological purification of waste gases B01D 53/34 ; production of ozone C01B 13/10 ; air-conditioning systems incorporating sterilisation F24F 3/16)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for biocidal or deodorising treatment of air.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Automobile: Adding substances other than water to the air, e.g. perfume
Devices for eliminating smells by diffusing deodorants in lavatories
Air-conditioning systems with purification, e.g. by filtering; by sterilisation; by ozonisation
Air-humidification
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Poisoning or narcotising insects by vaporising an insecticide
Body deodorants
Filters for gases
Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, Separation of gases
Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapour, e.g. air, byelectrostatic effect
Spraying or atomising liquids
Aerosol containers
B65D83/14Z
Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapour, e.g. air, byelectrostatic effect
Breathing masks or helmets
Preparation of ozone
Deodorant compositions { ( compositions released by contact with a liquid A61L 9/05) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical compounds and compositions for use in deodorising air by covering or binding malodorous substances.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cosmetic or similar toilet preparations
Perfumes, essential oils
Formulations or additives for perfume preparations
Special rules of classification within this group

The groups A61L 9/01-A61L 9/015 are only given to documents, which relate to counter-acting malodorous substances in the air.

characterised by being in a special form, e.g. gels, emulsions { (A61L 9/048 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Deodorant composition characterised by specific physical form, e.g. gels, emulsions

containing sorbent material, e.g. activated carbon
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Deodorant composition containing sorbent material, e.g. carbon

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Separation of gases by adsorption
Solid sorbent compositions
using gaseous or vaporous substances, e.g. ozone (A61L 9/20 takes precedence; { evaporation in general B01B 1/005} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Both chemical deactivating / covering malodorous substances, and disinfecting / sterilising by the use of gaseous counteragents, e.g. perfumes, gaseous hydrogen peroxide, ozone.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Production of ozone without
Apparatus therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for disinfection, sterilisation of air using substances evaporated in the air by heating or combustion

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Evaporation or evaporation apparatus
Stationary means for catching or killing insects by vaporising an insecticide using a heat source
{comprising a fan}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Stationary means for catching or killing insects by vaporising an insecticide using a heat source combined with a fan
{comprising a wick}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Holders or dispensers for liquid insecticide without heating, e.g. using wicks
using substances evaporated in the air without heating
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Poisoning or narcotising insects by vaporising an insecticide without heating
specially adapted to be released by contact with a liquid, e.g. for toilets
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disinfection, sterilisation of air using substances evaporated in the air without heating specially adapted to be released contact with a liquid

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Water-closets or urinals with flushing devices for eliminating smells by diffusing deodorants in lavatories
Apparatus, e.g. holders, therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for disinfection, sterilisation of air using substances evaporated in the air without heating

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Stationary means for catching or killing insects by vaporising an insecticide without heating
{comprising a fan}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Stationary means for catching or killing insects by vaporising an insecticide without heating combined with a fan
{comprising a wick}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Holders or dispensers for liquid insecticide without heating, e.g. using wicks
using sprayed or atomised substances {including air-liquid contact processes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disinfection, sterilisation of air processes using sprayed or atomised substances

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for spraying or atomising liquids as such without application in air treatment
{air-liquid contact processes, e.g. scrubbing}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disinfection, sterilisation of air processes with air-liquid contact

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Separation of gases or vapours by absorption other than air
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Dispersal air scrubbing device
Wet scrubber is used to clean air by contacting air with a scrubbing solution, e.g. water, solution of reagents
using physical phenomena
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disinfection, sterilisation of air processes using physical phenomena other than the ones of the subgroups.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Air-conditioning systems characterised by filtering of air
Radiation (A61L 9/22 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Air-conditioning systems characterised by purification
Ultra-violet radiation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Processes employing the direct application of Ultra-violet light
{using a photocatalyst or photosensitiser}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disinfection, sterilisation of air processes by ultra-violet radiation using a photocatalyst or photosensitiser

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Photocatalysts
Methods specially adapted for refuse { ( desintegrating medical waste B02C19/12M ; disposal of medical waste B09B 3/0075) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatuses for sterilisation or disinfection of refuse, e.g. from medical facilities, food industry.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Disintegrating garbage, waste or sewage without biocidal treatment
Disintegrating medical waste without biocidal treatment
Destroying or transforming of medical waste without biocidal treatment
Methods or apparatus for disinfecting or sterilising contact lenses; Accessories therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and processes for the biocidal treatment of contact lenses of different types.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

The lenses per se, the composition for cleaning, storing, disinfecting contact lenses.

Disinfectants
Compositions for cleaning contact lenses
Methods and apparatus for sterilisation or disinfection in general
Medicinal preparations for the eye, e.g. artificial tears
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods and apparatus for sterilisation or disinfection in general
Production of contact lenses
Contact lenses for the eye
Optical elements, i.e. contact lenses
Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, bandages, dressings or absorbent pads ( for liquid bandages A61L 26/00 ; radioactive dressings {A61N 5/1029} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical composition of materials used, or use of such materials, for stiffening bandages such as splints and orthopaedic casts for long-term immobilizing broken or deformed body parts (A61L 15/07 to A61L 15/14).

Chemical composition of materials used, or use of such materials, for articles intended to be in contact with the human skin and absorb physiological fluids such as blood, urine and faeces. This includes wound dressings and bandages adapted to be attached to the injured parts of the body, and articles worn by the patient for reception of urine, faeces, catamenial or other discharge such as sanitary napkins, tampons and diapers (A61L 15/16 to A61L 15/64).

This group covers wound dressings and bandages having a solid part or backing.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Polymers are classified in C08L.

Non-chemical aspects of absorbent pads, bandages or dressings are classified in A61F 13/00.

Adhesives in general are classified in C09J.

Polymer foams and post-treatment of polymers are classified in C08J 9/00.

Laminates, layered materials are classified in B32B.

Peptides are classified in C07K.

Cosmetic preparations are classified in A61K 8/00.

Preparations for care of the skin are classified in A61Q 19/00.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Non-chemical aspects of orthopaedic devices, e.g. splints or casts
Non-chemical aspects of Plaster of Paris bandages and other stiffening bandages in general
Transdermal patches
Cosmetic wipes
Radioactive dressings
A61N5/12
Wound dressings or bandages in liquid, gel or powder form (not having a backing)
Materials for colostomy devices
Surgical foams or sponges to stop bleeding (haemostatic sponges/foams)
Surgical adhesives and adhesives for colostomy devices
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Properties of absorbent articles, e.g. stiffness or absorbency.
Additives, e.g. for odour, disinfectant or pH control.
Absorbent articles with radio-opaque material or signalling means for residual material.
Absorbent articles with wetness indicator or alarm
Non-chemical aspects of adhesive plasters or dressings
Apparatus or processes for manufacturing adhesive dressings or bandages
Apparatus or processes for manufacturing non-adhesive dressings or bandages
Pressure-sensitive adhesives
Compositions of macromolecular compounds being water soluble or water swellable, e.g. aqueous gels
Crosslinking of polymers
Differential crosslinking of one polymer with one crosslinking type, e.g. surface crosslinking.
Soluble or disintegrable in liquid
Compostable or biodegradable
Medicinal preparations characterised by the use of oils, fats or waxes as non-active ingredients.
Medicinal preparations characterised by the use of ingredients of undetermined constitution as non-active ingredients.
Artificial skin
Calcium sulfate cements, e.g. Plaster of Paris, gypsum
Cosmetic preparations containing materials of undetermined constitution.
Lubricating compositions
Adhesives for stabilising dentures
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in groups A61L 15/08 to A61L 15/12, classification is also made in group A61L 15/14 if the use of materials characterised by their function or physical properties is of interest.

When classifying in groups A61L 15/18 to A61L 15/40, classification is also made in groups A61L 15/42 to A61L 15/64 if the use of materials characterised by their function or physical properties is of interest.

In group A61L 15/12 and subgroups, the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma", e.g. stiffening bandage based on polyurethane A61L 15/12, C08L 75/04.

In groups A61L 15/22 to A61L 15/30 the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma", e.g. absorbent pad containing starch A61L 15/22, C08L 3/02.

Mixtures of macromolecular compounds are only classified in A61L 15/225 and not in each individual subgroups A61L 15/24, A61L 15/26, A61L 15/28, A61L 15/30, A61L 15/32, A61L 15/34.

Each of the polymeric components of the mixture is classified in its correspondent C08L group, e.g. a wound dressing comprising a mixture of polyacrylate and polylactide A61L 15/225, C08L 33/04 and A61L 15/225, C08L 67/04.

In group A61L 15/58 and subgroups, the use of specific polymers as adhesives is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma",, e.g. adhesive bandage based on polyurethane A61L 15/58, C08L 75/04.

In group A61L 15/60, the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma", e.g. absorbent pad comprising superabsorbent particles of polyacrylates A61L 15/60, C08L 33/04.

When using combination classes for specifying the macromolecular materials the following rules apply:

Compositions of polysaccharides are combined with C08L 1/00 to C08L 5/16.

Compositions of rubber are combined with C08L 7/00 to C08L 21/02.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 23/00 to C08L 57/12.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 59/00 to C08L 87/00.

Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof are combined with C08L 89/00 to C08L 89/06.

The use of liquid or gel materials which may or may not contain a solid support are classified in both groups A61L 15/00 and A61L 26/00.

Gelatin and Collagen are classified in A61L 15/325.

Wetting agents are classified in A61L 15/48.

Absorbent products containing enzymes are classified in A61L 15/38 and not in A61L 15/32.

Antimicrobial substances such as antibiotics are only classified in A61L 15/46.

Growth factors are classified in A61L 15/44 as medicaments and not in A61L 15/32.

For the concerned medicaments (A61L 15/44 and A61L 15/46) as additional information, a classification symbol in A61L 2300/00 is given.

A61L 15/40 covers ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof such as products of natural origin (from plants or animals) and cells. This group will cover products such as natural silk derived from Bombyx mori, nacre, bees wax, honey, shellac, blood and blood.

A61L 15/34 covers oils, fats, waxes and natural resins including emollients, lotions, skin care compositions, lanolin, paraffin, petroleum jelly.

Additional information concerning materials characterized by their function or physical properties, materials and methods for coating medical devices and materials for tissue regeneration are also classified in A61L 2400/00-A61L 2430/40.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Absorbent articles are considered to be articles adapted to absorb liquid excreted by the body
Wound dressings, diapers, sanitary towels, tampons, catamenial devices, panty liners, incontinence pads, training pants
SAP
Superabsorbent polymers/particles
PSA
Pressure sensitive adhesives
AUL
Absorbency under load
CRC
Centrifuge retention capacity
SFC
Saline flow conductivity
Gel blocking
Swelling of the external part of SAP obstructs the transmission of liquid into the particle
Non-woven
Fabric-like material made from long fibres, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. The term is used to denote fabrics, such as felt, which are neither woven nor knitted
Materials for surgical sutures or for ligaturing blood vessels ( surgical adhesives A61L 24/00 ; surgical instruments, devices or methods for suturing or ligaturing A61B 17/04 , A61B 17/12 ; supports or packages for suture materials A61B 17/04) ; {Materials for prostheses or catheters ( bone cements or surgical adhesives for soft body tissues A61L 24/00 ; shape or structure of prostheses A61F 2/00 ; shape or structure of catheters A61M 5/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Materials for surgical sutures or for ligaturing blood vessels.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Polymers are classified in C08L.

Processes and apparatus for the production of yarns or threads are classified in D02G 3/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Surgical instruments, devices or methods for suturing or ligaturing
Supports or packages for suture materials
Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue
Non-chemical aspects of sutures
Yarns or threads for use in medical applications
Yarns or threads with antibacterial properties
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in group A61L 17/00, classification is also made in A61L 33/00 if the materials used are antithrombogenic.

For the concerned medicaments (A61L 17/005) as additional information, a classification symbol in A61L 2300/00 is given.

Additional information concerning materials characterized by their function or physical properties, materials and methods for coating medical devices and materials for tissue regeneration are also classified in A61L 2400/00-A61L 2430/40.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Surgical suture
Medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or surgery
Yarn
Unitary assembly of fibres, usually produced by spinning
Thread
Assembly of yarns or filaments, usually produced by twisting
Braid (also called plait)
Complex structure or pattern formed by intertwining three or more strands of flexible material such as textile fibres.
Surgical adhesives or cements; Adhesives for colostomy devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Adhesives or sealants for surgical use and surgical cements to anchor prostheses.

Adhesives for colostomy devices.

Embolizing / Occluding compositions and haemostatic compositions (surgical sponges or foams to stop bleeding)

Bone wax to mechanically control bleeding from bone surfaces during surgical procedures.

Viscoelastic compositions/agents for use in surgery.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Adhesives in general are classified in C09J.

Cements in general are classified in C04B

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bone fillers and bone pastes
Haemostatic dressings (with no backing) in liquid, gel or powder form
Haemostatic wound dressings (with a backing)
Occluding devices, e.g. surgical coils
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Materials for colostomy devices
Surgical glue applicators
Preparation of bone cement, e.g. mixing
A61F2/46C4
Dental adhesives or cements
Medicinal preparations for the eye
Tools for preparing, introducing or removing bone cement or other fluid fillers into or from bones
Two-component delivery syringes
Adhesives for stabilising dentures
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in group A61L 24/00, classification is also made in A61L 33/00 if the materials used are antithrombogenic.

In groups A61L 24/046 to A61L 24/12, the use of specific polymers is indicated by using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma", e.g. surgical adhesives based on polymethylmethacrylate: A61L 24/06, C08L 33/12.

In groups A61L 24/0047 to A61L 24/0094, the use of specific polymers is indicated by using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma", e.g. composite surgical adhesives with a matrix of polyhydroxy butyrate containing chitosan particles: A61L 24/0094, C08L 5/08 and A61L 24/0094, C08L 67/04.

When using combination classes for specifying the macromolecular materials the following rules apply:

Compositions of polysaccharides are combined with C08L 1/00 to C08L 5/16

Compositions of rubber are combined with C08L 7/00 to C08L 21/02.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 23/00 to C08L 57/12.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 59/00 to C08L 87/00.

Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof are combined with C08L 89/00 to C08L 89/06.

Mixtures of macromolecular compounds are only classified in A61L 24/043 and not in each individual subgroups A61L 24/046, A61L 24/06, A61L 24/08, A61L 24/10.

Each of the polymeric components of the mixture is classified in its correspondent C08L group, e.g. a surgical adhesive comprising a mixture of cyanoacrylate and polylactide A61L 24/043, C08L 35/04 and A61L 24/043, C08L 67/04.

Growth factors are classified in A61L 24/0015 as medicaments.

For the concerned medicaments (A61L 24/0015) as additional information, a classification symbol in A61L 2300/00 is given.

Additional information concerning materials characterized by their function or physical properties, materials and methods for coating medical devices and materials for tissue regeneration are also classified in A61L 2400/00-A61L 2430/40.

A61L 24/0005 covers ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof such as products of natural origin (from plants or animals) and cells. This group will cover products such as natural silk derived from Bombyx mori, nacre, bees wax, honey, shellac, blood and blood.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Bone cements
Are used to anchor prostheses. The bone cement fills the free space between the prosthesis and the bone.
Bone wax
It is used to help mechanically control bleeding from bone surfaces during surgical procedures.
Embolizing compositions
Occluding compositions
Haemostatic compositions
Antihemorrhagic (antihaemorrhagic) compositions that promote haemostasis (stop bleeding).http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haemostatic - cite_note-0
Composite materials or composites
Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the finished structure.
Chemical aspects of, or use of materials for, {wound dressings or} bandages {in liquid, gel or powder form}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical composition of materials used, or use of such materials, for wound dressings or bandages in liquid, gel or powder form.

This group covers wound dressings and bandages not having a solid part or backing.

Sprayable compositions.

Wound covering materials such as foams, for external use.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Polymers are classified in C08L

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Drug-containing film-forming compositions (spray-on)
Materials for wound dressings and bandages with a solid part or backing
Materials for surgical foams or sponges (haemostatic sponges/foams)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Galenical aspects of topical compositions (ointments or creams) for skin
Syringes
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in group A61L 26/00, classification is also made in A61L 33/00 if the materials used are antithrombogenic.

In groups A61L 26/0009 and subgroups and A61L 26/0095, the use of specific polymers is indicated by using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma", e.g. liquid bandages on alginates: A61L 26/0023, C08L 5/04.

When using combination classes for specifying the macromolecular materials the following rules apply:

Compositions of polysaccharides are combined with C08L 1/00 to C08L 5/16.

Compositions of rubber are combined with C08L 7/00 to C08L 21/02.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 23/00 to C08L 57/12.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 59/00 to C08L 87/00.

Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof are combined with C08L 89/00 to C08L 89/06.

Mixtures of macromolecular compounds are only classified in A61L 26/0052 and not in each individual subgroups A61L 26/0014 to A61L 26/0047.

Each of the polymeric components of the mixture is classified in its correspondent C08L group, e.g. a liquid bandage comprising a mixture of chitosan and polyethylene glycol A61L 26/0052, C08L 5/08 and A61L 26/0052, C08L 71/02.

Compositions of block copolymers are classified in C08L 53/00.

Growth factors are classified in A61L 26/0066 as medicaments.

A61L 26/0057 covers ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof such as products of natural origin (from plants or animals) and cells. This group will cover products such as natural silk derived from Bombyx mori, nacre, bees wax, honey, shellac, blood and blood-derived products (e.g. plasma, Platelet Rich Plasma [PRP], platelet concentrate), tissue fragments, Extracellular matrix (ECM), Submucosa (e.g. SIS), Essential oils, algae, diatomaceous earth.

For the concerned medicaments (A61L 26/0066) as additional information, a classification symbol in A61L 2300/00 is given.

Additional information concerning materials characterized by their function or physical properties, materials and methods for coating medical devices and materials for tissue regeneration are also classified in A61L 2400/00-A61L 2430/40.

Materials for {grafts or} prostheses or for coating {grafts or} prostheses ( dental prostheses A61C 13/00 ; shape or structure of prostheses A61F 2/00 ; use of preparations for artificial teeth A61K 6/02 ; artificial kidneys A61M 1/14)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical composition of materials used, or use of such materials, for prostheses or grafts or for coating prostheses or grafts.

Artificial blood vessels, vascular patches, artificial valves, annuloplasty rings (A61L 27/507).

Materials for tissue engineering such as scaffolds.

Artificial skin, skin grafts (A61L 27/60)

Fillers for tissue regeneration and augmentation such as bone and soft tissue fillers, cosmetic fillers.

Injectable compositions, e.g. for regenerating cartilage.

Chemical aspects of surface treatment or modification of prostheses or grafts.

Spinal implants, e.g. spinal spacers, fusion cages, intervertebral discs.

Nerve implants, nerve conduits, nerve regeneration devices.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Undifferentiated human, animal or plant cells, e.g. cell lines; Tissues; Cultivation or maintenance thereof; Culture media therefore are classified in C12N 5/00.

Medicinal preparations containing material or reaction products thereof with undetermined constitution is classified in A61K 35/00.

Electrotherapy is classified in A61N 1/00.

Magnetotherapy is classified in A61N 2/00.

Radiation Therapy is classified in A61N 5/00.

Ultrasound Therapy is classified in A61N 7/00.

Preparations for dentistry are classified in A61K 6/00.

Dentistry: Dental implants, Fixation tools, Implanting tools are classified in A61C 8/00 and A61C 13/00.

Shape or structure of prostheses is classified in A61F.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Prostheses not implantable in the body, e.g. artificial limbs.
Contact lenses in general
Contact lenses characterised by the material of which they are made.
Ocular implants for drug delivery (e.g. ocular inserts)
Non-chemical aspects of intraocular lenses (IOL)
Bioreactors characterized by scaffolds or matrices serving as support for the cultured cells
Substrates for cell culture
Vertebrate cells or tissues
Artificial kidneys
Artificial hearts
Blood oxygenators
Artificial teeth
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Non-chemical aspects of cosmetic or alloplastic implants
Shaped ceramic products made of calcium phosphates, e.g. hydroxyapatite
Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine
Non-chemical aspects of heart valves
Manufacturing methods of heart valves
Mammary prostheses
Preservation of living parts of humans or animals
Tools for introducing bone substitute, for implanting bone graft implants or for compacting them in the bone cavity
Use of preparations for artificial teeth, for filling or for capping teeth
Eye prostheses (intraocular lenses, corneal implants)
Non-chemical aspects of prostheses for blood vessels
Hollow or tubular parts of organs, e.g. bladders, trachea, bronchi, bile ducts
Non-chemical aspects of bone prostheses
Non-chemical aspects of joint prostheses
Non-chemical aspects of prostheses for intervertebral or spinal discs
Non-chemical of skin implants, e.g. artificial skin
Artificial gland structures using bioreactors
Coating for optical elements
Special surfaces of prostheses, e.g. for improving ingrowth
Non-chemical aspects of annuloplasty rings
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in groups A61L 27/02 to A61L 27/48, classification is also made in groups A61L 27/50 to A61L 27/60 if the use of materials characterised by their function or physical properties is of interest.

When classifying in group A61L 27/00, classification is also made in A61L 33/00 if the materials used are antithrombogenic.

In group A61L 27/00, the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma",, e.g. prosthesis based on polyvinylchloride A61L 27/16, C08L 27/06.

When using combination classes for specifying the macromolecular materials the following rules apply:

Compositions of polysaccharides are combined with C08L 1/00 to C08L 5/16.

Compositions of rubber are combined with C08L 7/00 to C08L 21/02.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 23/00 to C08L 57/12.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 59/00 to C08L 87/00.

Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof are combined with C08L 89/00 to C08L 89/06.

Mixtures of macromolecular compounds are only classified in A61L 27/26 and not in each individual subgroups A61L 27/16 to A61L 27/227.

Each of the polymeric components of the mixture is classified in its correspondent C08L group, e.g. a bone graft comprising a mixture of chitosan and polyethylene glycol A61L 27/26, C08L 5/08 and A61L 27/26, C08L 71/02.

Compositions of block copolymers are classified in C08L 53/00.

Growth factors are classified in A61L 27/54 as medicaments.

For the concerned medicaments (A61L 27/54) as additional information, a classification symbol in A61L 2300/00 is given.

Additional information concerning materials characterized by their function or physical properties, materials and methods for coating medical devices and materials for tissue regeneration are also classified in A61L 2400/00-A61L 2430/40.

A61L 27/36 covers ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof such as products of natural origin (from plants or animals). This group will cover products such as natural silk derived from Bombyx mori, nacre, bees wax, honey, shellac, blood and blood-derived products (e.g. plasma, Plasma Rich Plasma [PRP], platelet concentrate), tissue fragments, Extracellular matrix (ECM), Submucosa (e.g. SIS), Essential oils, algae, diatomaceous earth.

A61L 27/38 covers materials for prostheses or grafts containing added animal cells, e.g. scaffolds containing seeded or cultured cells.

Materials for coating prostheses containing macromolecular materials are classified in A61L 27/34, the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma",, e.g. prosthesis coated with polyvinylchloride A61L 27/34, C08L 27/06.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Composite materials or composites
Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the finished structure.
PRP
Platelet Rich Plasma
SIS
Small Intestine Submucosa
Growth Factors (GF)
Naturally occurring substances capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation and cellular differentiation. Examples of GF are mentioned below:
BMP
Bone morphogenetic proteins
TGF
Transforming Growth Factors,
VEGF
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors,
FGF
Fibroblast Growth Factors,
IGF
Insulin Growth Factors
EGF
Epidermal Growth Factors
PDGF
Platelet-derived Growth Factors
NGF
Nerve Growth Factors
DBM
Demineralized Bone Matrix is allograft bone that has had the inorganic mineral removed, leaving behind the organic collagen matrix.
PLA, PGA
Polylactic acid, Polyglycolic acid,
PTFE
Polytetrafluoroethylene
PMMA
Polymethylmethacrylate
PVA
Polyvinyl alcohol
EVA
Ethylene vinyl acetate
PEG
Polyethylene Glycol
CMC
Carboxymethylcellulose
TCP
Tricalcium phosphate
IOL
Intraocular lenses
Tissue engineering
Interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of engineering and life sciences toward the development of biological substitutes that restore, maintain, or improve tissue function or a whole organ
Osteoinduction
Stimulation of osteoprogenitor cells to differentiate into osteoblasts that then begin new bone formation.
Osteoconduction
When the bone graft material serves as a scaffold for new bone growth that is perpetuated by the native bone
Autograft, Autologous or Autogenous
Grafting utilizing tissue obtained from the same individual receiving the graft.
Allograft
It is harvested from an individual from the same specie other than the one receiving the graft. Allograft tissue is taken from cadavers that have donated their tissue so that it can be used for living people who are in need of it
Xenograft
Xenograft tissue substitute has its origin from a species other than human, such as bovine.
Regenerative medicine
Synonym with tissue engineering.
Tissue scaffold
Artificial structure capable of supporting three-dimensional tissue formation, often implanted or 'seeded' with cells.
Alloplastic
Non-biological material such as metal, ceramic, and plastic.
Materials for colostomy devices ( adhesives for colostomy devices A61L 24/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Materials for ostomy pouching systems (colostomy bags) that provide a means for the collection of waste from a surgically diverted colon.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Polymers are classified in C08L.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Adhesives for colostomy devices
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Non-chemical aspects of colostomy devices
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in group A61L 28/00, classification is also made in A61L 33/00 if the materials used are antithrombogenic.

In groups A61L 28/0011 and subgroups and A61L 28/0026, the use of specific polymers is indicated by using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded bya "comma",, e.g. colostomy bag containing PVC, A61L 28/0011, C08L 27/06.

When using combination classes for specifying the macromolecular materials the following rules apply:

Compositions of polysaccharides are combined with C08L 1/00 to C08L 5/16.

Compositions of rubber are combined with C08L 7/00 to C08L 21/02.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 23/00 to C08L 57/12.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 59/00 to C08L 87/00.

Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof are combined with C08L 89/00 to C08L 89/06.

Mixtures of macromolecular compounds are only classified in A61L 28/0026 and not in each individual subgroups A61L 28/0011 to A61L 28/0023.

Each of the polymeric components of the mixture is classified in its correspondent C08L group, e.g. a colostomy bag comprising a mixture of polyurethane and polysiloxane A61L 28/0026, C08L 75/04 and A61L 28/0026, C08L 83/04.

Compositions of block copolymers are classified in C08L 53/00.

Growth factors are classified in A61L 28/0038 as medicaments.

For the concerned medicaments (A61L 28/0038) as additional information, a classification symbol in A61L 2300/00 is given.

Additional information concerning materials characterized by their function or physical properties, materials and methods for coating medical devices and materials for tissue regeneration are also classified in A61L 2400/00-A61L 2430/40.

A61L 28/003 covers ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof such as products of natural origin (from plants or animals) and cells. This group will cover products such as natural silk derived from Bombyx mori, nacre, bees wax, honey, shellac, blood and blood-derived products (e.g. plasma, Platelet Rich Plasma [PRP], platelet concentrate), tissue fragments, Extracellular matrix (ECM), Submucosa (e.g. SIS), Essential oils, algae, diatomaceous earth.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Colostomy
An alternative exit from the colon created to divert waste through a hole in the colon and through the wall of the abdomen.
Composite materials or composites
Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the finished structure.
Materials for catheters, {medical tubing, cannulae, or endoscopes} or for coating catheters ( shape or structure of catheters A61M 25/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical composition of materials used, or use of such materials, for catheters and catheter balloons or for coating catheters and catheter balloons and for medical tubing, cannulae or endoscopes.

Medical tubing comprises Feeding tubes, Nasogastric tubes, (Endo)Tracheal tubes, Drainage tubes, Dialysis tubing.

Catheter lock solutions for infusion into an indwelling intravascular catheter to inhibit infection related to the presence of the catheter.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Polymers are classified in C08L.

Lubricating compositions are classified in C10M.

Biocides are classified in A01N.

Non-chemical aspects of catheters and medical tubing are classified in A61M.

Production of tubular articles is classified in B29D 23/00.

Medical tubing for diagnosis, measuring or testing is classified in A61B.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Non-chemical aspects of catheters and medical tubing
Non-chemical aspects of catheters for uterus, vagina or rectum
Non-chemical aspects of drainage tubes for wounds
Non-chemical aspects of dilators
Non-chemical aspects of medical tubes
Non-chemical aspects of medical tube connectors, tube couplings
Non-chemical aspects of endoscopes
Non-chemical aspects of feeding tubes
Non-chemical aspects of needles for surgery
Chemical aspects of needles
Chemical aspects of guidewires
Non-chemical aspects of guidewires
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Non-chemical aspects of peritoneal catheters
Non-chemical aspects of tracheal tubes
Nasal cannulae or tubing
Non-chemical aspects of balloon-catheters
Non-chemical aspects of drainage tubes
Non-chemical aspects of multilayered (e.g. coated) catheters
Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators
A61M29/14
Making of balloon catheters
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in groups A61L 29/02 to A61L 29/126, classification is also made in groups A61L 29/14 to A61L 29/18 if the use of materials characterised by their function or physical properties is of interest.

When classifying in group A61L 29/041, A61L 29/042, A61L 29/043, A61L 29/049, A61L 29/06, A61L 29/085, A61L 29/12, A61L 29/123 and A61L 29/126, the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by,, a "comma" e.g. a catheter based on polyvinylchloride A61L 29/041, C08L 27/06.

When using combination classes for specifying the macromolecular materials the following rules apply:

Compositions of polysaccharides are combined with C08L 1/00 to C08L 5/16.

Compositions of rubber are combined with C08L 7/00 to C08L 21/02.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 23/00 to C08L 57/12.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 59/00 to C08L 87/00.

Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof are combined with C08L 89/00 to C08L 89/06 classification is also made in A61L 33/00 if the materials used are antithrombogenic.

Compositions of block copolymers are classified in C08L 53/00.

Mixtures of macromolecular compounds are only classified in A61L 29/049 and not in each individual subgroups A61L 29/041 to A61L 29/06.

Each of the polymeric components of the mixture is classified in its correspondent C08L group, e.g. a catheter comprising a mixture of polyacrylate and polylactide A61L 29/049, C08L 33/04 and A61L 29/049, C08L 67/04.

Growth factors are classified in A61L 29/16 as medicaments.

For the concerned medicaments (A61L 29/16) as additional information, a classification symbol in A61L 2300/00 is given.

Additional information concerning materials characterized by their function or physical properties, materials and methods for coating medical devices and materials for tissue regeneration are also classified in A61L 2400/00-A61L 2430/40.

In group A61L 29/18 materials at least partially X-ray or laser opaque include all kind of medical imaging material such as MRI contrast agents, ultrasound imaging agents, echogenic agents.

A61L 29/005 covers ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof such as products of natural origin (from plants or animals) and cells. This group will cover products such as natural silk derived from Bombyx mori, nacre, bees wax, honey, shellac, blood and blood-derived products (e.g. plasma, Platelet Rich Plasma [PRP], platelet concentrate), tissue fragments, Extracellular matrix (ECM), Submucosa (e.g. SIS), Essential oils, algae, diatomaceous earth.

Materials for coating catheters containing macromolecular materials are classified in A61L 29/085, the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma",, e.g. catheters coated with polydimethyl siloxane A61L 29/085, C08L 83/04.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Catheter
A tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct, or vessel to allow drainage, administration of fluids or gases, or access by surgical instruments.
Balloon catheter
A type of "soft" catheter with an inflatable "balloon" at its tip which is used during a catheterization procedure to enlarge a narrow opening or passage within the body. The deflated balloon catheter is positioned, then inflated to perform the necessary procedure, and deflated again in order to be removed.
Dilator
A (surgical) device used to dilate, distend, enlarge, expand, stretch an opening, organ, passage, tube, canal or cavity of a human or animal body.
Cannula
A tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid. Cannulae are introduced by means of a trocar needle.
Endoscope
An instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body.
Tracheal tube
A catheter that is inserted into the trachea in order for the primary purpose of establishing and maintaining a patent airway and to ensure the adequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Composite materials or composites
Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the finished structure.
Materials for other surgical articles, {e.g. stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, materials for adhesion prevention, occluding devices, surgical gloves, tissue fixation devices ( shape or structure of stent-grafts A61F 2/07 , of stents A61F 2/82 , of surgical gloves A61B 19/04 , of surgical drapes A61B 19/08 , of occluding devices A61B 17/12022) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical composition of materials used, or use of such materials, for stents, stent-grafts, shunts, surgical drapes, guide wires, adhesion barriers (Membranes for Guided Tissue Regeneration, GTR), coils (occluding devices), surgical gloves, condoms, medical needles, trocars, dialysis ports, plugs (fistula blockers, bone plugs...), surgical cutting devices including biopsy devices, tissue fixation devices (clamps, clips, nails, plates, plugs, screws, suture anchors...), meshes (hernia meshes), devices for surgical treatment of incontinence (e.g. urethral slings), filters (e.g. vena cava filters), stent covers, vascular access ports (e.g. dialysis ports).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Polymers are classified in C08L.

Surgical instruments, devices or methods are classified in A61B 17/00.

Devices providing patency to, or preventing collapsing of, tubular structures of the body, e.g. stents, are classified in A61F 2/82.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Radioactive stents
Non-chemical aspects of stents
Non-chemical aspects of stent-grafts or graft for the treatment of aneurysms
Non-chemical aspect of occluding devices
Non-chemical aspects of surgical drapes
Non-chemical aspects of surgeons' or patients' gowns or dresses, surgical masks
Non-chemical aspects of surgical gloves
Non-chemical aspects of bone fixation devices (e.g. screws, nails, plates...)
Intragastrical devices
Gastric Bands
Devices for preventing snoring
Gloves in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Dental regeneration membranes
Non-chemical aspects of intramedullary devices (pins, nails...)
Non-chemical aspects of osteosynthesis instruments
Non-chemical aspects of bone staples
Non-chemical aspects of condoms
Containers for storing or transfusion of blood or plasma (blood bags)
Non-chemical aspects of cosmetic or alloplastic implants
Preparations containing radioactive substances for use in therapy or testing in vivo
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) contrast preparations; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast preparation
Sensors specially adapted to be brought in contact with an internal body part.
Dental fixation means
Non-chemical aspects of implants for hernia repair or support, e.g. repair meshes
Closure means for urethra or rectum, i.e. anti-incontinence devices or support slings against pelvic prolapse
Instruments for taking a cell sample or for biopsy
Non-chemical aspects of needles for surgery
Non-chemical aspects of needles for suturing
Non-chemical aspects of trocars, puncturing needles
Non-chemical aspects of cannulae
Non-chemical aspects of acupuncture needles
Non-chemical aspects of biopsy needles
Non-chemical aspects of syringes
Special rules of classification within this group

Growth factors are classified in A61L 31/16 as medicaments.

For the concerned medicaments (A61L 31/16) as additional information, a classification symbol in A61L 2300/00 is given.

Additional information concerning materials characterized by their function or physical properties, materials and methods for coating medical devices and materials for tissue regeneration are also classified in A61L 2400/00-A61L 2430/40.

In group A61L 31/18 materials at least partially X-ray or laser opaque include all kind of medical imaging material such as MRI contrast agents, ultrasound imaging agents, echogenic agents.

A61L 31/005 covers ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof such as products of natural origin (from plants or animals) and cells. This group will cover products such as natural silk derived from Bombyx mori, nacre, bees wax, honey, shellac, blood and blood-derived products (e.g. plasma, Platelet Rich Plasma [PRP], platelet concentrate), tissue fragments, Extracellular matrix (ECM), Submucosa (e.g. SIS), Essential oils, algae, diatomaceous earth.

When classifying in groups A61L 31/02 to A61L 31/129, classification is also made in groups A61L 31/14 to A61L 31/18 if the use of materials characterised by their function or physical properties is of interest.

When classifying in group A61L 31/00, classification is also made in A61L 33/00 if the materials used are antithrombogenic.

In group A61L 31/00, the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded bya "comma", e.g. surgical clamp based on polyvinylchloride A61L 31/048, C08L 27/06.

When classifying in group A61L 31/041, A61L 31/042A61L 31/048, A61L 31/049, A61L 31/06, A61L 31/10, A61L 31/125, A61L 31/126, A61L 31/127, A61L 31/127, A61L 31/128 and A61L 31/129, the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma", e.g. a stent based on polyurethane A61L 31/06, C08L 75/04.

When using combination classes for specifying the macromolecular materials the following rules apply:

Compositions of polysaccharides are combined with C08L 1/00 to C08L 5/16.

Compositions of rubber are combined with C08L 7/00 to C08L 21/02.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 23/00 to C08L 57/12.

Compositions of macromolecular compounds obtained otherwise than by reactions involving only carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds are combined with C08L 59/00 to C08L 87/00.

Compositions of natural macromolecular compounds or of derivatives thereof are combined with C08L 89/00 to C08L 89/06 classification is also made in A61L 33/00 if the materials used are antithrombogenic.

Compositions of block copolymers are classified in C08L 53/00.

Mixtures of macromolecular compounds are only classified in A61L 31/041 and not classified in each individual subgroups A61L 31/042 to A61L 31/06.

Each of the polymeric components of the mixture is classified in its correspondent C08L group, e.g. a stent comprising a mixture of polyacrylate and polylactide A61L 31/041, C08L 33/04 and A61L 31/041, C08L 67/04.

Materials for coating other surgical articles containing macromolecular materials are classified in A61L 31/10, the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma", e.g. stent coated with polylactide A61L 31/10, C08L 67/04.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Stent
Artificial 'tube' inserted into a natural passage/conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract, a disease-induced, localized flow constriction. The term may also refer to a tube used to temporarily hold such a natural conduit open to allow access for surgery
Stent-graft
Tubular device composed of special fabric supported by a rigid structure, the stent, which is usually metal.The device is used primarily in endovascular surgery. Stent grafts support weak points in arteries; such a point is commonly known as an aneurysm.
Shunt
By-pass or divert
Guide-wires
Facilitate the delivery of a wide variety of catheters, stents and other interventional devices to a procedure site within the body
Medical Coils
Occluding device, e.g. Guglielmi Detachable Coil, or GDC, is a platinum coil commonly used in intracranial non-invasive surgery for the occlusion of brain aneurysms
Mesh
Mesh consists of semi-permeable barrier made of connected strands of metal, fiber, or other flexible/ductile material. Mesh is similar to web or net in that it has many attached or woven strands. For example, hernia mesh or patch.
Adhesion barriers (Materials for adhesion prevention)
Medical implants that can be used to reduce abnormal internal scarring (adhesions) following surgery by separating the internal tissues and organs while they heal
Suture anchors
Fixation devices for fixing tendons and ligaments to bone. They are made up of: the anchor, which is inserted into the bone (e.g. a screw); the eyelet, which is a hole or a loop in the anchor to through which the suture passes. This links the anchor to the suture; the suture which is attached to the anchor by through the eyelet of the anchor
Composite materials or composites
Materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties which remain separate and distinct at the macroscopic or microscopic scale within the finished structure
GTR
Guided Tissue Regeneration
Antithrombogenic treatment of surgical articles, e.g. sutures, catheters, prostheses, or of articles for the manipulation or conditioning of blood; Materials for such treatment
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical composition of materials, or use of materials, for antithrombogenic treatment of surgical articles, e.g. sutures, catheters, prostheses, or of articles for the manipulation or conditioning of blood.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Containers for storing or transfusion of blood or plasma (blood bags)
Dialysis systems; Artificial kidneys; Blood oxygenators;
A61M29/14
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in groups A61L 33/02 to A61L 33/122, classification is also made in group A61L 33/0005 if of interest.

In group A61L 33/00, the use of specific polymers is indicated using the relevant classification symbols of subclass C08L preceded by a "comma", e.g. antithrombogenic treatment with the help of polyvinylchloride A61L 33/064, C08L 27/06.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Antithrombogenic, antithrombotic
Reduces thrombus formation, e.g. antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, thrombolytic drugs, fibrinolytic agents
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013