CPC Definition - Subclass G10K

Last Updated Version: 2018.05
SOUND-PRODUCING DEVICES (sound-producing toys A63H 5/00); METHODS OR DEVICES FOR PROTECTING AGAINST, OR FOR DAMPING, NOISE OR OTHER ACOUSTIC WAVES IN GENERAL; ACOUSTICS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices that produce a sound by striking a resonating body, such as bells, chimes, gong.

Whistles, siren devices that produce a sound driven by rotating member, motor, or fluids, e.g., compressed gas.

Devices that produce a sound by vibrating a diaphragm or analogous element, such as foghorns, vehicle hooter, buzzer.

Methods or devices that transmit, conduct, or direct a sound wave.

Methods or devices for protection against, or damping of, acoustic waves.

Cones, diaphragms, or the like, for emitting or receiving sound.

Acoustics not otherwise provided for.

Arrangements for generating mechanical vibrations in fluids.

The production of sounds which may not be audible to human beings but which are audible to animals.

Relationships with other classification places

When classifying in subgroups G10K 9/122-G10K 9/22, the subgroups do not cover the construction of, or circuits for, broadband-transducers, such as loudspeakers or microphones, which are covered by subclass H04R.

When classifying in subgroups G10K 11/162-G10K 11/168, the subgroups do not cover protecting against, or damping of, acoustic waves adapted for particular applications, which are covered by the subclasses for these applications, provided that there is a specific provision for this aspect.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sound producing toys

A63H 5/00

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Scaring devices, e.g. bird-scaring devices

A01M 29/00

Hunting appliances

A01M 31/00

Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

A61B 8/00

Vibration massage

A61H 23/00

Devices for producing sleep by acoustical means

A61M 21/00

Employing sonic or ultrasonic vibrations in chemical or physical processes

B01J 19/10

Disintegrating devices using ultrasonic waves

B02C 19/18

Spraying or atomising liquids using ultrasonic waves

B05B 17/06

Acoustic devices used in vehicle signaling

B60Q 5/00

Acoustic signal devices used on bicycles

B62J 3/00

Fluid oscillators or pulse generators for fluid pressure systems

F15B 21/12

Systems using the reflection or reradiation of acoustic waves

G01S 15/00

Signaling or calling arrangements, alarm arrangements

G08B

Percussive musical instruments

G10D 13/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Medical stethoscopes

A61B 7/02

Generation or transmission of mechanical waves, in general

B06B

Apparatus specifically adapted for transmitting mechanical vibrations of infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic frequency

B06B 3/00

Gas-flow silencers or exhaust apparatus for machines or engines, in general, for internal combustion engines

F01N

Intake silencers for internal-combustion engines

F02M 35/00

Suppression of undesired vibrations

F16F 7/00

Means or arrangements for avoiding or reducing out-of-balance forces due to motion

F16F 15/00

Preventing noise in valves

F16K 47/02

Noise absorbers in pipes

F16L 55/02

Arrangements for suppressing noise in direct-contact trickle coolers

F28C 1/10

Silencers for weapons

F41A 21/30

Investigating materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

G01N 29/00

Generating seismic energy

G01V 1/02

Non-electronic musical instruments

G10B, G10C, G10D, G10F

Details of electrophonic musical instruments

G10H 1/00

Synthesis of speech

G10L 13/00

Information storage based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer

G11B

Piezo-electric, electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive elements, in general

H01L 41/00

Generation of oscillations, directly or by frequency-changing, by circuits employing active elements which operate in a non-switching manner; generation of noise by such circuits

H03B

Electro-acoustic amplifiers

H03F 13/00

Impedance networks comprising electro-acoustic elements

H03H 9/00

Transmission systems using infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic waves

H04B 11/00

Loudspeakers, microphones, gramophone pick-ups, or the like, acoustic electromechanical transducers

H04R

Diaphragms for electromechanical transducers

H04R 7/00

Special rules of classification

When classifying in subgroups G10K 11/16-G10K 11/172, classification is also made in subclass B32B, in so far as any layered product is concerned.

For details which are not covered by specific subgroups of G10K, the Indexing Codes G10K 2200/00 and G10K 2200/00 should be applied.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Acoustics; Sound

The terms acoustics and sound cover the technical fields dealing with mechanical vibrations at all infrasonic, sonic, and ultrasonic frequencies. However, generation or transmission of mechanical waves, in general, is covered by subclass B06B, subject to the exception specified in special rules of classification within this subclass mentioned above.

Musical instrument

Musical instrument can include a device that emits a single sound signal or, in other words, does not exclude a device that emits a single sound signal.

Devices in which sound is produced by striking a resonating body, e.g. bells, chimes, gong (combinations with clocks or watches G04B, G04C; carillons G10F 1/10; {for percussion instruments G10D 13/00})
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Percussive musical instruments

G10C, G10D 13/00, G10F

Carillons

G10F 1/10

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sound devices, e.g., bells, chimes, gong combined with clocks or watches

G04B, G04C

Rattles or like noise-producing devices {, e.g. door-knockers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Door-knockers

Whistles
Definition statement

This place covers:

Infrasonic, sonic, and ultrasonic whistles

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Whistling kettles

A47J 27/212

Sirens
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sirens where the sound is created by chopping a flow of air

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sirens in which the sound is created by a vibrating membrane

G10K 9/00

Devices in which sound is produced by vibrating a diaphragm or analogous element, e.g. fog horns, vehicle hooter, buzzer (loudspeakers or like acoustic electromechanical transducers H04R {; arrangement or adaptation for ships B63B 45/08; mechanically driven vibrators B06B 1/10})
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanically driven vibrators

B06B 1/10

Arrangement or adaptation for ships

B63B 45/08

The construction of, or circuits for, broadband-transducers, such as loudspeakers, microphones or like acoustic electromechanical transducers

H04R

Methods or devices for transmitting, conducting or directing sound in general; Methods or devices for protecting against, or for damping, noise or other acoustic waves in general
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods or devices that transmit, conduct, or direct a sound wave.

Methods or devices for protection against, or damping of, acoustic waves.

Methods or devices for damping acoustic waves by electroacoustically regenerating the original acoustic waves in antiphase, and superimposing the two acoustic waves

Diffusers (G10K 11/20)

Damping or steering of surface acoustic waves

Relationships with other classification places

The subgroups G10K 11/162-G10K 11/168 cover the selection of materials for the devices for protecting against, or damping of, acoustic waves. Subject-matter, which normally would be covered by these groups, which is adapted for particular applications, which are covered by the classes for these applications, is to be classified with those applications provided that there is a specific provision for the aspect of protecting against, or damping of, acoustic waves.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Protective devices for the ears

A61F 11/06

Sound insulation for vehicles

B60R 13/08

Sound insulation for aircraft

B64C 1/40

Reduction of noise on the permanent way

E01B 19/00

Absorption of air-transmitted noise from road or railway traffic

E01F 8/00

Noise insulation, absorption or reflection in buildings

E04B 1/74

Sound insulation in floors

E04F 15/20

Intake silencers for internal-combustion engines

F02M 35/00

Preventing noise in valves

F16K 47/02

Noise absorbers in pipes

F16L 55/02

Arrangements for suppressing noise in direct-contact trickle coolers

F28C 1/10

Silencers for weapons

F41

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Using a coupling medium when making a diagnosis using infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic waves

A61B 8/00

Providing a coupling medium when performing lithotripsy

A61B 17/225

Sound insulating materials

C04B 26/00 - C04B 38/00

Room acoustics

E04B 1/99

Gas-flow silencers or exhaust apparatus for machines or engines in general, for internal-combustion engines

F01N

Suppression of undesired vibrations

F16F 7/00

Using an acoustic coupling when investigating materials

G01N 29/28

Constructional features of sonar devices

G01S 7/521

Special rules of classification

When classifying in subgroups G10K 11/16-G10K 11/172, classification is also to be made in subclass B32B, in so far as any layered product is concerned.

{Devices for damping, suppressing, obstructing or conducting sound in acoustic devices (G10K 1/06 - G10K 1/10 take precedence; for electro-mechanical transducers for communication H04R 3/002)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices for damping, suppressing, obstructing or conducting sound in acoustic devices, e.g. for preventing cavitation in acoustic devices

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Resonating devices having the shape of a bell, plate, rod, or tube

G10K 1/06 - G10K 1/10

Electro-mechanical transducers for communication

H04R 3/002

Methods or devices for protecting against, or for damping, noise or other acoustic waves in general (G10K 11/36 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Devices for manipulating acoustic surface waves

G10K 11/36

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sound insulation for vehicles

B60R 13/08

Sound insulation in boats or ships

B63B 3/68

Sound insulation in aircraft

B64C 1/40

Silencing jet engines

B64D 33/06

Acoustic insulation for internal combustion engines

F02B 77/13

Air-intakes for gas-turbine or jet-propulsion plants having provision for noise suppression

F02C 7/045

Sound absorbing structures for jet-propulsion plants

F02K 1/82

Intake silencers for internal-combustion engines

F02M 35/00

Sound attenuation for pumps

F04D 29/66

Means or arrangements for avoiding or reducing out-of-balance forces due to motion

F16F 15/00

Suppressing noise in air-conditioning systems

F24F 13/24

Arrangements for suppressing noise in direct-contact trickle coolers

F28C 1/10

Silencers for weapons

F41A 21/30

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sound insulation materials (see relevant places)

C04B 26/00 - C04B 38/00

Reduction of noise in permanent way

E01B 19/00

Absorption of air-transmitted noise from road or railway traffic

E01F 8/00

Noise insulation, absorption, or reflection in buildings

E04B 1/74

Room acoustics

E04B 1/99

Sound insulation in floors

E04F 15/20

Gas-flow silencers or exhaust apparatus for machines or engines, in general, for internal combustion engines

F01N 1/00

Suppression of undesired vibrations

F16F 7/00

Preventing noise in valves

F16K 47/02

Noise absorbers in pipes

F16L 55/02

Surface acoustic wave resonators

H03H 9/00

Particles in a matrix
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sound absorbers where the matrix is a gas and where the particles are in a fixed position

by electro-acoustically regenerating the original acoustic waves in anti-phase
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acoustic active noise cancellation [ANC], i.e. issuing an acoustic wave field that destructively interferes with a pre-existing acoustic wave field, for the purposes of reducing or damping the pre-existing acoustic wave field.

The scheme has 4 main branches:

The analysis of input signals, output signals, or relationships between them, which are used by the invention in a special way to achieve its goal is classified in G10K 11/1781. For instance, if an application analyses a musical signal and turns off ANC if the music is very loud, G10K 11/17827 should be assigned.

The handling of specific non-standard conditions, e.g. detection of instabilities or other malfunctions in the device, or detection of specific signals that must not be cancelled, e.g. speech, sirens or warnings, is classified in G10K 11/1783.

Inventions about specific details, e.g. specific details of the adaptive filter, hardware or software implementations for lowering power requirements or improving speed, geometric placement of loudspeakers and microphones or combinations with other acoustic elements, are classified in G10K 11/1785.

The overall ANC circuit structure is classified in G10K 11/1787, with the idea of having similar circuits together in one group. For instance, ANC in cars often involves a synthesizer using a reference signal based on engine parameters; as another example, systems in which music is to be played together with the ANC signal mostly have sub circuits that estimate and subtract the music signal from the error signal before the error signal is used to adapt the ANC signal.

Relationships with other classification places

This group is a "function-oriented place" for acoustic active noise cancellation and covers active cancellation of acoustic noise by physical mixing of the pre-existing acoustic noise wave field with the generated acoustic wave field.

Noise cancellation in electronic or electroacoustic signals by mixing, processing or otherwise altering the signal inside the circuitry is classified elsewhere, even though the methods used might often be similar. For example, a phone cancelling or reducing noise that is part of a signal coming from a telephone network, e.g. line noise or echo noise, by filtering this signal, is not seen as acoustic noise cancellation within the scope of G10K 11/178, but falls within the scope of H04M.

However, the mere application of ANC in telephones, e.g. a phone reducing or cancelling ambient noise around the user, by mixing an acoustic anti-noise signal into the signal coming from the network, to destructively interfere with the ambient acoustic noise, is seen as applying acoustic noise cancellation within the scope of G10K 11/178.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Electric external protective devices for the ears for active noise reduction

A61F 2011/145

Vibration damping devices for rotor craft

B64C 27/001

Aircraft with means for silencing of exhaust or propulsion jets

B64D 33/06

Exhaust gas silencers for internal combustion engines characterised by using active interference effect

F01N 1/065

Air intakes for gas-turbine plants having provisions for noise suppression

F02C 7/045

Intake silencers for internal combustion engines

F02M 35/125

Sound attenuation for non-positive displacement pumps

F04D 29/663

Suppression of mechanical vibrations

F16F

Noise absorbers in pipes

F16L 55/033

Air-conditioners with means for suppressing noise

F24F 13/24

Means for active and/or passive vibration damping or acoustical noise suppression in gradient magnet coil systems

G01R 33/3854

Substation equipment with measures to prevent eavesdropping

H04M 1/19

Earpieces with reduction of ambient noise

H04R 1/1083

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Passive noise cancellation

G10K 11/162 - G10K 11/172

Protective devices for the ears

A61F 11/06

Noise filtering for speech processing

G10L 21/0208

Signal processing for reducing noise in signals on information storages

G11B 20/24

Adaptive networks and filters in general

H03H 21/00

Echo cancellers in two-way loudspeaking telephone systems

H04M 9/082

Circuits for combining the signals of two or more microphones

H04R 3/005

Circuits for transducers, loudspeakers or microphones for preventing acoustic reaction

H04R 3/02

Deaf-aid sets with arrangements for obtaining a desired directivity characteristic

H04R 25/40

Deaf-aid sets with prevention of acoustic reaction

H04R 25/45

Hearing devices using active noise cancelation

H04R 2460/01

Special rules of classification

Classification in several subgroups is specifically encouraged in this scheme, especially in the general system configurations subgroup. For instance, a phone general device with active acoustic noise cancellation comprising a diagnostics function, and using a reference microphone, an error microphone and a desired music signal is classified under G10K 11/17833, G10K 11/17879 and G10K 11/17885.

When classifying in G10K 11/178, classifying additional information in the subgroups of G10K 2210/00 is mandatory.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

plant

is interchangeably used to refer to both the primary path and the secondary path

primary path

is used to indicate the acoustic path from the noise source (rather than from the reference input) to the error microphone

feedforward

is used to indicate hybrid feedforward + feedback systems

Background

In acoustic anti-noise systems, an acoustic transducer (e.g. loudspeaker) generates an acoustic signal to compensate for an existing ambient noise signal, such that the total acoustic signal at a specific point or area (the so called "quiet zone") is minimized, by generating the noise signal in anti-phase.

To achieve this goal, a number of different input signals can be used:

  • a reference signal (or "feedforward signal"), for detecting or predicting the noise to be canceled; this could be a microphone for recording the noise acoustically, or any other type of (non-acoustic) input that can be used to predict the noise;
  • an error signal (or "feedback signal"), placed inside or close to the quiet zone, to continuously adapt the ANC output such that the quiet zone is truly quiet; and optionally,
  • a desired external signal (e.g. "pass-through audio", music or speech), to be output by the acoustic transducer without being canceled by the ANC system.

In essence, the basic ANC system of Figure 1 predicts the noise in front of the loudspeaker from signal x(n), by taking into account a time delay and acoustic distortions, and outputs it in anti-phase through the loudspeaker. Ideally, this completely cancels the noise. The input e(n) is used to fine-tune the system, by adapting the ANC filtering such that e(n) is minimized.

media0.png

Figure 1. Combined feedforward and feedback ANC in a duct.

It is possible to do ANC with only a reference signal, only an error signal or with both reference and error signals. The desired external signal is an optional extension of the ANC system. ANC with only a reference signal (i.e. without an error signal) is called pure feedforward ANC.

The acoustic path from the reference microphone to the error microphone is referred to here as the primary path, often denoted by P(z). Feedforward (and hybrid) ANC systems usually model this path to predict the noise at the error microphone from the detected reference signal.

The electro-acoustic path through the loudspeaker to the error microphone is referred to here as the secondary path, often denoted by S(z). Feedback (and hybrid) ANC systems model this path to compensate for non-linear effects of the loudspeaker and error microphone and the specific acoustic environment between the two. Also, this path is modeled to be able to remove the desired external signal from the measured error signal.

The electro-acoustic path through the loudspeaker to the reference microphone is sometimes referred to as the leakage path. This path is modeled to be able to remove the anti-noise signal itself from the measured reference signal, e.g. to prevent howling. Also, this path can be modeled to compensate for non-linear effects of the loudspeaker and reference microphone and the specific acoustic environment between the two.

Basic adaptive control is often performed using a combined model W(z) = -P(z) / S(z), which is multiplied by the secondary path, S(z), to arrive at a signal approximating the true P(z). See Figure 2.

media1.png

Figure 2. Adaptive feedforward ANC.

Often, the secondary path is also adaptively modeled to adapt to changes in the acoustic environment, such as movement of a telephone or head-phone with respect to the user's head.

The coupling through acoustic paths from the loudspeaker to the reference microphone is normally be kept as low as possible, so as to prevent howling (i.e. the ANC system detecting its own output as noise and worsening it). Confusingly, the word "feedback" is sometimes used for this coupling, in reference to the effect in musical performances.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

ANC

Active Noise Control

ANE

Active Noise Equalization

LMS

Least Mean Squares

Reflecting arrangements (G10K 11/28 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Diffusers

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sound focusing or directing using reflection

G10K 11/28

for conducting sound through solid bodies, e.g. wires
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus specially adapted for transmitting mechanical vibrations of infrasonic, sonic, or ultrasonic frequency

B06B 3/00

Sound-focusing or directing, e.g. scanning {(horns for impedance matching G10K 11/02; megaphones G10K 11/08)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Diffraction

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Horns for impedance matching

G10K 11/02

Megaphones

G10K 11/08

Devices for manipulating acoustic surface waves (electro-acoustic amplifiers H03F 13/00; networks comprising electro-acoustic elements H03H 9/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Damping, steering of Surface Acoustic Waves

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electro-acoustic amplifiers

H03F 13/00

Networks comprising electro-acoustic elements

H03H 9/00

Cones, diaphragms, or the like, for emitting or receiving sound in general (for electromechanical transducers H04R 7/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Diaphragms for loudspeakers

H04R 7/00

Acoustics not otherwise provided for
Definition statement

This place covers:

Synthesis of acoustic waves

Sound-producing devices not otherwise provided for

Arrangements for producing a reverberation sound

Acoustic levitation

Matter transportation using acoustic waves

Synthesis of acoustic waves (synthesis of speech G10L)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Modulation, parametric techniques

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Generation of tones in electrophonic musical instruments

G10H

Synthesis of speech

G10L

Sound-producing devices (G10K 15/02 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

SASERS

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Synthesis of acoustic waves

G10K 15/02

{producing shock waves (G10K 15/046, G10K 15/06 take precedence; generating seismic energy G01V 1/02)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Unipolar generators

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sound producing devices

G10K 15/046

Sound producing devices using electric discharge

G10K 15/06

Calculus smashing apparatus

A61B 17/22

Application of shock-waves for chemical reactions

B01J 3/08

Shaping using shock waves

B21D 26/06

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Generating seismic energy

G01V 1/02