Version: 2019.02
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CPC  COOPERATIVE PATENT CLASSIFICATION  
H03B  GENERATION OF OSCILLATIONS, DIRECTLY OR BY FREQUENCYCHANGING, BY CIRCUITS EMPLOYING ACTIVE ELEMENTS WHICH OPERATE IN A NONSWITCHING MANNER; GENERATION OF NOISE BY SUCH CIRCUITS (measuring, testing G01R; generators adapted for electrophonic musical instruments G10H; Speech synthesis G10L; masers, lasers H01S; dynamoelectric machines H02K; power inverter circuits H02M; by using pulse techniques H03K; automatic control of generators H03L; starting, synchronisation or stabilisation of generators where the type of generator is irrelevant or unspecified H03L; generation of oscillations in plasma H05H) [201808] WARNING

H03B 1/00  Details [201301] 
H03B 5/00  Generation of oscillations using amplifier with regenerative feedback from output to input (H03B 9/00, H03B 15/00 take precedence) [201301] 
H03B 5/02  .  Details [201301] 
H03B 5/04  . .  Modifications of generator to compensate for variations in physical values, e.g. power supply, load, temperature [201301] 
H03B 5/06  . .  Modifications of generator to ensure starting of oscillations [201301] 
H03B 5/08  .  with frequencydetermining element comprising lumped inductance and capacitance [201301] 
H03B 5/10  . . 
H03B 5/12  . . 
H03B 5/1203  . . .  {the amplifier being a single transistor} [201301] 
H03B 5/1206  . . .  {using multiple transistors for amplification} [201301] 
H03B 5/1209  . . . .  {the amplifier having two current paths operating in a differential manner and a current source or degeneration circuit in common to both paths, e.g. a longtailed pair. (H03B 5/1215 takes precedence)} [201608] 
H03B 5/1212  . . . .  {the amplifier comprising a pair of transistors, wherein an output terminal of each being connected to an input terminal of the other, e.g. a cross coupled pair} [201301] 
H03B 5/1215  . . . . .  {the current source or degeneration circuit being in common to both transistors of the pair, e.g. a crosscoupled longtailed pair} [201301] 
H03B 5/1218  . . . .  {the generator being of the balanced type} [201301] 
H03B 5/1221  . . . .  {the amplifier comprising multiple amplification stages connected in cascade} [201301] 
H03B 5/1225  . . . .  {the generator comprising multiple amplifiers connected in parallel} [201301] 
H03B 5/1228  . . .  {the amplifier comprising one or more field effect transistors} [201301] 
H03B 5/1231  . . .  {the amplifier comprising one or more bipolar transistors} [201301] 
H03B 5/1234  . . .  {and comprising means for varying the output amplitude of the generator (H03B 5/1278 takes precedence)} [201301] 
H03B 5/1237  . . .  {comprising means for varying the frequency of the generator} [201301] 
H03B 5/124  . . . .  {the means comprising a voltage dependent capacitance} [201301] 
H03B 5/1243  . . . . .  {the means comprising voltage variable capacitance diodes} [201301] 
H03B 5/1246  . . . . .  {the means comprising transistors used to provide a variable capacitance} [201301] 
H03B 5/125  . . . . . .  {the transistors being bipolar transistors} [201301] 
H03B 5/1253  . . . . . .  {the transistors being fieldeffect transistors} [201301] 
H03B 5/1256  . . . .  {the means comprising a variable inductance} [201301] 
H03B 5/1259  . . . . .  {the means comprising a variable active inductor, e.g. gyrator circuits} [201608] 
H03B 5/1262  . . . .  {the means comprising switched elements} [201301] 
H03B 5/1265  . . . . .  {switched capacitors} [201301] 
H03B 5/1268  . . . . .  {switched inductors} [201301] 
H03B 5/1271  . . . .  {the frequency being controlled by a control current, i.e. current controlled oscillators} [201608] 
H03B 5/1275  . . . .  {having further means for varying a parameter in dependence on the frequency} [201301] 
H03B 5/1278  . . . . .  {the parameter being an amplitude of a signal, e.g. maintaining a constant output amplitude over the frequency range} [201301] 
H03B 5/1281  . . . . .  {the parameter being the amount of feedback} [201301] 
H03B 5/1284  . . . . .  {the parameter being another frequency, e.g. a harmonic of the oscillating frequency} [201301] 
H03B 5/1287  . . . . .  {the parameter being a quality factor, e.g. Q factor of the frequency determining element} [201301] 
H03B 5/129  . . . . .  {the parameter being a bias voltage or a power supply} [201301] 
H03B 5/1293  . . . .  {having means for achieving a desired tuning characteristic, e.g. linearising the frequency characteristic across the tuning voltage range} [201608] 
H03B 5/1296  . . .  {the feedback circuit comprising a transformer} [201301] 
H03B 5/14  . .  frequencydetermining element connected via bridge circuit to closed ring around which signal is transmitted [201301] 
H03B 5/16  . . .  active element in amplifier being vacuum tube [201301] 
H03B 5/18  .  with frequencydetermining element comprising distributed inductance and capacitance [201301] 
H03B 5/1805  . .  {the frequencydetermining element being a coaxial resonator} [201301] 
H03B 5/1811  . . .  {the active element in the amplifier being a vacuum tube (see provisionally also H03B 5/1835)} [201301] 
H03B 5/1817  . .  {the frequencydetermining element being a cavity resonator} [201301] 
H03B 5/1823  . . .  {the active element in the amplifier being a semiconductor device} [201301] 
H03B 5/1829  . . . .  {the semiconductor device being a fieldeffect device} [201301] 
H03B 5/1835  . . .  {the active element in the amplifier being a vacuum tube} [201301] 
H03B 5/1841  . .  {the frequencydetermining element being a strip line resonator (H03B 5/1805, H03B 5/1817, H03B 5/1864 and H03B 5/1882 take precedence)} [201301] 
H03B 5/1847  . . .  {the active element in the amplifier being a semiconductor device} [201301] 
H03B 5/1858  . . .  {the active element in the amplifier being a vacuum tube (see provisionally also H03B 5/1835)} [201301] 
H03B 5/1864  . .  {the frequencydetermining element being a dielectric resonator} [201301] 
H03B 5/187  . . .  {the active element in the amplifier being a semiconductor device} [201301] 
H03B 5/1876  . . . .  {the semiconductor device being a fieldeffect device} [201301] 
H03B 5/1882  . .  {the frequencydetermining element being a magneticfield sensitive resonator, e.g. a Yttrium Iron Garnet or a magnetostatic surface wave resonator} [201301] 
H03B 5/1888  . . .  {the active element in the amplifier being a semiconductor device} [201301] 
H03B 5/1894  . . . .  {the semiconductor device being a fieldeffect device} [201301] 
H03B 5/20  .  with frequencydetermining element comprising resistance and either capacitance or inductance, e.g. phaseshift oscillator [201301] 
H03B 5/22  . . 
H03B 5/24  . . 
H03B 5/28  . . .  active element in amplifier being vacuum tube [201301] 
H03B 5/30  .  with frequencydetermining element being electromechanical resonator [201301] 
H03B 5/32  . . 
H03B 5/323  . . .  {the resonator having more than two terminals (H03B 5/326 takes precedence)} [201301] 
H03B 5/326  . . .  {the resonator being an acoustic wave device, e.g. SAW or BAW device} [201301] 
H03B 5/34  . . . 
H03B 5/36  . . .  active element in amplifier being semiconductor device ({H03B 5/323, H03B 5/326} , H03B 5/38 take precedence) [201301] 
H03B 5/362  . . . .  {the amplifier being a single transistor (H03B 5/364  H03B 5/368 take precedence)} [201605] 
H03B 5/364  . . . .  {the amplifier comprising field effect transistors (H03B 5/366 takes precedence)} [201301] 
H03B 5/366  . . . .  {and comprising means for varying the frequency by a variable voltage or current} [201301] 
H03B 5/38  . . .  frequencydetermining element being connected via bridge circuit to closed ring around which signal is transmitted [201301] 
H03B 5/40  . .  being a magnetostrictive resonator (H03B 5/42 takes precedence; selection of magnetostrictive material {H01F 1/00} ; H01L 41/00) [201301] 
H03B 5/42  . .  frequencydetermining element connected via bridge circuit to closed ring around which signal is transmitted [201301] 
H03B 7/00  Generation of oscillations using active element having a negative resistance between two of its electrodes (H03B 9/00 takes precedence) [201301] 
H03B 7/02  .  with frequencydetermining element comprising lumped inductance and capacitance [201301] 
H03B 7/04  . .  active element being vacuum tube [201301] 
H03B 7/06  . .  active element being semiconductor device [201301] 
H03B 7/10  . .  active element being gasdischarge or arcdischarge tube [201301] 
H03B 7/12  .  with frequencydetermining element comprising distributed inductance and capacitance [201301] 
H03B 9/00 
H03B 9/01  .  using discharge tubes [201301] 
H03B 9/02  . . 
H03B 9/04  . .  using a klystron [201301] 
H03B 9/06  . . .  using a reflex klystron [201301] 
H03B 9/08  . .  using a travellingwave tube [201301] 
H03B 9/10  . .  using a magnetron [201301] 
H03B 9/12  .  using solid state devices, e.g. Gunneffect devices [201301] 
H03B 2009/123  . .  {using Gunn diodes} [201301] 
H03B 2009/126  . .  {using impact ionization avalanche transit time [IMPATT] diodes} [201301] 
H03B 9/14  . .  and elements comprising distributed inductance and capacitance [201301] 
H03B 9/141  . . .  {and comprising a voltage sensitive element, e.g. varactor} [201301] 
H03B 9/142  . . .  {and comprising a magnetic field sensitive element, e.g. YIG} [201301] 
H03B 9/143  . . .  {using more than one solid state device} [201301] 
H03B 9/145  . . .  {the frequency being determined by a cavity resonator, e.g. a hollow waveguide cavity or a coaxial cavity (H03B 9/141  H03B 9/143, H03B 9/147, H03B 9/148 take precedence)} [201605] 
H03B 9/146  . . . .  {formed by a disc, e.g. a waveguide cap resonator} [201301] 
H03B 9/147  . . .  {the frequency being determined by a stripline resonator (H03B 9/141  H03B 9/143, H03B 9/148 take precedence)} [201605] 
H03B 9/148  . . .  {the frequency being determined by a dielectric resonator (H03B 9/141  H03B 9/143 take precedence)} [201605] 
H03B 11/00 
H03B 11/02  . 
H03B 11/04  .  excited by interrupter [201301] 
H03B 11/06  . .  by mechanical interrupter [201301] 
H03B 11/08  . .  interrupter being discharge tube [201301] 
H03B 11/10  . .  interrupter being semiconductor device [201301] 
H03B 13/00  Generation of oscillations using deflection of electron beam in a cathoderay tube [201301] 
H03B 15/00  Generation of oscillations using galvanomagnetic devices, e.g. Halleffect devices, or using superconductivity effects [201801] 
H03B 15/003  .  {using superconductivity effects (devices using superconductivity H01L 39/00)} [201301] 
H03B 15/006  .  {using spin transfer effects or giant magnetoresistance} [201301] 
H03B 17/00  Generation of oscillations using radiation source and detector, e.g. with interposed variable obturator [201301] 
H03B 19/00  Generation of oscillations by nonregenerative frequency multiplication or division of a signal from a separate source (transference of modulation from one carrier to another H03D 7/00) [201301] 
H03B 19/03  .  using nonlinear inductance [201301] 
H03B 19/05  .  using nonlinear capacitance, e.g. varactor diodes [201301] 
H03B 19/06  .  by means of discharge device or semiconductor device with more than two electrodes [201301] 
H03B 19/08  . .  by means of a discharge device [201301] 
H03B 19/10  . . .  using multiplication only [201301] 
H03B 19/12  . . .  using division only [201301] 
H03B 19/14  . .  by means of a semiconductor device [201301] 
H03B 19/16  .  using uncontrolled rectifying devices, e.g. rectifying diodes or Schottky diodes [201301] 
H03B 19/18  . .  and elements comprising distributed inductance and capacitance [201301] 
H03B 19/20  . .  being diodes exhibiting charge storage or enhancement effects [201301] 
H03B 21/00  Generation of oscillations by combining unmodulated signals of different frequencies (H03B 19/00 takes precedence; frequency changing circuits in general H03D) [201301] 
H03B 21/01  .  by beating unmodulated signals of different frequencies [201301] 
H03B 23/00  Generation of oscillations periodically swept over a predetermined frequency range (anglemodulating circuits in general H03C 3/00) [201301] 
H03B 25/00  Simultaneous generation by a freerunning oscillator of oscillations having different frequencies [201301] 
H03B 27/00  Generation of oscillations providing a plurality of outputs of the same frequency but differing in phase, other than merely two antiphase outputs [201301] 
H03B 28/00  Generation of oscillations by methods not covered by groups H03B 5/00  H03B 27/00, including modification of the waveform to produce sinusoidal oscillations (analogue function generators for performing computing operations G06G 7/26; use of transformers for conversion of waveform in acac converters H02M 5/18) [201605] 
H03B 29/00  Generation of noise currents and voltages {(gasfilled discharge tubes with solid cathode specially adapted as noise generators H01J 17/005)} [201301] 
H03B 2200/00  Indexing scheme relating to details of oscillators covered by H03B [201301] 
H03B 2200/0002  .  Types of oscillators [201301] 
H03B 2200/0004  . .  Butler oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2200/0006  . .  Clapp oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2200/0008  . .  Colpitts oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2200/001  . .  Hartley oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2200/0012  . .  Pierce oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2200/0014  .  Structural aspects of oscillators [201301] 
H03B 2200/0016  . .  including a ring, disk or loop shaped resonator [201301] 
H03B 2200/0018  . .  relating to the cutting angle of a crystal, e.g. AT cut quartz [201301] 
H03B 2200/002  . .  making use of ceramic material [201301] 
H03B 2200/0022  . .  characterised by the substrate, e.g. material [201301] 
H03B 2200/0024  . .  including parallel striplines [201301] 
H03B 2200/0026  . .  relating to the pins of integrated circuits [201301] 
H03B 2200/0028  . .  based on a monolithic microwave integrated circuit [MMIC] [201301] 
H03B 2200/003  .  Circuit elements of oscillators [201301] 
H03B 2200/0032  . .  including a device with a Schottky junction [201301] 
H03B 2200/0034  . .  including a buffer amplifier [201301] 
H03B 2200/0036  . .  including an emitter or source coupled transistor pair or a long tail pair [201301] 
H03B 2200/0038  . .  including a current mirror [201301] 
H03B 2200/004  . .  including a variable capacitance, e.g. a varicap, a varactor or a variable capacitance of a diode or transistor [201301] 
H03B 2200/0042  . . .  the capacitance diode being in the feedback path [201301] 
H03B 2200/0044  . .  including optical elements, e.g. optical injection locking [201608] 
H03B 2200/0046  . .  including measures to switch the gain of an amplifier [201301] 
H03B 2200/0048  . .  including measures to switch the frequency band, e.g. by harmonic selection [201301] 
H03B 2200/005  . .  including measures to switch a capacitor [201301] 
H03B 2200/0052  . .  including measures to switch the feedback circuit [201301] 
H03B 2200/0054  . .  including measures to switch a filter, e.g. for frequency tuning or for harmonic selection [201301] 
H03B 2200/0056  . .  including a diode used for switching [201301] 
H03B 2200/0058  . .  with particular transconductance characteristics, e.g. an operational transconductance amplifier [201301] 
H03B 2200/006  .  Functional aspects of oscillators [201301] 
H03B 2200/0062  . .  Bias and operating point [201301] 
H03B 2200/0064  . .  Pulse width, duty cycle or on/off ratio [201301] 
H03B 2200/0066  . .  Amplitude or AM detection [201301] 
H03B 2200/0068  . .  Frequency or FM detection [201301] 
H03B 2200/007  . .  Generation of oscillations based on harmonic frequencies, e.g. overtone oscillators [201301] 
H03B 2200/0072  . .  Frequency hopping and enabling of rapid frequency changes [201301] 
H03B 2200/0074  . .  Locking of an oscillator by injecting an input signal directly into the oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2200/0076  . .  Power combination of several oscillators oscillating at the same frequency [201301] 
H03B 2200/0078  . .  generating or using signals in quadrature [201301] 
H03B 2200/008  . .  making use of a reference frequency [201301] 
H03B 2200/0082  . .  Lowering the supply voltage and saving power [201301] 
H03B 2200/0084  . .  dedicated to Terahertz frequencies [201301] 
H03B 2200/0086  . .  relating to the Q factor or damping of the resonant circuit [201301] 
H03B 2200/0088  . .  Reduction of noise [201301] 
H03B 2200/009  . . .  Reduction of phase noise [201301] 
H03B 2200/0092  . .  Measures to linearise or reduce distortion of oscillator characteristics [201301] 
H03B 2200/0094  . .  Measures to ensure starting of oscillations [201301] 
H03B 2200/0096  . .  Measures to ensure stopping of oscillations [201301] 
H03B 2200/0098  . .  having a balanced output signal [201301] 
H03B 2201/00  Aspects of oscillators relating to varying the frequency of the oscillations [201301] 
H03B 2201/01  .  Varying the frequency of the oscillations by manual means [201301] 
H03B 2201/011  . .  the means being an element with a variable capacitance [201301] 
H03B 2201/012  . .  the means being an element with a variable inductance [201301] 
H03B 2201/014  . .  the means being associated with an element comprising distributed inductances and capacitances [201301] 
H03B 2201/015  . . .  the element being a cavity [201301] 
H03B 2201/017  . . .  the element being a dielectric resonator [201301] 
H03B 2201/018  . .  the means being a manual switch [201301] 
H03B 2201/02  .  Varying the frequency of the oscillations by electronic means [201301] 
H03B 2201/0208  . .  the means being an element with a variable capacitance, e.g. capacitance diode [201301] 
H03B 2201/0216  . .  the means being an element with a variable inductance [201301] 
H03B 2201/0225  . .  the means being associated with an element comprising distributed inductances and capacitances [201301] 
H03B 2201/0233  . . .  the element being a cavity [201301] 
H03B 2201/0241  . . .  the element being a magnetically variable element, e.g. an Yttrium Iron Garnet [201301] 
H03B 2201/025  . .  the means being an electronic switch for switching in or out oscillator elements [201301] 
H03B 2201/0258  . . .  the means comprising a diode [201301] 
H03B 2201/0266  . . .  the means comprising a transistor [201301] 
H03B 2201/0275  . .  the means delivering several selected voltages or currents [201301] 
H03B 2201/0283  . . .  the means functioning digitally [201301] 
H03B 2201/0291  . . . .  and being controlled by a processing device, e.g. a microprocessor [201301] 
H03B 2201/03  .  Varying beside the frequency also another parameter of the oscillator in dependence on the frequency [201301] 
H03B 2201/031  . .  the parameter being the amplitude of a signal, e.g. maintaining a constant output amplitude over the frequency range [201301] 
H03B 2201/033  . .  the parameter being the amount of feedback [201301] 
H03B 2201/035  . .  the parameter being another frequency, e.g. a harmonic of the oscillating frequency [201301] 
H03B 2201/036  . .  the parameter being the quality factor of a resonator [201301] 
H03B 2201/038  . .  the parameter being a bias voltage or a power supply [201301] 
H03B 2202/00  Aspects of oscillators relating to reduction of undesired oscillations [201301] 
H03B 2202/01  .  Reduction of undesired oscillations originated from distortion in one of the circuit elements of the oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2202/012  . .  the circuit element being the active device [201301] 
H03B 2202/015  . .  the circuit element being a limiter [201301] 
H03B 2202/017  . .  the circuit element being a frequency determining element [201301] 
H03B 2202/02  .  Reduction of undesired oscillations originated from natural noise of the circuit elements of the oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2202/022  . .  the noise being essentially white noise, i.e. frequency independent noise [201301] 
H03B 2202/025  . .  the noise being coloured noise, i.e. frequency dependent noise [201301] 
H03B 2202/027  . . .  the noise being essentially proportional to the inverse of the frequency, i.e. the socalled 1/f noise [201301] 
H03B 2202/03  .  Reduction of undesired oscillations originated from internal parasitic couplings, i.e. parasitic couplings within the oscillator itself [201301] 
H03B 2202/04  .  Reduction of undesired oscillations originated from outside noise or interferences, e.g. from parasitic couplings with circuit elements outside the oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2202/042  . .  the circuit element belonging to the power supply [201301] 
H03B 2202/044  . .  the circuit element belonging to transmitter circuitry [201301] 
H03B 2202/046  . .  the circuit element belonging to receiver circuitry [201301] 
H03B 2202/048  . .  the circuit element being a frequency divider [201301] 
H03B 2202/05  .  Reduction of undesired oscillations through filtering or through special resonator characteristics [201301] 
H03B 2202/06  .  Reduction of undesired oscillations through modification of a bias voltage, e.g. selecting the operation point of an active device [201301] 
H03B 2202/07  .  Reduction of undesired oscillations through a cancelling of the undesired oscillation [201301] 
H03B 2202/073  . .  by modifying the internal feedback of the oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2202/076  . .  by using a feedback loop external to the oscillator, e.g. the socalled noise degeneration [201301] 
H03B 2202/08  .  Reduction of undesired oscillations originated from the oscillator in circuit elements external to the oscillator by means associated with the oscillator [201301] 
H03B 2202/082  . .  by avoiding coupling between these circuit elements [201301] 
H03B 2202/084  . . .  through shielding [201301] 
H03B 2202/086  . . .  through a frequency dependent coupling, e.g. which attenuates a certain frequency range [201301] 
H03B 2202/088  . .  by compensating through additional couplings with these circuit elements [201301] 