Cooperative Patent Classification

Indent Level

Version: 2016.11
CPC
COOPERATIVE PATENT CLASSIFICATION
H03B
GENERATION OF OSCILLATIONS, DIRECTLY OR BY FREQUENCY-CHANGING, BY CIRCUITS EMPLOYING ACTIVE ELEMENTS WHICH OPERATE IN A NON-SWITCHING MANNER; GENERATION OF NOISE BY SUCH CIRCUITS (measuring, testing G01R; generators adapted for electrophonic musical instruments G10H; Speech synthesis G10L; masers, lasers H01S; dynamo-electric machines H02K; power inverter circuits H02M; by using pulse techniques H03K; automatic control of generators H03L; starting, synchronisation or stabilisation of generators where the type of generator is irrelevant or unspecified H03L; generation of oscillations in plasma H05H) [2013-01]
H03B 1/00
Details [2013-01]
H03B 1/02
.
Structural details of power oscillators, e.g. for heating {(construction of transmitters H04B; features of generators for heating by electromagnetic fields H05B 6/00)} [2013-01]
H03B 1/04
.
Reducing undesired oscillations, e.g. harmonics [2013-01]
H03B 5/00
Generation of oscillations using amplifier with regenerative feedback from output to input (H03B 9/00, H03B 15/00 take precedence) [2013-01]
H03B 5/02
.
Details [2013-01]
H03B 5/04
. .
Modifications of generator to compensate for variations in physical values, e.g. power supply, load, temperature [2013-01]
H03B 5/06
. .
Modifications of generator to ensure starting of oscillations [2013-01]
H03B 5/08
.
with frequency-determining element comprising lumped inductance and capacitance [2013-01]
H03B 5/10
. .
active element in amplifier being vacuum tube (H03B 5/14 takes precedence) [2013-01]
H03B 5/12
. .
active element in amplifier being semiconductor device (H03B 5/14 takes precedence) [2016-05]
WARNING

H03B 5/1203
. . .
{the amplifier being a single transistor} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1206
. . .
{using multiple transistors for amplification} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1209
. . . .
{the amplifier having two current paths operating in a differential manner and a current source or degeneration circuit in common to both paths, e.g. a long-tailed pair. (H03B 5/1215 takes precedence)} [2016-08]
H03B 5/1212
. . . .
{the amplifier comprising a pair of transistors, wherein an output terminal of each being connected to an input terminal of the other, e.g. a cross coupled pair} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1215
. . . . .
{the current source or degeneration circuit being in common to both transistors of the pair, e.g. a cross-coupled long-tailed pair} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1218
. . . .
{the generator being of the balanced type} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1221
. . . .
{the amplifier comprising multiple amplification stages connected in cascade} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1225
. . . .
{the generator comprising multiple amplifiers connected in parallel} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1228
. . .
{the amplifier comprising one or more field effect transistors} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1231
. . .
{the amplifier comprising one or more bipolar transistors} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1234
. . .
{and comprising means for varying the output amplitude of the generator (H03B 5/1278 takes precedence)} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1237
. . .
{comprising means for varying the frequency of the generator} [2013-01]
H03B 5/124
. . . .
{the means comprising a voltage dependent capacitance} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1243
. . . . .
{the means comprising voltage variable capacitance diodes} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1246
. . . . .
{the means comprising transistors used to provide a variable capacitance} [2013-01]
H03B 5/125
. . . . . .
{the transistors being bipolar transistors} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1253
. . . . . .
{the transistors being field-effect transistors} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1256
. . . .
{the means comprising a variable inductance} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1259
. . . . .
{the means comprising a variable active inductor, e.g. gyrator circuits} [2016-08]
H03B 5/1262
. . . .
{the means comprising switched elements} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1265
. . . . .
{switched capacitors} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1268
. . . . .
{switched inductors} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1271
. . . .
{the frequency being controlled by a control current, i.e. current controlled oscillators} [2016-08]
H03B 5/1275
. . . .
{having further means for varying a parameter in dependence on the frequency} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1278
. . . . .
{the parameter being an amplitude of a signal, e.g. maintaining a constant output amplitude over the frequency range} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1281
. . . . .
{the parameter being the amount of feedback} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1284
. . . . .
{the parameter being another frequency, e.g. a harmonic of the oscillating frequency} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1287
. . . . .
{the parameter being a quality factor, e.g. Q factor of the frequency determining element} [2013-01]
H03B 5/129
. . . . .
{the parameter being a bias voltage or a power supply} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1293
. . . .
{having means for achieving a desired tuning characteristic, e.g. linearising the frequency characteristic across the tuning voltage range} [2016-08]
H03B 5/1296
. . .
{the feedback circuit comprising a transformer} [2013-01]
H03B 5/14
. .
frequency-determining element connected via bridge circuit to closed ring around which signal is transmitted [2013-01]
H03B 5/16
. . .
active element in amplifier being vacuum tube [2013-01]
H03B 5/18
.
with frequency-determining element comprising distributed inductance and capacitance [2013-01]
H03B 5/1805
. .
{the frequency-determining element being a coaxial resonator} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1811
. . .
{the active element in the amplifier being a vacuum tube (see provisionally also H03B 5/1835)} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1817
. .
{the frequency-determining element being a cavity resonator} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1823
. . .
{the active element in the amplifier being a semiconductor device} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1829
. . . .
{the semiconductor device being a field-effect device} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1835
. . .
{the active element in the amplifier being a vacuum tube} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1841
. .
{the frequency-determining element being a strip line resonator (H03B 5/1805, H03B 5/1817, H03B 5/1864 and H03B 5/1882 take precedence)} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1847
. . .
{the active element in the amplifier being a semiconductor device} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1852
. . . .
{the semiconductor device being a field-effect device} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1858
. . .
{the active element in the amplifier being a vacuum tube (see provisionally also H03B 5/1835)} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1864
. .
{the frequency-determining element being a dielectric resonator} [2013-01]
H03B 5/187
. . .
{the active element in the amplifier being a semiconductor device} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1876
. . . .
{the semiconductor device being a field-effect device} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1882
. .
{the frequency-determining element being a magnetic-field sensitive resonator, e.g. a Yttrium Iron Garnet or a magnetostatic surface wave resonator} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1888
. . .
{the active element in the amplifier being a semiconductor device} [2013-01]
H03B 5/1894
. . . .
{the semiconductor device being a field-effect device} [2013-01]
H03B 5/20
.
with frequency-determining element comprising resistance and either capacitance or inductance, e.g. phase-shift oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 5/22
. .
active element in amplifier being vacuum tube (H03B 5/26 takes precedence) [2013-01]
H03B 5/24
. .
active element in amplifier being semiconductor device (H03B 5/26 takes precedence) [2013-01]
H03B 5/26
. .
frequency-determining element being part of bridge circuit in closed ring around which signal is transmitted; frequency-determining element being connected via a bridge circuit to such a closed ring, e.g. Wien-Bridge oscillator, parallel-T oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 5/28
. . .
active element in amplifier being vacuum tube [2013-01]
H03B 5/30
.
with frequency-determining element being electromechanical resonator [2013-01]
H03B 5/32
. .
being a piezo-electric resonator (selection of piezo-electric material H01L 41/00) [2013-01]
H03B 5/323
. . .
{the resonator having more than two terminals (H03B 5/326 takes precedence)} [2013-01]
H03B 5/326
. . .
{the resonator being an acoustic wave device, e.g. SAW or BAW device} [2013-01]
H03B 5/34
. . .
active element in amplifier being vacuum tube (H03B 5/38 takes precedence) [2013-01]
H03B 5/36
. . .
active element in amplifier being semiconductor device ({H03B 5/323, H03B 5/326 } , H03B 5/38 take precedence) [2013-01]
H03B 5/362
. . . .
{the amplifier being a single transistor (H03B 5/364 - H03B 5/368 take precedence)} [2016-05]
H03B 5/364
. . . .
{the amplifier comprising field effect transistors (H03B 5/366 takes precedence)} [2013-01]
H03B 5/366
. . . .
{and comprising means for varying the frequency by a variable voltage or current} [2013-01]
H03B 5/368
. . . . .
{the means being voltage variable capacitance diodes} [2013-01]
H03B 5/38
. . .
frequency-determining element being connected via bridge circuit to closed ring around which signal is transmitted [2013-01]
H03B 5/40
. .
being a magnetostrictive resonator (H03B 5/42 takes precedence; selection of magneto-strictive material {H01F 1/00 } ; H01L 41/00) [2013-01]
H03B 5/42
. .
frequency-determining element connected via bridge circuit to closed ring around which signal is transmitted [2013-01]
H03B 7/00
Generation of oscillations using active element having a negative resistance between two of its electrodes (H03B 9/00 takes precedence) [2013-01]
H03B 7/02
.
with frequency-determining element comprising lumped inductance and capacitance [2013-01]
H03B 7/04
. .
active element being vacuum tube [2013-01]
H03B 7/06
. .
active element being semiconductor device [2013-01]
H03B 7/08
. . .
being a tunnel diode [2013-01]
H03B 7/10
. .
active element being gas-discharge or arc-discharge tube [2013-01]
H03B 7/12
.
with frequency-determining element comprising distributed inductance and capacitance [2013-01]
H03B 7/14
. .
active element being semiconductor device [2013-01]
H03B 7/143
. . .
{and which comprises an element depending on a voltage or a magnetic field, e.g. varactor- YIG} [2013-01]
H03B 7/146
. . .
{with several semiconductor devices} [2013-01]
H03B 9/00
Generation of oscillations using transit-time effects {(construction of tube and circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application H01J; construction of the semiconductor devices H01L)} [2013-01]
H03B 9/01
.
using discharge tubes [2013-01]
H03B 9/02
. .
using a retarding-field tube (using klystrons H03B 9/04) [2013-01]
H03B 9/04
. .
using a klystron [2013-01]
H03B 9/06
. . .
using a reflex klystron [2013-01]
H03B 9/08
. .
using a travelling-wave tube [2013-01]
H03B 9/10
. .
using a magnetron [2013-01]
H03B 9/12
.
using solid state devices, e.g. Gunn-effect devices [2013-01]
H03B 2009/123
. .
{using Gunn diodes} [2013-01]
H03B 2009/126
. .
{using impact ionization avalanche transit time [IMPATT] diodes} [2013-01]
H03B 9/14
. .
and elements comprising distributed inductance and capacitance [2013-01]
H03B 9/141
. . .
{and comprising a voltage sensitive element, e.g. varactor} [2013-01]
H03B 9/142
. . .
{and comprising a magnetic field sensitive element, e.g. YIG} [2013-01]
H03B 9/143
. . .
{using more than one solid state device} [2013-01]
H03B 9/145
. . .
{the frequency being determined by a cavity resonator, e.g. a hollow waveguide cavity or a coaxial cavity (H03B 9/141 - H03B 9/143, H03B 9/147, H03B 9/148 take precedence)} [2016-05]
H03B 9/146
. . . .
{formed by a disc, e.g. a waveguide cap resonator} [2013-01]
H03B 9/147
. . .
{the frequency being determined by a stripline resonator (H03B 9/141 - H03B 9/143, H03B 9/148 take precedence)} [2016-05]
H03B 9/148
. . .
{the frequency being determined by a dielectric resonator (H03B 9/141 - H03B 9/143 take precedence)} [2016-05]
H03B 11/00
Generation of oscillations using a shock-excited tuned circuit (with feedback H03B 5/00) [2013-01]
H03B 11/02
.
excited by spark (spark gaps therefor H01T 9/00) [2013-01]
H03B 11/04
.
excited by interrupter [2013-01]
H03B 11/06
. .
by mechanical interrupter [2013-01]
H03B 11/08
. .
interrupter being discharge tube [2013-01]
H03B 11/10
. .
interrupter being semiconductor device [2013-01]
H03B 13/00
Generation of oscillations using deflection of electron beam in a cathode-ray tube [2013-01]
H03B 15/00
Generation of oscillations using galvano-magnetic devices, e.g. Hall-effect devices, or using super-conductivity effects (galvano-magnetic devices per se H01L 43/00) [2013-01]
H03B 15/003
.
{using superconductivity effects (devices using superconductivity H01L 39/00)} [2013-01]
H03B 15/006
.
{using spin transfer effects or giant magnetoresistance} [2013-01]
H03B 17/00
Generation of oscillations using radiation source and detector, e.g. with interposed variable obturator [2013-01]
H03B 19/00
Generation of oscillations by non-regenerative frequency multiplication or division of a signal from a separate source (transference of modulation from one carrier to another H03D 7/00) [2013-01]
H03B 19/03
.
using non-linear inductance [2013-01]
H03B 19/05
.
using non-linear capacitance, e.g. varactor diodes [2013-01]
H03B 19/06
.
by means of discharge device or semiconductor device with more than two electrodes [2013-01]
H03B 19/08
. .
by means of a discharge device [2013-01]
H03B 19/10
. . .
using multiplication only [2013-01]
H03B 19/12
. . .
using division only [2013-01]
H03B 19/14
. .
by means of a semiconductor device [2013-01]
H03B 19/16
.
using uncontrolled rectifying devices, e.g. rectifying diodes or Schottky diodes [2013-01]
H03B 19/18
. .
and elements comprising distributed inductance and capacitance [2013-01]
H03B 19/20
. .
being diodes exhibiting charge storage or enhancement effects [2013-01]
H03B 21/00
Generation of oscillations by combining unmodulated signals of different frequencies (H03B 19/00 takes precedence; frequency changing circuits in general H03D) [2013-01]
H03B 21/01
.
by beating unmodulated signals of different frequencies [2013-01]
H03B 21/02
. .
by plural beating, i.e. for frequency synthesis; {Beating in combination with multiplication or division of frequency (digital frequency synthesis using a ROM G06F 1/02; digital frequency synthesis in general H03K; indirect frequency synthesis using a PLL H03L 7/16)} [2013-01]
H03B 21/025
. . .
{by repeated mixing in combination with division of frequency only} [2013-01]
H03B 21/04
. .
using several similar stages [2014-02]
H03B 23/00
Generation of oscillations periodically swept over a predetermined frequency range (angle-modulating circuits in general H03C 3/00) [2013-01]
H03B 25/00
Simultaneous generation by a free-running oscillator of oscillations having different frequencies [2013-01]
H03B 27/00
Generation of oscillations providing a plurality of outputs of the same frequency but differing in phase, other than merely two anti-phase outputs [2013-01]
H03B 28/00
Generation of oscillations by methods not covered by groups H03B 5/00 - H03B 27/00, including modification of the waveform to produce sinusoidal oscillations (analogue function generators for performing computing operations G06G 7/26; use of transformers for conversion of waveform in ac-ac converters H02M 5/18) [2016-05]
H03B 29/00
Generation of noise currents and voltages {(gasfilled discharge tubes with solid cathode specially adapted as noise generators H01J 17/005)} [2013-01]
H03B 2200/00
Indexing scheme relating to details of oscillators covered by H03B [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0002
.
Types of oscillators [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0004
. .
Butler oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0006
. .
Clapp oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0008
. .
Colpitts oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2200/001
. .
Hartley oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0012
. .
Pierce oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0014
.
Structural aspects of oscillators [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0016
. .
including a ring, disk or loop shaped resonator [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0018
. .
relating to the cutting angle of a crystal, e.g. AT cut quartz [2013-01]
H03B 2200/002
. .
making use of ceramic material [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0022
. .
characterised by the substrate, e.g. material [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0024
. .
including parallel striplines [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0026
. .
relating to the pins of integrated circuits [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0028
. .
based on a monolithic microwave integrated circuit [MMIC] [2013-01]
H03B 2200/003
.
Circuit elements of oscillators [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0032
. .
including a device with a Schottky junction [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0034
. .
including a buffer amplifier [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0036
. .
including an emitter or source coupled transistor pair or a long tail pair [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0038
. .
including a current mirror [2013-01]
H03B 2200/004
. .
including a variable capacitance, e.g. a varicap, a varactor or a variable capacitance of a diode or transistor [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0042
. . .
the capacitance diode being in the feedback path [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0044
. .
including optical elements, e.g. optical injection locking [2016-08]
H03B 2200/0046
. .
including measures to switch the gain of an amplifier [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0048
. .
including measures to switch the frequency band, e.g. by harmonic selection [2013-01]
H03B 2200/005
. .
including measures to switch a capacitor [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0052
. .
including measures to switch the feedback circuit [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0054
. .
including measures to switch a filter, e.g. for frequency tuning or for harmonic selection [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0056
. .
including a diode used for switching [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0058
. .
with particular transconductance characteristics, e.g. an operational transconductance amplifier [2013-01]
H03B 2200/006
.
Functional aspects of oscillators [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0062
. .
Bias and operating point [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0064
. .
Pulse width, duty cycle or on/off ratio [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0066
. .
Amplitude or AM detection [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0068
. .
Frequency or FM detection [2013-01]
H03B 2200/007
. .
Generation of oscillations based on harmonic frequencies, e.g. overtone oscillators [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0072
. .
Frequency hopping and enabling of rapid frequency changes [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0074
. .
Locking of an oscillator by injecting an input signal directly into the oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0076
. .
Power combination of several oscillators oscillating at the same frequency [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0078
. .
generating or using signals in quadrature [2013-01]
H03B 2200/008
. .
making use of a reference frequency [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0082
. .
Lowering the supply voltage and saving power [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0084
. .
dedicated to Terahertz frequencies [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0086
. .
relating to the Q factor or damping of the resonant circuit [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0088
. .
Reduction of noise [2013-01]
H03B 2200/009
. . .
Reduction of phase noise [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0092
. .
Measures to linearise or reduce distortion of oscillator characteristics [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0094
. .
Measures to ensure starting of oscillations [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0096
. .
Measures to ensure stopping of oscillations [2013-01]
H03B 2200/0098
. .
having a balanced output signal [2013-01]
H03B 2201/00
Aspects of oscillators relating to varying the frequency of the oscillations [2013-01]
H03B 2201/01
.
Varying the frequency of the oscillations by manual means [2013-01]
H03B 2201/011
. .
the means being an element with a variable capacitance [2013-01]
H03B 2201/012
. .
the means being an element with a variable inductance [2013-01]
H03B 2201/014
. .
the means being associated with an element comprising distributed inductances and capacitances [2013-01]
H03B 2201/015
. . .
the element being a cavity [2013-01]
H03B 2201/017
. . .
the element being a dielectric resonator [2013-01]
H03B 2201/018
. .
the means being a manual switch [2013-01]
H03B 2201/02
.
Varying the frequency of the oscillations by electronic means [2013-01]
H03B 2201/0208
. .
the means being an element with a variable capacitance, e.g. capacitance diode [2013-01]
H03B 2201/0216
. .
the means being an element with a variable inductance [2013-01]
H03B 2201/0225
. .
the means being associated with an element comprising distributed inductances and capacitances [2013-01]
H03B 2201/0233
. . .
the element being a cavity [2013-01]
H03B 2201/0241
. . .
the element being a magnetically variable element, e.g. an Yttrium Iron Garnet [2013-01]
H03B 2201/025
. .
the means being an electronic switch for switching in or out oscillator elements [2013-01]
H03B 2201/0258
. . .
the means comprising a diode [2013-01]
H03B 2201/0266
. . .
the means comprising a transistor [2013-01]
H03B 2201/0275
. .
the means delivering several selected voltages or currents [2013-01]
H03B 2201/0283
. . .
the means functioning digitally [2013-01]
H03B 2201/0291
. . . .
and being controlled by a processing device, e.g. a microprocessor [2013-01]
H03B 2201/03
.
Varying beside the frequency also another parameter of the oscillator in dependence on the frequency [2013-01]
H03B 2201/031
. .
the parameter being the amplitude of a signal, e.g. maintaining a constant output amplitude over the frequency range [2013-01]
H03B 2201/033
. .
the parameter being the amount of feedback [2013-01]
H03B 2201/035
. .
the parameter being another frequency, e.g. a harmonic of the oscillating frequency [2013-01]
H03B 2201/036
. .
the parameter being the quality factor of a resonator [2013-01]
H03B 2201/038
. .
the parameter being a bias voltage or a power supply [2013-01]
H03B 2202/00
Aspects of oscillators relating to reduction of undesired oscillations [2013-01]
H03B 2202/01
.
Reduction of undesired oscillations originated from distortion in one of the circuit elements of the oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2202/012
. .
the circuit element being the active device [2013-01]
H03B 2202/015
. .
the circuit element being a limiter [2013-01]
H03B 2202/017
. .
the circuit element being a frequency determining element [2013-01]
H03B 2202/02
.
Reduction of undesired oscillations originated from natural noise of the circuit elements of the oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2202/022
. .
the noise being essentially white noise, i.e. frequency independent noise [2013-01]
H03B 2202/025
. .
the noise being coloured noise, i.e. frequency dependent noise [2013-01]
H03B 2202/027
. . .
the noise being essentially proportional to the inverse of the frequency, i.e. the so-called 1/f noise [2013-01]
H03B 2202/03
.
Reduction of undesired oscillations originated from internal parasitic couplings, i.e. parasitic couplings within the oscillator itself [2013-01]
H03B 2202/04
.
Reduction of undesired oscillations originated from outside noise or interferences, e.g. from parasitic couplings with circuit elements outside the oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2202/042
. .
the circuit element belonging to the power supply [2013-01]
H03B 2202/044
. .
the circuit element belonging to transmitter circuitry [2013-01]
H03B 2202/046
. .
the circuit element belonging to receiver circuitry [2013-01]
H03B 2202/048
. .
the circuit element being a frequency divider [2013-01]
H03B 2202/05
.
Reduction of undesired oscillations through filtering or through special resonator characteristics [2013-01]
H03B 2202/06
.
Reduction of undesired oscillations through modification of a bias voltage, e.g. selecting the operation point of an active device [2013-01]
H03B 2202/07
.
Reduction of undesired oscillations through a cancelling of the undesired oscillation [2013-01]
H03B 2202/073
. .
by modifying the internal feedback of the oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2202/076
. .
by using a feedback loop external to the oscillator, e.g. the so-called noise degeneration [2013-01]
H03B 2202/08
.
Reduction of undesired oscillations originated from the oscillator in circuit elements external to the oscillator by means associated with the oscillator [2013-01]
H03B 2202/082
. .
by avoiding coupling between these circuit elements [2013-01]
H03B 2202/084
. . .
through shielding [2013-01]
H03B 2202/086
. . .
through a frequency dependent coupling, e.g. which attenuates a certain frequency range [2013-01]
H03B 2202/088
. .
by compensating through additional couplings with these circuit elements [2013-01]