Cooperative Patent Classification

CPC Definition - Subclass B23Q

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Last Updated Version: 2016.11
DETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING (tools of the kind used in lathes or boring machines B23B 27/00); MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
Definition statement

This place covers:

General components that are used in any kind of machine tool, such as machine beds, feeding devices, workpiece holding means, workpiece conveying means, tool changing means, chip evacuating means, etc...

Machine configurations combining different kinds of machining operations, such as drilling, milling, turning, or cutting, e.g. sawing.

Relationships with other classification places

In the subclass B23Q, a machine tool is considered to be a mechanical working machine that removes material from a workpiece with a mechanical cutting edge to perform a shaping operation, essentially through drilling, milling, turning, or cutting, e.g. sawing.

B23Q is in general related to machine tools in the sense of the wording as being referred to above, not related to a particular result. There are, however, subclasses that are specially dedicated to specific machining techniques and their corresponding equipment or methods. Classification is done in the specific subclasses and not in B23Q, if the process or apparatus is fully covered in said specific subclasses.

B21 deals with mechanical working of metal without removing material.

B23B is the subclass for machines or components dedicated to turning or boring operations. In particular, group B23B 31/00 relates to chucks and group B23B 27/00 to tools for turning or boring machines. B23C is the subclass for milling, B23D for slotting or sawing, B23F for making gears, B23G for thread cutting, B23H for electro discharge machining, B23K for welding, B24 for grinding or polishing.

B25B relates to clamps, vices or chucks as such, with no special relation to a specific configuration of a machine tool. B25J deals with manipulators.

The subclasses B25C, B25D, B25F deal with portable power driven tools. B25H refers to workshop equipment, e.g. work benches. Subclass B26D relates to cutting and severing, B26F to perforating and punching.

Transport or storage devices not used in particular handling or treatment are covered by B65G.

F16 is a general class of mechanical components (such as linear guides and bearings) that are used in machine tools, as well as in other technical fields.

Group G05B 19/00 covers program control systems.

H01L 21/67 covers apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices, e.g. wafers, during manufacture or treatment thereof.

As guidance for finding the appropriate subclass, reference is made to the following flow chart:

media2.png

The preceding image includes references to B25B, B25C, B25D, B25F, B25J, B65G, F16C, B23Q, B21D, B23K, B23B, B23C, B23D, B25H, B26D, B26F, G05B, and H01L.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Tools of the kind used in lathes or boring machines

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Machine tool

a mechanical working machine that removes material from a workpiece with a mechanical cutting edge to perform a shaping operation essentially through drilling, milling, turning, or cutting, e.g. sawing. The workpiece is generally made of metal, wood or plastic and is not a human body, food or cloth.

Controlling

influencing a variable in any way, e.g. changing its direction or its value (including changing it to or from zero), maintaining it constant, limiting its range of variation

Regulation

maintaining a variable automatically at a desired value or within a desired range of values. The desired value or range may be fixed, or manually varied, or may vary with time according to a predetermined "programme" or according to variation of another variable. Regulation is a form of control

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following words/expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • "automatic control" and" regulation"
Members which are comprised in the general build-up of a form of machine, particularly relatively large fixed members (B23Q 37/00 takes precedence {; positioning supports for measuring arrangements G01B 5/0004; motorised alignment for optical elements G02B 7/005; handling of mask or wafer G03F 7/70691; adjusting or compensating devices for optical apparatuses G12B 5/00; piezoelectric or electrostrictive positioners H01L 41/09})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Features relating to the transfer of energy (mechanical, hydraulic or pneumatic) or signals in the machine tool.

Features relating to the bed or frame of the machine tool, spatial disposition of the linear guides, degrees of freedom of the tool or workpiece.

Features of the structure supporting the workpiece.

Means for guiding or stopping the movement of slides or spindles carrying the tool or the workpiece.

Relationships with other classification places

The groups B23Q 1/48 - B23Q 1/62 do not cover parallel kinematic structures as such, without special application in a machine tool, which is covered by B25J 9/00, B25J 17/00.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Members which are comprised in the general build-up of a form of machine, whereby said machine is a metal-working machines, or constructional combinations thereof, built-up from units designed so that at least some of the units can form parts of different machines or combinations

Positioning supports for measuring arrangements

Motorised alignment for optical elements

Handling of mask or wafer

Adjusting or compensating devices for optical apparatuses

Piezoelectric or electrostrictive positioners

Special rules of classification

The following table summarises the content of the groups, wherein

P means a purely translational movement along an axis (Prismatic)

R means a purely rotational movement around an axis

A means a perpendicular relationship between two consecutive moving axes

E means a parallel relationship between two consecutive moving axes

I means a 45° inclination between two consecutive moving axes

O means other relative orientation between two consecutive moving axes.

The machines are classed according to their axis configuration, starting from the bed (fixed portion) and going towards the last moving portion (usually the tool or the workpiece, or a spindle or a supporting surface for a workpiece).

The rotation of the cutting tool in the spindle (milling, drilling, etc.) is not considered here as a rotational movement R.

To illustrate the meaning of the symbols P, R, A, E, the drawings below indicate the relation between the symbol(s) and the actual movement:

Group

Content (Comments)

R and P

RAP

RAPAR

RAPER

RAPAP

RAPEP

REP

REPAR

REPER

REPER

REPEP

PAR

PARAR

PARER

PARAP

PAREP

PER

PERAR

PERER

PERAP

PEREP

R and R

R

R’ (Rotation axis is perpendicular to the supporting surface)

R’’ (Rotation axis is parallel to the supporting surface)

R’’’ ( Using a ring or tube structure where the workpiece is fixed coaxially to its rotating axis.Related group for welding: B23K 37/0452)

ROR,RIR

RAR

RARAR

RARER

RARAP

RAREP

RAR' (The last rotation of the supporting surface is perpendicular to the surface on which the last rotation is mounted to)

RAR'' (The last rotation of the supporting surface is parallel to the surface on which the last rotation is mounted to)

R and R w. spherical joint (At least 2 degrees of freedom in rotation, using a spherical surface joint)

joint and additional rotation ( - Parallel kinematic structures, using spherical surface joints or other kind of joints, where the movement is induced by a rotating element (EP1529597).- Structures using a spherical surface joint, and comprising an additional dof in rotation (US1,927,675))

joint and additional translation ( - Parallel kinematic structures, using spherical surface joints or other kind of joints, where the movement is induced by a sliding/translating element (WO2005/120780) or by a telescopic element (WO2006/054935).- Structures using a spherical surface joint, and comprising an additional dof in translation (US5,544,968)).

RER

REREAR

RERER

RERAP

REREP

P and P

P

P' (Translation perpendicular to the working/supporting surface)

POP,PIP

PEP

PEPAR

PEPER

PEPAP

PEPEP

PAP (Use this group when the perpendicular axes are not piled, that is that both axes are at a same level (not one on top of the other; JP3234488))

PAP

PAPAR

PAPER

PAPAP

PAPEP

Further details of subgroups:

Means for adjusting height or inclination of the machine on the floor or on a support surface.

Means for clamping pallets or similar exchangeable parts in a fixed place on the machine, usually engaging a male and a female part (e.g. "quick clamping cylinder").

Special features of the frame, the bed, the portal of the machine, or the arrangement of the ways (linear guides) on the machine.

Machines where a portal, bridge or gantry is an important feature are classified in B23Q 1/012.

Inventions concerning the kinematical structure of the machine tool: how the movement is guided, number and relative arrangement of the axes.

Inventions relating to the extension of a tool holder or a tool.

{Energy-transferring means or control lines for movable machine parts; Control panels or boxes; Control parts (control handles for driving or feeding mechanisms B23Q 5/54)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Means for transferring energy (electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic) or signals through moving parts of the machine.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Devices for coolant flowing through the spindle

Rotary joints for coolant through the spindle

Stationary work or tool supports (B23Q 1/70 takes precedence; auxiliary tables B23Q 1/74; tailstocks B23B 23/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mostly workpiece supports for specially shaped workpieces (large or flexible) or variety of workpiece shapes or special cutting applications requiring special features of the workpiece support.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Vices composed of a plurality of parts adapting to the shape of the workpiece

Holders for printed circuit boards

with sliding pairs and rotating pairs (B23Q 1/46 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Movable or adjustable work or tool supports with sliding pairs and rotating pairs, whereby particular mechanisms with screw pairs are being used

Special rules of classification

See table provided under B23Q 1/00 for summary of kinematic connections

with rotating pairs only, {the rotating pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism}
Special rules of classification

See table provided under B23Q 1/00 for summary of kinematic connections.

with sliding pairs only, {the sliding pairs being the first two elements of the mechanism}
Special rules of classification

See table provided under B23Q 1/00 for summary of kinematic connections.

Stationary or movable members for carrying working-spindles for attachment of tools or work {(B23Q 1/01 takes precedence; designed to be moved by using particular mechanisms B23Q 1/44)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Inventions relating to the bearings configuration or the housing of a working spindle.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Grinding spindles with magnetic or electromagnetic bearings

General features relating to bearings or other spindles

Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine (work-tables or other parts, e.g. faceplates, normally not incorporating means for securing work B23Q 1/00; automatic position control B23Q 15/00 {; food cutting boards A47J 47/00; workpiece support for dies B21D 37/02}; rotary tool heads for turning-machines B23B 3/24, B23B 3/26; non-driven tool holders B23B 29/00; general features of turrets B23B 29/24 {; drawbars in spindles B23B 31/261; for electrical discharge machining B23H 11/003; for welding B23K 37/04; means for securing grinding wheels B24B 45/00; mountings for abrasive wheels B24D 5/16}; tools or bench devices for fastening, connecting, disengaging or holding B25B {; chucks for percussive tools B25D 17/084; work benches for manual work B25H 1/00; devices for securing circular saw blades B27B 5/32; for assembling or manufacturing aircrafts B64F 5/0009; for holding semiconductors or wafers H01L 21/67; devices for holding circuit boards H05K 13/0061})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Guides or fences for guiding the movement of workpieces (B23Q 3/005).

Devices for tightly holding a workpiece on a table or support in order to machine it (B23Q 3/06 - B23Q 3/08).

Any holding, supporting or positioning device for a workpiece, directed to the machining of the workpiece.

Arrangements for the automatic insertion or removal of a cutting tool from the spindle or tool holder of the machine tool (B23Q 3/155).

Arrangements for replacing, inserting or removing multi-spindle head modules:

media1.png

Illustrative document B23Q 2003/1558

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Work-tables or other parts, e.g. faceplates, normally not incorporating means for securing work

Automatic position control

Food cutting boards

Workpiece support for dies

Rotary tool heads for turning-machines

Non-driven tool holders

General features of turrets

Drawbars in spindles

For electrical discharge machining

For welding

Means for securing grinding wheels

Mountings for abrasive wheels

Clamps, vices or chucks as such, with no special relation to a specific configuration of a machine tool.

Chucks for percusive tools

Work benches for manual work

Devices for securing circular saw blades

For assembling or manufacturing aircrafts

For holding semiconductors or wafers

Devices for holding circuit boards

Special rules of classification

While the classes B23Q 3/1572 - B23Q 3/15766 are subclasses of B23Q 3/15713, they shall be also used for devices with direct insertion of the tool in the spindle (B23Q 3/15706).

The documents shall thus receive a classification symbol in one of the B23Q 3/15706 or B23Q 3/15713 groups and eventually one of the groups B23Q 3/1572 - B23Q 3/15766.

Arrangements for automatic insertion or removal of tools are classified in the appropriate entries foreseen in the groups B23Q 3/155 through B23Q 3/15793, and when comprising guards, fences, doors or any other kind of housing for protection of some parts of said arrangements, then additional classification in B23Q 11/08 is required.

{Means to press a workpiece against a guide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Means for pressing a workpiece against a guide, fence or table. Usually mounted on a structure over the machine table or on the spindle head. If the means is mounted directly on the table and presses the workpiece downwards against the table, then classify in B23Q 3/069.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Pressure rollers for feeding timber in sawing machines

{Guides for workpieces}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Guides or fences for workpieces.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Devices for conveying work in sawing machines

Guide fences for sawing machines

Guide fences for wood working

Arrangements for automatic insertion or removal of tools {, e.g. combined with manual handling (B23Q 7/046 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

handling workpieces or tools by means of grippers specially adapted for use in connection with arrangements for automatic insertion or removal of tools

{Non-rotary fixed racks}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for automatic insertion or removal of rotary tools by a transfer device taking a single tool from a storage device comprising rotating or circulating storage means and inserting it into a spindle

{Tensioning devices or tool holders, e.g. grippers (driving working-spindles and adjusting or stopping them in a predetermined angular position B23Q 5/20; securing milling cutters to the driving spindle in a given angular position B23C 5/26)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Devices for holding the tools in the storage means (grippers) or special features relating to the tool holder in the spindle for the automatic tool exchange.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Driving working-spindles and adjusting or stopping them in a predetermined angular position

Securing milling cutters to the driving spindle in a given angular position

Driving or feeding mechanisms; Control arrangements therefor (automatic control B23Q 15/00; copying B23Q 33/00, B23Q 35/00; specially adapted for boring or drilling machines B23B 39/10, B23B 47/00; {numerical programme-control of machine tools G05B 19/18})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mechanisms for producing a rotational or reciprocating movement (driving) or translational movement (feeding) of a workpiece or tool, in a machine tool.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Vibratory toolholders

Ultrasonic boring

Gearings, speed selectors for power driven hand tools

Ultrasonic cutting of gems, jewels

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

General features of fluid pressure drives accelerating or decelerating the stroke

General mechanisms or mechanical components not specific to a machine tool.

General mechanical drives with varying speed ratio

Cam or ballscrew mechanisms as such

Linears motors as such

Special rules of classification

Further details of subgroups:

Motorspindles.

Machine tools with special configurations or features of linear motors.

Arrangements for handling work specially combined with or arranged in, or specially adapted for use in connection with, machine tools, e.g. for conveying, loading, positioning, discharging, sorting (incorporated in working-spindles B23B 13/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements concerning the conveying of workpieces between machine tools or to the loading/unloading of machine tools.

The classes correspond either to the type of conveying means used B23Q 7/001 - B23Q 7/08 or to the relationship between the machining stations of a production line that are linked by conveying means B23Q 7/14 - B23Q 7/1421.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Indexing rotating tables as such

Simultaneous operations on different machining stations, incorporated in a same machine. Transfer of the workpiece within such a machine.

Handling sheet metal, metal tubes or metal profiles

Conveying bar stock in a lathe

Vacuum work grippers

Programme-controlled manipulators

General aspects of gripping heads

Feed chains for timber

Pallets for loads to be lifted

Separating articles from piles

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

General aspects of article conveyors

Special rules of classification

If the work is carried on a pallet or cart loosely mounted on a conveyor means, the document should be classified in B23Q 7/1426 or subclasses of it.

The classification of new documents in groups B23Q 7/14 - B23Q 7/1421 should be avoided, since the classification in B23Q 39/00 or B23Q 41/00 is preferred.

Further details of subgroups:

Machining of the workpiece during its conveying (GB2273077).

Devices for catching a finished workpiece (DE202006003047U).

Arrangements for gripping a workpiece by using the tool holder means (EP1637279) or mounted on the tool spindle (EP2253422).

The workpieces are consecutively conveyed to the next working device, the working devices being placed in series (linearly or not) corresponding to the the sequence of working.

A long workpiece is axially transported and one end of it is machined and cut from the rest of the workpiece.

Arrangements for supporting or guiding portable metal-working machines or apparatus ({turning machine for reconditioning wheel sets without removing same from vehicle B23B 5/32;} for tapping pipes {B23B 41/00, F16L 41/04}; specially designed for drilling {B23B 45/00, B25H 1/0021})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements for supporting, fixing or guiding a portable machine tool in combination with guide means that position the machine tool relative to the workpiece.

Machine tools that are mounted on the surface of large workpieces (such as aircrafts), or that are fixed to a large workpiece with a special profile (such as beam or tube).

Machines that are automatically guided by means supported directly on the workpiece, e.g. via an automatic cart or crawler (B23Q 9/0007).

Machines that are manually guided by means supported directly on the workpiece (B23Q 9/0014).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Turning machine for reconditioning wheel sets without removing same from the vehicle

For tapping pipes

Hand-held or like portable drilling machines, e.g. drill guns; Equipment therefor

Tables for sawing machines

Portable stands or supports for positioning portable tools or work to be operated on thereby

Portable hand-operated wood-milling machines; Routers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Portable hand-operated wood-milling machines; Routers

Special rules of classification

Further details of subgroups:

Automatic machine usually used for machining large workpieces which require high machining accuracy (e.g. aeronautic components, pipes, or profiles), wherein the machine or the guide means are supported by the workpiece. If the guide means form part of the machine, then classify also in B23Q 9/0028 or B23Q 9/0035; if they are independent from the machine and fixed on the workpiece, then classify also in B23Q 9/0042 through B23Q 9/0057.

Smaller portable machine that is manually guided by the operator, wherein the machine or the guide means are supported by the workpiece. If the guide means form part of the machine, then classify also in B23Q 9/0028 or B23Q 9/0035; if they are independent from the machine and fixed on the workpiece, then classify also in B23Q 9/0042 through B23Q 9/0057.

The machine or the guide means are supported by a support independent from the workpiece. If the guide means form part of the machine, then classify in B23Q 9/0071; if they are independent from the machine and fixed to the support, then classify in B23Q 9/0078.

This class takes precedence over B23Q 9/0014.

Here are classified machines that are secured to workpieces with a special shape such as beams or tubes, to which the securing means are specially adapted. If the workpiece is secured on the surface of the workpiece with standard fixing means, then classify in B23Q 9/0014.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Portable machine tool

A machine that is brought to the workpiece. Either the workpiece is very large (aircraft fuselage, long beams or tubes) or the machine is very light and easy to transport.

Accessories fitted to machine tools for keeping tools or parts of the machine in good working condition or for cooling work {(accessories specially designed for sawing machines or sawing devices B23D 59/00)}; Safety devices specially combined with or arranged in, or specially adapted for use in connection with, machine tools (in respect of boring or drilling machines B23B 47/32 takes precedence; safety devices in general F16P)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements reducing or eliminating thermal influences in the machining accuracy (B23Q 11/0003).

Arrangements reducing or eliminating the influence of gravity on the machine (B23Q 11/001).

Arrangements reducing or eliminating undesired vibrations in parts of the machine (B23Q 11/0032).

Arrangements for removing or evacuating from the working area cutting chips produced during machining (B23Q 11/0042).

Arrangements protecting the operator from possible injuries or noise (B23Q 11/0078).

Arrangements for removing scrap from the teeth of cutting devices (B23Q 11/02).

Arrangements for preventing overload of tools for preventing their damage (B23Q 11/04).

Safety devices for specially adapted for disc shaped cutters like saws (B23Q 11/06).

Coverings for protecting parts of machine tools from dust, chips, cutting fluids, etc or for protecting the operator from flying cutting chips, centrifugated tools or cutting fluid (B23Q 11/08).

Arrangements for cooling or lubricating the interface between the tool and the workpiece or the tool itself. Special cooling or lubricating strategies, coolant nozzles, cooling liquid filtration systems (B23Q 11/10).

Arrangements for cooling or lubricating other parts of the machine than the tool and workpiece (bearings, spindle, motors, ballscrew, linear guides, frame (B23Q 11/12).

Arrangements for maintaining a constant temperature in parts of the machine tool, meaning the use of a certain temperature control strategy (B23Q 11/14).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Preventing escape of dirt or fumes from the working area; suction systems

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Safety devices in general, not specially designed for a machine tool

Special rules of classification

Further details of subgroups:

Constructional or design measures intended to facilitate the evacuation of the chips by their own weight.

This class should not be used if a more specific class in another field exists (see classes cited in B23Q 11/0078).

Systems for filtering the cutting liquid for separating the chips from the liquid.

Nozzle suited to be adapted to different tools, so that its position or the direction of the cutting liquid jet can be adjusted to the geometry of the tool.

General features relating to the distribution of coolant to the machine tools, coolant dispensing devices independent of the machine, etc.

{Arrangements for preventing undesired thermal effects on tools or parts of the machine (B23Q 11/10, B23Q 11/12 and B23Q 11/14 take precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Automatic compensation of tool deflection due to temperature or force

Special rules of classification

Constructional or design measures intended to prevent negative influences of varying temperatures are classified in B23Q 11/0003.

If thermal dilation occurs, but measures are taken to compensate for it, then classify in B23Q 11/0007 (e.g. EP1989019).

{Arrangements compensating weight or flexion on parts of the machine (adjustment of the fluid layer in fluid bearings or cushions depending upon the position of a weight B23Q 1/385)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Automatic compensation of tool deflection due to temperature or force

Tool balancers for portable tools

{Arrangements for preventing or isolating vibrations in parts of the machine (B23B 29/022, B23D 47/005 take precedence; means for damping or suppressing vibrations, in general F16F)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Detection or control of chatter

Boring bars with vibration reducing means

Vibration damping in sawing machines

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Counterweights for suppressing vibrations in general

Numerical control for compensation of load, inertia or temperature

{outside the working area}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Chip collectors or chip conveyors placed under or next to a machine tool, in order to catch and convey the chips from the working area to the outside.

If the invention is focussed on the separating of the chips from the coolant, then classify rather in B23Q 11/1069 (filtration).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Removing or collecting chips in sawing machines

Dust removing means in manipulators

Means for removing cut-out material or waste in punching or perforating machines

Arrangements for removing bark-zones, chips, waste, or dust, specially designed for use in connection with wood-working machines

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cleaning workpieces in general

Conveying materials in general, other than cutting chips

{Safety devices protecting the operator, e.g. against accident or noise (protecting the machine tool B23Q 5/58; protecting people, in general F16P 1/00, F16P 3/00)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Protective coverings placed between the working area and the operator

Chambers provided with manipulation devices

Devices for braking the circular saw blade or the saw spindle

Devices for arresting movement of the saw chain

Safety guards for wood saws

Protective coverings for parts of machine tools; Splash guards
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Tool covers

Arrangements for covering or protecting the waysfixed to the carriage or bearing body movable along the guide rail

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Screening or protective devices in general

Bellows in general

Arrangements for cooling or lubricating tools or work (incorporated in tools, see the relevant subclass for the tool, {e.g. B23B 27/10, B23B 51/06, B23C 5/28, B23D 77/006; for circular saw blades B23D 59/02, for cooling grinding surfaces B24B 55/02})
Definition statement

This place covers:

If the invention concerns a specific kind of tool with features concerning its cooling or lubricating, it should be classified in the corresponding class of the tool.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Feed or discharge mechanisms for settling tanks (sedimentation)

Filters in general

Equipment for use with tools or cutters when not in operation, e.g. protectors for storage {(B26B 29/00 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Equipment used in combination with a tool when the tool is not in operation, e.g. tool covers avoiding injury of an operator or damage of the tool.

Automatic control or regulation of feed movement, cutting velocity or position of tool or work (programme-control G05B 19/00, e.g. numerical programme-control G05B 19/18)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Control while the tool acts upon the workpiece. Control before or after the tool acts upon the workpiece.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Control of manipulators

Microprocessor Control of machines

Numerical Control of machine-tools

Equipment for precise positioning of tool or work into particular locations not otherwise provided for (automatic control or regulation of position of tool or work B23Q 15/22; arrangements for indicating or measuring existing or desired position of tool or work B23Q 17/22)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mechanical stops for positively defining a position of a part of the machine tool by abutment against the stop (B23Q 16/001 - B23Q 16/002).

Mechanisms of peck feed drills for periodically retracting the drill from the bored hole and advancing it again to the previous working position. Other mechanisms allowing to bring the tool back to a previous working position after an interruption (B23Q 16/003).

Equipment for measuring the distance just before contact or detecting the contact between two machine parts (B23Q 16/005).

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Detection of contact between tool and workpiece

Special rules of classification

If the stop is in a hollow spindle, then classify in B23Q 16/002

If the relative movement is locked by an intermediate member mounted on the support and insertable in an aperture of the indexing part, then classify in B23Q 16/04-B23Q 16/065.

If the relative movement is stopped by a sort of clamping means or meshing means (hirth ring), then classify in B23Q 16/08-B23Q 16/102.

If the indexing movement is a rotation and the clamping means is a disc or a drum brake, then classify in B23Q 16/105 or B23Q 16/107 respectively.

These classes concern details for locking or clamping the indexing part in the indexing position, so that it does not move relative to the fixed support.

If the relative movement is locked by an intermediate member mounted on the support and insertable in an aperture of the indexing part, then classify in

If the relative movement is stopped by a sort of clamping means or meshing means (hirth ring), then classify in B23Q 16/08-B23Q 16/102.

If the indexing movement is a rotation and the clamping means is a disc or a drum brake, then classify in B23Q 16/105 or B23Q 16/107 respectively.

Further details of subgroups:

See, for example, US-5,765,448.

Device consisting of a plurality of abutting stops at different positions or of different lengths, in a common carrier, used for detemining a position or length of a machine part.

Positive angle adjustment of a pivotable table. See, for example, US-3,861,088.

Equipment for bringing a linearly or rotatably moving part to one of a plurality of consecutive predefined indexing positions.

Details concerning the elements that assure the accurate positioning at the indexing point.

Details concerning the mechanism that produces the movement from an indexing point to the next.

Means for varying the distance between two consecutive indexing points or between various consecutive machine parts separated from each other by the same distance.

Additional means for adjusting the position of the indexing part around the normal indexing position.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Reciprocating or oscillating movement

Linear movement

Continuous movement or continuous drive

Rotary movement or rotary drive

Arrangements for {observing,} indicating or measuring on machine tools (for automatic control or regulation of feed movement, cutting velocity or position of tool or work B23Q 15/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements for measuring any parameters, such as tool or workpiece dimensions, vibrations, positions of machine parts, etc.

Arrangements for detecting any machine condition, such as "tool or workpiece are safely clamped", "the machine parts are in a good state", for managing the life of the tools or other parts of the machine, etc.

Special rules of classification

If the amplitude of a force is analysed in the time domain, then classify in B23Q 17/0966.

If the force is analysed in the frequence domain (vibration), then classify in B23Q 17/0971.

The documents should rather be classified in B23Q 17/0914-B23Q 17/0947 as far as possible.

If the referencing is done by contacting the workpiece with the tool, then classify in B23Q 17/2241.

Further details of subgroups:

Controlling whether a tool or workpiece holder is correctly holding (correct position or correct holding force).

Depending on whether the parameter controlled is a position of a part or a force, pressure or deformation acting on a part, the document should be classified in B23Q 17/003 or B23Q 17/005 respectively.

As opposed to B23Q 17/002, this class deals only with the detecting of the presence or absence of a tool or workpiece in its holder, and not to the quality of the holding action.

Controlling the right, smooth functioning of parts of the machine, except the tool. Details concerning life management of a specific part (how long can this part still work correctly before it must be replaced or maintained?) are classified in B23Q 17/008.

Analysing the quality (dimensions, roughness, temperature, etc.) of the machined workpiece.

Special details of arrangements for measuring vibrations in machine tools.

Special arrangements in machine tools for measuring the position of the workpiece or the tool relative to the machine or relative to each other.

Arrangements for correcting position errors or for adjusting the tool and the workpiece relative to each other.

Arrangements for detecting or preventing collisions between parts (tool, workpiece, slides, etc. ) of the machine tool.

Adjusting the tool into its holder or into the tool head, for example for correcting an eccentricity or an inclination error.

Arrangements for adjusting the position of the tool or the spindle relative to the workpiece or to a reference part in the machine.

Arrangements using optical devices (lenses, electromagnetic waves, radar, cameras, etc.) for measuring, detecting a certain machine state, or facilitating the working in a machine tool.

for indicating or measuring cutting pressure or {for determining} cutting-tool condition, e.g. cutting ability, load on tool (arrangements preventing overload of tools B23Q 11/04; devices for indicating failure of drills during boring B23B 49/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details concerning the control of the condition of the tool (level of wear, broken tool, dimensions, temperature, machining forces, etc.). Depending on whether the control is performed before/after machining or during machining, classify in B23Q 17/0904 - B23Q 17/0947 or B23Q 17/0952 - B23Q 17/099 respectively.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Accessories for positioning, for tool-setting for measuring probes

{Arrangements for measuring or adjusting cutting-tool geometry in presetting devices}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The tool is measured in an apparatus (presetting device) independent from the machine tool.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Clamping a tool in a tool holder by heating and shrinking the holder (tool length setting device)

for indicating or measuring workpiece characteristics, e.g. contour, dimension, hardness
Definition statement

This place covers:

Measurement of workpiece characteristics, in a machine tool or directly related to the functioning of the machine tool.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring instruments in general

{for indicating desired positions guiding the positioning of tools or workpieces (B25H 1/0092 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Using light beams projected on the working area for helping the operator to guide the tool or workpiece to the desired target.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Optical guiding devices for hand tools

Arrangement for compensating for irregularities or wear, e.g. of ways, of setting mechanisms (automatic control B23Q 15/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements for compensating any irregularities, such as wear, in the functioning of the machine tool.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Automatic control of parts of a machine tool

Programme control systems

Geometrical mechanisms for the production of work of particular shapes, not fully provided for in another subclass
Definition statement

This place covers:

Special machine configurations allowing to produce works of particular shape.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Grinding non circular cross sections

Numerical control for generating special surfaces

Methods for copying
Definition statement

This place covers:

General methods for copying a shape.

This class is not used anymore for classifying. It contains some old documents that deal with the reproduction of a shape on a workpiece.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Tracing or scanning a model for preparing numerical control data

Control systems or devices for copying directly from a pattern or a master model; Devices for use in copying manually {(copy milling classified also in B27C 5/003)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Arrangements allowing a tool to copy a pattern or model.

Arrangements allowing a cutting tool to machine a workpiece for reproducing the shape of a physical master model (e.g. a key). The shape of the master model is detected either with or without physical contact and the corresponding information is transferred to the axis of a machine tool.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Using a copying machine for making dental prostheses

Metal-working machines, or constructional combinations thereof, built-up from units designed so that at least some of the units can form parts of different machines or combinations; Units therefor in so far as the feature of interchangeability is important (features relating to particular metal-working operations, see the relevant subclass, e.g. B23P 23/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Machine tools made of special modules allowing the machine to be reconfigured.

Modules adapted to make reconfigurable machines.

Machines not made of modular elements but being convertible into different working configurations (e.g., from horizontally working into vertically working; B23Q 37/002).

Metal-working machines incorporating a plurality of sub-assemblies, each capable of performing a metal-working operation (B23Q 33/00, B23P 23/00 take precedence; if the operations are similar and the kind of operation is essential, see the relevant subclass for the operation)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Machine tools made of a plurality of sub-assemblies, wherein each-subassembly can perform a machining operation, either simultaneously or consecutively, either on a same workpiece or not.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Turning-machines with two or more working-spindles

Special rules of classification

Further details of subgroups:

There is a single operating station, i.e. either a single workholder for a plurality of toolheads (B23Q 39/021 - B23Q 39/027) or a plurality of workholders ready to be operated on by a single toolhead (B23Q 39/028).

In these classes, "same working direction" means that the toolheads operate on the workpiece from the same side, with similar inclination of the tool. "Different working direction" means that the toolheads operate on the workpiece from different sides or with different inclination of the tool.

Several workpieces are machined simultaneously at different stations by different tool heads.

Combinations or associations of metal-working machines not directed to a particular result according to classes B21, B23, or B24 (B23Q 37/00, B23Q 39/00 take precedence; features relating to operations performed, if the different metal-working operations are of the same kind, see the subclass for the kind of operation, e.g. punching B21D, welding B23K, grinding B24B; features relating to technically specified combinations of different metal-working operations B23P 23/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Machining lines with a plurality of machining stations of different types, with a special arrangement or organisation of the machines, characterised not by the end product or the machining technology but by the relationship between the machines.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Advancing work in multistage presses

Assembly with two or more workstations

Total factory control

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Combinations of conveyors in general

Special rules of classification

Further details of subgroups:

Details relating to the transfer of the work between the machines.

If the details correspond to a specific transfer device, then classify in the corresponding group in B23Q 7/00 - B23Q 7/103.

Details relating to the relative spatial arrangements of the machines in the factory.

Details relating to the organisation of the working of the machines or to the distribution or flow of the workpieces between the machines.

General details relating to the maintenance of efficient working conditions in the machines, such as parts or tool wear control, checking of quality, optimisation of working conditions.