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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 562]   CLASS 562,ORGANIC COMPOUNDS -- PART OF THE CLASS 532-570 SERIES
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SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 1]    1Persulphonic acids or salts thereof (i.e., compounds having the -S(=O)(=O) O-OH group, wherein the hydrogen may be replaced by a group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, wherein H of -OH may be replaced by a Group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing oxygen, sulfur nitrogen and group IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 2]    2Percarboxylic acids or salts thereof (i.e., compounds having the -C(=O)-O OH group, wherein the hydrogen may be replaced by a group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, wherein H of -OH may be replaced by a Group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing oxygen, nitrogen, and group IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 3]    3With preservative or stabilizer
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Products wherein the percarboxylic acid is mixed with a stabilizing or preserving agent, whose sole function is to prevent physical or chemical change.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 4]    4Formation of the -C(=O)-O-OH group, or of a salt thereof (e.g., from acid halides or anhydrides, neutralization; etc)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Processes which involve the formation of the -C(=O)-O-O-H group, or the formation of a salt of this group.
(1) Note. The formation of the salt is classified here regardless of whether the salt is made from the-C(=O)-O-O-H group, or if it is made by other means.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 5]    5Aldehyde or percarboxylic acid ester reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Processes wherein an aldehyde or a percarboxylic acid ester is used as a reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 6]    6Carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid salt reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Processes wherein a carboxylic acid or a carboxylic acid salt is used as a reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 7]    7Boron acids or salts thereof (i.e., compounds having -XH, wherein X is chalcogen, attached directly to boron by nonionic bonding and wherein the hydrogen may be replaced by a group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... in which boron is attached directly to -XH by nonionic bonding, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) and H of -XH may be replaced by a Group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing, chalcogens, nitrogen, and group IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 8]    8Phosphorus acids or salts thereof (i.e., compounds having -XH, wherein X is chalcogen, attached directly to phosphorus by nonionic bonding and wherein the hydrogen may be replaced by a substituted or unsubstituted ammonium or by a group IA or IIA light metal)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... wherein -XH is bonded directly to phosphorus by nonionic bonding; the X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) and -H of -XH may be replaced by a Group IA or IIA light metal or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium (i.e., phosphorus acid or salt thereof).
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 , 408, and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen, chalcogen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and group IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 9]    9Sulfur attached directly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Compounds in which sulfur is attached directly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 10]    10Nitrogen attached directly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Compounds wherein nitrogen is attached directly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 11]    11Nitrogen attached indirectly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Compounds wherein nitrogen is attached indirectly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 12]    12Plural phosphori attached indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.  Compounds in which at least two atoms of phosphorus are attached indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 13]    13Plural phosphori bonded directly to the same carbon
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Compounds in which at least two phosphorus atoms are bonded directly to the same carbon.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 14]    14Additional nitrogen attached indirectly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Compounds wherein additional nitrogen is attached indirectly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 15]    15The nitrogen is bonded directly to -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.  Compounds in which the nitrogen is bonded directly to a -C(=X)-group, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium).
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 16]    16The nitrogen and the phosphorus are bonded directly to the same carbon
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.  Compounds wherein the nitrogen and the phosphorus are bonded directly to the same carbon.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 17]    17The nitrogen is bonded to an additional acyclic carbon or acyclic carbon chain, to which a -C(=X)X- group is bonded directly, wherein the X's are the same or diverse chalcogen
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Compounds wherein the nitrogen is bonded directly to an additional acyclic carbon or acyclic carbon chain to which a -C(=X)X- group is also bonded directly, wherein the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium).
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 18]    18Preparing from a compound having a nitrogen containing hetero ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 17.  Processes whereby a compound which contains a nitrogen-heterocyclo is utilized in the preparation.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 19]    19The phosphorus is in a ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Compounds in which the phosphorus is a ring member.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 20]    20Plural phosphori attached indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Compounds in which at least two phosphorus atoms are attached indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 21]    21Plural phosphori bonded directly to the same carbon
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.  Compounds wherein the plural phosphorus atoms are bonded directly to the same carbon.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 22]    22Processes
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.  Processes for the preparation of compounds having plural phosphorus atoms bonded directly to the same carbon or for the treatment of such compounds.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 23]    23Chalcogen attached indirectly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Compounds wherein chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) is attached indirectly to the phosphorus atom by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 24]    24The chalcogen is in a -C(=X)- group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Compounds in which the chalcogen is in a -C(=X)- group.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 25]    25Halogen attached indirectly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Compounds in which halogen is attached indirectly to the phosphorus atom by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 26]    26Thiocarboxylic acids or salts thereof (i.e., compounds having the group -C(=X)XH, wherein the X's are the same or diverse chalcogens and at least one X is sulfur, and hydrogen may be replaced by a group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, wherein the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium), at least one X is sulfur, and H of -XH may be replaced by a Group IA or IIA light metal or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 , 408, and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen, nitrogen, and group IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 27]    27Nitrogen bonded directly to the carbon of the -C(=X)XH group or of its salt (e.g., dithiocarbamic acids, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 26.  Compounds wherein the carbon of the -C(=X)XH group, or of its salt, is bonded directly to nitrogen.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 28]    28Processes utilizing carbon disulfide
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Processes wherein carbon disulfide is used.
(1) Note. Carbon disulfide is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 29]    29Thiosulfonic acids or salts thereof (i.e., compounds containing the thiosulfonate group, -S(=O)(=O)-S-, wherein the divalent sulfur is bonded directly to hydrogen, or to a group IA or IIA light metal or to substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, wherein H of -SH may be replaced by a Group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 , 408, and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing sulfur, nitrogen, and group IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 30]    30Sulfonic acids or salts thereof (i.e., compounds containing the sulfonate group, -S(=O)(=O)-O- wherein the single bonded oxygen is bonded directly to hydrogen, or to a group IA or IIA light metal or to substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, sulfonate, wherein the single bonded oxygen is bonded directly to hydrogen, or to a Group IA or IIA light metal, or to substituted or unsubstituted ammonium:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 through 409for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen, chalcogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and group IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 31]    31Hydrophenanthrene ring system containing
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds which contain the hydrophenanthrene ring system.
(1) Note. The hydrophenanthrene ring system is depicted by the following structure, in which at least one of the rings is not a benzene ring:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 32]    32Processes of sulfonating lignites, leonardites, coal, humic acids, bark or pitch, and the reaction products thereof
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Processes wherein lignites, leonardites, coal, humic acids, bark or pitch is sulfonated to form a sulfonic acid or salt thereof, or the reaction products of such processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 33]    33Petroleum sulfonic acids
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfur of the sulfonate group is bonded directly to carbon of petroleum.
(1) Note. Petroleum is considered as a naturally occurring mixture of gaseous, liquid and/or solid hydrocarbons.
(2) Note. In the case of distillable petroleum, a fraction taken over a certain boiling point range is regarded as within the scope of this subclass, if sulfonated.
(3) Note. Specific sulfonated compounds, even if identified as having been derived from petroleum or petroleum fractions, are classified with the appropriate compound as provided for.
(4) Note. Some specific types of petroleum products which, if sulfonated, are classified herein are: rhigolene, petroleum ether, gasoline, naphtha, ligroine, benzine, kerosene, lubricating oils, paraffin oil and icthyol.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 34]    34Addition salts having organic nitrogen containing cation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Products wherein the single bonded oxygen of a petroleum sulfonate group is bonded directly to organic nitrogen by ionic bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 35]    35Boron or phosphorus attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by nonionic bonding (e.g., phosphonium salts, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to boron or phosphorus by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 36]    36Chalcogen or -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen, attached directly to the sulfonate sulfur by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfur of the sulfonate group is attached directly to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) or to -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen, by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 37]    37Nitrogen attached directly to the sulfonate sulfur by nonionic bonding (e.g., sulfamic acids, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfur of the sulfonate group is attached directly to nitrogen by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 38]    38Processes utilizing an inorganic sulfamic acid, or a salt thereof
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Processes wherein an inorganic sulfamic acid, or a salt of an inorganic sulfamic acid, is used.
(1) Note. An example of a process provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 39]    39Processes of forming the -NH-S(=O)(O=)-O- group, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Processes which involve the formation of the following group, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 40]    40Additional salts having organic nitrogen containing cation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Compounds wherein the single bonded oxygen of the sulfonate group is bonded directly to organic nitrogen by ionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 41]    41Benzene ring attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to a benzene ring by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 42]    42Noncarbon atom in acyclic chain between the benzene ring and the sulfonate sulfur
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Compounds wherein the acyclic chain between the benzene ring and the sulfonate sulfur has a noncarbon atom as a chain member.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 43]    43Nitrogen in the acyclic chain
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Compounds wherein the acyclic chain has nitrogen as a chain member.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 44]    44Chalcogen or -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen, in the chain
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Compounds wherein chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) or -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen, is also a member of the acyclic chain.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 45]    45Benzene ring bonded directly to the sulfonate sulfur (e.g., purification and neutralization of benzene sulfonic acids, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate sulfur is bonded directly to a benzene ring.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 46]    46Having -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen, attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by nonionic bonding (e.g., aldehydes, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly by nonionic bonding to -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium).
(1) Note. An example of compounds provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 47]    47Chalcogen or nitrogen bonded directly to the -C(=X)- group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Compounds wherein the -C(=X)- group is bonded directly to nitrogen or to chalcogen.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 48]    48Benzene ring bonded directly to each nitrogen of a -NH-C(=X)-NH-group, wherein X is chalcogen and substitution may be made for hydrogen only
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Compounds wherein each nitrogen of a -NH-C(=X)-NH- group, wherein X is chalcogen and substitution may be made for hydrogen only, is bonded directly to a benzene ring.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 49]    49At least one of the benzene rings is part of a naphthalene ring system
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Compounds wherein the -NH-C(=X)-NH- group is bonded directly to at least one benzene ring that is part of a naphthalene ring system.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 50]    50Plural naphthalene ring systems attached indirectly to the -NHC(=X)NH- group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Compounds wherein the -NH-C(=X)-NH- is attached indirectly to plural naphthalene ring systems by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 51]    51Stilbene containing
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Compounds which contain the following group, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 52]    52Plural -C(=X)- groups attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to plural -C(=X)- groups by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 53]    53Plural carbons bonded directly to -C(=X)-
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Compounds wherein a -C(=X)- group is bonded directly to two carbon atoms.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 54]    54Plural -C(=X)- groups bonded directly to the same benzene ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Compounds wherein a benzene ring is bonded directly to more than one -C(=X)- group.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 55]    55Acyclic carbon bonded directly to the -C(=X)- group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Compounds wherein the -C(=X)- group is bonded directly to an acyclic carbon.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 56]    56The -C(=X)- is part of a -C(=X)X- group, wherein the X's may be the same or diverse chalcogens
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Compounds wherein the -C(=X)- group is bonded directly to chalcogen in a -C(=X)X- group, in which the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 57]    57Nitrogen attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 56.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to nitrogen by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 58]    58Nitrogen attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to nitrogen by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 59]    59Plural benzene rings bonded directly to each other or to the same acyclic carbon
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Compounds wherein plural benzene rings are bonded to each other or to the same acyclic carbon.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 60]    60Stilbene containing
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Compounds which contain the following group, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 61]    61Plural benzene rings bonded directly to the same nitrogen
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Compounds wherein a nitrogen atom is bonded to more than one benzene ring.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 62]    62Plural nitrogens each bonded to two benzene rings (e.g., phenylaminophenylaminophenyl compounds, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Compounds wherein each of two benzene rings is bonded directly to two nitrogen atoms.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 63]    63At least one of the benene rings is part of a naphthalene ring system
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Compounds wherein the nitrogen is bonded directly to a benzene ring that is part of a naphthalene ring system.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 64]    64Oxygen bonded directly to a benzene ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Compounds wherein a benzene ring is bonded directly to oxygen.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 65]    65Sulfonyl bonded directly to the nitrogen
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Compounds wherein the nitrogen is bonded directly to sulfonyl:

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(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 66]    66The nitrogen is attached indirectly to a benzene ring by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Compounds wherein a benzene ring is attached indirectly to the nitrogen by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 67]    67Additional nitrogen attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is further attached indirectly to an additional nitrogen by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 68]    68Polycyclo ring system consisting of benzene rings bonded directly to the sulfonate group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Compounds wherein the sulfur of the sulfonate group is bonded directly to a polycyclo ring system consisting of benzene rings.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 69]    69Nitro or nitroso bonded directly to the polycyclo ring system
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Compounds wherein the polycyclo ring system is bonded directly to a nitro or nitroso group.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 70]    70Oxygen bonded directly to the polycyclo ring system (e.g., aminonaphthol sulfonic acid, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Compounds wherein the polycyclo ring system is bonded directly to oxygen.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 71]    71Additional sulfonate group bonded directly to the polycyclo ring system (e.g., H acid, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Compounds wherein the polycyclo ring system is bonded directly to plural sulfonate groups.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 72]    72Halogen, plural nitrogens, or additional sulfonate group bonded directly to the polycyclo ring system
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Compounds wherein the polycyclo ring system is bonded directly to halogen, to plural nitrogens, or to plural sulfonate groups.
(1) Note. Examples of compound provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 73]    73Nitro or halogen bonded directly to a benzene ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Compounds wherein a benzene ring is bonded directly to nitro or to halogen.
(1) Note. Examples of compound provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 74]    74Nonsulfonate chalcogen attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly by nonionic bonding to a chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium) that is not part of a sulfonate group.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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(2) Note. Compounds within the scope of this subclass and its indents may contain plural sulfonate groups, provided the required nonsulfonate chalcogen is present.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 75]    75Two benzene rings bonded to the nonsulfonate chalcogen (e.g., phenoxyphenyl compounds, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Compounds wherein the nonsulfonate chalcogen is bonded directly to two benzene rings.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 76]    76Plural carbons bonded directly to the nonsulfonate chalcogen (e.g., ethers, sulfones, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Compounds wherein the nonsulfonate chalcogen is bonded directly to plural carbons.
(1) Note. Examples of compound provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 77]    77Hydroxy group or nonsulfonate sulfur attached indirectly to a benzene ring by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 76.  Compounds wherein a benzene ring is attached indirectly to a hydroxy group or to a nonsulfonate sulfur by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 78]    78Halogen attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to halogen by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 79]    79The sulfonate group and oxygen are bonded directly to the same polycyclo ring system which consists of benzene rings
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Compounds wherein oxygen and the sulfonate group are bonded directly to the same polycyclo ring system consisting of benzene rings.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 80]    80Additional sulfonate group bonded directly to the polycyclo ring system
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.  Compounds wherein the polycyclo ring system consisting of benzene rings is bonded directly to an additional sulfonate group.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 81]    81Plural oxygens bonded directly to the same benzene ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Compounds wherein a benzene ring is bonded directly to more than one oxygen.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 82]    82The sulfonate group, oxygen, and alkyl of at least 4 carbons are bonded directly to the same benzene ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Compounds wherein a benzene ring is bonded directly to each of the sulfonate group, oxygen, and alkyl of at least four carbons.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 83]    83Halogen attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to halogen by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 84]    84Addition salts having organic nitrogen containing cation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Compounds wherein the single bonded oxygen of the sulfonate group is bonded directly to organic nitrogen by ionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 85]    85Having -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen, in the cation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Compounds wherein the organic nitrogen is attached indirectly by nonionic bonding to -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium).
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 86]    86Nitrogen double bonded to carbon in the cation (e.g., guanidinium salts, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Compounds wherein the organic nitrogen is part of a cation containing carbon double bonded to nitrogen.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 87]    87Acyclic carbon to carbon unsaturation containing
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Compounds which contain unsaturation between acyclic carbon atoms.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 88]    88Plural benzene rings bonded directly to each other, or to the same acyclic carbon or acyclic carbon chain
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Compounds wherein an acyclic carbon or an acyclic carbon chain is bonded directly to plural benzene rings, or two benzene rings are bonded directly to each other.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 89]    89Polycyclo ring system consisting of benzene rings bonded directly to the sulfonate group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is bonded directly to a polycyclo ring system consisting of benzene rings.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 90]    90Processes of sulfonating naphthalene per se or alkyl substituted naphthalene
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Processes wherein naphthalene, per se, or an alkyl substituted naphthalene, is sulfonated.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 91]    91Sulfonate group and alkyl group of at least four carbons bonded directly to the same benzene ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Compounds wherein a benzene ring is bonded to both the sulfonate group, and to alkyl of at least four carbons.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 92]    92With preservative, stabilizer, or color or odor affecting additive
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Products wherein the sulfonic acid or salt thereof is mixed with stabilizing or preserving agent, whose sole function is to prevent physical or chemical change, or with a color or odor affecting additive, whose sole function is to improve color or odor qualities.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 93]    93Processes including alkylation of a benzene ring, and the products thereof
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Processes which include the step of alkylating a benzene ring, and the products of such processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 94]    94The alkylating agent is an olefin
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.  Processes wherein an olefin is used as the alkylating agent.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 95]    95Sulfonation processes
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Processes which include the step of sulfonating a benzene ring.
(1) Note. Sulfonating agents which can be used include sulfur trioxide, sulfuric acid, and oleum.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 96]    96Purification or recovery
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Processes wherein the sulfonic acid, or salt thereof, is separated from impurities or from the reaction mixture.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 97]    97Neutralization or acidification
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Processes wherein a sulfonic acid is converted to a salt thereof, or a salt of a sulfonic acid is converted to the free acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 98]    98Sulfonation utilizing sulfur trioxide or oleum (e.g., sulfonation of benzene or toluene with oleum, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Processes wherein sulfur trioxide or oleum is used to sulfonate a benzene ring.
(1) Note. Oleum is a mixture of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 99]    99Sulfonation utilizing sulfuric acid (e.g., sulfonation of benzene or toluene with sulfuric acid, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Processes wherein sulfuric acid is used to sulfonate a benzene ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 100]    100Polycyclo alicyclic ring system attached directly or indirectly to the sulfonate group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached directly or indirectly to a polycyclo alicyclic ring system by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 101]    101Plural sulfonate groups attached indirectly to each other by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to an additional sulfonate group by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 102]    102Nitrogen or -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen, attached indirectly to the sulfonate groups by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate groups are attached indirectly to nitrogen or to -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium), by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 103]    103Plural nonsulfonate chalcogens attached indirectly to the sulfonate groups by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate groups are attached indirectly to plural nonsulfonate chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 104]    104Nitrogen attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to nitrogen by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 105]    105Having -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen, attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 104.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium), by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 106]    106Plural nitrogens or plural -C(=X)- groups, wherein X is chalcogen, attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to plural nitrogens or to plural -C(=X)-groups by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 107]    107Chalcogen attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 104.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 108]    108Chalcogen attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 109]    109The chalcogen, X, is in a -C(=X)- group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Compounds wherein the chalcogen, X, is double bonded to carbon in a -C(=X)- group.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 110]    110Plural chalcogens attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to plural chalcogens by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 111]    111Plural carbons bonded directly to the chalcogen (e.g., ethers, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Compounds wherein the chalcogen is bonded directly to plural carbons.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 112]    112Addition salts having organic nitrogen containing cation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Compounds wherein the single bonded oxygen of the sulfonate group is bonded directly to organic nitrogen by ionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 113]    113Halogen attached indirectly to the sulfonate group by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the sulfonate group is attached indirectly to halogen by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 114]    114Addition salts having organic nitrogen containing cation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Compounds wherein the single bonded oxygen of the sulfonate group is bonded directly to organic nitrogen by ionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 115]    115Processes (e.g., neutralization, stabilization, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Processes which are directed to the preparation, purification, recovery, or treatment in any way of a sulfonic acid or of a sulfonic acid salt.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 116]    116Decarboxylation, hydrogenation or formation of carbon-to-carbon unsaturation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 115.  Processes which involve formation of carbon-to-carbon unsaturation, hydrogenation or decarboxylation.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 117]    117Conversion of sulfur containing hetero ring compounds to sulfonic acids
 This subclass is indented under subclass 115.  Processes wherein sulfonic acids are formed by conversion of sulfur containing hetero ring compounds.
(1) Note. An example of a process provided for herein is the conversion of an alkyl sultone to an alkene sulfonic acid by hydrolysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 118]    118Oxidation of organic sulfur compounds to sulfonic acids
 This subclass is indented under subclass 115.  Processes wherein sulfonic acids are formed by oxidation of organic sulfur compounds.
(1) Note. An example of a process provided for herein is the nitric acid oxidation of a disulphide compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 119]    119Hydrolysis of sulfonyl halides
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  Processes which involve the hydrolysis of sulfonyl halides.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 120]    120Formation of sulfonic acids or sulfonic acid salts utilizing inorganic sulfonating agents (e.g., reaction of alcohols or alkyl halides with sulfurous acid, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  Processes wherein sulfonic acids, or salts of sulfonic acids, are formed by using inorganic sulfonating agents.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 121]    121Utilizing sulfur dioxide and oxygen (i.e., sulfoxidation)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Processes wherein oxygen and sulfur dioxide are utilized.
(1) Note. An example of a process provided for herein is the reaction of an alkane with oxygen and sulfur dioxide to form alkane sulfonic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 122]    122Sulfurous acid or salt thereof reacted with unsaturated hydrocarbon
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Processes wherein an unsaturated hydrocarbon is reacted with sulfurous acid or with a salt thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 123]    123Utilizing sulfur trioxide, oleum, sulfuric acid or halosulfonic acid
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Processes wherein halosulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, oleum or sulfur trioxide is used.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 124]    124Purification or recovery
 This subclass is indented under subclass 115.  Processes wherein a sulfonic acid or a salt thereof is separated from impurities or from the reaction mixture.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 125]    125Sulfinic or sulfenic acids or salts thereof (i.e., compounds containing the sulfinate group, -S(=O)O-, or the sulfenate group, -S-O-, wherein the single bonded oxygen is bonded directly to hydrogen, or to a group IA or group IIA light metal or to substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain either of the two following groups: sulfinate or sulfenate, wherein, in either case, the single bonded oxygen is bonded directly to hydrogen, to a Group IA or IIA light metal, or to substituted or unsubstituted ammonium:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 through 409for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen, chalcogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and group IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 126]    126Nitrogen attached indirectly to a sulfinate group by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Compounds wherein a sulfinate group is attached indirectly to nitrogen by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 400]    400Carboxylic acids and salts thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... wherein the acid function is a carboxyl group or a salt thereof.
(1) Note. Classification of salt formation from an acid or acid formation from the salt.
As a general rule a multistep synthesis is classified on the basis of the product produced by the last step of the synthesis. The formation of a salt from the corresponding acid or the "springing" of the acid from the corresponding salt is a synthesis step. However, these steps are so commonly used in final recovery procedures of a synthesis, that classification of a process on the basis of the general rule would result in distortion of the placement of patents where special process subclasses have been provided.
(a) In this classification, where special process subclasses have been provided and the last step of a claimed process appropriate thereto recites a salt formation or a hydrolysis of the salt to the acid, the patent has been placed in the appropriate process subclass.
(b) As a general rule, a claimed process which combines synthesis steps with purification or recovery is classified with the synthesis. In those cases where a subclass has been provided for purification or recovery, per se, and the claimed process appropriate thereto recites a broadly defined salt formation of the correspondidng acid or a broadly defined hydrolysis of a salt to the corresponding acid, the patent has been placed in the appropriate purification or recovery subclass. Where the claimed purification or recovery recites a significant salt formation step or a significant hydrolysis of a salt to the corresponding acid, the patent has been placed in the appropriate product subclass and cross-referenced to the purification or recovery subclass.
(2) Note. This subclass is residual for alicyclic carboxylic acids not provided for in subclasses 497-511.
(3) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 401]    401Racemization or separation of optical isomers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Processes directed to the racemization or separation of optical isomers and includes the separation of diastereomers as well as the resolution of racemic mixtures of enantiomers.
(1) Note. This subclass contains patents wherein the separation is carried out by a chemical reaction, such as with a resolving agent, followed by physical separation and regeneration of the desired isomeric component.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 402]    402Physical resolution:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Processes wherein the separation is performed solely by physical means such as fractional crystallization.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 403]    403Hydrophenanthrene nucleus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds which contain a hydrophenanthrene nucleus, not elsewhere provided.
(1) Note. Many of the patents found here are directed to compounds wherein the acid is obtained from a natural resin and has a known chemical structure as well as chemical modifications not provided for elsewhere.
(2) Note. The chemical treatment of a natural resin, followed by separation of a modified free natural resin acid of known chemical structure as a single chemical compound, is classified herein as is the product of such process.
(3) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives; Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Natural Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 200+ for separation of free natural resin acid mixtures, or of free natural resin acid of indeterminate struction from the natural resin.
540through 549,Organic Compounds,   appropriate subclasses, for a free natural resin acid of known chemical structure which contains a heterocyclic group.
556Organic Compounds,   subclasses 1+ , for heavy metal salts of free natural resin acids of known chemical structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 404]    4041,4a-dimethyl hydrophenanthrene-1 carboxylic acids or salts thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Compounds which contain the 1,4a-dimethyl hydrophenanthrene-1 carboxylic acid nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 405]    405Aromatic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a benzene nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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403+,for carboxylic acids and salts thereof wherein the acids contain a hydrophenanthrene nucleus and have a known chemical structure not elsewhere provided for, as for example, dihydroabietic acid or dehydroabietic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 406]    406Preparation by carbonylation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Processes wherein an aromatic carboxylic acid is prepared through formation of a carboxyl group on an aromatic compound by reaction with carbon monoxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 407]    407Formation of carboxyl group by oxidation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Processes wherein a carboxyl group of an aromatic acid is formed by oxidation.
(1) Note. The term "oxidation" as utilized here includes processes where an oxidizing agent is utilized, as well as processes such as the dehydrogenation of alcohols and the hydrolysis of aromatic halo alkyl compounds. However, the formation of a carboxyl group by hydrolysis of functional derivatives of a carboxyl group are found in the product and process subclasses provided for the appropriate acid.
(2) Note. This subclass contains patents directed to the formation of aromatic carboxylic acids by oxidation of carbonaceous materials such as coal or coke.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 408]    408Of aromatic compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 407.  Process wherein a carboxyl group is formed by oxidizing an aromatic compound.
(1) Note. This subclass contains processes of preparing aromatic carboxylic acids by oxidation of compounds, such as phenanthrene or trichlorobenzylamine.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 409]    409Alkyl side chain oxidized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Processes wherein the carboxyl group is formed by oxidation of an alkyl side chain of an aromatic nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains processes wherein the oxidizing agent is, for example, potassium permanganate, chromic acid or its salts or manganese dioxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 410]    410Nitrogen containing oxidant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Processes wherein the oxidizing agent utilized contains nitrogen, as for example, nitric acid or oxides of nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 411]    411Sulfur containing oxidant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Processes wherein the oxidizing agent utilized is sulfur or a sulfur containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 412]    412Air, O2, or O3 Oxidant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Processes wherein the oxidizing agent utilized is air, oxygen, or ozone.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 413]    413Multistage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Processes wherein the oxidation is carried out in plural sequential stages.
(1) Note. These processes include the use of multiple reactors where the product of oxidation in a first reactor is passed to a second reactor and further oxidized or may be carried out in a single reactor where the conditions for a second stage of oxidation are changed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 414]    414With recycle or recovery of reaction component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Processes wherein components of the product of oxidation may be separated, further treated, and either recycled to the reaction chamber or recovered.
(1) Note. This subclass includes processes which claim a significant recovery step to produce the desired carboxylic acid or are directed to recovery and recycling of solvents, catalysts, or unoxidized or incompletely oxidized starting materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 415]    415Gas phase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Processes wherein the oxidation is conducted in a gas or vapor phase.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 416]    416Halogen containing catalyst, initiator, or promoter utilized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Processes wherein the oxidation process is carried out in the presence of a catalyst, or initiator or promoter which contains a halogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 417]    417Initiator or promoter used with catalyst:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Processes wherein the oxidation is carried out with a catalyst and an additional material which may reduce the induction period or promote or regulate the oxidation rate to improve the yield or shorten the reaction time.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 418]    418Of oxy or carbonyl containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Processes wherein the aromatic compounds which are oxidized contain an oxy group or a carbonyl group, such as, for example, aralkyl alcohols or aldehydes.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 419]    419Hypohalite as oxidant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Processes wherein the oxidizing agent is a hypohalite, such as, for example, sodium hypochlorite.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 420]    420Nitrogen containing oxidant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Processes wherein the oxidizing agent contains nitrogen, as for example, nitric acid or oxides of nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 421]    421Air, O2, or O3 Oxidant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Processes wherein the oxidizing agent is air, oxygen, or ozone.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 422]    422Of halo alkyl containing compounds:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Processes wherein the carboxyl group is formed by oxidizing a halo alkyl side chain of an aromatic compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 423]    423Preparation by carbonation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Processes wherein an aromatic carboxylic acid is produced by reacting an aromatic compound with carbon dioxide or a material which will produce carbon dioxide under the reaction conditions, such as a carbonate.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 424]    424Of alkali metal phenolates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 423.  Processes wherein an alkali metal phenolate is reacted with carbon dioxide to produce an aromatic hydroxy acid, as for example, the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 425]    425Having plural rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 424.  Processes wherein the alkali metal phenolate contains plural rings, as for example, a naphtholate which will produce a hydroxy naphthoic acid under the conditions of reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 426]    426Sulfur:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Compounds wherein the aromatic carboxylic acid contains sulfur, covalently bonded.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 427]    427Polycyclo ring system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 426.  Compounds wherein the acid contains at least two carbocyclic groups which are joined through two orthopositioned carbon atoms or through a bridge.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 428]    428Indenyl or hydrindenyl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 427.  Processes which contain the indenyl or hydrindenyl nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 429]    429Sulfoxy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 426.  Compounds which contain sulfur bonded to oxygen and includes the groups -SO, -SO2 and -SO2X, where X is halogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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30+,for aliphatic compounds containing a sulfonic acid group.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 430]    430Nitrogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 429.  Compounds wherein the acid also contains nitrogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 431]    431Carboxyl, or salt thereof, in side chain having sulfur bonded directly to a ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 426.  Compounds wherein the carboxyl group is attached to a side chain which contains sulfur bonded directly to a ring.
(1) Note. In this and subsequent subclasses, where the term "side chain" is used, it is intended to mean an acyclic chain uninterrupted by a cylic formation.
(2) Note. When the same sulfur atom is directly attached to one carbocyclic nucleus and indirectly attached to a second carbocyclic nucleus, it will always be considered as directly attached for classification, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 431

(3) Note. This subclass includes, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 432]    432Carboxyl, or salt thereof, bonded directly to a ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 426.  Compounds wherein a carboxyl group is attached directly to a ring.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 433]    433Nitrogen bonded directly to carbon of organic radical (e.g., amino acids, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Compounds wherein the acid contains nitrogen bonded directly to a carbon of an organic radical not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 434]    434Nitro or nitroso:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Compounds wherein the acid contains the nitro group (-NO2) or the nitroso group (-NO) bonded to carbon.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 435]    435Plural rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one carbocyclic group, at least one of which is aromatic.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 436]    436Plural rings bonded directly to the same carbonyl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 435.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two carbocyclic nuclei directly attached to the same carbonyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 437]    437Plural nitrogens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an additional nitrogen covalently bonded.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 438]    438Halogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a halogen covalently bonded.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 439]    439Ureido, guanido, or hydrazine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Compounds wherein the acid contains the ureido group (N-C(=O) -N), the guanido group (N-C(=N)-N) or the hydrazine group (N-N).
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 440]    440Nitrogen double bonded directly to carbon (e.g. amidine, ketimine, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an amidine group (-C(=N)-N) or the group -C=N- equivalent in structure to those formed by reacting an aldehyde or a ketone with ammonia or an amine.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 441]    441Plural rings bonded directly to the same carbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two carbocyclic nuclei directly attached to the same carbon, which may be the carbon of a methylene or a carbonyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 442]    442Nitrogen not bonded directly to a ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Compounds wherein the acid contains nitrogen which is not directly bonded to a carbocyclic nucleus.
(1) Note. When the same nitrogen is directly attached to one carbocyclic nucleus and indirectly attached to a second carbocyclic nucleus, it will always be considered as directly attached for classification, e.g.,

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(2) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 443]    443In same chain as carboxyl, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 442.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a nitrogen which is in or attached to the same side chain that contains a carboxyl group, but is not attached directly to a carbocyclic nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 444]    444Oxy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Compounds wherein the acid contains the group -OX attached to a noncarbonylic carbon, where X is a non-carbonyclic C, H, or an alcoholate forming group not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 445]    445Phenyl alanines:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 444.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a phenyl alanine group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 446]    446Di-oxy phenyl alanines:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two -OX groups, each of which is attached directly to the phenyl of the phenyl alanine group, where X is a noncarbonylic C, H, or an alcoholate forming group not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 447]    447Phenoxyphenyl alanines:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a phenoxy group attached to the phenyl of the phenyl alanine.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 448]    448Plural nitrogens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one covalently bonded nitrogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 449]    449Halogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Compounds wherein the acid contains halogen covalently bonded.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 450]    450Amide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Compounds wherein the acid contains the carbonyl residue of a carboxylic acid attached to a nitrogen to form an amide (-C(O)N).
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 451]    451Oxy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 442.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an -OX group bonded to a noncarbonylic carbon, where X is a noncarbonylic carbon, H, or an alcoholate forming group not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 452]    452Oxy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an -OX group bonded to a noncarbonylic carbon, where X is a noncarbonylic C, H, or an alcoholate forming group not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 453]    453Carboxyl, or salt thereof, nitrogen and oxygen all bonded directly to the same benzene ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Compounds wherein the acid contains nitrogen, an oxy group, and a carboxyl group, all attached directly to the same benzene ring.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 454]    454Aryl-N-Aryl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two aromatic nuclei attached to the same nitrogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 455]    455Amide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Compounds wherein the acid contains the carbonylic residue of a carboxylic acid directly attached to a nitrogen, forming an amide.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 456]    456Halogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Compounds wherein the acid contains covalently bonded halogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 457]    457Plural rings with nitrogen bonded directly to at least one ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one carbocyclic group and nitrogen is bonded directly to at least one of them.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 458]    458Carboxyl, or salt thereof, bonded directly to a ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a carboxyl group bonded directly to a carbocyclic nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 459]    459Aldehyde or ketone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Compounds wherein the acid contains the group -C( O) X bonded to carbon, where X is C or H, i.e., aldehyde or ketone group containing acids.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 460]    460Two rings bonded directly to the same carbonyl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two carbocyclic nuclei bonded directly to one carbonyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 461]    461Polycyclo ring system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two or more carbocyclic nuclei joined to each other through two orthopositioned carbons or through a bridge.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 462]    462Bicyclo ring system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 461.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two carbocyclic nuclei joined to each other through two orthopositioned carbons or through a bridge.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 463]    463Oxy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an -OX group attached to a noncarbonylic carbon, where X is noncarbonylic C, H, or an alcoholate forming group not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 464]    464Phenoxy alkanoic acids:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 463.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a carboxyl group on a side chain containing an oxy group directly bonded to a benzene ring.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 465]    465Oxy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an -OX group attached to a noncarbonylic carbon, where X is a noncarbonylic C, H, or an alcoholate forming group not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 466]    466Polycyclo ring system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two or more carbocyclic nuclei which are joined to each other through two orthopositioned carbons or through a bridge.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 467]    467Carboxyl bonded directly to naphthylene ring system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a naphthylene nucleus having a carboxyl group directly bonded to it.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 468]    468Plural rings bonded directly to the same carbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two carbocyclic nuclei bonded to one methylene group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 469]    469Rings bonded directly to each other:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two carbocyclic nuclei joined to each other by one covalent bond.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 470]    470Oxy, not bonded directly to a ring, in same side chain as carboxyl, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an oxy group, which is not bonded directly to a carbocyclic group and which is in or bonded to a side chain which contains a carboxyl group.
(1) Note. When the same oxygen is directly bonded to one carbocyclic nucleus and indirectly bonded to a second carbocyclic nucleus, it will always be considered as directly bonded for classification, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 470

(2) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 471]    471Oxy, bonded directly to a ring, in same side chain as carboxyl, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an oxy group which is directly bonded to a carbocyclic nucleus and is in a side chain which contains a carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 472]    472Halogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 471.  Compounds wherein the acid contains covalently bonded halogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 473]    473Carboxyl, or salt thereof, bonded directly to a ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a carboxyl group bonded directly to a carbocyclic nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 474]    474Halogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 473.  Compounds wherein the acid contains covalently bonded halogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 475]    475Phenolic hydroxy or metallate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 473.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an -OX group directly bonded to a benzene ring, where X is H or a metal not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 476]    476Poly phenolic hydroxy or metallate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 475.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one -OX group bonded directly to a benzene ring, where X is H or a metal not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 477]    477Salicylic acid, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 475.  The compound, which is salicylic acid or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 478]    478Phenolic hydroxy or metallate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an -OX group bonded directly to a benzene ring, where X is an H or a metal not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 479]    479Decarboxylation of polycarboxylic acid or salt:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Processes wherein a carboxyl group of a polycarboxylic acid or an anhydride thereof is destroyed to produce an aromatic carboxylic acid, as for example, the production of benzoic acid from phthalic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 480]    480Polycarboxylic acids or salts thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 481]    481Prepared by disproportionation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the alkali metal salt of an aromatic carboxylic acid is reacted under conditions wherein one molecule is decarboxylated and another molecule carboxylated. For example, in the Henkel Reaction sodium benzoate will produce benzene and phthalic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 482]    482Preparation by isomerization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by isomerization, as for example, in the Henkel Rearrangement Reaction wherein phthalic acid is isomerized to terephthalic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 483]    483Preparation by hydrolysis of amide, anhydride, or ester:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by hydrolysis of an amide, an anhydride, or an ester.
(1) Note. The production of a polycarboxylic acid by hydrolysis of its corresponding salt is placed in the appropriate product subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 484]    484Preparation by hydrolysis of nitrile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by hydrolysis of a nitrile.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 485]    485Purification or recovery, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes which are directed to the purification, separation, or recovery of aromatic polycarboxylic acids.
(1) Note. See subclasses 408+, and particularly subclass 414 for patents which claim the combination of formation of a carboxyl group by oxidation followed by a significant purification or recovery step.
(2) Note. See (1) Note (b) under subclass 400 for the placement of patents claiming the purification or recovery of an acid combined with a salt forming or salt hydrolysis step.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 486]    486By crystallization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 485.  Processes wherein the purification or recovery involves a significant crystallization step.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 487]    487By reaction of undesired component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 485.  Processes wherein the purification or recovery of the acid includes the reaction of an undesired component.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   subclasses 28+ for processes involving reaction of an impurity following by distillation to recover a desired product.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 488]    488Plural rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Compounds wherein the acid cotains more than one carbocyclic nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 489]    489Carboxyl not directly attached to a ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a carbocyclic group which is not directly bonded to a carbocyclic nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 490]    490Naphthyl group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Compounds wherein the acid contains the naphthyl nucleus or its partially hydrogenated form and only one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. See subclass 488 for compounds containing the naphthyl group and more than one carboxyl group.
(2) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 491]    491Plural rings bonded directly to the same carbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two carbocyclic nuclei bonded to one methylene group and has only one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 492]    492Rings bonded directly to each other:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two carbocyclic nuclei joined to each other by one covalent bond and only one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 493]    493Monocyclic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Compounds wherein the acid contains only one carbocyclic nucleus, which is a benzene ring and only one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 494]    494Purification or recovery, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 493.  Processes directed to the purification, separation, or recovery of aromatic monocyclic monocarboxylic acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 495]    495Additional unsaturation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 493.  Compounds wherein the acid coantains ethylenic or acetylenic unsaturation.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 496]    496Carboxyl, or salt thereof, not bonded directly to the ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 493.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a carboxyl group not directly bonded to the benzene ring.
(1) Note. This subclass contains for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 497]    497Preparing alicyclic acids by carbonylation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Processes wherein an alicyclic carboxylic acid is prepared through formation of a carboxyl group on an alicyclic compound by reaction with carbon monoxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 498]    498Plural alicyclic rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one alicyclic nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 498

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

552Organic Compounds,   subclass 653 for acids of Vitamin D and 3-5 cyclovitamin D compounds, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 499]    499Tricyclo ring system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Compounds wherein the acid contains three alicyclic nuclei joined to each other through two orthopositioned carbons or by a bridge.
(1) Note. See subclasses 403+ for carboxylic acids where the tricyclo ring system is hydrophenanthrene.
(2) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 500]    500Two rings only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Compounds wherein the acid contains only two alicyclic nuclei.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 501]    501Orthofused:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Compounds wherein the acid contains two alicyclic nuclei joined to each other through two orthopositioned carbons.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 502]    5022,2,1-Bicyclo:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a 2,2,1-bicyclo ring system.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 503]    503Cyclopentyl (e.g., prostoglandins, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a cyclopentyl nucleus, as for example, prostoglandins.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 503

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 504]    504Cyclopentyl-(C)x - COOH; x=0-2:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a carboxyl group which is directly bonded to a cyclopentyl nucleus or is attached thereto through a chain of no more than two carbons.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 505]    505Cyclobutyl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a cyclobutyl nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 506]    506Cyclopropyl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a cyclopropyl nucleus.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 506

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 507]    507Alicyclic acids having an element other than oxygen, carbon, or hydrogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an alicyclic nucleus not provided for above and contains a covalently bonded element other than oxygen, carbon, or hydrogen, as for example, N, S, P, B or halogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 507

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 508]    508Alicyclic acids having an oxy, aldehyde, or ketone group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an alicyclic nucleus not provided for above and contains the -OX group attached to a noncarbonylic carbon, where X is a non-carbonylic C, H, or an alcoholate forming group not provided for above; or a -C (=O) X group bonded to carbon, where X is C or H.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 509]    509Alicyclic polycarboxylic acids:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an alicyclic nucleus not provided for above and contains more than one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 509

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 510]    510Alicyclic acids having unsaturation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an alicyclic nucleus not provided for above and contains a double or triple bond.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 511]    511Naphthenic acids or salts thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds known as naphthenic acids derived from crude naphthene containing mineral oils and their salts.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 512]    512Acyclic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Compounds wherein the acid contains no carbocyclic nucleus.
(1) Note. Cyclic polyvalent metal salts of acyclic polycarboxylic acids are considered acyclic for this classification.
(2) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 512

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

562Organic Compounds,   subclasses 512.2+ for the production of acyclic carboxylic acids by partial oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 512.2]    512.2Preparing by oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Processes for producing acyclic carboxylic acids by oxidizing a mixture of hydrocarbons.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 512.4]    512.4Plural -COO- Groups in Compound Formed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.2.  Processes wherein a compound having two or more -C(=O)O- groups is formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 513]    513Preparation from source of undetermined composition (e.g., industrial waste, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Processes for producing acyclic carboxylic acids from sources of undetermined compositions, e.g., industrial wastes such as distillery slops, fermentation residues, and waste sulphite liquor. Examples of acids produced from these sources are acetic, oxalic, and glutamic acids and their salts.
(1) Note. This subclass also includes the production of betaine hydrochloride form residual liquors of the beet industry.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 514]    514Nitrogen containing acid produced:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 513.  Processes wherein the acids produced contain nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 515]    515Preparation by degradation of carbohydrates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Processes wherein the acids are produced by degradation of carbohydrates, e.g., paperpulp, sawdust, and sugars. Some of the acids produced are acetic, tartaric, lactic, and oxalic.
(1) Note. For the recovery of acetic acid from pyroligneous liquor (wood distillate), see subclasses 607+.
(2) Note. Reactions involving carbohydrates, other than degradation, are found in the appropriate subclasses provided therefor. For example, the production of acyclic carboxylic acids by oxidation of a monosaccharide are in subclasses 523+, especially in subclasses 527 and 531+. The reaction of glucose with HCN followed by hydrolysis to produce a polyoxy carboxylic acid is in subclass 587.
(3) Note. The oxidation of a polysaccharide to produce a carboxylate without degradation is in Class 536, Organic Compounds, in the appropriate subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 516]    516Preparation by hydrolysis of proteins:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Processes wherein the acids are produced by the degradation of proteins such as gluten, casein, keratin, and zein.
(1) Note. This subclass also includes patents which claim the recovery of acids from protein hydrolysates without reciting the actual step of hydrolysis.
(2) Note. See subclass 554 for the purification or recovery of amino acids from sources other than protein hydrolysates.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   subclasses 656+ for foods containing amino acids and processes for producing the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 517]    517Preparation by carbonylation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Processes wherein the acyclic carboxylic acid is produced through formation of a carboxyl group on an acyclic organic compound by reaction with carbon monoxide.
(1) Note. See subclasses 597 and 609 for carbonylation of inorganic compounds to produce oxalic and formic acids, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 518]    518Of aldehyde or ketone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by reacting an aldehyde or ketone with carbon monoxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 519]    519Of alcohol or alcoholate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by reacting an alcohol or alcoholate with carbon monoxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 520]    520Of halogenated hydrocarbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by reacting a halogenated hydrocarbon with carbon monoxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 521]    521Of hydrocarbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by reacting a hydrocarbon with carbon monoxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 522]    522Group VIII Metal Containing Catalyst Utilized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 521.  Processes wherein the carbonylation is carried out with a Group VIII metal catalyst.
(1) Note. The Group VIII metals includes Fe, Co, and Ni and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, and Pt.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 523]    523Formation of carboxyl group by oxidation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Processes wherein the carboxyl group of an acyclic acid is formed by oxidation.
(1) Note. The term "oxidation" as used here is identical with that set forth in subclass 407.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 524]    524Of carboxylic acid or ester:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing a carboxylic acid or ester.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 525]    525Of oxy acid or ester:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 524.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing an oxy acid or ester.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 526]    526Of nitrogen containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing a nitrogen containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 527]    527Of ketone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing a ketone.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 528]    528Cyclic ketone or mixture thereof with cyclic alcohol:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 527.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing a cyclic ketone or a mixture of a cyclic ketone with a cyclic alcohol.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 529]    529Two stage oxidation from hydrocarbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 528.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing a hydrocarbon in a first state to produce a cyclic ketone or a mixture thereof with a cyclic alcohol, followed by a second stage oxidation of the first stage product to produce acyclic carboxylic acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 530]    530With recycle or recovery of reaction component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 528.  Processes wherein components of the reaction product are separated, further treated, or recycled to the reactor or recovered.
(1) Note. This subclass includes processes which claim a significant recovery step to produce the desired acyclic carboxylic acid or are directed to recovery or recycle of solvents, catalysts, or unoxidized starting materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 531]    531Of aldehyde:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing an aldehyde.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 532]    532Producing unsaturated acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 531.  Processes wherein the acid produced is an unsaturated acyclic carboxylic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 533]    533Liquid phase oxidation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 532.  Processes wherein the unsaturated acyclic carboxylic acid is produced by oxidation of an aldehyde in the liquid phase.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 534]    534Group VIII Metal Containing Catalyst Utilized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 532.  Processes wherein the unsaturated acid is produced by oxidizing an aldheyde utilizing a Group VIII metal containing catalyst.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 535]    535Group V Metal Containing Catalyst Utilized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 532.  Processes wherein the unsaturated acid is produced by oxidizing an aldehyde utilizing a Group V metal containing catalyst.
(1) Note. The Group V metals are V, Nb, Ta, Pa, As, Sb, and Bi.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 536]    536Producing acetic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 531.  Processes wherein the acid produced by oxidizing an aldehyde is acetic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 537]    537Of ether:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing an ether including cyclic ethers.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 538]    538Of alcohol:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing an alcohol.
(1) Note. The production of an acyclic carboxylic acid by the oxidation of a phenol is in subclass 523.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 539]    539Caustic oxidant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 538.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing an alcohol with caustic, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 540]    540Nitrogen containing oxidant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 538.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing the alcohol with a nitrogen containing oxidant such as nitric acid or the oxides of nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 541]    541Of halogenated hydrocarbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing a halogenated hydrocarbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 542]    542Of hydrocarbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidation of a hydrocarbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 543]    543Alicyclic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 542.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing an alicyclic hydrocarbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 544]    544Olefin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 542.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing an olefin.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 545]    545Producing unsaturated acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 544.  Processes wherein the acid produced by oxidizing an olefin is an unsaturated acyclic carboxylic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 546]    546Group VIII Metal Containing Catalyst Utilized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 545.  Processes wherein the unsaturated acid is produced by oxidizing an olefin utilizing a Group VIII metal containing catalyst.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 547]    547Group V Metal Containing Catalyst Utilized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 545.  Processes wherein the unsaturated acid is produced by oxidizing an olefin utilizing a Group V metal containing catalyst.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 548]    548Producing acetic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 544.  Processes wherein the acid produced by oxidizing an olefin is acetic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 549]    549Alkane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 542.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by oxidizing a saturated acyclic hydrocarbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 550]    550Formation of carboxyl group by carbonation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Processes wherein an acyclic carboxylic acid is produced by reacting an acyclic compound with carbon dioxide or a material which will produce carbon dioxide under the reaction conditions, such as a carbonate.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 551]    551Of C-Metallated Compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 550.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by reacting a compound having a C-Metal bond with carbon dioxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 552]    552Of alkali metal salt of carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 550.  Processes wherein the acide is produced by reacting an alkali metal salt of a carboxylic acid with carbon dioxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 553]    553Nitrogen bonded to carbon of organic radical (e.g., amino acids, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Compounds wherein the acid contains nitrogen bonded to a carbon of an organic radical.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 553

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

564Organic Compounds,   subclasses 67+ for processes of producing urea from carbon dioxide and ammonia wherein ammonium carbomate is also formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 554]    554Purification or recovery, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Processes directed to the purification, separation, or recovery of nitrogen containing acyclic carboxylic acids.
(1) Note. See subclasses 516 for purification or recovery of amino acids from protein hydrolysates.
(2) Note. See subclasses 401+ for the separation of optical isomers of nitrogen containing acyclic carboxylic acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 555]    555Carbamic acids or salts thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Compounds wherein the acid contains nitrogen bonded directly to the carbon of a carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 556]    556Sulfur or selenium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Compounds wherein the acid contains covalently bonded sulfur or selenium:
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 557]    557Alpha N, Beta S - Acids or Salts Thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 556.  Compounds wherein the acid contains nitrogen attached to the alpha carbon and sulfur attached to the beta carbon relative to the carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 557

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 558]    558Penicillamine, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 557.  The compound which is penicillamine (see figure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 559]    559Methionine, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 556.  The compound which is methionine (see figure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 559

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 560]    560Ureido, hydrazino, or nitrogen double bonded directly to carbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Compounds wherein the acid contains the ureido group (N-C (=O)- N), the hydrazino group (N - N), or the -C=N- group, such as the guanido or amidino groups or structures equivalent to those formed by reacting an aldehyde or a ketone with ammonia or an amine.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 561]    561Plural nitrogens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one nitrogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 562]    562Lysine, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 561.  The compound which is lysine (see figure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 562

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 563]    563Glutamine, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 561.  The compound which is glutamine (see figure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 564]    564Oxy containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 561.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an -OX group bonded to a noncarbonylic carbon, where X is a noncarbonylic carbon, H, or an alcoholate forming group not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 564

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 565]    565Polycarboxylic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 561.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 565

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 566]    566Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 565.  The compound which is ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (figure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 567]    567Oxy, aldehyde, or ketone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an -OX group bonded to a noncarbonylic carbon not provided for above; or a -C (=O) X group bonded to carbon where X is C or H.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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Image 2 for class 562 subclass 567

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 568]    568Polycarboxylic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 567.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 568

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 569]    569Panthothenic acid, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 567.  The compound which is panthothenic acid (see figure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 570]    570Threonine, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 567.  The compound which is threonine (see structure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 571]    571Polycarboxylic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 572]    572Nitrilotriacetic acid, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 571.  The compound which is nitrilotriacetic acid (i.e., structure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 573]    573Glutamic acid, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 571.  The compound which is glutamic acid or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 574]    574Halogen or unsaturation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Compounds wherein the acid contains covalently bonded halogen, or contains a double or triple bond.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 575]    575Alpha nitrogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Compounds wherein the acid contains nitrogen bonded to the carbon which is in the position alpha to the carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 576]    576Beta alanine, per se, or salts thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  The compound which is beta alanine (see structure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 577]    577Aldehyde or ketone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Compounds wherein the acid contains the group -C (=O) X bonded to carbon, where X is C or H.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 578]    578Polycarboxylic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 577.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 579]    579Oxy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an -OX group attached to a noncarbonylic carbon and X is a noncarbonylic C, H, or an alcoholate forming group not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 580]    580Purification or recovery, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 579.  Processes directed to the purification, separation, or recovery of an acyclic oxy carboxylic acid.
(1) Note. See subclass 515 for recovery of acyclic oxy carboxylic acids resulting from the degradation of carbohydrates.
(2) Note. See subclasses 401+ for the separation of optical isomers of acyclic oxy carboxylic acids.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclass 25.35 and the classes referred to in the search notes of that subclass for processes of and apparatus for the manufacture of piezoelectric crystals of Rochelle salt by procedures which include crystallizing and additional manufacturing operations.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 581]    581Sulfur:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 579.  Compounds wherein the acid contains covalently bonded sulfur.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 582]    582Polycarboxylic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 579.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 583]    583Ether:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 582.  Compounds wherein the acid contains the -OX group bonded to a noncarbonylic carbon, where X is a noncarbonylic carbon.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 584]    584Citric acid, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 582.  The compound which is citric acid (structure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 585]    585Tartaric acid, per se, of salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 582.  The compound which is tartaric acid (structrue below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 311+ for piezoelectric crystals of Rochelle salt where the shape is significant; and subclass 360 where the specific configuration or crystal axis is significant with respect to piezoelectric properties.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 586]    586Halogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 579.  Compounds wherein the acid contains covalently bonded halogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 587]    587Polyoxy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 579.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one oxy group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 588]    588Alkoxy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 579.  Compounds wherein the -OX group of the acids is bonded to the carbon of an alkyl group and X is a noncarbonylic carbon.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 589]    589Lactic acid, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 579.  The compound which is lactic acid (structure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 590]    590Polycarboxylic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Compounds wherein the acid contains more than one carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 590

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

554Organic Compounds,   subclasses 1+ , particularly subclass 166 for polycarboxylic acids derived by introducing additional carboxyl groups into higher fatty acids without cleavage.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 591]    591Preparation by isomerization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 590.  Processes wherein the acid is prepared by isomerization, as for example, the preparation of fumaric acid by isomerizing maleic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 592]    592Preparation by hydrogenation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 590.  Processes wherein the acid is produced by introduction of hydrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 593]    593Purification or recovery, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 590.  Processes directed to the purification, separation, or recovery of acyclic polycarboxylic acids.
(1) Note. See subclasses 513 and 515 for purification or recovery of acyclic polycarboxylic acids from sources of undetermined compositions or from the degradation of carbohydrates, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 594]    594Element Other Than C, H, O, N, or Halogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 590.  Compounds wherein the acid contains an element covalently bonded other than C, H, O, N, and halogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 595]    595Unsaturated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 590.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a double or triple bond.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 596]    596Halogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 590.  Compounds wherein the acid contains covalently bonded halogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 597]    597Oxalic acid, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 590.  The compound which is oxalic acid (see structure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 598]    598Unsaturated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a double or triple bond.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 599]    599Formation of ethylenic unsaturation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 598.  Processes wherein the acid is prepared by the introduction of a double bond.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 600]    600Purification or recovery, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 598.  Processes directed to the purification, separation, or recovery of acyclic unsaturated carboxylic acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 601]    601Sorbic acid, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 598.  The compound which is sorbic acid (structure below) or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 602]    602Halogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Compounds wherein the acid contains covalently bonded halogen.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example: CH2Br - CHBr - COOH, or

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 602

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

554Organic Compounds,   subclasses 225+ for halogenated higher fatty acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 603]    603Preparation by halogenating acid or anhydride:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Processes wherein the acid is prepared by introducing halogen into an acyclic carboxylic acid or its anhydride.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 604]    604Preparation by dehalogenation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Processes wherein the acid is prepared by reducing the halogen content.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 605]    605Fluorine containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Compounds wherein the acid contains covalently bonded fluorine.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 606]    606Saturated lower fatty acids:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Compounds wherein the acid contains a saturated, unsubstituted unbroken chain of not more than 6 carbon atoms attached to a carboxyl group.
(1) Note. This subclass contains, for example:

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

554Organic Compounds,   subclasses 1+ for higher fatty acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 607]    607Acetic acid, per se, salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 606.  The compound which is acetic acid or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.
(1) Note. See subclass 536 for production of acetic acid by the oxidation of aldehydes; and subclass 548 for the oxidation of olefins.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 608]    608Purification or recovery, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 607.  Processes directed to the purification, separation, or recovery of acetic acid.
(1) Note. See subclass 513 for the recovery of acetic acid from sources of undetermined composition; and subclass 515 for the recovery of acetic acid resulting from degradation of carbohydrates.
(2) Note. See (1) Note (b) under subclass 400 for the placement of patents claiming the purification or recovery of an acid combined with a salt forming or salt hydrolysis step.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 609]    609Formic acid, per se, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 606.  The compound which is formic acid or its salts and processes for its preparation not provided for above.
(1) Note. This subclass includes, for example, processes for preparing formic acid from carbon monoxide and water.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 620]    620Nitrolic acids or salts thereof (i.e., compounds having the group -C(=NOH)-N(=O) (=O), wherein the hydrogen may be replaced by a group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, wherein the hydrogen may be replaced by a Group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 620

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 , 408, and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing oxygen, nitrogen, and group IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 621]    621Hydroxamic acids, chalcogen analogs or salts thereof (i.e., compounds having the -C(=X)-N(R)-XH group or the -C(XH)=NXR group, wherein R may be hydrogen or substitution for hydrogen, the X's in each group may be the same or diverse chalcogens, and H of -XH in each group may be replaced by a group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain either of the following acid groups, in each of which the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium), the R"s may be hydrogen or substitution for hydrogen, and H of -XH may be replaced by a Group IA or IIA light metal or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 621

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 , 408, and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen, nitrogen, and group IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 622]    622Carbocyclic ring bonded directly to the carbon of the acid group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 621.  Compounds wherein the carbon of the acid group is bonded directly to a carbocyclic ring.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 623]    623Nitrogen attached to the acid group directly or indirectly by acyclic nonionic bonding (e.g., N-hydroxy ureas, dihydroxamic acids, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 621.  Compounds wherein the acid group is attached to nitrogen directly or indirectly by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 624]    624Imidic acids, chalcogen analogs or salts thereof (i.e., compounds having the group -N-C(XH)-, wherein X is chalcogen and the hydrogen may be replaced by a group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) and H of -XH may be replaced by a Group IA or IIA light metal or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen, nitrogen, the groups IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 625]    625Sulfohydroxamic acids, chalcogen analogs or salts thereof (i.e., compounds having the -S(=O)(=O)-N(R)-XH group, wherein R may be hydrogen or substitution for hydrogen, X is chalcogen, and H of -XH may be replaced by a group IA or IIA light metal,or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium), R is hydrogen or substitution for hydrogen, and H of -XH may be replaced by a Group IA or IIA light metal, or by substituted or unsubstituted ammonium:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 405 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen, nitrogen, the groups IA or IIA light metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 800]    800Hydroxamic acid halides or chalcogen analogs therof (i.e., compounds having the -C(=X)NH-halo group, wherein X is chalcogen and substitution may be made for hydrogen only)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the -C(=X)-NH-halo group, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium), and substitution may be made for hydrogen only, i.e., hydroxamic acid halides or chalcogen analogs thereof.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 406 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen, chalcogen, or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 801]    801Additional nitrogen bonded directly to the -C(=X)- group (e.g., urea halides, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 800.  Compounds wherein the -C(=X)- group is further bonded directly to an additional nitrogen.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 802]    802Imidic acid halides (i.e., compounds having the -N=CH-halo group, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the -N=CH-halo group, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only, i.e., imidic acid halides.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 406 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen, chalcogen, or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 803]    803Additional halogen bonded directly to the carbon of the imidic halide group (i.e., -N=(halo)C(halo)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 802.  Compounds wherein an additional halogen is bonded directly to the carbon of the imidic acid halide group, i.e., -N=C-(halo)2.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for the isocyanide dihalides.
(2) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 804]    804Chalcogen attached directly to the nitrogen of the imidic halide group by nonionic bonding (i.e., -X-N=CH-halo, wherein X is chalcogen)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 802.  Compounds wherein chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) is attached directly to the nitrogen of the imidic acid halide group by nonionic bonding (i.e., -X-N=CH-halo wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only).
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 805]    805Nitrogen attached directly to the nitrogen of the imidic halide group by nonionic bonding (i.e., HNH-N=CH-halo, wherein subsitution may be made for hydrogen only)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 802.  Compounds having the following formula, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 806]    806Boron halides (i.e., compounds having halogen attached directly to boron by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... wherein halogen is bonded directly to boron by nonionic bonding; i.e., boron halides.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclass 408 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing nitrogen or phosphorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 807]    807Phosphorus attached directly or indirectly to the boron by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 806.  Compounds in which phosphorus is attached directly or indirectly to the boron by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 808]    808Phosphorus halides (i.e., compounds having halogen attached directly to phosphorus by nonionic bonding)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... wherein halogen is bonded directly to phosphorus by nonionic bonding, i.e., phosphorus halides.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 406 and 408 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen, nitrogen, or phosphorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 809]    809Nitrogen bonded directly to the phosphorus
 This subclass is indented under subclass 808.  Compounds in which nitrogen is bonded directly to the phosphorus.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 810]    810The phosphorus and the nitrogen are in the same ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 809.  Compounds wherein both the phosphorus and the nitrogen are members of the same ring.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 811]    811Additional phosphorus attached directly or indirectly to the phosphorus by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 808.  Compounds containing plural phosphorus atoms attached directly or indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 812]    812The phosphorus is in a ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 808.  Compounds wherein the phosphorus is a member of a ring.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 813]    813Sulfur bonded directly to the phosphorus
 This subclass is indented under subclass 808.  Compounds in which sulfur is bonded directly to the phosphorus.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 814]    814Preparing utilizing an inorganic compound containing phosphorus and sulfur
 This subclass is indented under subclass 813.  Processes which utilize an inorganic compound which contains phosphorus and sulfur in the preparation.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 815]    815Forming phosphorus to carbon bond
 This subclass is indented under subclass 813.  Processes whereby a phosphorus to carbon bond is formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 816]    816Oxygen bonded directly to the phosphorus
 This subclass is indented under subclass 808.  Compounds in which oxygen is bonded directly to the phosphorus.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 817]    817Halogen attached indirectly to the phosphorus by acyclic nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 816.  Compounds wherein halogen is attached indirectly to the phosphorus by acyclic nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 818]    818Forming phosphorus to halogen bond
 This subclass is indented under subclass 816.  Processes whereby the phosphorus to halogen bond is formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 819]    819Forming phosphorus to carbon bond
 This subclass is indented under subclass 816.  Processes whereby a phosphorus to carbon bond is formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 820]    820Forming phosphorus to carbon bond
 This subclass is indented under subclass 808.  Processes whereby a phosphorus to carbon bond is formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 821]    821Sulfur halides (i.e., compounds having halogen attached directly to sulfur by nonionic bonding)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... wherein halogen is bonded directly to sulfur by nonionic bonding: i.e., sulfur halides.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 406 , 408, and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen, chalcogen, or phosphorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 822]    822Nitrogen bonded directly to the sulfur
 This subclass is indented under subclass 821.  Compounds in which nitrogen is bonded directly to the sulfur.
(1) Note. Example of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 823]    823Phosphorus, -C(=X)-, wherein X is chalcogen, additional chalcogen attached directly to the nitrogen by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 822.  Compounds in which phosphorus, a -C(=X)- group, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) or an additional chalcogen is attached directly to the nitrogen by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 824]    824The halogen is fluorine
 This subclass is indented under subclass 821.  Compounds wherein the halogen is fluorine; i.e., sulfur fluorides.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 825]    825Chalcogen double bonded directly to the sulfur (e.g., sulfonyl fluorides, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 824.  Compounds wherein chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) is double bonded directly to the sulfur.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 826]    826Benzene attached directly or indirectly to the sulfur by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 825.  Compounds in which a benzene ring is attached directly or indirectly to the sulfur by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 827]    827Chalcogen double bonded directly to the sulfur (e.g., sulfinyl halides, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 821.  Compounds in which chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) is double bonded directly to the sulfur (e.g., sulfinyl halides, etc.).
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 828]    828Plural chalcogens double bonded directly to the sulfur (e.g., sulfonyl halides, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 827.  Compounds wherein plural chalcogens are double bonded directly to the sulfur (e.g., sulfonyl halides, etc.).
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 829]    829Processes for forming the sulfonyl halide group utilizing elemental halogen
 This subclass is indented under subclass 828.  Processes in which elemental halogen is utilized.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 830]    830Preparing utilizing thionyl halide or carbonyl dihalide (e.g., phosgene, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 828.  Processes in which thionyl halide; i.e., halo-S(=O)-halo or a carbonyl dihalide; i.e., halo-C(=O)-halo is utilized.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 831]    831Plural sulfonyl halide groups attached indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 828.  Compounds wherein at least two -S(=O)(=O)-halo groups are attached indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 832]    832Nitrogen, other than as nitro or nitroso, attached indirectly to the sulfur by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 828.  Compounds in which nitrogen, other than in a nitro or nitroso group, is attached indirectly to the sulfur by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 833]    833Chalcogen attached indirectly to the sulfur by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 828.  Compounds in which chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) or nitrogen is attached indirectly to the sulfur by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 834]    834Halogen attached indirectly to the sulfur by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 828.  Compounds in which halogen is attached indirectly to the sulfur by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 835]    835Chalcogen or nitrogen attached indirectly to the sulfur by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 821.  Compounds in which chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) or nitrogen is attached indirectly to the sulfur by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 836]    836Perchloro methyl mercaptan per se (i.e., trichloromethane sulfenyl chloride)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 821.  The compound which has the following structure:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 837]    837Compounds having the -(O=)S(=O)-NH-halo group (i.e., N-halo sulfonamides, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, in which substitution may be made for hydrogen only:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing sulfur, oxygen, or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 838]    838Thiocarboxylic halides (i.e., compounds having the -C(=S)-halo group)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the -C(=S)-halo group, i.e., thiocarboxylic acid halides.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 406 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen, sulfur, oxygen, or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 839]    839Additional halogen bonded directly to the -C(=S)- group (e.g., thiophosgene, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 838.  Compounds wherein plural halogens are bonded directly to the thiocarbonyl group (e.g., thiophosgene, etc.).
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 840]    840Carboxylic halides (i.e., compounds having the -C(=O)-halo group)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the -C(=O)-halo group; i.e., carboxylic acid halide.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 406 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 841]    841With preservative or stabilizer
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  Products wherein the carboxylic acid halide containing compound is mixed with a preserving or stabilizing agent whose sole function is to prevent physical or chemical change.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 842]    842Boron or phosphorus attached directly or indirectly to the carbonyl group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  Compounds wherein boron or phosphorus is attached directly or indirectly to the carbonyl group by nonionic bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 843]    843Carbonyl bonded directly to the carbonyl group (e.g., oxalyl chlorides, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  Compounds wherein an additional carbonyl group is bonded directly to the carbonyl of the carboxylic acid halide; i.e.,

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 843

(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 844]    844Nitrogen bonded directly to the carbonyl group (e.g., carbamyl chlorides, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  Compounds in which nitrogen is bonded directly to the carbonyl of the carboxylic acid halide; i.e., carbamyl halides of the following formula, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 844

(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 845]    845Chalcogen or additional carbonyl bonded directly to the nitrogen
 This subclass is indented under subclass 844.  Compounds wherein chalcogen, X, (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) or an additional carbonyl group is bonded directly to the nitrogen of the carbamyl halide; i.e., groups of the following formulas, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only:
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 846]    846Processes utilizing phosgene as a reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 844.  Processes wherein phosgene, i.e., the compound of the following formula, is used as a reactant:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 847]    847Phosgene, per se
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  The compound which has the following structure:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 848]    848Processes utilizing carbon monoxide as a reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  Processes whereby carbon monoxide is utilized as a reactant, i.e., carbonylation reactions.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 849]    849Fluorine is the halogen (i.e., carboxylic fluorides)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  Compounds in which the halogen is fluorine; i.e., -C(=O)-F.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 850]    850Plural -C(=O)-F groups attached indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 849.  Compounds wherein plural -C(=O)-F groups are attached indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 851]    851Processes for forming the carbonyl group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 849.  Processes whereby the carbonyl group, -C(=O)-, is formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 852]    852Processes for forming the carbonyl to fluoride bond
 This subclass is indented under subclass 849.  Processes whereby the bond between the carbonyl group and the fluorine is formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 853]    853Plural -C(=O)-halo groups attached indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  Compounds wherein at least two -C(=O)-halo groups are attached indirectly to each other by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 854]    854Preparing utilizing phosgene
 This subclass is indented under subclass 853.  Processes which utilize phosgene in the preparation.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 855]    855Plural -C(=O)-halo groups bonded directly to the same benzene ring
 This subclass is indented under subclass 853.  Compounds wherein at least two carbonyl groups are bonded directly to the same benzene ring.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 856]    856Processes
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  Processes for the preparation of the carboxylic halide containing compounds or for the treatment of such compounds.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 857]    857Phosgene reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 856.  Processes wherein phosgene is utilized as a reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 858]    858Ketene reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 856.  Processes wherein a ketene reactant is utilized.
(1) Note. The structure of ketene is:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 858

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 859]    859Forming the carbonyl group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 856.  Processes whereby the -C(=O)- group is formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 860]    860By oxidizing a halogenated olefin
 This subclass is indented under subclass 859.  Processes wherein the carbonyl group is formed by the oxidation of a halogenated olefin.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 861]    861Forming the carbonyl to halide bond
 This subclass is indented under subclass 856.  Processes whereby the carbonyl to halogen bond is formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 862]    862Reactant having halogen bonded directly to sulfur by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 861.  Processes wherein a reactant is utilized which has halogen bonded directly to sulfur by nonionic bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 863]    863Elemental halogen or hydrogen halide utilized
 This subclass is indented under subclass 861.  Processes in which elemental halogen or hydrogen halide is utilized as a reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 864]    864Halogenation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 856.  Processes whereby halogen is added to a compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 865]    865Dehalogenation or dehydrohalogenation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 856.  Processes whereby halogen, or hydrogen and halogen, are removed from a compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 866]    866Purification or recovery
 This subclass is indented under subclass 856.  Processes wherein the carboxylic acid halide is separated from impurities or from the reaction medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 867]    867Alicyclic ring containing
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  Compounds which contain an alicyclic ring.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 868]    868Nitrogen attached indirectly to the carbonyl group by nonionic bonding
 This subclass is indented under subclass 840.  Compounds wherein nitrogen is attached indirectly to the carbonyl group by nonionic bonding.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

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[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 869]    869Containing -C(=X)-CN, wherein X is chalcogen (e.g., carbonyl cyanides, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium):

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 870]    870Sulfonyl isocyanates or sulfonyl isothiocyanates, (i.e., compounds having the -S(=O)(=O)-N=C=X group, wherein X is oxygen or sulfur)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, wherein X is oxygen or sulfur:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 871]    871Containing -C(=X)-N=C=X or -C(=X)-X-N=N-X-, wherein the X's may be the same or diverse chalcogens
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain either of the following two groups, wherein the X"s are the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium):

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 872]    872Sulfonic anhydrides (i.e., compounds having the -S(=O)(=O)-O-S(=O)(O=) group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclass 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing oxygen or sulfur.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 873]    873Containing -S(=O)(=O)-CN or -S(=O)(=O)-N=S=O
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain either of the following two groups:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 874]    874Containing -C(=X)-NH-X-C(=X)- or -C(=X)-NH-X-S(=O)(=O)-, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only, and the X's may be the same or diverse chalcogens
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532 ... which contain either of the two following groups, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only, and the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium):

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 875]    875Containing -C(=NH)-X-C(=X)-, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only, and the X's may be the same or diverse chalcogens
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only, and the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium):

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 875

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 876]    876Phosphorus bonded directly to the single bonded X of a -C(=X)-X-group, wherein the X's may be the same or diverse chalcogens
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... in which the single bonded X of a -C(=X)X- group is bonded directly to phosphorus and the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium).
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 876

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen or phosphorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 877]    877Phosphorus bonded directly to cyano or to -N=C=X, wherein X is chalcogen
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... in which cyano or an -N=C=X group is bonded directly to phosphorus, and X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium).
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 877

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen, nitrogen, or phosphorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 878]    878Two phosphori bonded directly to the same divalent chalcogen atom (e.g., pyrophosphorus compounds, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... wherein a divalent chalcogen atom (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) is bonded directly to two phosphorus atoms.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 878

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclass 406 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen chalcogen or phosphorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 879]    879Containing -C(=X)-X-N(=O) or -C(=X)-X-S(=O)(=O)-, wherein the X's may be the same or diverse chalcogens
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain either of the two following groups, in each of which the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium):

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 879

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 880]    880Containing -C(=X)-NH-X-NH-C(=X)- or -C(=X)-X-NH-S(=O)(=O)-, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only, and the X's may be the same or diverse chalcogens
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain either of the two following groups, in each of which substitution may be made only for hydrogen and the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium):

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 880

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment note subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 881]    881Containing -C(=X)-NH-X-halo, wherein substitution may be made for hydrogen only, and the X's may be the same or diverse chalcogens
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, in which substitution may be made for hydrogen only, the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium), and halo is halogen:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 881

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 882]    882Boron bonded directly to the single bonded X of a -C(=X)-X- group, wherein the X's may be the same or diverse chalcogens
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... wherein the single bonded X of a -C(=X)X- group is bonded directly to boron, and the X"s may be the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium).
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 882

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclass 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 883]    883Two borons bonded directly to the same divalent chalcogen atom (e.g., boroxoles, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... wherein a divalent chalcogen atom (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) is bonded directly to two borons.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 883

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 406 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen or chalcogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 884]    884Boron bonded directly to the single bonded oxygen of a -S(=O)(=O)-O- group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... wherein the single bonded oxygen of a -S(=O)(=O)-O- group is bonded directly to boron.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 884

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclass 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing oxygen or sulfur.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 885]    885Compounds having the -S-SCN group bonded directly to carbon, which carbon may be single bonded to any atom but may be multiple bonded only to carbon
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... wherein carbon, which may be multiple bonded only to another carbon, is bonded directly to a -S-SCN group.
(1) Note. An example of a compound provided for herein is:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 885

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing sulfur or nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 886]    886Thiocarboxylic acid anhydrides (i.e., compounds having the -C(=X)-X C(=X)- group, wherein the X's may be the same or diverse chalcogens and at least one X is sulfur)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the following group, in which the X"s are the same or diverse chalcogens (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium) and at least one X is sulfur:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 886

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclass 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing chalcogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 887]    887Carboxylic acid anhydrides (i.e., compounds having the -C(=O)-O-C(=O)- group)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain the carboxylic acid anhydride group:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 887

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclass 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing oxygen.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 888]    888Processes of forming the -C(=O)-O-C(=O)- group
 This subclass is indented under subclass 887.  Processes wherein the carboxylic acid anhydride group is formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 889]    889Aldehyde reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 888.  Processes wherein an aldehyde reactant is used.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 890]    890Carbon monoxide or metal carbonyl reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 888.  Processes wherein carbon monoxide or a metal carbonyl is used as a reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 891]    891Ether or carboxylic acid ester reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 890.  Processes wherein an ether or a carboxylic acid ester is used as a reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 892]    892Ketone or ketene reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 888.  Processes wherein a ketene or a ketone is used as a reactant.
(1) Note. The structure of ketene is:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 892

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 893]    893Ether or carboxylic acid ester reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 888.  Processes wherein an ether or a carboxylic acid ester is used as a reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 894]    894Carboxylic acid salt reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 888.  Processes wherein a salt of a carboxylic acid is used as a reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 895]    895Dehydration of two like or different molecules of carboxylic acid
 This subclass is indented under subclass 888.  Processes which involve the dehydration of two like or different molecules of carboxylic acid.
(1) Note. Examples of processes provided for herein are:

Image 1 for class 562 subclass 895

  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 896]    896Vapor phase
 This subclass is indented under subclass 895.  Processes wherein the dehydration is conducted in vapor phase.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 897]    897Carboxylic acid halide reactant
 This subclass is indented under subclass 888.  Processes wherein a carboxylic acid halide is used as a reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 898]    898Purification or recovery
 This subclass is indented under subclass 887.  Processes wherein the carboxylic acid anhydride is separated from impurities or from the reaction mixture.
  
[List of Patents for class 562 subclass 899]    899Selenium or tellurium containing
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Compounds under Class 532, ... which contain selenium or tellurium.
(1) Note. Examples of compounds provided for herein are:

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 406 , 408 and 409 for the chemical destruction of organic hazardous or toxic waste containing halogen, selenium, tellurium, or phosphorus.
  

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