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SPEECH ANALYSIS OR SYNTHESIS; SPEECH RECOGNITION; SPEECH OR VOICE PROCESSING; SPEECH OR AUDIO CODING OR DECODING
Definition statement
This subclass covers:
  • processing of speech or voice signals in general (G10L 25/00);
  • production of synthetic speech signals (G10L 13/00);
  • recognition of speech (G10L 15/00);
  • lyrics recognition from a singing voice (G10L 15/00);
  • speaker identification, authentication or verification (G10L 17/00);
  • singer recognition from a singing voice (G10L 17/00);
  • analysis of speech signals for bandwidth compression or extension, bit-rate or redundancy reduction (G10L 19/00);
  • coding/decoding of audio signals for compression and expansion using analysis-synthesis, source filter models or psycho-acoustic analysis (G10L 19/00);
  • modification of speech signals, speech enhancement, source separation (G10L 21/00);
  • noise filtering or echo cancellation in an audio signal (G10L 21/00);
  • speech or voice analysis techniques specially adapted to analyse or modify audio signals not necessarily including speech or voice are also covered in subgroups (G10L 21/00,G10L 25/00);
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass does not cover:

Devices for the storage of speech signals

Spatial sound recording

Spatial sound reproduction

Encoding of compressed speech signals for transmission or storage

Coding or synthesis of audio signals in musical instruments

Karaoke or singing voice processing

Sound production

Sound input or sound output arrangements for computers

Amplifiers

Gain or frequency control

Broadcasting

Secret communication

Handling natural language data

General pattern recognition

Speech or voice prosthesis

Mere application of speech or voice analysis techniques

application place

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Information retrieval of audio data

Broadcasting arrangements of audio

Name dialling controlled by voice recognition

Automatic arrangements for answering calls

Places in relation to which this subclass is residual:

Acoustics not otherwise provided for

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measurement of sound waves in general

Sound input/output for computers

Image data processing

Teaching or communicating with the blind, deaf or mute

Electronic musical instruments

Information storage, e.g. sound storage

Electronic circuits for sound generation

Electronic filters

Coding, decoding or code conversion, error protection in general

Telephonic communication

Switching systems

Microphone arrangements, hearing aids, public address systems

Spatial sound reproduction

Glossary of terms
In this subclass, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:

Speech

definite vocal sounds that form words to express thoughts and ideas

Voice

sounds generated by vocal chords or synthetic versions thereof

Audio

of or relating to humanly audible sound

Speech synthesis; Text to speech systems
Definition statement
This group covers:
  • synthesis of speech from text, concatenation of smaller speech units, grapheme to phoneme conversion;
  • modification of the voice for speech synthesis: gender, age, pitch, prosody, stress.
  • hardware or software implementation details of a speech synthesis system
References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Navigation systems for vehicles, guidance using speech synthesis.

Speech synthesis in games

Electric switches with speech feedback

Speech synthesis in mobile phones

Electronic musical instruments

Sound producing other than musical instruments

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Natural language translation

Excitation coding of a speech signal

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

HMM

Hidden Markov Model

TTS

Text To Speech

Concept to speech synthesisers; Generation of natural phrases from machine-based concepts (generation of parameters for speech synthesis out of text G10L 13/08)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

concepts used for speech synthesis can be linked to an emotion to be conveyed (US2010329505), a communication goal driving a dialogue (US2010241420), image-to-speech (US2010231752), native sounding speech (US2004030554)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Language translation

Speech recognition (G10L 17/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This group covers:
  • recognition of text or phonemes from a spoken audio signal;
  • spoken dialog interfaces, human-machine spoken interfaces
  • topic detection in a dialogue, semantic analysis, keyword detection, spoken command and control
  • context dependent speech recognition (location, environment, age, gender, etc.)
  • parameter extraction, acoustic models, word models, grammars, language models for speech recognition
  • recognition of speech in a noisy environment
  • recognition of speech using visual clues
  • feedback of the recognition results, disambiguation of speech recognition results
  • dedicated hardware or software implementations, parallel and distributed processing of speech recognition engines
References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Voice control for systems within a vehicle

Speech input for vehicle navigation systems

Sound input arrangements for computers

Teaching how to speak

Name dialling controlled by voice recognition

Speech interaction details in automatic or semi-automatic exchange systems for interactive information services

Spoken command and control of surgical instruments

Speech input in video games

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Complex mathematical functions

Handling natural language data

Information retrieval of audio data

Educational appliances

Face recognition, lip reading without acoustical input

Pattern recognition

Signal processing for recording

Natural language processing

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ANN

Artificial neural network

ASR

Automatic speech recognition

CSR

Continuous speech recognition

GMM

Gaussian mixture model

HMM

Hidden Markov model

IVR

Interactive voice response

MLP

Multi layer perceptron

VLSR

Very large speech recognition

Speaker identification or verification
Definition statement
This group covers:
  • recognition, identification of a speaker
  • verification, authentication of a speaker
  • feature extraction, dialog, prompts, passwords for identification
  • identification in noisy condition
  • multimodal identification including voice
  • impostor detection
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Complex mathematical functions

Information retrieval of audio data

Secret secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user

Security arrangements, restricting access by authenticating users, using biometric data

Pattern recognition

Individual entry or exit registers, access control with identity check using personal physical data

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:

Speaker verification, or authentication

refers to verifying that the user claimed identity is real, he is otherwise an impostor. Speaker recognition, or identification, aims at determining who the user is among a closed (finite number) set of users. He is otherwise unknown.

A goat, sheep

often refers to a person whose voice is easy to counterfeit.

A wolf, predator

often refers to a person who can easily counterfeit someone else's voice or is often identified as someone else.

An impostor

is someone actively trying to counterfeit someone else's identity.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ANN

Artificial neural network

ASR

Automatic speech recognition

GMM

Gaussian mixture model

HMM

Hidden Markov model

IVR

Interactive voice response

MLP

Multi layer perceptron

Speech or audio signal analysis-synthesis techniques for redundancy reduction, e.g. in vocoders; Coding or decoding of speech or audio signal, using source filter models or psychoacoustic analysis (in musical instruments G10H)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Techniques for the reduction of data from audio sources, i.e. compression of audio. These techniques are applied to reduce the quantity of information to be stored or transmitted, but are independent of the end-application, medium or transmission channel, i.e. do only exploit the properties of the source signal itself or the final receiver exposed to this signal (the listener).

Mainly two types of sources can be distinguished :

"speech only" encompass signals produced by human speakers, and historically was to be understood as mono-channel, single speaker "telephone quality" speech having a narrow bandwidth limited to max. 4kHz. Encoding of speech only sources primarily aim at reducing the bit-rate while still providing fair intelligibility of the spoken content, but not always fidelity to the original.

"Audio signal" is broader and comprises speech as well as background information, e.g. music source having multiple channels. Encoding of audio deals primarily with transparent, i.e. "high fidelity" reproduction of the original signal.

The compression techniques can also be distinguished as being :

Lossy or Lossless, i.e. whether a perfect reconstruction of the source is possible, or only a perceptually acceptable approximation can be done.

The techniques classified in this subclass are based either on modelling the production of the signal (voice) or the perception of it (general audio).

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Coding of signals within electronic musical instruments

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Complex mathematical functions

Quality monitoring in automatic, semi automatic exchanges

Quality control of voice transmission between switching centres

Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing

Editing; Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronizing; Monitoring;

Compression

Detecting, preventing errors in received information

Transmission of audio and video in television systems

Simultaneous speech and data transmission

Stereophonic arrangements

Stereophonic systems

Wireless communication networks

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:

audio signal

is meant to include speech, music, silence or background signal, or any combinations thereof, unless explicitly specified

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

CELP

Code Excited Linear Prediction

CTX

Continuous transmission

DTX

Discontinuous transmission

HVXC

Harmonic Vector eXcitation Coding

LPC

linear prediction coding

MBE

Multiband Excitation

MELP

Mixed Excitation Linear Prediction

MOS

mean opinion score

MPEG

Moving Picture Experts Group

MPEG1 audio

Standard ISO/IEC 11172-3

MPEG2 audio

Standard ISO/IEC 13818-3

MPEG4 audio

Standard ISO/IEC 14496-3

MP3

MPEG 1 Layer III

PCM

pulse code modulation

PWI

Prototype Waveform Interpolation

SBR

Spectral Band Replication

In patent documents the following expressions/words " perceptual" and "psychoacoustic" are often used as synonyms.

Variable rate codecs, e.g. for generating different qualities using a scalable representation such as hierarchical encoding or layered encoding
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Coding of a signal with rate adaptation, e.g. adapted to voiced speech, unvoiced speech, transitions and noise/silence portions.

Coding of a signal with a core encoder providing a minimum level of quality, and extension layers to improve the quality but requiring a higher bitrate. It includes parameter based bandwidth extension (i.e. SBR) or channel extension.

This group is in opposition to G10L 21/038 in which the bandwidth extension is artificial, i.e. based on the only narrowband encoded signal.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Artificial bandwidth extension, i.e. based on the only narrowband encoded signal

Spatial sound recording

Spatial sound reproduction

Processing of the speech or voice signal to produce another audible or non-audible signal, e.g. visual or tactile, in order to modify its quality or its intelligibility (G10L 19/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This group covers:

The subgroup deals with speech or voice modification applications, but receives also applications for speech or voice analysis techniques specially adapted to analyse or modify audio signals not necessarily including speech or voice but which are not music signals (G10H).

  • bandwidth extension of an audio signal
  • improvement of the intelligibility of a coded speech signal
  • removal of noise from an audio signal
  • removal of echo from an audio signal
  • separation of audio sources
  • pitch, speed modification of an audio signal
  • voice morphing
  • visualisation of audio signals (e.g. sonagrams)
  • lips or face movement synchronisation with speech (e.g phonemes - visemes alignment).
  • face animation synchronisation with the emotion contained in the voice or speech signal
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Speech or audio signal analysis-synthesis techniques for redundancy reduction, e.g. in vocoders ; Coding or decoding of speech or audio signals, e.g. for compression or expansion, source-filter models or psychoacoustic analysis

Places in relation to which this group is residual:

Electronic musical instruments

Loudspekers, microphones, gramophone pick-up or like acoustic electromechanical transducers; deaf-aid sets; public address systems

Stereophonic systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Complex mathematical functions

Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing,

Gain control in amplifiers

Animation based on audio data, talking heads

Signal processing not specific to the method of recording or reproducing, for reducing noise

Editing; Indexing; Addressing; Timing or synchronizing; Monitoring;

Direction finder

Reducing noise or bandwidth in transmission systems not characterised by the medium used for transmission

Reducing echo effect or singing in line transmissions systems

Hearing aids

Public address systems

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:

Viseme

a visual representation of the mouth, lips, tongue and teeth corresponding to a phoneme

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

BSS

blind source separation

LDA

linear discriminant analysis

NB

narrowband

PCA

principal component analysis

SBR

Spectral Band Replication

WB

wideband

for synchronising with other signals, e.g. video signals
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Visemes are selected to match with the corresponding speech segment, or the speech segments are adapted/chosen, to match with the viseme. This symbol also encompasses the coarticulation effects as used in facial character animation or talking heads.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Facial character animation per se

using band spreading techniques
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Bandwidth extension taking place at the receiving side, e.g. generation of artificial low or high frequency components, regeneration of spectral holes, based on the only narrowband encoded signal. This is in opposition with G10L 19/24 wherein parameters are computed during the encoding step to enable bandwidth extension at the decoding step.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Parameter based bandwidth extension (e.g. SBR)

Speech or voice analysis techniques not restricted to a single one of groups G10L 15/00-G10L 21/00
Definition statement
This group covers:
  • processing of speech or voice signals in general, in particular detection of a speech signal, end points detection in noise, extraction of pitch, measure of the voicing, emotional state, voice pathology or other speech or voice related parameters
  • speech or voice analysis techniques specially adapted to analyse audio signals not necessarily including speech or voice, such as audio scene segmentation, jingle detection, separation from music or noise, detection of particular sounds;
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Karaoke or singing voice processing, parameter extraction for musical signal categorisation, electronic musical instruments

Gain or frequency control

DTX communication

Multiplex systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Switching of direction of transmission by voice in loud-speaking telephone systems

Comfort noise

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

audio signal

is of or relating to humanly audible sound. e.g., it comprises any combination of background noise or silence, voice or speech, music.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013