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SIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS (signalling arrangements on vehicles B60Q, B62D 41/00; railway signalling systems or devices B61L; on cycles B62J 3/00, B62J 6/00; safes or strong-rooms with alarm devices E05G; signalling or alarm devices in mines E21F 17/18; lamps or shutters therefor F21; sensitive measuring elements, see the appropriate subclasses of G01; traffic control systems G08G; visual indicating means G09; sound-producing devices G10; radio or near-field calling systems H04B 5/00, H04B 7/00; selecting arrangements H04Q 7/00, H04Q 9/00; loudspeakers, microphones, gramophone pick-ups or like acoustic electromechanical transducers H04R)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Visual, audible, tactile signalling systems (or combinations thereof) and arrangements of signalling in devices if not provided for elsewhere.

Burglar, theft, or intruder alarms. Identifying, scaring or incapacitating burglars, thieves, or intruders.

Fire alarms; Alarms responsive to explosion.

Alarms responsive to unspecified undesired or abnormal operating condition if not elsewhere provided for.

Alarm systems in which the location of the alarm condition is signalled to a central station, either spontaneously or upon interrogation from the central station.

Alarm systems in which the alarm condition is signalled from a central station to a plurality of substations

Checking or monitoring of signalling or alarm systems; Prevention or correction of operating errors, e.g. preventing unauthorised operation Predictive alarm systems characterised by extrapolation or other computation using updated historic data.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The mere provision of an audible or visible signalling device on a measuring or switching apparatus;

Alarm systems for indicating that a specific variable has reached a predetermined value, these are classified in subclasses of G01 specifying the particular variable concerned;

Alarms relating to specific processes or types of machines or apparatus, which are covered by the relevant subclasses for the processes, machines, or apparatus.

Note:

G08B is principally defined in terms of fields of application, rather than fields of technology. For example G08B 13/00 is defined in terms of burglar, theft or intruder alarms but not limited to a particular technology, such as camera systems, tag systems etc. The systems and devices classified in G08B consequently involve many different technologies and the sub class has a high number of neighbouring technical fields. Neighbouring technical fields are typically either those areas dealing with the sensing devices per se (typically G01) or other application fields which use the same technologies (usually in G06, G07 or H04N).

For example:

G08B 13/2402 deals with electronic article surveillance using tags attached to valuables. Often these tags are radio frequency identification tags (RFID). However, RFID techniques and devices per se are not classified in G08B, but in G06K. Likewise many other specific applications using RFID tags should not be classified in G08B, e.g. entrance control using tags (G07C), inventory systems using tags (G06Q).

Example 2:

Theft detection using cameras belongs to G08B, Close-circuit television (CCTV) systems per se are classified in the video fields (H04N 7/00). Other systems employ similar camera systems, but for a different purpose. E.g. entrance systems using cameras (G07C), traffic control using cameras (G08G). The mere mentioning of surveillance in a video system does not qualify the document for classification in G08B. In G08B the object of surveillance is always to detect theft or intrusion.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Lamps or shutters for lamps
Radio or near-field calling systems
Railway signalling systems or devices
Safes or strong-rooms with alarm devices
Sensitive measuring elements
Signalling arrangements on vehicles
Signalling or alarm devices in mines
Signalling systems on cycles
Sound-producing devices
Traffic control systems
Visual indicating means
Selecting arrangements
H04Q7/00, H04Q 9/00
Loudspeakers, microphones, gramophone pick-ups or like acoustic electromechanical transducers
Special rules of classification within this subclass

G08B has a high number of neighbouring fields. This has consequences for limiting references, for deciding which classification entries are relevant to the search and for deciding where to classify documents outside G08B. The most relevant neighbouring fields specific to particular sub-groups of G08B are presented in the detailed analysis of each of the subgroups.

Generally documents are only classified in classes to which the invention specifically relates. However In specific cases, details should be classified elsewhere as additional information. E.g. details of devices where the invention is in G08B 13/1427 - theft control using a transmitter-receiver system, should have details classified in the subgroups of G08B 21/0202, parent-child transmitter-receiver systems, which use the same technology.

Systems for signalling characterised solely by the form of transmission of the signal
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Signalling systems where the emphasis is put in the transmission or relaying of the signal, not on the way of perceiving the signal.

Further details of subgroups

This subgroup contains diverse alarm systems, where the alarm signalling of a sub-element (e.g. a detector within the system) is transformed to electrical signals from a different medium, e.g. transmission of an electric alarm signal upon detection of an audible alarm signal.

Audible signalling systems; Audible personal calling systems ( {signalling devices actuated by tyre pressure B60C 23/02; alarm locks E05B 45/00, e.g. with mechanically-operated bells E05B 45/02, electric E05B 45/06} ; audible indication of time signals G04B 21/00, G04C 21/00; {sound producing devices, e.g. hooter, buzzer, G10K; telephonic systems provided with personal calling arrangements H04M 11/022} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Audible signalling systems. Pager receivers signalling only audibly.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Alarm locks
Audible indication of time signals
Distributing signals to two or more loudspeakers for public address systems
Intercoms
Loudspeakers
Selective calling systems and call receivers
Signalling devices actuated by tyre pressure
Sound producing devices, e.g. hooter, buzzer,
Telephonic systems with personal calling arrangements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Filling tank whistles
Horns for cars
Special rules of classification within this group

Audible signalling systems with a specific application classified elsewhere (e.g. a particular machine comprising an audible signalling device where the classification related to this machine already contains signalling related entries). Paging systems.

Paging receivers using only audible signalling is largely an obsolete technology. However, patent applications are still filed in G08B 3/1008 and subgroups thereof.

Visible signalling systems, e.g. personal calling systems, remote indication of seats occupied ( {locks with visible signalling devices E05B 39/00; electro-, magneto- or acousto-optic display devices G02F} ; display of time signals G04B 19/00, G04C 17/00, G04C 19/00, G04G 9/00; for display of alphanumeric information G09F; flags, banners G09F; {display tubes H01J 17/49, H01K 7/04; electro-luminescent devices H05B 33/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Visible signalling systems. Paging receivers signalling visually

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements on vehicles
Circuit arrangements for flashing lamps
Display of alphanumeric information
Display of time signals
Display tubes
Electro-, magneto- or acousto-optic display devices
Electro-luminescent devices
Flags, banners
Locks with visible signalling devices
Mechanical indicators of the time when a person is available.
Paging systems
Special rules of classification within this group

With a view to understanding the relevance of the term "visually" for classifiying paging receivers, the following information is of importance:

  • Paging receivers which do signal visually are classified in this group. This implies:

a) That G08B hosts the paging receivers, which is not explicit from the main group titles.

b) That the paging receivers are classified in two different groups in G08B. If the paging receiver details the way it signals VISUALLY, it is to be classified under G08B 5/00(/22+). If the paging receiver presents details as to how it signals AUDIBLY, it shall be clasified under G08B 3/10+

c) If the paging receiver presents details as to how to signal both audibly and visually,since no appropriate entry exists for paging receivers under G08B 7/00, the document shall be classified in both G08B 5/00 and G08B 3/00 accordingly.

c) paging systems are NOT to be classified in G08B, rather H04W (formerly also H04Q).

All Visual indicators of the types specified in the subgroups of G08B 7/06 (e.g. indication of emergency exits or escape routes) are classified there and not in G08B 5/00, even if they comprise only visual signalling means.

Tactile signalling systems, e.g. personal calling systems (indication of time by feeling G04B 25/02; deaf-aid sets H04R 25/00) { (apparatus for generating mechanical vibrations B06B 1/045; motors converting reciprocating into rotary movement or vice-versa H02K 7/06; motors with reciprocating, oscillating, or vibrating magnet, armature, or coil system H02K 33/00; telephone hand set vibration alarms H04M 19/047) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tactile (e.g. vibratory) signalling systems.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for generating mechanical vibrations
Deaf-aid sets
Indication of time by feeling
Motors converting reciprocating into rotary movement or vice-versa
Motors with reciprocating, oscillating, or vibrating magnet, armature, or coil system
Telephone hand set vibration alarms
Special rules of classification within this group

Tactile signalling systems with a specific application classified elsewhere (e.g. a vibratory signalling device comprised in a mobile telephone).

Signalling systems according to more than one of groups G08B 3/00 to G08B 6/00 (combinations of display arrangements with audible advertising G09F 27/00) ; Personal calling systems according to more than one of groups G08B 3/00 to G08B 6/00 { (combinations of display devices with advertising G09F) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter combining more than one of visual, audible and/or tactile signalling means.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Combinations of display arrangements with audible advertising
Devices for facilitating escape from buildings
Exit signs (e.g.) on doors
Walking aids for blind persons
Special rules of classification within this group

The following special rules apply:

Signalling systems with a specific application classified elsewhere (e.g. a particular machine comprising a visual and an audible signalling device where the classification related to this machine already contains signalling related entries). G08B 7/00 takes precedence over any group in G08B 3/00, G08B 5/00, G08B 6/00.

Although the heading of this group specifies “more than one … signalling means”, systems and devices comprising only one single signalling means are classified in the following subgroups: G08B 7/064, G08B 7/062, G08B 7/068, G08B 7/066 (see also precedence note here above).

Order telegraph apparatus, i.e. means for transmitting one of a finite number of different orders at the discretion of the user, e.g. bridge to engine room orders in ships (signalling devices in mines E21F 17/18)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Order telegraph apparatus.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Signalling devices in mines
Burglar, theft, or intruder alarms (vehicle theft alarms B60R 25/10; cycle theft alarms B62H 5/00) { (fire or police telegraphic systems G08B 25/00, G08B 26/00, H04M 11/04) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Arrangements, devices and systems triggering an alarm in case of intrusion, theft or burglary.

This group is mainly subdivided according to the technology used to detect the burglary, theft or intrusion. Each subgroup will typically have related fields in the areas where the corresponding sensors and systems per se are classified, and in many technical fields where the same type of detectors might be used.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

If the invention lies in a central station control unit of a distributed system or in the way in which alarm signals are transmitted between the central station control unit and satellite detectors of the distributed system, classification is likely to be G08B 25/00, G08B 26/00 or G08B 27/00, rather than G08B 13/00. Similarly, if the invention lies in the checking of or testing for malfunctions of an alarm system, then classification is likely to be in G08B 29/00.

Exceptions to the above are those distributed systems in which the specific theft detection technology is relevant to the invention (e.g. video theft detection systems communicating with a central station and where the problem solved by the invention is particularly related to video).

G08B 13/00 only covers theft, burglary and intrusion alarms, it does not cover other alarms (e.g. personal safety alarms, machine fault warnings G08B 21/00).

Intrusion here means physical intrusion, not non-authorised (electronic) access to a system, e.g. hacking.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Alarm devices on safes
Alarm locks. Alarm systems limited to lock systems
Anti theft control in POS systems
Control access systems, sometimes combined with EAS systems.
Cycle theft alarms
Fire or burglar alarm telephonic systems
Network intrusion
Recognising scenes under surveillance, e.g. with Markovian modelling of scene activity
RFID readers
RFID transponders
Security seals
Sensing per se
Tags fixed to articles to be removed at check out
Vehicle theft alarms
Windows, doors against burglary
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Active positioning systems
Antenna details, also for EAS interrogators
Anti theft control in POS systems
Anti-theft means in containers
Camera calibration, e.g. determining intrinsic or extrinsic parameters
Closed circuit television systems
Closed circuit television systems
Containers incorporating RFID tag.
Control access systems, sometimes combined with EAS systems.
Detecting using light barriers
Detecting using light barriers. multi beams
Detecting using light barriers. single beams
Devices to prevent theft or loss of purses, luggage or hand carried bags
Electronic seals for containers
Electronic seals for envelopes
Fastening or securing to goods by means of strings, straps, chains, or wires
Fastening or securing to goods by means of strings, straps, chains, or wires
Fences
Floor coverings
Illumination activated by motion detection
Image content analysis
Infrared sensors. Radiation pyrometry.
Layered products, e.g. glass panels
Loan/reuse applications using RFID tags
Locks giving indication of unauthorized opening
Mechanical details for pivoting arrangements, e.g. for cameras
Mechanisms for attaching tags to goods
Motion analysis in video images
Opening detection in general
Opening or tampering of casing of electronic components
G06F21/00N1T
Opening or tampering of casing of electronic components
G06F21/00N1T
Opening or tampering of input/output devices, i.e. mouse, keyboards
G06F21/00N1V1
Opening or tampering of input/output devices, i.e. mouse, keyboards
G06F21/00N1V1
Radiation pyrometry. Lens details
Recognition of humans or body parts in video images.
Recognition of scenes under surveillance
RFID readers
RFID transponders
Security seals
Show stands, hangers or shelves with antitheft function.
Tracking of shipping containers
G06Q10/00D
Tracking/inventory using tags
Vehicle theft alarms
Windows, doors against burglary
Windows, doors against burglary
by breaking of glass
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products, e.g. glass panels
Windows, doors against burglary
by tampering with fastening (alarm locks E05B 45/00; alarm devices on safes E05G 1/10) { (anti-theft means in containers B65D 2211/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electronic seals for envelopes
Electronic seals for containers
Locks giving indication of unauthorized opening
Windows, doors against burglary
Opening detection in general
Opening or tampering of casing of electronic components
G06F21/00N1T
Opening or tampering of input/output devices, i.e. mouse, keyboards
G06F21/00N1V1
by opening, e.g. of door, of window, of drawer, of shutter, of curtain, of blind { (alarm locks E05B 45/00; electrical switches operated by opening or closing of a door H01H 13/18) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electronic seals for envelopes
Electronic seals for containers
Locks giving indication of unauthorized opening
Windows, doors against burglary
Opening detection in general
Opening or tampering of casing of electronic components
G06F21/00N1T
Opening or tampering of input/output devices, i.e. mouse, keyboards
G06F21/00N1V1
by pressure on floors, floor coverings, stair treads, counters, or tills { (contact cables, contact carpets H01B 7/10; electrical switches operated by change of a non-electrical or thermal condition H01H 9/00; treadles for traffic control G08G 1/02) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Floor coverings
by the breaking or disturbance of stretched cords or wires
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group contains arrangements where an item is protected against theft or intrusion by some type of “fence” which encloses or surrounds the item and whereby the disruption of the fence is detected. Here the term “fence” includes not only a conventional fence, such as one surrounding a building, but also a grid surrounding an electronic circuit in an electronic package.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fences
Opening or tampering of casing of electronic components
G06F21/00N1T
Opening or tampering of input/output devices, i.e. mouse, keyboards
G06F21/00N1V1
by lifting or attempted removal of hand-portable articles { (devices to prevent theft or loss of purses, luggage or hand carried bags A45C 13/18) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group relates to inventions in which the (attempted) physical removal of an object is detected, rather than the mere approach to an object, as is the case in G08B 13/12. E.g. Whilst cutting a cable in a fence in G08B 13/12 would indicate someone attempting to approach an object, cutting a cable in G08B 13/1445 would indicate that a cable by which an object was tethered has been cut, making the object removable.

Important: Electronic article surveillance (EAS) tags are not classified in G08B 13/14. They are classified in G08B 13/2402 and the subgroups thereof.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Show stands, hangers or shelves with antitheft function.
Devices to prevent theft or loss of purses, luggage or hand carried bags
{ with transmitter-receiver for distance detection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group relates to transmitter receiver alarm systems where part of the system, e.g. the transmitter, is physically associated with an article to be protected. The technology employed is the same as that of transmitter receiver systems according to G08B 21/0202 where a part of the system, e.g. the transmitter, is physically associated with a child to be protected. Transmitter receiver article theft systems must be classified in G08B 13/1427, and additionally in the appropriate subgroups of the personal safety alarms under G08B 21/0202 as additional information.

{with motion detection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The motion of a mechanism attached to a portable object is detected, not the motion of an intruder.

{ with detection of interference with a cable tethering an article, e.g. alarm activated by detecting detachment of article, breaking or stretching of cable (furniture, e.g. shelves for displaying merchandise, incorporating tethers to prevent theft A47F 7/024, A47F 5/0861) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

see comments to G08B 13/14.

Actuation by interference with mechanical vibrations in air or other fluid
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Vehicle theft alarms
Active positioning systems
by interruption of a radiation beam or barrier (light barriers G01V 8/10) { (industrial safety devices with photocells F16P 3/14) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group relates to interruption of a radiation beam. The groups under G01V 8/10 have the same structure and are useful for the search.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detecting using light barriers
using radiation reflectors
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In G08B 13/184 systems incorporate reflectors for reflecting a beam from the emitter to the receiver. The groups under G01V 8/10 have the same structure and are useful for the search.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detecting using light barriers
using light guides, e.g. optical fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group relates to protection using light guides such as optical fibres. Where the invention relates to a light guide, such as an optical fibre, incorporated into the structure of a fence for protecting an object, the classification is G08B 13/124, which takes precedence over G08B 13/186.

If the light guide, e.g. optical fibre, is used for the tethering an object, the correct classification is both G08B 13/1445 and G08B 13/186 (as additional information is appropriate).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detecting using light barriers. single beams
Detecting using light barriers. multi beams
using infra-red radiation detection systems { (G08B 13/194 takes precedence; lighting devices activated by motion detection F21V 23/0442; radiation pyrometry per se G01J 5/00; controlling circuits for electric light sources activated by motion detection H05B 37/0227) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Illumination activated by motion detection
Infrared sensors. Radiation pyrometry.
using focusing means
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Radiation pyrometry. Lens details
using television cameras { (recognition of scenes under surveillance G06K 9/00771; image analysis per se G06T 7/00; television cameras H04N 5/225; CCTV systems H04N 7/18) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group relates to theft or intrusion detection using video cameras. Personal safety, industrial process control, traffic surveillance, entry-exit systems, tele-presence or video conferencing systems are not classified in G08B (see the neighbouring fields of G08B 13/00 above).

Many details are contemplated by the classification scheme, and they should be allocated as completely as possible. They are grouped within the following structure:

  • Movement detection and image analysis
  • Camera casing
  • Details of the system layout
  • Electrical details.
  • Camera communication details
  • Data storage details
  • User interface details

Several specific subgroups serve as headers to help the reader separate these topics above. These header subgroups and should not be used for classification. This is indicated in the group references (“contains no documents”).

In general, a document which discloses generally known subject matter pertaining to one or more of the detailed subgroups but where the invention does not lie in the aspects covered by these subgroups should not be allocated that particular classification. If no subgroup can be appropriately allocated, then the document should be classified in G08B 13/196 as invention information, and the details present in the document should be classified in the corresponding subgroups as additional information. A document where the invention clearly focuses on the topic of an existing subgroup should be given only this subgroup as invention information, further details being classified as additional information where appropriate.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanical details for pivoting arrangements, e.g. for cameras
Image content analysis
Recognition of humans or body parts in video images.
Recognition of scenes under surveillance
Camera calibration, e.g. determining intrinsic or extrinsic parameters
Motion analysis in video images
Closed circuit television systems
{ Electronic Article Surveillance [EAS} , i.e. systems using tags for detecting removal of a tagged item from a secure area, e.g. tags for detecting shoplifting (mechanical aspects of the tags, e.g. related to locking E05B 73/0017; RFID readers G06K 7/00; RFID tags G06K 19/00; access control systems G07C 9/00; anti-theft control in point of sale systems G07G 3/003; security seals G09F 3/03) ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) tags are classified in G08B 13/2402 and its subgroups.

A tag in accordance with this group is an electromagnetic, non-contact marker detected by an antennae (typically a loop antenna arranged at the entrance of a shop or other building). Systems employed for the detection of theft of portable articles comprising an RF transponder communicating with a central station by a radio link are generally classified in the subgroups of G08B 13/14, even though the transponder may be referred to in the document as a tag.

Systems comprising a transponder and a tag is, at the time of writing in 2011 , an active topic (e.g. a tag detected by loop antennae at exit points of a shop but also communicating with the WLAN of a shop via Wi-fi access points). These documents should be classified both in G08B 13/1427 and G08B 13/2402.

The classification scheme hierarchically under G08B 13/2402 is detailed, and the relevant aspects of a document should be rigorously classified. Similar criteria as for G08B 13/196 applies:

In general, a document which discloses generally known subject matter pertaining to one or more of the detailed subgroups of G08B 13/2402, where the invention does not lie in the solution to a problem therein should not be allocated that particular classification. If no subgroup can be appropriately allocated, then the document should be classified in the header G08B 13/2402 as invention information, and the details present in the document should be classified in the corresponding subgroups as additional information.

A document where the invention clearly focuses on the topic of an existing subgroup should be given only this subgroup as invention information, further details being classified as additional information where appropriate.

Further details of subgroups

The group is structured in four main topics. The header groups for each main topic (discussed in bold here below) should NOT be used for classification, They exist rather for distinguishing the matter classified underneath. These topics are:

Classification is according to the tag technology used. Documents in which the specific technology is of relevance to the problem solved should be classified here. It is noted that documents specifically disclosing RFID tags solving problems in the field of theft detection should be classified in G08B 13/2417. RFID tags per se are not classified in G08B. Furthermore, merely mentioning security control or surveillance as possible fields of application for an RFID tag in a document is not sufficient to warrant classifying the document in G08B.

The classification defines technical aspects of the tag itself.

The classification defines specific applications of the tag which should only be considered if the system includes theft or intrusion detection (e.g. a system using tags storing check-out information and used for theft detection. Documents disclosing only tags used for check-out should not be classified here.

The classification defines systems or elements of systems other than the tag e.g. antennae for detecting tags, devices for deactivating tags, or transmission or communication arrangements employed within the system.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanisms for attaching tags to goods
RFID readers
RFID transponders
Control access systems, sometimes combined with EAS systems.
Anti theft control in POS systems
Security seals
Fastening or securing to goods by means of strings, straps, chains, or wires
Tracking of shipping containers
G06Q10/00D
Antenna details, also for EAS interrogators
Closed circuit television systems
Containers incorporating RFID tag.
Anti-theft means in containers
Tracking/inventory using tags
Loan/reuse applications using RFID tags
{ Intrusion detection systems, i.e. where the body of an intruder causes the interference with the electromagnetic field}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Microwave detectors for detecting intrusion.

Special rules of classification within this group

If the microwave detector is combined with a further sensing technology, documents are classified in G08B 13/2494.

Identifying, scaring or incapacitating burglars, thieves, or intruders, e.g. by explosives (burglar traps or the like, on safes E05G 5/02; {devices to prevent loss of bags, trunks or travelling baskets by producing sound, piercing, gas-discharging or the like A45C 13/24; alarm locks E05B 45/00, e.g. with detonating alarm E05B 45/04} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means or measures to stop thieves, trap them or deter them from their planned activity.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Personal portable devices transmitting an alarm signal to a remote security centre should be classified in G08B 25/016, not G08B 15/004.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Alarm locks with detonating alarm
Burglar traps or the like on safes
Devices to prevent loss of bags, trunks or travelling baskets by producing sound, piercing, gas-discharging or the like
Hand-held or body-worn self-defence devices using repellent gases or chemical
Fire alarms; Alarms responsive to explosion (temperature-responsive elements G01K; { automatic fire-extinguishing and alarm devices A62C 35/00, A62C 37/00; structural combination of lighting devices with smoke detectors F21V 33/0076; arrangement of safety devices on stoves F24C 7/08} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The generation of an alarm based on the detection of fire, smoke or particles indicating fire.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Flame detection or analysis to solve the problem of monitoring a controlled combustion process, e.g. in order to optimise burners in a kiln (F23N). Sensing elements per se, particle detectors air pollution detectors (G01N). Fire fighting arrangements; e.g. extinguishers, sprinklers, safety doors (A62C).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Automatic fire-extinguishing and alarm devices
Fire fighting area fires or forest fires,
Fire fighting in general
Light scattering per se
Radiation pyrometry
Safety devices on stoves, cooking apparatus
Structural combination of lighting with smoke detectors
Temperature responsive switches
Temperature-responsive elements
Special rules of classification within this group

Where the invention disclosed in a document relates to the structure of a fire alarm system including a central station, without specifying what kind of detectors are used, the document should be classified under G08B 25/00, G08B 26/00, G08B 27/00 or G08B 29/00 as appropriate. In this case, the document should also be classified in the head group G08B 17/00 as additional information, so that the document can be retrieved when searching for fire alarm systems.

Devices generating an alarm upon the detection of a combustible gas (i.e. before an explosion has actually taken place) and thus endangering the safety of persons, are not classified in G08B 17/00 but in G08B 21/16.

The classification is used for smoke detectors other than those defined in any of the specific subgroups thereof. E.g. systems comprising aspiration ducts used for the analysis and detection of smoke or other combustion products.

The classification is used for photoelectric smoke detectors responsive to the obscuration (reduced transmission) of light in the presence of smoke, the detector having a light detector arranged to receive light from a light source when no smoke is present.

The classification is used exclusively for photoelectric smoke detectors responsive to the scattering of light in the presence of smoke, the detector having a light receiver arranged to receive light from a light source which has been scattered by smoke.

Alarms responsive to two or more different undesired or abnormal conditions, e.g. burglary and fire, abnormal temperature and abnormal rate of flow
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Combinations of the subject matter of G08B 13/00 and G08B 17/00.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Weather alarms (G01W 1/00). Indications of formation of ice on aircraft (B64D 15/20).

Special rules of classification within this group

Specific details covered by subgroups of G08B 13/00 or G08B 17/00 should also be classified in those subgroups.

Fire and burglary alarms where the invention lies in G08B 25/00 to G08B 27/00 should not be classified here. G08B 19/005 deals with a detecting unit, not a system, intended both for the detection of fire and intrusion,

Example: a video camera detecting both fire and intrusion whereby, the details of the video camera system relating to intrusion detection should also be classified in the appropriate subgroups of G08B 13/196.

Alarms responsive to a single specified undesired or abnormal operating condition and not elsewhere provided for { (alarms on gas pipes F17D 3/01) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Alarms of various kinds, always exclusively in case they are not provided for elsewhere in the entire classification scheme. This group mainly covers alarms systems responsive to situations compromising the safety of persons. Additionally the group covers some alarms indicating faults in systems or devices and for which the entire classification scheme does not provide a more specific entry. It is important that classification under G08B 21/00 is carried out in accordance with the following rules in order to maintain the usefulness of the group for search purposes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Alarm devices for indicating persons falling over board
Anti-dozing alarms for vehicle drivers
Checking timed patrols
Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes
Detection of biological contaminants
Devices signalling that patients are leaving their beds
A61G12/00A
Diapers with wetness sensors and indicators
Electrical disconnection protective circuits for electric machines, also with operator alerts.
Elevator stopping systems in case of earthquake or other calamity.
House arrest systems
Measuring and indicating liquid levels in container
Measuring quality of medical staff
G06F19/00M5S
Passenger detection in vehicles
Recognising scenes under surveillance, e.g. with Markovian modelling of the scene activity)
Seismology
Telemedicine, also with devices carried by patients
G06F19/00M3F
Absence or presence of persons in vehicles.
Checking timed patrols e.g. of night security personnel
House arrest systems
Industrial safety in conjunction with the operation of a machine
Alarm clocks
Reminders for taking medicines
Special rules of classification within this group

Alarm systems related to a specific device or system which is found elsewhere in the classification.

An exhaustive list of examples cannot be given here, since so many specific devices, installations or systems have provisions for indicating malfunctions.

The following are not classified here e.g.: Theft, burglary or intrusion alarms (G08B 13/00), battery charge indicators (H01M 10/00, H02J 7/00), over-voltage indicators (G01R 19/00), an alarm for a crane (B66C 23/90) , an indicator of a fault on a fridge (F25D 29/008), or an alarm on a gas pipe (F17D 3/01).

Personal safety alarm systems not covered by the definition of G08B 21/0202 are classified here. e.g. fireman in-field safety alarm. Stopping a machine on safety grounds is not here (F16P 3/14, Industrial safety). Personal alarm systems (panic button) also not classified here (G08B 25/016)

This subgroup contains transmitter-receiver alarm systems e.g. where a parent carries a transceiver for monitoring a child carrying another transceiver. This subgroup uses the same technology as that of G08B 13/1427. If the invention relates to a specific subgroup of G08B 21/0202, the document should be classified in that specific subgroup as invention information. Otherwise the class G08B 21/0202 should be allocated as invention information. In both cases, the details disclosed in the document should, where possible, be classified also as additional information in the appropriate subgroups.

Details of documents classified in G08B 13/1427 should be classified also as additional information in the appropriate subgroups of G08B 21/0202.

Surveillance of elderly or infirm people. G08B 21/0407, the (sensor) means used for detecting an emergency and G08B 21/0438, the criteria for judging an emergency, constitute header groups defining the two main topics covered by this group. These should not be used for classification. Documents disclosing details of both topics should be classified under both topics.

G08B 21/04 itself is only to be used if the invention does not correspond to subject-matter covered by a subgroups.

There is considerable overlap of documents classified in G08B 21/06 and those classified in B60K 28/066 and A61B 5/18. A complete search should therefore include all three groups.

The literal wording of the definitions of these groups is so general that it could apply to almost any technology. In order for these groups to be useful for search, and to avoid loosing access to documents elsewhere, a document should only be classified in these groups if in the entire classification scheme a more appropriate classification entry cannot be found at all.

Where security or safety is compromised in dependence of the presence or absence of a person in a given area (e.g. alarm systems responsive to: the absence of a patient from a hospital bed; the absence of a parolee under house arrest from their house; the presence of a in an area in which they are not authorized to be). Documents detecting presence or absence of persons for specific applications elsewhere provided for are not to be classified here, for example detecting presence of a child in a hot car (B60N 2/002).

Alarm systems in which the location of the alarm condition is signalled to a central station, e.g. fire or police telegraphic systems { (signalling systems in general G08C) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Alarm systems where a central station receives alarm information from satellite detectors or subsystems.

These groups focus on alarm systems as a whole, not merely on the point where an alarm condition is detected.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Polled alarm systems (G08B 26/00). With the exception of groups G08B 25/001 to G08B 25/009 (see special rules for classification below).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Domotic systems
Emergency calls from traffic accidents
G08G1/123M2
Portable communication terminals supporting an emergency service
Services facilitating emergency connection
Telephonic communication systems adapted for combination with fire or burglar alarm system
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Packet radio networks
H04L12/56B
Home automation networks
WLANs
H04L12/28W
Special rules of classification within this group

Groups G08B 25/001 to G08B 25/009 relate to typical problems solved in the context of distributed alarm systems. They are relevant both to systems where the remote detector sends an alarm signal spontaneously and to systems having detectors which are polled by a central station. Documents classified in G08B 26/00, but which deal with any of the problems contemplated in these groups should additionally be classified in G08B 25/001 to G08B 25/009 as appropriate.

Procedures for cancelling an initiated alarm routine, e.g. cancelling an alarm routine after initiation due to: a user carrying out a cancelling action within a given time; a user failing to carry out an alarm acknowledgement or confirmation action within a given time.

Intermediate, pre-alarm state in the system.

Enrolment procedures for addressable elements of the alarm system.

Documents where the content or structure of the message exchanged between the central station (control unit) and the detectors is described in detailed or relevant for solving the problem posed.

Enrolment procedures for addressable elements of the alarm system.

An intermediate unit is used as a relay or extender of the system for communicating with the central station. Typically, nodes of the system can act both as a detector and as a repeater. The mere provision of an alarm panel that receives information from a detector and sends an alarm signal to a remote central station (e.g. the police) by telephone should not be classified here (rather on G08B 25/08), since this is typical of the way any alarm system transmits information using communication lines. G08B 25/009 is rather directed to systems where sub-units transmit to other sub-units, typically using the same transmission medium that will eventually be used for communicating with the central station. (alternative: G08B 25/009 is rather directed to systems where a sub-unit relays an alarm to another sub-unit, and the invention lies in the particular arrangement or way in which this is done.) As most of the documents in this group are wireless systems, this group takes precedence over G08B 25/10, i.e. a document classified here should not also be classified in G08B 25/10.

Personal alarm systems. This group differs from G08B 15/004 in that I requires the alarm to be transmitted to a central station, whereas in G08B 15/00 the aim is to deter the attacker by scaring them (e.g. by generating a sound or spraying an irritating gas).

These are typically, wired alarm networks where each detector has a characteristic electric element (e.g. a resistor having a particular resistance value which is switched into the circuit when the detector is in an alarm state). The central station typically monitors one or more circuit parameters of the line (e.g. line resistance) to detect an alarm and to identify which detector has triggered the alarm.

This classification includes both land line telephone networks (PSTN or POTS) and mobile (cell-phone) telephone networks (the latter are not classified in G08B 25/10).

Alarm systems in which substations are interrogated in succession by a central station
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Alarm systems where a central station polls satellite detectors or subsystems.

This group focuses on the alarm system as a whole, not merely on the point where an alarm condition is detected.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Polling in data switching networks
Special rules of classification within this group

Documents classified in G08B 26/00, disclosing a polling system, but dealing with any of the problems considered in groups G08B 25/001 to G08B 25/009 should also be classified in those groups.

Alarm systems in which the alarm condition is signalled from a central station to a plurality of substations { (signalling systems in general G08C) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Alarms signalled from a central station to a plurality of remote users or subscribers, e.g. on the basis of their being in a particular geographic area for which the alarm is relevant, or on the basis of their belonging to a particular group such as a fire fighting team or parents of a particular school.

Special rules of classification within this group

Alarms where the invention lies in transmission of alarms from a plurality of satellites to a single central station. Transmission related aspects of emergency broadcasting (H04W).

Checking or monitoring of signalling or alarm systems; Prevention or correction of operating errors, e.g. preventing unauthorised operation { (arrangements for testing electric properties, arrangements for locating electric faults G01R 31/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The continuous testing and supervision of signalling and alarm systems falling under the previous subgroups of the subclass G08B. This testing and supervision is conducted for the purpose of detecting malfunctions as well as (attempted) tampering or sabotage (G08B 29/02). The periodic testing of said systems, may be manual or automated (G08B 29/12). Detecting and correcting deviations from correct functioning (e.g. due to age related drift of component characteristics, environment variations, noise or interference) may be achieved by: monitoring temporal variations in signals; evaluating signals per se; and by the provision of other checking measures (e.g. dual detectors, data fusion from two detectors).

Special rules of classification within this group

A document disclosing an invention falling under the subgroup G08B 29/00 does not need to be classified elsewhere according to the specific type of alarm system disclosed. In other words G08B 29/00 takes precedence over other subgroups. However, where there are also details disclosed pertaining to the specific alarm system, and which would be of relevance for search, then the document should also be classified in the corresponding subgroup. E.g. a document disclosing an invention relating to detecting tampering with a smoke detector in a fire alarm system should be classified under G08B 29/046 and need not be further classified under G08B 17/00. However if there are particular details of the smoke detector which could be useful for search, then the document should also be classified under G08B 17/00.

Predictive alarm systems characterised by extrapolation or other computation using updated historic data
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Alarm systems in which the alarm is triggered as a result of analysing data to warn of a potential threat before a dangerous situation has actually developed. E.g. an alarm system making a video analysis of a crowd of people, the analysis comparing the behaviour of individuals in the crowd against a set of “normal” behaviour parameters, (walking speed, appropriateness of clothing for the weather etc.) in order to decide whether a particular individual poses a potential threat.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013