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APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR (optical parts of such apparatus G02B; systems for automatic generation of focusing signals for optical elements per se G02B 7/28; photosensitive materials or processes for photographic purposes G03C; apparatus for processing exposed photographic materials G03D)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

apparatus or methods for taking photographs using light sensitive film for image capture, apparatus or methods for printing, for projecting or viewing images using film stock, photographic film or slides by optical means, e.g. mounting of optical elements, flashes, and their related controls, e.g. exposure, focus,

(opto-)mechanical motion blur, e.g. anti-shake, cooling, beam shaping;

aspects of apparatus or methods for taking photographs using an electronic image sensor [EIS] for image capture, insofar as they correspond to those of said apparatus or methods for taking photographs using light sensitive film, i.e. insofar not peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS, e.g. mounting of optical elements or flashes, and their related controls insofar they are not peculiar to the presence of the EIS, e.g. exposure, focus, (opto-) mechanical motion blur (anti-shake);

aspects of apparatus or methods for projecting or viewing images using an electronic spatial light modulator [ESLM], insofar as they correspond to those of said apparatus or methods for projecting or viewing images using film stock, photographic film or slides, i.e. insofar as not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, e.g. mounting of optical elements not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, and their related controls not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, e.g. cooling, beam shaping, optical keystone correction;

as far as processes are concerned, only processes characterised by the use or manipulation of apparatus classifiable per se in this subclass;

(opto-)mechanical image enhancement in printers or projectors, e.g. keystone correction;

optical viewfinders;

remote control of cameras and projectors insofar not peculiar to the EIS or ESLM;

optical aspects of camera modules using electronic image sensors and related constructional details;

constructional aspects of projectors, e.g. cooling, beam shaping, light integrating means not peculiar to the ESLM.

DETAILS

APPARATUS

SPECIAL TECHNIQUES

TESTING

Relationship between large subject matter areas

H04N relates to pictorial communication and covers processes and apparatus where the photographic record is obtained in a purely electronic format and the concept of the invention relates to a concept specific to the electronic format.

The printing of a record obtained via the processes or apparatus of subclass H04N is classified in class B41 if the only chemical processing involved consists in the after-treatment of ink applied to the recording surface, but is classified in subclass G03B if a latent image is produced.

Photographic processes are covered by subclass G03B when the process relates to the exposure of the photosensitive medium in order to generate a latent image, i.e. a spatial light distribution on the light sensitive surface of a photosensitive medium.

Subclass G03C covers photographic materials, e.g. photosensitive films, and G03D covers the devices that involve a chemical transformation of the photosensitive medium, such that the latent image is transformed into a visible and permanent record, and whereas the transformation of the latent image captured on an electronic image sensor (EIS) into electric signals or a permanent electronic record is covered by H04N.

The following aspects of cameras or projectors are covered by H04N:

  • Aspects of apparatus or methods for image capture peculiar to the presence or use of an electronic image sensor [EIS] or image projection peculiar to the presence or use of an electronic spatial light modulator [ESLM] and their related controls insofar they are peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS or ESLM;
  • Processing of electrical image signals from the EIS or provided to the ESLM is covered by H04N 5/00, H04N 9/00;
  • Electronic viewfinders H04N 5/225, H04N 5/232, e.g. control of image pickup devices based on information indicated by the electronic viewfinder displaying an image signal generated by the EIS;
  • Electrical and mechanical aspects of camera modules using electronic image sensors and related constructional details as in mobile phones or webcams H04M 1/00, H04N 5/00;
  • Details of projectors peculiar to the use of an ESLM, e.g. dichroic and polarizing arrangements specially adapted for the ESLM H04N 9/00;
  • Remote control of cameras or projectors peculiar to the EIS or the ESLM, e.g. affecting their operation, or based on a generated electrical image signal, H04N 5/00, H04N 9/00;
  • Adaptations peculiar to the use of an EIS or ESLM or the display, the transmission, recording or other use of electrical image data and related circuitry, e.g. mounting of EIS or ESLM, integrated cleaning system for the EIS, dust mapping, cooling of the EIS H04N;
  • Video cameras, TV cameras, e.g. in studios, CCTV cameras, surveillance cameras and camcorders; Constructional and mechanical details related to such cameras, e.g. housings, even when not peculiar to the presence of an electronic image sensor [EIS] H04N 5/00;
  • Systems or apparatus wherein the inventive contribution lies in features covered above, concerning cameras when interacting with those to be covered by G03B, e.g. switch-over between electronic motion-blur correction of electronic viewfinder during focussing and optical motion-blur correction of the lens during exposure, electronic-motion blur correction of the electronic image signal based on output signals of additional sensor, or interaction between mechanical shutter and electronic control of the charge accumulation period of the EIS H04N.

The following schemes are intended to illustrate the relationship between H04N and G03B

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References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical parts for apparatus or arrangements for taking photographs or for projecting or viewing them
Photosensitive materials for photographic purposes
Apparatus for processing exposed photographic materials; Accessories therefor
Optical elements or arrangements associated with solid state imager structures;
Constructional and mechanical details related to Video cameras, TV cameras (e.g. in studios), CCTV cameras, surveillance cameras and camcorders even when not peculiar to the presence of an electronic image sensor [EIS]
Processing or use of electrical image signals from the EIS for the generation of camera control signals. e.g. focusing, exposure control, electronic blur correction, display in electronic viewfinder
EIS-sensor read-out

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by photographical inspection
Objective-type instruments for examining the eyes specially adapted for eye photography
Photographic composing devices
Photogrammetry; Photographic surveying
Recording indications of measuring instruments by photographic means
Indicating the weight by photographic recording
Photometry using photographic effects
Measuring linear or angular speed using photographic means; Measuring differences of linear or angular speeds using photographic means
Photographic dosimeters
Microscopes arranged for photographic purposes or projection purposes
Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data by photographic printing
Photographic arrangements structurally combined with the vessel:
- in vessels common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps
- in cathode-ray tubes or in electron-beam tubes
- in discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge
Particle spectrometers or separator tubes with detection performed by photographic film
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Photographic exposure meters
Adjusting means for lenses adapted for automatic focusing
Systems for automatic generation of focusing signals
Means for focusing of apparatus for photomechanical production of textured or patterned surfaces
G03F7/207
Data storage in general
Image processing per se
Transforming light or analogous information into electric image information
Transforming X-rays into electric image information
Transforming infrared radiation into electric image information
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Photography
the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, e.g. silver halide based chemical or an electronic image sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose such a light sensitive medium during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera
Camera
a device capturing image information represented by light patterns reflected or emitted from objects, and exposing a light sensitive film or an electronic image sensor during a timed exposure, usually through an optical lens, and producing an image on a light sensitive film or an electrical image information signal respectively
Projector
a device displaying image information by projection of light patterns, usually through an optical lens, wherein the light patterns are generated by illuminating an image, e.g. film or slide, or by converting an electric image signal into an optical signal using an electronic spatial light modulator
EIS
Electronic image sensor: optoelectronic transducer, converting optical image information into an electrical signal susceptible of being processed, stored, transmitted or displayed
Additional sensor
a sensor, other than the electronic image sensor, used for controlling a camera
ESLM
Electronic spatial light modulator: optoelectronic transducer converting electric signals representing image information into optical image information
Record
A registration, e.g. of sound or images, in permanent form by optical or electrical means for later reproduction
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

AE
Automatic Exposure
AF
Auto Focus
APS
Advanced Photographic System
DEP
Double Exposure Prevention
DSLR
Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera
SLR
Single Lens Reflex Camera
OVF
optical viewfinder
EVF
electronic viewfinder
Measuring or indicating length of the used or unused film; Counting number of exposures (measuring length in general G01B)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring length in general
Counting number of exposures (counting mechanisms per se G06M)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Counting mechanisms per se
Focusing arrangements (focusing means, autofocus systems for cameras G03B 13/00; means for automatic focusing of projectors G03B 21/53; means for automatic focusing of projection-printing apparatus or copying cameras G03B 27/34, G03F)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Means for focusing of cameras
Autofocus systems for cameras
Means for automatic focusing of projectors or projection-type viewers
Means for automatic focusing of photographic printing apparatus or copying cameras
Two or more co-operating pivoted blades e.g. iris type (shutters functioning as diaphragms by limiting extent of opening movement G03B 9/08)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Shutters functioning as diaphragms by limiting extent of opening movement
Shutters (electro-, magneto-, or acousto-optical shutters G02F 1/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source
Mechanism for delaying opening of shutter (separate from shutter G03B 17/38)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanism for delaying opening of shutter separate from shutter
Filters or other obturators specially adapted for photographic purposes (filters per se G02B { 5/20} )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical filters per se
{ Lens caps as separate accessory (accessories in general G03B 17/56) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Accessories in general
Viewfinders; Focusing aids for cameras; Means for focusing for cameras; Autofocus systems for cameras (hoods, caps G03B 11/04; reflex camera arrangements G03B 19/12, G03B 19/14; rangefinders per se G01C 3/00; automatic focusing in general G02B 7/09; systems for automatic generation of focusing signals G02B 7/28)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical rangefinders per se
Hoods or caps for eliminating unwanted light from lenses, viewfinders, or focusing aids
Reflex cameras with single objective and a movable reflector or a partly- transmitting mirror
Cameras with paired lenses, one of which forms image on photosensitive material and the other forms a corresponding image on a focusing screen
Viewfinders
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Viewfinders per se
Electronic viewfinders
to compensate for change of camera lens or size if picture
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Zoom viewfinders per se
Combinations of photographic apparatus with non-electronic flash apparatus; Non-electronic flash units ( {control of the photographic apparatus according to the flash apparatus characteristics G03B 7/16; test apparatus for flash G03B 43/00;} light sources using a charge of combustible material F21K 5/00; ignition circuits H05B 43/02)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Light sources using charges of combustible material
Control of exposure in accordance with both the intensity of the flash source and the distance of the flash source from object, e.g. in accordance with "guide number" of flash bulb and the focusing of the camera
Testing correct operation of photographic apparatus or parts thereof, e.g. flash apparatus
Circuit arrangements for light sources using a charge of combustible material
Combinations of cameras with electronic flash apparatus; Electronic flash units (discharge lamps per se H01J; circuit arrangements H05B 41/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. flash units without mechanical connection to the camera

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Discharge lamps
Circuit arrangements or apparatus for igniting or operating discharge lamps
for photographing the track of moving objects (high-speed photography G03B 39/00; recording tracks of nuclear particles G01T 5/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Plates or blocks in which tracks of nuclear particles are made visible by after-treatment, using photographic emulsion
High-speed photography
Details of cameras or camera bodies; Accessories therefor (lens hoods or caps G03B 11/04)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Lens barriers, covers, shields (for retractable lenses) if not integral part of camera body
collapsible, foldable, or extensible, e.g. book-type (bellows for instruments in general G12B)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hollow bodies having parts which are deformable or displaceable under pressure, e.g. bellows
Bellows per se
Signals indicating condition of a camera member or suitability of light (indicating depth of field G03B 13/30)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Indicating depth of field
Counting number of exposures (of film strips G03B 1/66; counting mechanisms per se G06M)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Counting mechanisms per se
adapted for combination with other photographic or optical apparatus (with microscopes, with telescopes G02B)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Microscopes
Telescopes
Accessories (camera cases A45C 11/38; { lens caps G03B 11/041; stands or trestles as support for apparatus or articles placed thereon F16M 11/00; means for attachment of apparatus allowing quick-release F16M 11/041; means for supporting on, or holding steady relative to a person F16M 13/04; tripods F16M 11/24; tripods with telescopic legs F16M 11/32; monopod or tripod having a central telescopic column F16M 11/28; heads or undercarriages for supporting an object and allowing movement thereof F16M 11/043 to F16M 11/14 or F16M 11/2007 to F16M 11/24} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

external battery compartments, support of camera body

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Camera cases
Lens caps;
Stands or trestles as support for apparatus or articles placed thereon
Means for attachment of apparatus allowing quick-release
Means for supporting on, or holding steady relative to, a person,
Tripods
Tripods with telescopic legs
Monopod or tripod having a central telescopic column
Movement that the support can allow for the object to be supported
Cameras (details G03B 17/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of cameras or camera bodies;Accessories therefor
Plate or cut-film cameras (with provision for alternative use with roll film G03B 19/08)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. cameras with a (movable) ground glass screen.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Plate or cut-film cameras with provision for alternative use with roll film
Motion-picture cameras (with non-intermittently running film G03B 41/02)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Motion-picture cameras with non-intermittently running film
Projectors or projection-type viewers; Accessories therefor (devices for changing pictures G03B 23/00; Zoetropes G03B 25/00; photographic printing apparatus G03B 27/00; arrangements for obtaining special effects on stages or in circuses or in arenas F21W 2111/06; optical projection comparators G01B 9/08; projection microscopes G02B 21/36) { laser projectors using scanning devices H04N 9/3129; interactive projectors, e.g. whiteboards, with input means to control the projection G06F 3/00; optical distortion correction, e.g. keystone G03B 21/14; projection devices comprising an electronic spatial light modulator and peculiar thereto H04N 5/74 or H04N 9/31}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Optical distortion correction, e.g. keystone
Devices for changing pictures
Interactive projectors (whiteboards) with input means to control the projection
Laser projectors using scanning devices
H04N9/31L
Projectors peculiar to the use of an electronic spatial light modulator
Electronic correction of distortions, e.g. video signal processing
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tables specially adapted to be used with domestic photographic projectors
Lighting devices or systems producing a varying lighting effect
Optical projection comparators
Viewers, other than projection viewers, giving motion-picture effects by persistence of vision, e.g. zoetrope
Photographic printing apparatus
Television systems’ projection arrangements for image reproduction
Projectors with built-in or built-on screen (projection screens in general G03B 21/56)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Projection screens
Lamp houses (condensers per se G02B)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Condensers
Microscope condensers
{Cassettes (G03B 21/326, G03B 21/328 take precedence; for containing light-sensitive material G03B 17/265) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for fixing the film on the axis of a reel or spindle
Means for fixing the film on the periphery of a reel
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Holders for containing light sensitive material and adapted to be inserted within the camera, e.g. cassettes specially adapted for motion picture film
Mechanisms transmitting motion to film-strip feed; Mechanical linking of shutter and intermittent feed (film-strip per se G03B 1/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Film-strip handling of general interest for cameras, projectors or printers
Control devices operated by the film strip during the run (controlling or regulating speed G03B 21/48)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanical linking of shutter and intermittent feed for altering frame speed or regulating constancy of film speed
Devices for changing pictures in viewing apparatus or projectors (film-strip handling G03B 1/00; direct viewers per se G02B)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Film-strip handling of general interest for cameras, projectors or printers
Telescopes, e.g. binoculars; Periscopes; Instruments for viewing the inside of hollow bodies
Viewing or reading apparatus
Viewers, other than projection viewers, giving motion-picture effects by persistence of vision, e.g. zoetrope (high-speed photography G03B 39/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
High-speed photography
Photographic printing apparatus (film-strip handling G03B 1/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Film-strip handling of general interest for cameras, projectors or printers
Illumination arrangements, e.g. positioning of lamps, positioning of reflectors (controlling the exposure G03B 27/72)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling or varying light intensity, spectral composition, or exposure time in photographic printing apparatus
G03D27/72
adapted to be combined with processing apparatus (processing apparatus per se G03D)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Processing apparatus per se
{Gas processing (gas processing apparatus G03D 7/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gas processing apparatus
{Heat development (heat development apparatus G03D 13/002) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Heat development apparatus
with slit or like diaphragm moving over original for progressive exposure (G03B 27/34 takes precedence; {projection optics per se G03B 27/525} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for automatic focusing for projection printing apparatus
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Projection optics for slit exposure
{Arrangements for applying a supplementary information onto the sensitive material, e.g. coding (producing marks on the film in cameras G03B 17/24) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Producing marks on the film in cameras
{Projection optics (for electro-photographic copiers in particular G03G 15/04) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Projection optics for electro-photographic copiers
Automatic registration or positioning of originals with respect to each other or the photosensitive layer (within photo-mechanical production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. of integrated circuits, G03F 9/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces in photo-mechanical production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. of integrated circuits
Lamp housings; Illuminating means (controlling the exposure G03B 27/72)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling or varying light intensity, spectral composition, or exposure time in photographic printing apparatus
Baseboards, masking frames, or other holders for the sensitive material (G03B 27/53 takes precedence; {for electrophotographic copiers G03G15/00G} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Automatic registration or positioning of originals with respect to each other or the photosensitive layer
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus relating to the handling of copy material for electrographic processes using a charge pattern
G03G15/00G
Holders for the original (G03B 27/53 takes precedence; {for electrophotographic copiers G03G15/00F} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Automatic registration or positioning of originals with respect to each other or the photosensitive layer
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus relating to the handling of originals for electrographic processes using a charge pattern
G03G15/00F
Controlling or varying light intensity, spectral composition, or exposure time in photographic printing apparatus (exposure meters per se G01J; control of light intensity in general G05D 25/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Exposure meters per se
Control of light, e.g. intensity, colour, phase
Combinations of cameras, projectors, or photographic printing apparatus with non-photographic non-optical apparatus, e.g. clocks, weapons; Cameras having the shape of other objects (combinations with flash apparatus G03B 15/03; combinations with instruments for medical examination A61B 1/04, G03B3/14; combinations with surveying instruments G01C; combinations with core or moderator structure of nuclear reactors G21C 17/08; structural combinations with electric discharge tubes H01J 5/16, H01J 29/89, H01J 37/22)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes
Theodolites combined with cameras
Arrangements specially adapted for eye photography
Structural combination of reactor core or moderator structure with viewing means, e.g. with television camera, periscope, window
Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined with the vessel
Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined
Optical or photographic arrangements associated with the tube
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Time-pieces combined with other articles which do not interfere with the running or time-keeping of the time-piece
Associated working of cameras or projectors with sound recording or reproducing means (record carriers characterised by the selection of the material and comprising cinematographic film and magnetic track G11B 5/633)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cinematographic processes of taking pictures or printing combined with sound-recording
Record carriers characterised by the selection of the material and comprising cinematographic film or slide with integral magnetic track
Colour photography, other than mere exposure or projection of a colour film (printing apparatus G03B 27/00; stereoscopic colour photography G03B 35/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Stereoscopic colour photography
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Printing apparatus
G03F35/00
using lenticular screens (integral with film G03C)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Colour photography using lenticular screens integral with film
using colour-pattern screens (integral with film G03C)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Colour photography using lenticular screens integral with film
Stereoscopic photography (panoramic or widescreen systems G03B 37/00; photogrammetry G01C)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Photogrammetry
Panoramic or wide-screen photography
{Photographing internal surfaces, e.g. of pipe, (G03B 37/02 to G03B 37/06 take precedence; Instruments for performing medical examinations of cavities or tubes of the body by photographic inspection A61B 1/00) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Automatic registration or positioning of originals with respect to each other or the photosensitive layer
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes
Special techniques not covered by groups G03B 31/00 to G03B 39/00; Apparatus therefor
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Associated working of cameras or projectors with sound-recording or -reproducing means
Colour photography, other than mere exposure or projection of a colour film
Stereoscopic photography
Panoramic or wide-screen photography;Photographing extended surfaces, e.g. for surveying;Photographing internal surfaces, e.g. of pipe
High-speed photography
Obtaining records using waves other than optical waves; Visualisation of such records by using optical means (investigating or analysing materials using electromagnetic or sonic waves G01N; using radar, sonar or analogous techniques G01S; {holography G03H} )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Investigating or analysing materials using electromagnetic radiation, other than infrared, visible or ultraviolet radiation, e.g. microwaves, or particles
Investigating or analysing materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves; Visualisation of the interior of objects by transmitting ultrasonic or sonic waves through the object
Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for mapping or imaging
Sonar systems specially adapted for mapping or imaging
Holography
using X-rays (measurement of X-radiation G01T; X-ray apparatus, circuits therefor H05G 1/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measurement of nuclear or X-radiation
X-ray apparatus involving X-ray tubes; Circuits therefor
{Apparatus for direct X-ray cinematography (circuit arrangements for obtaining a series of X-ray photographs or for X-ray cinematography H05G 1/60) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Circuit arrangements for obtaining a series of X-ray photographs or for X-ray cinematography
{Apparatus for indirect X-ray cinematography i.e. by taking pictures on ordinary film from the images on the fluorescent screen (by transforming the picture information intermediately into electrical signals G03B 27/725) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling or varying light intensity in photographic printing apparatus by transforming the picture information intermediately into electrical signals
{for dental applications (see also A61B 6/14) ; (individual packages for X-ray film G03C 3/003) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, applications or adaptations for dentistry
Individual packages for X-ray film, e.g. for dental applications
using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves (measurement of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves G01H)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measurement of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
Visualising the records by optical means (optical means using spatial filters G02B 27/46; optical systems for visualising phase objects G02B 27/50)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Diffraction optics systems using spatial filters;
Optics for phase object visualising
Testing shutters (measuring time intervals G04F)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Time-interval measuring
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013