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MEASURING LINEAR OR ANGULAR SPEED, ACCELERATION, DECELERATION, OR SHOCK; INDICATING PRESENCE, ABSENCE, OR DIRECTION, OF MOVEMENT (measuring or recording blood flow A61B 5/02, A61B 8/06; monitoring speed or deceleration of electrically-propelled vehicles B60L 3/00; vehicle lighting systems adapted to indicate speed B60Q 1/54; determining position or course in navigation, measuring ground distance in geodesy or surveying G01C; combined measuring devices for measuring two or more variables of movement G01C 23/00; measuring velocity of sound G01H; measuring velocity of light G01J 7/00; measuring direction or velocity of solid objects by reception or emission of radiowaves or other waves and based on propagation effects, e.g. Doppler effect, propagation time, direction of propagation, G01S; measuring speed of nuclear radiation G01T; measuring acceleration of gravity G01V; { measuring or recording the speed of trains B61L 23/00; speed indicators incorporated in motor vehicles B60K 35/00; measuring frequency or phase G01R; traffic control G08G})
Definition statement
This subclass covers:

Means to measure linear or angular rate of change of position of solid bodies or fluid mediums (speed, velocity).

Means to measure rate of change of linear or angular speed or velocity (acceleration, deceleration, shock) of solid bodies or fluid mediums.

Means to indicate or record movement of solid bodies or fluid mediums (presence, absence or direction).

Means to test or calibrate apparatus or devices covered by this subclass.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass does not cover:

Combined measuring devices measuring two or more variables of movement, e.g. distance, speed, acceleration

Measuring volume flow or mass flow

Measuring the velocity of ultrasonic, sonic (sound) or infrasonic waves

Measuring velocity of light

Measuring speed of nuclear or X-radiation

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Measuring or recording blood flow

Monitoring speed or acceleration of electrically-propelled vehicles

Vehicle optical or lighting devices adapted to indicate speed

Control, warning or like safety means along the route or between vehicles or vehicle trains

For determining direction or velocity of solid objects by reflection or reradiation of radio or other waves and based on propagation effects, e.g. Doppler effect, propagation time, direction of propagation

Measuring acceleration of gravity

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Speed indicators incorporated in motor vehicles

Determining position or course in navigation, measuring ground distance in geodesy or surveying

Gyroscopes or turn-sensitive devices per se

Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member; Means for converting the output of a sensing member to another variable where the form or nature of the sensing member does not constrain the means for converting; Transducers not specially adapted for a specific variable

Measuring torque

Testing structures or apparatus not otherwise provided for

Measuring frequency or phase

Instruments for indicating weather conditions by measuring two or more variables, e.g., humidity, pressure, temperature, cloud cover, wind speed

Measuring short time intervals

Systems for control of linear speed, angular speed, acceleration or deceleration, e.g. governors

Devices for counting moving objects in general

Registering or indicating the working conditions of vehicles

Traffic control

Details of instruments
Definition statement
This group covers:

Aspects of housings, e.g. related to providing particular operational conditions for the sensors, or indicating devices or recording devices

Housings
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Support / mountings of sensors;

Sensor housings; e.g. protection against environmental influences;

Housings: also sensor encapsulations, overmoulding, potting.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Component parts of measuring arrangements not specially adapted for a specific variable

Special rules of classification within this group

Means for mounting the sensor in a defined position or orientation should additionally classified in G01P 1/00

{for acceleration measuring devices}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring frequency or phase

Housings for micro-structural devices or systems in general

Special rules of classification within this group

For wafer-level encapsulation Indexing Code G01P 2015/088 should be used.

Special adaptations of driving means
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

(Mechanical) transmission elements between rotating object (the speed of which is determined) and

The speed indicator; e.g. flexible tachometer shaft or gearings therefor.

{Speed recorders}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Indicating working conditions of vehicles

Measuring linear or angular speed; Measuring differences of linear or angular speeds (G01P 5/00 to G01P 11/00 take precedence; {direction and speed indication G01P 13/045}; counting mechanisms G06M)
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Measuring speed of fluids, e.g. of air stream; Measuring speed of bodies relative to fluids, e.g. of ship, of aircraft

Measuring speed by integrating acceleration

Measuring speed by using gyroscopic effect

Measuring average value of speed

Direction and speed indication

Inertial angular velocity / angular rate sensors using gyroscopic effects

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices for counting moving objects in general

{by using fluidic impulse generators}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

(E.g. detection of cyclical modulation of fluid flow or pressure)

{by using a vortex chamber}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Detection of deflection of fluid streams caused by gyroscopic effects.

Devices characterised by the use of optical means, e.g. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light (G01P 3/68 takes precedence; gyrometers using the Sagnac effect, i.e. rotation-induced shifts between counter-rotating electromagnetic beams G01C 19/64)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

E.g. spacial filtering; speckle velocimetry;

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Determination of time taken to traverse a fixed distance using optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible, or ultra-violet light

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Determination of speed relative to a surface by using image analysis see also

Gyrometers using the Sagnac effect, i.e. rotation-induced shifts between counter-rotating electromagnetic beams

Velocity measurements using electromagnetic waves per se

Evaluation of sequences of (video-) camera images and of image processing

Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in this group, classification should also be considered in G01S 17/00, in particular G01S 17/58

{by using diffraction of light (for measuring speed of fluids G01P 5/26)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Optical velocity measurement exploiting the Doppler effect; e.g. LDA,LDV; determining velocity over rough surfaces.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Measuring speed of fluids

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical mice

General aspects, i.e. not related to rough surfaces, of optical Doppler measurements of velocity of solid objects

for measuring angular speed (G01P 3/56 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Use of electric or magnetic means for comparing two speeds

Determination of speed of an electric motor being based on model assumptions of the motor (e.g. speed determination from back-EMF)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Speed sensors in internal combustion engines

Speed sensors in commutatorless electric motors

Speed sensors in electric motors;

{mounted in bearings (bearings F16C)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The pick-up, and/or the encoder being integrated in a bearing unit or being designed in a particular manner for the purpose of being integrated in the bearing unit;

The detector elements being directly mounted to the bearing rings or to seal arrangements of the bearing.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sensors being integrated in bearing seals

by measuring frequency of generated current of voltage {(in general G01R 23/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The detection of physical parameters for deriving frequency information, e.g. microwave pick-ups or acoustic pick-ups.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for measuring frequencies in general

Detection of fluid flow or pressure pulses see

{by using electronic circuits in general}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Using analogue circuits.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Digital circuits for measuring speed from pulse signals

of pulse signals
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Conditioning of raw sensor signals in order to provide standardized signals (e.g. square pulses or sinusoidal signals) from which frequency, timing, phase information or directional information may be extracted.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Extraction of speed information from these standardized pulse signals by digital means to be classified in

Extraction of speed information only by analogue means to be classified in

Extraction of information relating to the direction of movement to be classified in

delivered by photo-electric detectors
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Detectors making use of encoders having optical properties.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical speed detectors not using encoders

delivered by rotating magnets
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Rotating permanent magnets or encoders comprising sections of permanent magnets (hard magnetic material).

delivered by variable reluctance detectors
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Encoders made of ferromagnetic (soft magnetic) materials;

Encoders made of electrically conductive materials in which induced eddy currents are generating the magnetic fields to be detected;

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rotating magnet encoders

Encoders of electrically conductive materials where electrostatic fields are detected

Eddy current in general

Digital circuits therefor
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Analogue circuits in

using eddy currents
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Using eddy currents which are generated in continuous electrically conductive means.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Determination of acceleration using eddy current effects

Special rules of classification within this group

Magnetic detection of pulse signals originating from eddy currents being generated in encoders made of electrically conductive material (e.g. aluminum tooth wheel) are additionally classified in G01P 3/488.

Devices characterised by the determination or the variation of atmospheric pressure with height to measure the vertical components of speed (measuring pressure in general G01L)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Determination of barometric height per se

Measuring pressure in general

Devices characterised by the determination of the time taken to traverse a fixed distance
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Vehicle speed measurement in traffic control systems

Measuring speed of fluids, e.g. of air stream; Measuring speed of bodies relative to fluids, e.g. of ship, of aircraft (application of speed-measuring devices for measuring volume of fluid G01F)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Measuring of speed or velocity of fluids (liquids of gases) in an open space (e.g. wind velocity, velocity of air in a building).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

G01P 5/24 and G01P 5/26 relate to the determination of velocity of fluids by using optical or acoustical waves, e.g. Doppler effect, propagation time, irrespective of the relevance of propagation effects.

G01S relates to the determination of velocity of fluids by using optical or acoustical waves, e.g. Doppler effect, propagation time, when propagation effects are relevant and therefore should also be considered for classification and search.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Application of fluid speed measurement where the purpose is to determine volume flow or mass flow through tubes

{Full-field flow measurement, e.g. determining flow velocity and direction in a whole region at the same time, flow visualisation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

E.g. Flow field visualisation by tracers..

Special rules of classification within this group

Further details of the sensors should additionally be classified in the subgroups according to the physical detection principle, e.g. G01P 5/02, G01P 5/26, G01P 5/10, etc.

using auto-correlation or cross-correlation detection means
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Characterisation of the collective movement of the particles of a volume section of the fluid stream

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Using auto-correlation or cross-correlation detection means

Determination of the speed of individual particles in the fluid stream

by measuring the direct influence of the streaming fluid on the properties of a detecting acoustical wave
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in this group, classification should also be considered in G01S 15/00

by measuring the direct influence of the streaming fluid on the properties of a detecting optical wave
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

E.g. particle image velocimetry [PIV], speckle velocimetry, optical Doppler velocimetry..

Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in this group, classification should also be considered in G01S 17/00, in particular G01S 17/58, G01S 17/95

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

PIV

particle image velocimetry

Measuring speed by integrating acceleration (measuring travelled distance by double integration of acceleration G01C 21/16)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Measuring speed by integrating acceleration.

References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Electric or electronic controls for exercising apparatus of preceding groups

Arrangements or fittings on vehicles for protecting or preventing injuries to occupants or pedestrians in case of accidents or other traffic risks

Determining control parameters used in the regulation, e.g. by calculations involving measured or detected parameters

Measuring travelled distance by double integration of acceleration

Programme-control systems

Measuring speed by using gyroscopic effect, e.g. using gas, using electron beam (gyroscopes or turn-sensitive devices per se G01C 19/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Using turn-sensitive devices or angular rate sensors using vibrating masses

Determination of linear velocity by using the gyroscopic effect

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measurement of acceleration making use of gyroscopes

Gyroscopes or turn-sensitive devices per se

Special rules of classification within this group

Recently subject to changes in IPC:

In ECLA not to be used any more;

All documents related to angular velocity or angular rate measurement based on the gyroscopic effect are classified in G01C 19/00

Measuring average value of speed (by determining time taken to traverse a fixed distance G01P 3/64, G01P 5/18)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Determining the average speed of a statistical ensemble.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

By determining time taken by solid bodies to traverse a fixed distance

By determining time taken by fluid volumes to traverse a fixed distance

Indicating or recording presence, absence, or direction, of movement (electric switches H01H; counting moving objects G06M 7/00)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Only detection of presence or absence of movement

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Counting moving objects

Electric switches

Burglar, theft or intruder alarms with electrical actuation

Indicating direction only, e.g. by weather vane
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Direction in two or more dimensions.

Measuring acceleration; Measuring deceleration; Measuring shock, i.e. sudden change of acceleration
References relevant to classification in this group

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Vehicle collision indicators

Data input devices

Inclination detection

Pedometers

Sensors for sports or training purposes

Medical diagnostics

Damage indicators on helmets

In footwear

{by measuring acceleration changes by making use of a triple differentiation of a displacement signal}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

General aspects of shock detection, impact detection.

Special rules of classification within this group

Particular acceleration-related shock detection principles should also be classified in their relevant subgroups of G01P 15/03 or G01P 15/08.

{Kinematic accelerometers, i.e. measuring acceleration in relation to an external reference frame, e.g. Ferratis accelerometers (G01P 15/001, G01P 15/16, G01P 15/165 take precedence)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Non-inertial sensors.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Measuring acceleration by measuring acceleration changes by making use of a triple differentiation of a displacement signal

Measuring acceleration by evaluating the time-derivative of a measured speed signal

{by using thermal pick-up}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

E.g. using thermal pick-up being responsive to acceleration induced change of convection of air streams.

{by using fluidic means}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Detection of deflection of a fluid jet;

detection of fluid flow being influenced by acceleration induced movement of a solid mass.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Inertial sensors having fluid seismic masses

using members subjected to a permanent deformation
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Mechanical shock indicators, e.g. breakable liquid filled vials, breakable or permanently deformable beams or membranes.

with conversion into electric or magnetic values
Special rules of classification within this group

Further aspects of sensor devices covered by G01P 15/08 but not provided for in any of its subgroups and not being related to the physical detection principle of displacement of seismic masses per se are mandatorily classified under the indexing scheme of G01P 15/08.

{Details}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Exclusively concerning details of the manufacture process (e.g. patterning of movable electrodes) or purely manufacture related structural elements of accelerometers (e.g. layered structure of a flexural beam).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

General aspects of micromachining and of micromachined devices

by photo-electric pick-up
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Also including optical fibre accelerometers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical vibration detection

Geophysical vibration detection

by vibratory elements
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Only those vibratory elements, which provide acceleration detection based on determination of acceleration dependent resonance frequency.

by magnetically sensitive devices
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

E.g. Hall pick-ups, magnetoresistive pick-ups..

{by semiconductor devices comprising at least one PN junction, e.g. transistors}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Including acceleration responsive FETs.

by capacitive pick-up
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Structural aspects of sensor capacitors; circuits for capacitive pick-up.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Capacitive displacement sensors

Capacitive proximity switches

Measurement of capacitance per se

Switched capacitor networks per se

by making use of contacts which are actuated by a movable inertial mass
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Single contacts for acceleration threshold measurement or wiper contacts for measurement over continuous acceleration ranges.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Acceleration responsive switches per se

Testing or calibrating of apparatus of devices covered by the preceding groups
Definition statement
This group covers:

Testing or calibrating while sensor being mounted on calibration table or test bench or selftest or selfcalibration during use of the sensor.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013