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WORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G (mechanical aspects B29; layered products, manufacture thereof B32B; treatment of macromolecular material specially adapted to enhance its filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone C04B 16/04, C04B 18/20C04B 20/00 ; treatment of texiles D06)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Processes of treating or compounding macromolecular substances as covered by C08J 3/00,
  • Manufacture of articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances as covered by C08J 5/00,
  • Chemical treatment or coating of shaped articles made of macromolecular substances as covered by C08J 7/00,
  • Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials or after-treatment thereof as covered by C08J 9/00,
  • Recovery or working-up of waste materials as covered by C08J 11/00.
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanical aspects of working-up
Working-up of compositions comprising more than 50% of mineral filler
Adhesive processes in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products, manufacture thereof
Special rules of classification within this subclass
  • In this subclass, the polymer involved in the working-up is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.
Process of treating or compounding macromolecular substances
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The chemical aspect of making solutions, dispersions or lattices, powdering or granulating, plasticizing, compounding with additives, cross linking, vulcanising and treatment by wave energy or particle radiation

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

The way of preparing solutions, emulsions, classified in C08J 3/02, can be part of the preparation and characterisation of paints and should also be classified in C09D 7/00.

The use of a specific emulsifying agent classified in B01F 17/00 could apply to the emulsification of polymers and be also classified in C08J 3/02.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cosmetic or similar preparations: characterized by their physical form
Mechanical aspects of mixing, emulsifying and dispersing
Catalyst carrier
Protection of catalyst (coating)
Making granules
Mechanical aspects of cross linking
Chemical modification of rubber
Making solution dispersion or lattices by solution, emulsion or suspension polymerisation
Post polymerisation treatment of polymer emulsions or solutions
Cross linking aspects not classifiable in these groups
Treatment by wave energy or irradiation of shaped articles
Plasticising macromolecules characterized by the plasticizer
Encapsulation of additives

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Medicinal preparations characterized by the non-active ingredient, e.g. characterization by their physical form
Treatment of inorganic materials other than fibrous filler in order to enhance their filling or pigmenting properties
Pigment paste
Preparation method of toner particles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Chemical aspects of absorbent pads
Special rules of classification within this group

C08J 3/122 takes precedence over C08J 3/124, C08J 3/14 and C08J 3/16.

This class could also be associated with C08J 3/02, as it is relevant for the process for making solution or emulsion.

In C08J 3/22, the additive added as master batch could also be a polymer.

This class could also be associated to C08J 3/20, i.e. compounding polymer with additive.

Manufacture of articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances (shaping of foodstuffs A23P; manufacture of semi-permeable membranes B01D 67/00 to B01D 71/00; mechanical features, see the relevant classes, e.g. B29)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

- Direct processing of dispersions, e.g. latex, to articles.

- Reinforcing macromolecular compounds with fibrous and/or nanosized materials.

- Bonding of a preformed macromolecular material to the same or other solid material.

-Manufacturing of films and sheets.

-Manufacture of shaped structures of ion- exchange resin, e.g. membranes.

-Impregnating materials with prepolymers, e.g. manufacturing of prepregs.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification:

The chemical aspect of making polymer composites with loose or coherent fibrous material classified in C08J 5/04 could be associated with

B29C 70/00: mechanical aspect of making such composites in a specific process for making composites;

C08K 7/00 or C08K 9/00: compounded polymer compositions characterized by the fibrous material.

C08J 5/04 refers to the process of reinforcing a polymer matrix, while C08K 7/00 and C08K 9/00 to a compounded composition characterized by the fibrous material.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Shaping of foodstuffs
Membranes for dialysis, osmosis or filtration, e.g. semi-permeable membranes
Ion-exchange in general
Anion-exchange in general
Amphoteric ion-exchange
Regeneration of ion-exchangers
Micro structural technology
B81
Treatment of rubber latex
Treatment of polymer emulsions
Nanosized additives; Use of ingredients characterised by shape
Surface modified additives
Other nonwoven fabrics
Finishing of textiles

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Medicinal preparations characterized by the non-active ingredient: characterization by their physical form
Treatment of inorganic materials other than fibrous filler in order to enhance their filling or pigmenting properties
Pigment paste
Adhesive processes
Fuel cells with polymeric electrolyte material
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multilayer films
After treatment of threads during manufacturing
Fuel cells with polymeric electrolyte material
Special rules of classification within this group

IPC groups C08J5/14 (Manufacture of abrasive or friction articles or materials) and C08J5/16 (Manufacture of articles or materials having reduced friction) are not used and have been transferred to respectively C09K 3/14 and C10M.

[N: Reinforced macromolecular compounds with nanosized materials, e.g. nanoparticles, nanofibres, nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods or nanolayered materials (use of ingredients characterised by shape C08K 7/00; nanotechnology for materials and surface science B82Y 30/00)]
Definition statement:
This subclass/group covers:

The reinforcement of polymers with nanofillers as structuring agent

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of ingredients characterised by shape
Nanotechnology for materials and surface science
Special rules of classification within this group

For polymers comprising nanoadditives without reinforcing structure, documents are classified in C08K.

Direct processing of dispersions, e.g. latex, to articles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The direct processing of latex, e.g. for hand gloves.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The treatment of latexes in general is to be classified in C08F 6/14, for rubber latex it should be classified in C08C 1/00.

Reinforcing macromolecular compounds with loose or coherent fibrous material (after-treatment of threads during manufacture D01F; [N: finishing of textiles D06M])
Definition statement:
This subclass/group covers:

The reinforcement of macromolecular compounds (thermoplastic) with loose or coherent fibrous material (no continuous fibres)

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The difference between C08J 5/04 and C08K 7/00 is made on the basis of explicit disclosure of composite which should be distinguished from reinforced plastics. A document will be classified in C08K 7/00 when it concerns only reinforcement of plastics like polyamide with glass fibres.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
After-treatment of threads during manufacture
Finishing of textiles
Manufacture of films or sheets
Definition statement:
This subclass/group covers:

The manufacture of self standing films or sheets:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Films which are only coated layers
Coating of shaped articles made of polymers with polymeric layers
Process for making films only characterized by the use of specific apparatus, e.g. extruding, blow moulding or thermoforming
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Producing flat articles, e.g. films or sheets
Wrappers or flexible covers; Packaging materials of special type or form, e.g. wrappers or envelopes with shock-absorbing properties
Shaping by stretching, e.g. drawing through a die, characterized by the choice of materials
Layered products essentially comprising synthetic resin
Special rules of classification within this subgroup
  • The type of polymer used to make the film is indicated using Indexing Codes of the group group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example: Polypropylene films are classified in C08J 5/18 and C08J 2323/12.

Manufacture of shaped of ion-exchange resins
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The product of manufacture of ion-exchange membranes based on inorganic and/or organic macromolecules; usually processes of making polyelectrolytes are classified here.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Use of macromolecular compounds as cation exchangers
Use of macromolecular compounds as anion exchangers
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

Films, membranes, or diaphragms [N: (ion-exchange in general, B01J 39/18-B01J 39/22, B01J 41/12-B01J 41/16, B01J 43/00, B01J 45/00, B01J 47/12 to B01J 49/00; fuel cells with polymeric electrolyte material H01M 8/1018)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Membranes of which at least the ion exchanging parts are inorganic, i.e. mixtures of non-polymeric ion-exchange compounds, e.g. inorganic salts and at least one polymer.

Membranes based on cellulose, covered by C08J 5/2212.

Methods for incorporating reinforcement supports or filling bodies are classified, where the support of filling body has no ion-exchange activity covered by C08J 5/2206.

Ion-exchanging fibrous fabrics are considered as heterogeneous membranes covered by C08J 5/2275; they include composite membranes, mixtures of two or more (ion exchange) polymers.

Reactions which change the nature of the ion-exchanging groups, introduction of ion-exchanging groups, after-treatment with membrane having been already been formed, covered by C08J 5/2287.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ion-exchange in general
Processes of separation using semi-permeable membranes, e.g. reverse osmosis, microfiltration or ultrafiltration
Semi-permeable membranes of macromolecular compounds
B01D 71/08
-B01D7/82
Electrolyte membranes which are characterized only by the construction, e.g. porosity or presence of specific electrolytes, the polymer being not specific
Fuel cells with polymeric electrolyte material
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fuel cells with solid polymeric electrolyte materials
Special rules of classification within this group

Groups. e.g. -G02F, which do not have ion-exchanging properties, but which may, by simple hydrolysis in an alkaline, neutral or acid medium, be transformed into ion-exchanging groups, e.g. -G02H, are considered as such.

Membranes obtained by homogeneous melting or from a solution are considered as homogeneous, even if the membrane contains (after solidification of the melt or the solution) heterogeneous elements, e.g. filling bodies, supports for example in the form of fabrics, or the like, i.e. the ion exchange resin forms the membrane.

Quaternising reactions are not considered as after-treatments.

Please see also the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: based on macromolecular compounds]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on organic and/or inorganic polymers.

Methods for incorporating reinforcement supports or filling bodies, the support or filling body having no ion exchange activity.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fuel cells with solid polymeric electrolyte materials
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: Natural macromolecular compounds]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on natural polymers, e.g. celullose.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: Synthetic macromolecular compounds]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on synthetic organic polymers.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: containing fluorine]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on synthetic organic polymers containing fluorine.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: based on macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving unsaturated carbon-to-carbon bonds]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on synthetic polymers obtained by addition polymerization (C08F) reactions.

[N: containing fluorine]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on synthetic polymers obtained by addition polymerization (C08F) reactions and containing fluorine.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: obtained by introduction of active groups capable of ion-exchange into compounds of the type C08J 5/2231]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes obtained by introduction of active groups of ion-exchange groups into compounds of the type C08J 5/2231.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

Groups, e.g. SO2F, which do not have ion-exchanging properties, but which may, by simple hydrolysis in an alkaline, neutral or acid medium, be transformed into ion-exchanging groups, e.g. SO2H, are considered as such.

[N: containing fluorine]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes obtained by introduction of active groups of ion-exchange groups into compounds of the type C08J 5/2231 containing fluorine.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: based on macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions other than those involving carbon-to-carbon bonds, e.g. obtained by polycondensation]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on polymers obtained by step polymerization (C08G) reactions (condensation or polyaddition polymerization).

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: Ion-exchange membranes based on macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions other than those involving carbon-to-carbon bonds, e.g. obtained by polycondensation, and containing fluorine]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on polymers obtained by step polymerization (C08G) reactions (condensation or polyaddition polymerisation) and containing fluorine.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: based on macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving both unsaturated carbon-to-carbon bonds, and by reactions not involving this type of bond, e.g. obtained by polycondensation]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ion-exchange membranes obtained by step polymerization (C08G) and addition polymerization (C08F) reactions (both types of reaction are present)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: Heterogeneous membranes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

- Heterogeneous or composite ion-exchange membranes.

- Ion-exchanging fibrous fabrics, which are considered as heterogeneous membranes; they include composite membranes, mixtures of two or more (ion exchange) polymers.

- Membranes obtained by homogeneous melting or from a solution, which are considered as homogeneous, even if the membrane contains (after solidification of the melt or the solution) heterogeneous elements, e.g. filling bodies, supports e.g. in the form of fabrics, or the like, i.e. the ion exchange resin forms the membrane.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Composite membranes; Ultra-thin membranes
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: fluorine containing heterogeneous membranes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Heterogeneous or composite ion-exchange membranes containing fluorine

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Composite membranes; Ultra-thin membranes
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

[N: After-treatment]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

- After-treatment of already formed ion-exchange membranes.

- Reactions which change the nature of the ion-exchanging groups, introduction of ion-exchanging groups

- After-treatment, the membrane having been already formed

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Processes specially adapted for manufacturing semi-permeable membranes for separation processes or apparatus
B01D 67/0002, K18F2/00
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

Quaternising reactions are not considered as after-treatments.

[N: After-treatment of fluorine-containing membranes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

After-treatment of already formed fluorine containing ion-exchange membranes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Processes specially adapted for manufacturing semi-permeable membranes for separation processes or apparatus
B01D 67/0002, K18F2/00
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

Reactions which change the nature of the ion-exchanging groups, introduction of ion-exchanging groups, after-treatment (where the membrane has already been formed) are classified in C08J 5/2287 or in C08J5/22D1.

Quaternising reactions are not considered as after-treatments.

Impregnating materials with prepolymers which can be polymerised in situ, e.g. manufacture of prepregs
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Prepregs, i.e. reinforcement material preimpregnated with a resin matrix.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products characterised by the presence of two or more layers, wherein one layer is a fibrous or filamentary layer impregnated with or embedded in a plastic subtance
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

The following Indexing Codes can be used:

D10B 2505/02: Reinforcing materials; Prepregs

D10B 2505/022: for tyres

Chemical treatment or coating of shaped articles made of macromolecular substances
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical treatment or coating of polymeric substrates. The characteristic feature of this group, -as opposed to C09D- is the nature of the substrate, which has to be always polymeric.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

C08J 7/00 relates to processes of treating or coating polymeric substrates only.

C09D relates to coating compositions.

B05D relates to processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coating with metallic material
Electrolytic deposition of metals
C25
Treating textile materials
D06
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coating compositions
Processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general
Special rules of classification within this group
  • The treatment of specific polymers is indicated using Indexing Codes of the group group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example - Surface treatment of a polypropylene film is classified in C08J 7/00 and C08J 2323/12.

with solvents, e.g. swelling agents
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of polymeric substrates with solvents or swelling agents.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Recovery or working-up of waste materials using selective solvents for polymer components.
After-treatment of articles without altering their shape; using liquids, e.g. solvents, swelling agents.
B2971/00C
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Coating
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coating of polymeric substrates in general.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Please the References under under C08J 7/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coating compositions per se
C09D 101/00
-C09D210/00
Coating compositions based on organic non-macromolecular compounds having at least one polymerisable carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bond
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

[N: with two or more layers, where at least one layer of a composition contains a polymer binder]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multiple coatings on a polymeric substrate, where at least one layer of a composition contains a polymer binder.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Please see the Relationship under under C08J 7/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Layered products essentially comprising synthetic resin
Special rules of classification within this group
  • The treatment of specific polymers is indicated using Indexing Codes of the group group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example - Coating of a polypropylene film with a polyurethane layer and a polyepoxy layer is classified in C08J 7/00 and C08J 2323/12 and C08J 2475/04 and M08463/00.

[N: with at least one layer of inorganic material and at least one layer of a composition containing a polymer binder]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multiple coatings on a polymeric substrate with at least one layer of inorganic material and at least one layer of a composition containing a polymer binder.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Please the Relationship under under C08J 7/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

See corresponding note under C08J 7/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Please the References under under C08J 7/00.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

with only one layer of a composition containing a polymer binder
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coating a polymeric substrate with a single layer containing an unspecified polymer binder.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Multiple coatings on a polymeric substrate
C09D7/04D
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coating compositions based on unspecified macromolecular compounds
Special rules of classification within this group
  • The coating of a specific polymeric substrate with a layer of an unspecified polymer binder is using Indexing Codes of the group group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example -1: Coating of a polycarbonate substrate with a protective polymeric layer is classified in C08J 7/047 and C08J 2369/00;

When both the substrate and the coating are unspecified the classification C08J 7/047 alone is used.

Example -2: Coating a polycarbonate substrate with a polyurethane layer is classified in C08J 7/047 and C08J 2369/00 and C08J 2475/04

with compositions not containing macromolecular substances
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coating, impregnating, adsorbing or absorbing a polymeric substrate with low-molecular weight compounds; mainly inorganic compounds. No metallization!

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coating with metallic material
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coating compositions based on inorganic substances.
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

low-molecular weight organic substances
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coating, impregnating, adsorbing or absorbing of a polymeric substrate with low-molecular weight organic substances e.g. absorption of dyes in the surface of the article;

Treatment of a polymer substrate with antimicrobial agent.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Features of coating compositions; non-macromolecular additives
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Heat treatment
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Thermal treatment of polymer substrates with heat, e.g. flame.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Surface shaping by flame treatment e.g. hot gases
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Chemical modification
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical modification of a polymeric surface.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Chemical etching
Chemical modification of a polymeric surface
[N: Treatment by wave energy or particle radiation]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of polymeric substrates with electromagnetic radiation, e.g. corona, plasma, X-rays or γ-rays.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

C08J 7/123 refers to the treatment of a polymeric surface with electromagnetic radiation, while C08J 3/28 refers to the treatment of the bulk of a polymer with electromagnetic radiation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pretreatment of polymeric substrates with plasma
Surface shaping of articles by plasma treatment
Surface shaping of articles by wave energy or particle radiation
Treatment (the bulk) of a macromolecular compound by wave energy or radiation
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions are often used as synonyms.

Particle radiation treatment
Plasma treatment Electron beam treatmentElectronic irradiation
Wave energy treatment
Corona discharge Glow discharge Ultraviolet treatmentUV treatment
[N: Halogenation]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Halogenation (e.g. chlorination or fluorination) of polymeric surfaces.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Chemical modification by after-treatment halogenation
Special rules of classification within this group

See corresponding note under C08J 7/00.

Synonyms and Keywords
Chlorination
Chloration
Fluorination
Fluoration
with acids, their salts or anhydrides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical modification of a polymeric surface with acids, their salts or anhydrides to apply functional groups onto the surface of the treated article.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Please the References under under C08J 7/00.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

with polymerisable compounds
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymerization of monomer(s) on top of a polymeric surface.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coating compositions, e.g. paints, varnishes or lacquers, based on organic non-macromolecular compounds having at least one polymerisable carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bond
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

using wave energy or particle radiation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Polymerization of monomer(s) on top of a polymeric surface using wave energy or particle radiation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Plasma-deposition of organic layers
B05D7/24E
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

Please see the Synonyms or Keywords under C08J7/02A.

Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof.
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

- The organic, inorganic or polymeric additives used during the preparation of a polymeric foam (C08J 9/00), - The blowing or foaming agents involved (C08J 9/02 - C08J 9/149),

- The foaming processes (C08J 9/16 - C08J 9/35),

- The post-treatment of the foam (C08J 9/36 - C08J 9/42).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

- Documents essentially dealing with the mechanical aspects of the foaming process are classified in group B29C 44/00.

- Documents essentially dealing with medical applications are classified in A61L

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sponges for cleaning purposes
Medical applications
Manufacture of microcapsules or microballoons
Mechanical aspects of foaming
Foams containing more than 50% inorganic filler
Synthesis and blends of organic blowing agents
Polyurethane foams only characterized by the reactants, e.g. polyol or isocyanate
Use of a filler in a non foamed polymer composition
Polymer blends per se
Propellants for aerosols

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Use of foams for bandages, dressings or absorbent pads
Materials for prostheses
Membranes
Porous films
Special rules of classification within this group

In the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place. Example: Halogenated phosphoric compound as additive is classified in C08J 9/0038

Documents belonging to several subgroups are also classified in the "one dot less" subgroup. Example: The combination of brominated flame retardant and phosphoric compound is classified in C08J 9/0019, C08J 9/0038 and C08J 9/0014.

The use of water as sole blowing agent for (poly)isocyanate-containing foams is regarded as trivial. It is not classified in C08J.

Foams are subdivided according to the involved polymer(s) using the C08L IPC scheme:

When a foam is a.o. characterized by the involved polymer(s),

then Indexing Codes of the C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00 are given, in order to specify said polymer(s).

The structure of the C08J 2300/00 classification is mainly based on the classification of C08L.

Exemple: C08J 2325/06 corresponds to C08L 25/06 (polystyrene) Additionally, C08J 2300/00 to M08J330/00 specify polymers which are broadly defined.

When a document deals with one single polymer or several alternative polymers, but no polymer blend, then an Indexing Code of the C08J 2300/00 range is used.

Examples: The use of an alkane blowing agent for expanding polystyrene is classified in C08J 9/141 and C08J 2325/06.

The use of alkane blowing agent for expanding polystyrene or polyethylene is classified in C08J 9/141, and C08J 2325/06 and C08J 2323/06.

Further subdivisions:

This subgroup is only allocated when, in addition to a "main" polymer, a second or third polymer is present in the foamable blend. This second or third polymer is always in minority, compared to the main polymer.

- - Please see the Rules under C08J 9/00.

As above, the "main" polymer is indexed using C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00..

- - The polymeric component in minority is indexed using C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00..

Example: A foam from a blend or 80% polystyrene and 20% PMMA is classified in C08J 9/0061, C08J 2325/06 and C08J 2433/12.

- When overlapping ranges of two polymers are claimed or exclusively exemplified, then "mirror classification" is given.

Example: A foamable blend of 80-20% polystyrene and 20-80% polyethylene is classified in C08J 9/0061 and C08J 2425/06 and C08J 2323/06, and C08J 2423/06 and C08J 2325/06.

Common sense says any C08J 2300/00-M08L399/00 can be used in combination with any C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00 to define the invention.

- Second and/or third polymers, only present in very low proportions may be ignored, provided their presence is not the key of the invention.

- Foam compositions wherein only the polymer in minority is defined are classified in C08J 9/0061 and C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example: Foam comprising 10% polystyrene in 90% of an other polymer is classified in C08J 9/0061 and C08J 2425/06.

In these subgroups, Indexing Codes of the C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00 are used to designate the polymer used for coating, binding or impregnating the foam (particle). The foam itself receives a C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00 code.

In these subgroup, Indexing Codes of the C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00 are used to designate the foam fragments. The foamable (C08J 9/35) or unfoamable matrix (C08J 9/33) is specified using C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.

Indexing Codes C08J 2201/04 to C08J 2201/0484 are used in C08J 9/26, for specifying the solid to be extracted.

Indexing Codes C08J 2201/05 to C08J 2201/0545 are used in C08J 9/28, for specifying the first step of the separation process (cooling, evaporation, precipitation).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Blowing agent
Substance which is either gaseous at ambient temperature or capable of reversibly becoming gaseous upon heating (C08J 9/12 or subgroups). This strict distinction is however not always respected in patents.
Foaming agent
Material that will decompose to release a gas under certain conditions (C08J 9/06 or subgroups)
Integral foams
Foams characterized by a dense or slightly expanded skin on a foamed core
Open cells foam orfoam with open pores
Foam where more than 50% or the pores are open
Porogen
Compound which is removed after solidification of the polymer composition (C08J 9/26, C08J 9/28)
Syntactic foams
Foams containing expandable and/or non expandable hollow particles (C08J 9/32)
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions are often used as synonyms:

- Expandable compositions and expanded products are often regarded as similar and thus classified in the same subgroup.

- A foam composition is expandable or foamable.

- A foam (p)article can be porous cellular, expanded, foamed, pre- or post-foamed, pre- or post-expanded.

- A foam contains pores, cavities or cells, which can be closed, open or interconnected.

- A foam is porous, macroporous, microporous (1-100 microns diameter) or nanoporous (1-100 nanometers).

- The pores distribution can be for e.g. unimodal, bimodal or trimodal.

- Porous polymeric aerogels, organogels or xerogels can be regarded as foams.

using binding agents
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Expandable or expanded particles coated by a thin binding agent.

from compositions containing microballoons, e.g. syntactic foams (making microballoons B01J 13/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Foams containing expandable microspheres, e.g. Expancel ® , as well as inorganic microspheres, microballoons or cenospheres.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Foams dealing with expandable particles like expandable polystyrene
Making microballoons
Agglomerating foam fragments, e.g. waste foam
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Foam fragments in a unfoamed matrix.

Composite foams, i.e. continuous macromolecular foams containing discontinuous cellular particles or fragments
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Foam fragments in a foamed matrix.

Recovery or working-up of waste materials (polymerisation processes involving purification or recycling of waste polymers or their depolymerisation products C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G, C08H; mechanical treatments B29)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Physical and chemical recycling of waste polymers. with the purpose of recovering monomer(s), oligomer(s) and/or polymers with the purpose of making new polymers (same or different).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Polymerisation processes involving purification or recycling of waste polymers or their depolymerisation products
Mechanical treatments
B29
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Collecting, recovering, recycling or eliminating the paint sludge from the washing liquid
Recovering or eliminating the paint sludge from washing liquid
Recovery of plastics or other constituents of waste material containing plastics, e.g. mechanical aspects of recycling
Layered products made from or containing mainly scrap material
B32B27/00B
Layered products made of or containing mainly scrap material
B32B27/00B
Agglomerating foam fragments, e.g. waste foam
Use of waste materials, e.g. treated or untreated sewage sludge
Compositions of (unvulcanized) reclaimed rubber
Compositions of precrosslinked rubber or scrap rubber or used vulcanised rubber
Paint detackifiers or coagulants, e.g. for the treatment of oversprays in paint spraying installations
Chemical paint or ink removers
Special rules of classification within this group
  • The treatment of specific polymers is indicated using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example - Recycling of saturated polyesters is classified in C08J 11/00 and C08J 2367/02.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words are often used as synonyms in combination with the corresponding polymer:

"recycle(-ing)"; "reclaim(-ing)"; "discard(-ing)"; "recuperate(-ing)"; "rejuvenate(-ing)"; "reutilize(-ing)"; "regenerate(-ing)"; "salvage(-ing)"; "waste"; "scrap"; "recover(-ing)"; "reject(ed)"; "post-consumed".

of solvents, plasticisers or unreacted monomers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cleaning or purifying waste polymers by removing residual monomers, solvents, plasticizers, and the like.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Post polymerisation treatment of polymer obtained by reactions involving carbon to carbon unsaturated bonds; Purification
Treatment of polymeric surfaces with solvents or swelling agents
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

of polymers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

After-treatment of waste polymers involving mainly chemical modification of polymers, use of functional compatibilizers, and the like.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Chemical modification of membranes
After treatment of addition polymers (obtained by reactions involving polymers obtained by reactions involving carbon to carbon unsaturated bonds; purification)
After treatment of condensation/ polyaddition polymers
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

without chemical reactions
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Physical recovery or recycling of polymers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Recovery or recycling of polymers by mechanical means
Post polymerization treatment of polymers obtained by reactions involving carbon to carbon unsaturated bonds; Purification
Agglomerating foam fragments, e.g. waste foam
Compositions of (unvulcanized) reclaimed rubber
Compositions of scrap (vulcanized) rubber
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

using selective solvents for polymer components.
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recovery, extracting or recycling of polymer components from a waste mixture using selective solvents.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Working-up tar for by extraction with selective solvents
Treatment of polymeric substrates with solvents or swelling agents
Working-up pitch, asphalt, bitumen by selective extraction
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

by chemically breaking down the molecular chains of polymers or breaking of crosslinks, e.g. devulcanisation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Depolymerization of waste polymers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Depolymerisation to the original monomer
C07
Depolymerisation of halogenated hydrocarbon polymers
Depolymerisation of polyesters
Depolymerisation of polyamides
Depolymerisation of rubber
Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from rubber or rubber waste
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

by treatment with enzymes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Decomposing or depolymerizing of waste polymers with enzymes or micro-organisms.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preparation of polyesters of hydroxy-carboxylic acids by using micro-organisms
Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless by biological methods, i.e. processes using enzymes or micro-organisms
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

by dry-heat treatment
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recovery or recycling of chemical compounds by thermal decomposition of waste polymers, e.g. by pyrolysis or incineration.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials for production of gas, coke, tar or similar matters
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Destructive distillation of synthetic polymeric materials. e.g. tyres
Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from rubber or rubber waste
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "---", "---" and "---" are often used as synonyms in combination with the corresponding polymer.

"pyrolyis", incineration, "thermal decomposition", "cracking".

by treatment with steam or water
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hydrolysis of waste polymers with water or steam or water in supercritical state.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "---", "---" and "---" are often used as synonyms in combination with the corresponding polymer.

"hydrolysis", "decomposition or depolymerization in water".

by treatment with inorganic material
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Depolymerization of waste polymers using using inorganic materials such as catalysts.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Group C08J 11/14 takes precedence over group C08J 11/16.

by treatment with organic material
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Depolymerization of waste polymers with organic materials.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "---", "---" and "---" are often used as synonyms in combination with the corresponding polymer.

"solvolysis"

by treatment with hydrocarbons or halogenated hydrocarbons
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Depolymerisation of waste polymers with halogenated hydrocarbons.

by treatment with organic oxygen-containing compounds
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Depolymerisation of waste polymers with oxygen containing compounds, e.g. peroxides.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

containing hydroxyl groups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Depolymerisation of waste polymers by alcoholysis or glycloysis.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words are often used as synonyms in combination with the corresponding polymer:

"alcoholysis", "glycolysis.

containing carboxylic acid groups, their anhydrides or esters
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Depolymerisation of waste polymers with organic compounds containing carboxylic acid groups, their anhydrides or ester.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

by treatment with organic compounds containing nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Depolymerisation of waste polymers with organic compounds containing nitrogen, sulphur or phosphorous; e.g. (cyclo)aliphatic amines, thiocarbamates, and the like.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013