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WORKING-UP; GENERAL PROCESSES OF COMPOUNDING; AFTER-TREATMENT NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C08B, C08C, C08F, C08G(mechanical aspects B29; layered products, manufacture thereof B32B; treatment of macromolecular material specially adapted to enhance its filling properties in mortars, concrete or artificial stone C04B 16/04 , C04B 18/20 , C04B 20/00 ; treatment of texiles D06)
Definition statement
This subclass covers:
  • Processes of treating or compounding macromolecular substances as covered by C08J 3/00,
  • Manufacture of articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances as covered by C08J 5/00,
  • Chemical treatment or coating of shaped articles made of macromolecular substances as covered by C08J 7/00,
  • Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials or after-treatment thereof as covered by C08J 9/00,
  • Recovery or working-up of waste materials as covered by C08J 11/00.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Adhesive sheets are classified in C09J 7/00

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass does not cover:

Mechanical aspects of working-up

Working-up of compositions comprising more than 50% of mineral filler

Adhesive processes in general

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products, manufacture thereof

Special rules of classification within this subclass
  • In this subclass , at each hierarchical level, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place
  • In this subclass, the polymer involved in the working-up is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.
Processes of treating or compounding macromolecular substances
Definition statement
This group covers:

The chemical aspect of making solutions, dispersions or lattices, powdering or granulating, plasticizing, compounding with additives, cross linking, vulcanising and treatment by wave energy or particle radiation

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification

The way of preparing solutions, emulsions, classified in C08J 3/02, can be part of the preparation and characterisation of paints and should also be classified in C09D 7/00.

The use of a specific emulsifying agent classified in B01F 17/00 could apply to the emulsification of polymers and be also classified in C08J 3/02.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Cosmetic or similar preparations: characterized by their physical form

Mechanical aspects of mixing, emulsifying and dispersing

Catalyst carrier

Protection of catalyst (coating)

Making granules

Mechanical aspects of cross linking

Chemical modification of rubber

Making solution dispersion or lattices by solution, emulsion or suspension polymerisation

Post polymerisation treatment of polymer emulsions or solutions

Cross linking aspects not classifiable in these groups

Treatment by wave energy or irradiation of shaped articles

Plasticising macromolecules characterized by the plasticizer

Encapsulation of additives

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Medicinal preparations characterized by the non-active ingredient, e.g. characterization by their physical form

Treatment of inorganic materials other than fibrous filler in order to enhance their filling or pigmenting properties

Pigment paste

Preparation method of toner particles

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chemical aspects of absorbent pads

Special rules of classification within this group

C08J 3/122 takes precedence over C08J 3/124, C08J 3/126 and C08J 3/128.

This class could also be associated with C08J 3/02, as it is relevant for the process for making solution or emulsion.

In C08J 3/22, the additive added as master batch could also be a polymer.

This class could also be associated to C08J 3/20, i.e. compounding polymer with additive.

Plasticising macromolecular compounds (plasticisers C08K)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

This group covers the process of treating polymers with plasticizers in order to modify thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Plasticizers as such are classified in C08K

Manufacture of articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances (shaping of foodstuffs A23P ; manufacture of semi-permeable membranes B01D 67/00 to B01D 71/00 ; mechanical features, see the relevant classes, e.g. B29)
Definition statement
This group covers:
  • Direct processing of dispersions, e.g. latex, to articles.
  • Reinforcing macromolecular compounds with fibrous and/or nanosized materials.
  • Bonding of a preformed macromolecular material to the same or other solid material.
  • Manufacturing of films and sheets.
  • Manufacture of shaped structures of ion- exchange resin, e.g. membranes.
  • Impregnating materials with prepolymers, e.g. manufacturing of prepregs.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Multiple classification:

The chemical aspect of making polymer composites with loose or coherent fibrous material classified in C08J 5/04 could be associated with

  • B29C 70/00: mechanical aspect of making such composites in a specific process for making composites;
  • C08K 7/00 or C08K 9/00: compounded polymer compositions characterized by the fibrous material.
  • C08J 5/04 refers to the process of reinforcing a polymer matrix, while C08K 7/00 and C08K 9/00 to a compounded composition characterized by the fibrous material.
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Shaping of foodstuffs

Membranes for dialysis, osmosis or filtration, e.g. semi-permeable membranes

Ion-exchange in general

Anion-exchange in general

Amphoteric ion-exchange

Regeneration of ion-exchangers

Micro structural technology

B81

Treatment of rubber latex

Treatment of polymer emulsions

Nanosized additives; Use of ingredients characterised by shape

Surface modified additives

Other nonwoven fabrics

Finishing of textiles

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Medicinal preparations characterized by the non-active ingredient: characterization by their physical form

Treatment of inorganic materials other than fibrous filler in order to enhance their filling or pigmenting properties

Pigment paste

Adhesive processes

Fuel cells with polymeric electrolyte material

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multilayer films

After treatment of threads during manufacturing

Fuel cells with polymeric electrolyte material

Special rules of classification within this group

IPC groups C08J5/14 (Manufacture of abrasive or friction articles or materials) and C08J5/16 (Manufacture of articles or materials having reduced friction) are not used and have been transferred to respectively C09K 3/14 and C10M.

{Reinforced macromolecular compounds with nanosized materials, e.g. nanoparticles, nanofibres, nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods or nanolayered materials (use of ingredients characterised by shape C08K 7/00 ; nanotechnology for materials and surface science B82Y 30/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The reinforcement of polymers with nanofillers as structuring agent

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Use of ingredients characterised by shape

Nanotechnology for materials and surface science

Special rules of classification within this group

For polymers comprising nanoadditives without reinforcing structure, documents are classified in C08K.

Direct processing of dispersions, e.g. latex, to articles
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The direct processing of latex, e.g. for hand gloves.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The treatment of latexes in general is to be classified in C08F 6/14, for rubber latex it should be classified in C08C 1/00.

Reinforcing macromolecular compounds with loose or coherent fibrous material (after-treatment of threads during manufacture D01F ; { finishing of textiles D06M})
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The reinforcement of macromolecular compounds (thermoplastic) with loose or coherent fibrous material (no continuous fibres)

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The difference between C08J 5/04 and C08K 7/00 is made on the basis of explicit disclosure of composite which should be distinguished from reinforced plastics. A document will be classified in C08K 7/00 when it concerns only reinforcement of plastics like polyamide with glass fibres.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

After-treatment of threads during manufacture

Finishing of textiles

Manufacture of films or sheets{(Producing films or sheets B29D 7/01 ; wrappers or flexible covers, packaging materials of special type or form B65D 65/00 - B65D 65/466 ; shaping by stretching characterized by the choice of materials B29C 55/005 ; layered products essentially comprising synthetic resin B32B 27/00 - B32B 27/42)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

The manufacture of self-standing monolayers films or sheets characterised by chemical features or parameters:

Self-standing films are to be understood as films which are different from films made by coating on substrate.

The mechanical aspect of the formation of films (extrusion, blow-moulding) is not covered under C08J 5/18.

The films as such are also covered by C08J 5/18

Porous or microporous films are covered by C08J 5/18 when the pores are obtained mechanically

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Adhesive sheets are classified in C09J 7/00

Optical sheets are classified in G02B

Prepregs are classified in C08J 5/24

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Films which are only coated layers

Coating of shaped articles made of polymers with polymeric layers

Process for making films only characterized by the use of specific apparatus, e.g. extruding, blow moulding or thermoforming

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Producing flat articles, e.g. films or sheets

Wrappers or flexible covers; Packaging materials of special type or form, e.g. wrappers or envelopes with shock-absorbing properties

Shaping by stretching, e.g. drawing through a die, characterized by the choice of materials

Layered products essentially comprising synthetic resin

Special rules of classification within this subgroup
  • The type of polymer used to make the film is indicated using Indexing Codes of the group group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example: Polypropylene films are classified in C08J 5/18 and C08J 2323/12.

Manufacture of shaped of ion-exchange resins [Use of macromolecular compounds as anion B01J 41/14 or cation B01J 39/20 exchangers]
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

ManufactureThe product of manufacture of ion-exchange membranes based on inorganic and/or organic macromolecules; usually processes of making polyelectrolytes are classified here.

This group covers the manufacturing process as well as the obtained products.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Use of macromolecular compounds as cation exchangers

Use of macromolecular compounds as anion exchangers

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

Films, membranes, or diaphragms{(ion-exchange in general, B01J 39/18 - B01J 39/22 , B01J 41/12 - B01J 41/16 , B01J 43/00 , B01J 45/00 , B01J 47/12 - B01J 49/00 ; fuel cells with polymeric electrolyte material H01M 8/1018)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Membranes of which at least the ion exchanging parts are inorganic, i.e. mixtures of non-polymeric ion-exchange compounds, e.g. inorganic salts and at least one polymer.

Membranes based on cellulose, covered by C08J 5/2212.

Methods for incorporating reinforcement supports or filling bodies are classified, where the support of filling body has no ion-exchange activity covered by C08J 5/2206.

Ion-exchanging fibrous fabrics are considered as heterogeneous membranes covered by C08J 5/2275; they include composite membranes, mixtures of two or more (ion exchange) polymers.

Reactions which change the nature of the ion-exchanging groups, introduction of ion-exchanging groups, after-treatment with membrane having been already been formed, covered by C08J 5/2287.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Ion-exchange in general

Processes of separation using semi-permeable membranes, e.g. reverse osmosis, microfiltration or ultrafiltration

Semi-permeable membranes of macromolecular compounds

B01D 71/08- B01D7/82

Electrolyte membranes which are characterized only by the construction, e.g. porosity or presence of specific electrolytes, the polymer being not specific

Fuel cells with polymeric electrolyte material

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fuel cells with solid polymeric electrolyte materials

Special rules of classification within this group

Groups. e.g. -G02F, which do not have ion-exchanging properties, but which may, by simple hydrolysis in an alkaline, neutral or acid medium, be transformed into ion-exchanging groups, e.g. -G02H, are considered as such.

Membranes obtained by homogeneous melting or from a solution are considered as homogeneous, even if the membrane contains (after solidification of the melt or the solution) heterogeneous elements, e.g. filling bodies, supports for example in the form of fabrics, or the like, i.e. the ion exchange resin forms the membrane.

Quaternising reactions are not considered as after-treatments.

Please see also the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{based on organic and/or inorganic macromolecular compounds}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on organic and/or inorganic polymers.

Methods for incorporating reinforcement supports or filling bodies, the support or filling body having no ion exchange activity.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fuel cells with solid polymeric electrolyte materials

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{Natural macromolecular compounds}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on natural polymers, e.g. celullose.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{Synthetic macromolecular compounds}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on synthetic organic polymers.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{containing fluorine}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on synthetic organic polymers containing fluorine.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{based on macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving unsaturated carbon-to-carbon bonds}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on synthetic polymers obtained by addition polymerization (C08F) reactions.

{containing fluorine}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on synthetic polymers obtained by addition polymerization (C08F) reactions and containing fluorine.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{obtained by introduction of active groups capable of ion-exchange into compounds of the type C08J 5/2231}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes obtained by introduction of active groups of ion-exchange groups into compounds of the type C08J 5/2231.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

Groups, e.g. SO2F, which do not have ion-exchanging properties, but which may, by simple hydrolysis in an alkaline, neutral or acid medium, be transformed into ion-exchanging groups, e.g. SO2H, are considered as such.

{containing fluorine}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes obtained by introduction of active groups of ion-exchange groups into compounds of the type C08J 5/2231 containing fluorine.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{based on macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions other than those involving carbon-to-carbon bonds, e.g. obtained by polycondensation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on polymers obtained by step polymerization (C08G) reactions (condensation or polyaddition polymerization).

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{containing fluorine}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes based on polymers obtained by step polymerization (C08G) reactions (condensation or polyaddition polymerisation) and containing fluorine.

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{based on macromolecular compounds obtained by reactions involving unsaturated carbon-to-carbon bonds, and by reactions not involving this type of bond}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Ion-exchange membranes obtained by step polymerization (C08G) and addition polymerization (C08F) reactions (both types of reaction are present)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{Heterogeneous membranes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • Heterogeneous or composite ion-exchange membranes.
  • Ion-exchanging fibrous fabrics, which are considered as heterogeneous membranes; they include composite membranes, mixtures of two or more (ion exchange) polymers.
  • Membranes obtained by homogeneous melting or from a solution, which are considered as homogeneous, even if the membrane contains (after solidification of the melt or the solution) heterogeneous elements, e.g. filling bodies, supports e.g. in the form of fabrics, or the like, i.e. the ion exchange resin forms the membrane.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Composite membranes; Ultra-thin membranes

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{fluorine containing heterogeneous membranes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Heterogeneous or composite ion-exchange membranes containing fluorine

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Composite membranes; Ultra-thin membranes

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

{After-treatment}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:
  • After-treatment of already formed ion-exchange membranes.
  • Reactions which change the nature of the ion-exchanging groups, introduction of ion-exchanging groups
  • After-treatment, the membrane having been already formed
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes specially adapted for manufacturing semi-permeable membranes for separation processes or apparatus

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

Quaternising reactions are not considered as after-treatments.

{After-treatment of fluorine-containing membranes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

After-treatment of already formed fluorine containing ion-exchange membranes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes specially adapted for manufacturing semi-permeable membranes for separation processes or apparatus

B01D67/0087, B01D 71/00

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

Reactions which change the nature of the ion-exchanging groups, introduction of ion-exchanging groups, after-treatment (where the membrane has already been formed) are classified in C08J 5/2287 or in C08J 5/2293.

Quaternising reactions are not considered as after-treatments.

Impregnating materials with prepolymers which can be polymerised in situ, e.g. manufacture of prepregs
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Prepregs, i.e. reinforcement material preimpregnated with a resin matrix.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Layered products characterised by the presence of two or more layers, wherein one layer is a fibrous or filamentary layer impregnated with or embedded in a plastic subtance

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Please see the Rules under C08J 5/18.

Chemical treatment or coating of shaped articles made of macromolecular substances (coating with metallic material C23C ; electrolytic deposition of metals C25)
Definition statement
This group covers:

C08J 7/00 concern all types of treatments , chemical, physical and coating of shaped articles comprising polymeric substrates, i.e. continuous polymeric surfaces.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

C08J 7/00 relates to processes of treating or coating polymeric substrates only.

C09D relates to coating compositions.

B05D relates to processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general.

Adhesive sheets are classified in C09J 7/00

D06M 15/00 relates to the coating of polymer fibres and D01F relates to the chemical treatment of fibres.

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Coating with metallic material

Electrolytic deposition of metals

C25

Treating textile materials

D06

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating compositions

Processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general

Special rules of classification within this group
  • The treatment of specific polymers is indicated using Indexing Codes of the group group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example - Surface treatment of a polypropylene film is classified in C08J 7/00 and C08J 2323/12.

with solvents, e.g. swelling agents
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Treatment of polymeric substrates with solvents or swelling agents.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recovery or working-up of waste materials using selective solvents for polymer components.

After-treatment of articles without altering their shape; using liquids, e.g. solvents, swelling agents.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Coating{(Coating compositions per se C09D 4/00 , C09D 101/00 to C09D 201/00)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Coating of polymeric substrates in general.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Please the References under under C08J 7/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating compositions per se

C09D 101/00- C09D210/00

Coating compositions based on organic non-macromolecular compounds having at least one polymerisable carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bond

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

{with two or more layers, where at least one layer of a composition contains a polymer binder}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Multiple coatings on a polymeric substrate, where at least one layer of a composition contains a polymer binder.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Please see the Relationship under under C08J 7/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Layered products essentially comprising synthetic resin

Special rules of classification within this group
  • The treatment of specific polymers is indicated using Indexing Codes of the group group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example - Coating of a polypropylene film with a polyurethane layer and a polyepoxy layer is classified in C08J 7/00 and C08J 2323/12 and C08J 2475/04 and C08J 2463/00.

{with at least one layer of inorganic material and at least one layer of a composition containing a polymer binder}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Multiple coatings on a polymeric substrate with at least one layer of inorganic material and at least one layer of a composition containing a polymer binder.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Please the Relationship under under C08J 7/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

See corresponding note under C08J 7/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Please the References under under C08J 7/00.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

{with only one layer of a composition containing a polymer binder (with more layers C08J 7/042)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Coating a polymeric substrate with a single layer containing an unspecified polymer binder.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Multiple coatings on a polymeric substrate

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating compositions based on unspecified macromolecular compounds

Special rules of classification within this group
  • The coating of a specific polymeric substrate with a layer of an unspecified polymer binder is using Indexing Codes of the group group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example -1: Coating of a polycarbonate substrate with a protective polymeric layer is classified in C08J 7/047 and C08J 2369/00;

When both the substrate and the coating are unspecified the classification C08J 7/047 alone is used.

Example -2: Coating a polycarbonate substrate with a polyurethane layer is classified in C08J 7/047 and C08J 2369/00 and C08J 2475/04

with compositions not containing macromolecular substances
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Coating, impregnating, adsorbing or absorbing a polymeric substrate with low-molecular weight compounds; mainly inorganic compounds. No metallization!

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Coating with metallic material

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating compositions based on inorganic substances.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

{Low-molecular-weight organic substances e.g. absorption of additives in the surface of the article}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Coating, impregnating, adsorbing or absorbing of a polymeric substrate with low-molecular weight organic substances e.g. absorption of dyes in the surface of the article;

Treatment of a polymer substrate with antimicrobial agent.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Features of coating compositions; non-macromolecular additives

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Heat treatment
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Thermal treatment of polymer substrates with heat, e.g. flame.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Surface shaping by flame treatment e.g. hot gases

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Chemical modification
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Chemical modification of a polymeric surface.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Chemical etching

Chemical modification of a polymeric surface

{Treatment by wave energy or particle radiation (C08J 7/18 takes precedence; surface shaping of articles by plasma treatment B29C 59/14 , by wave energy or particle radiation B29C 59/16)}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Treatment of polymeric substrates with electromagnetic radiation, e.g. corona, plasma, X-rays or γ-rays, UV, laser, etc.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

C08J 7/123 refers to the treatment of a polymeric surface with electromagnetic radiation, while C08J 3/28 refers to the treatment of the bulk of a polymer with electromagnetic radiation.

C08J 7/123 concerns the chemical modification of a polymeric substrate by electromagnetic radiation and the treated substrate may be coated during the treatment or at a later stage or not at all. Coatings based on the process of pre-treatment of polymers substrate are classified in B05D 3/144. If the coating process is more directed to the chemistry of the coated layers, it's classified in C08J 7/123.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pretreatment of polymeric substrates with plasma

Surface shaping of articles by plasma treatment

Surface shaping of articles by wave energy or particle radiation

Treatment (the bulk) of a macromolecular compound by wave energy or radiation

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions are often used as synonyms.

Particle radiation treatment

Plasma treatment Electron beam treatmentElectronic irradiation

Wave energy treatment

Corona discharge Glow discharge Ultraviolet treatmentUV treatment

{Halogenation}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Halogenation (e.g. chlorination or fluorination) of polymeric surfaces.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chemical modification by after-treatment halogenation

Special rules of classification within this group

See corresponding note under C08J 7/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

Chlorination

Chloration

Fluorination

Fluoration

with acids, their salts or anhydrides
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Chemical modification of a polymeric surface with acids, their salts or anhydrides to apply functional groups onto the surface of the treated article.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Please the References under under C08J 7/00.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

with polymerisable compounds
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Polymerization of monomer(s) on top of a polymeric surface.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coating compositions, e.g. paints, varnishes or lacquers, based on organic non-macromolecular compounds having at least one polymerisable carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bond

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

using wave energy or particle radiation
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Polymerization of monomer(s) on top of a polymeric surface using wave energy or particle radiation.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Plasma-deposition of organic layers

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 7/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

Please see the Synonyms or Keywords under C08J7/02A.

Working-up of macromolecular substances to porous or cellular articles or materials; After-treatment thereof (mechanical aspects B29C 44/00 ; foamed polymeric products of isocyanates or isothiocyanates characterised by the monomers or catalysts used C08G 18/00)
Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • Documents essentially dealing with the mechanical aspects of the foaming process are classified in group B29C 44/00.
  • Documents essentially dealing with medical applications are classified in A61L
References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Sponges for cleaning purposes

Medical applications

Manufacture of microcapsules or microballoons

Mechanical aspects of foaming

Foams containing more than 50% inorganic filler

Synthesis and blends of organic blowing agents

Polyurethane foams only characterized by the reactants, e.g. polyol or isocyanate

Use of a filler in a non foamed polymer composition

Polymer blends per se

Propellants for aerosols

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Use of foams for bandages, dressings or absorbent pads

Materials for prostheses

Membranes

Porous films

Special rules of classification within this group

The blowing or foaming agents involved are classified in C08J 9/02 - C08J 9/149

In the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place. Example: Halogenated phosphoric compound as additive is classified in C08J 9/0038

Documents belonging to several subgroups are also classified in the "one dot less" subgroup. Example: The combination of brominated flame retardant and phosphoric compound is classified in C08J 9/0019, C08J 9/0038 and C08J 9/0014.

The use of water as sole blowing agent for (poly)isocyanate-containing foams is regarded as trivial. It is not classified in C08J.

Mixtures of organic and inorganic blowing agents are classified in C08J 9/127 and each blowing agent of the mixture is also classified according to its nature.

Foams are subdivided according to the involved polymer(s) using the C08L IPC scheme:

When a foam is a.o. characterized by the involved polymer(s), then Indexing Codes of the C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00 are given, in order to specify said polymer(s).

The structure of the C08J 2300/00 classification is mainly based on the classification of C08L.

Example: C08J 2325/06 corresponds to C08L 25/06 (polystyrene) Additionally, C08J 2300/00 to C08J 2300/30 specify polymers which are broadly defined.

When a document deals with one single polymer or several alternative polymers, but no polymer blend, then an Indexing Code of the C08J 2300/00 range is used.

Examples: The use of an alkane blowing agent for expanding polystyrene is classified in C08J 9/141 and C08J 2325/06.

The use of alkane blowing agent for expanding polystyrene or polyethylene is classified in C08J 9/141, and C08J 2325/06 and C08J 2323/06.

Further subdivisions:

This subgroup is only allocated when, in addition to a "main" polymer, a second or third polymer is present in the foamable blend. This second or third polymer is always in minority, compared to the main polymer.

- - Please see the Rules under C08J 9/00.

As above, the "main" polymer is indexed using C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.

- - The polymeric component in minority is indexed using C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example: A foam from a blend or 80% polystyrene and 20% PMMA is classified in C08J 9/0061, C08J 2325/06 and C08J 2433/12.

- When overlapping ranges of two polymers are claimed or exclusively exemplified, then "mirror classification" is given.

Example: A foamable blend of 80-20% polystyrene and 20-80% polyethylene is classified in C08J 9/0061 and C08J 2425/06 and C08J 2323/06, and C08J 2423/06 and C08J 2325/06.

Common sense says any C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00 can be used in combination with any C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00 to define the invention.

- Second and/or third polymers, only present in very low proportions may be ignored, provided their presence is not the key of the invention.

- Foam compositions wherein only the polymer in minority is defined are classified in C08J 9/0061 and C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example: Foam comprising 10% polystyrene in 90% of another polymer is classified in C08J 9/0061 and C08J 2425/06.

In these subgroups, Indexing Codes of the C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00 are used to designate the polymer used for coating, binding or impregnating the foam (particle). The foam itself receives a C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00 code.

In these subgroup, Indexing Codes of the C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00 are used to designate the foam fragments. The foamable (C08J 9/35) or unfoamable matrix (C08J 9/33) is specified using C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.

Indexing Codes C08J 2201/04 to C08J 2201/0484 are used in C08J 9/26, for specifying the solid to be extracted.

Indexing Codes C08J 2201/05 to C08J 2201/0545 are used in C08J 9/28, for specifying the first step of the separation process (cooling, evaporation, precipitation).

Glossary of terms
In this group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Blowing agent

Substance which is either gaseous at ambient temperature or capable of reversibly becoming gaseous upon heating (C08J 9/12 or subgroups). This strict distinction is however not always respected in patents.

Foaming agent

Material that will decompose to release a gas under certain conditions (C08J 9/06 or subgroups)

Integral foams

Foams characterized by a dense or slightly expanded skin on a foamed core

Open cells foam orfoam with open pores

Foam where more than 50% or the pores are open

Porogen

Compound which is removed after solidification of the polymer composition (C08J 9/26, C08J 9/28)

Syntactic foams

Foams containing expandable and/or non expandable hollow particles (C08J 9/32)

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions are often used as synonyms:

  • Expandable compositions and expanded products are often regarded as similar and thus classified in the same subgroup.
  • A foam composition is expandable or foamable.
  • A foam (p)article can be porous cellular, expanded, foamed, pre- or post-foamed, pre- or post-expanded.
  • A foam contains pores, cavities or cells, which can be closed, open or interconnected.
  • A foam is porous, macroporous, microporous (1-100 microns diameter) or nanoporous (1-100 nanometers).
  • The pores distribution can be for e.g. unimodal, bimodal or trimodal.
  • Porous polymeric aerogels, organogels or xerogels can be regarded as foams.
{Mixtures of organic and inorganic blowing agents}
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Mixtures of organic and inorganic blowing agents are classified in C08J 9/127 and each blowing agent of the mixture is also classified according to its nature

Making expandable particles
Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

The term "Expandable particles" covers also expanding, pre-expanded or expanded particles

After-treatment of expandable particles; Forming foamed products
Glossary of terms
In this subgroup, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

The term "Expandable particles" concerns also expanding, pre-expanded or expanded particles

using binding agents
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Expandable or expanded particles coated by a thin binding agent.

by elimination of a solid phase from a macromolecular composition or article, e.g. leaching out
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lithographic processes

from compositions containing microballoons, e.g. syntactic foams (making microballoons B01J 13/02)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Foams containing expandable microspheres, as well as inorganic microspheres, microballoons or cenospheres.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Foams dealing with expandable particles like expandable polystyrene

Making microballoons

Agglomerating foam fragments, e.g. waste foam
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Foam fragments in an unfoamed matrix.

Composite foams, i.e. continuous macromolecular foams containing discontinuous cellular particles or fragments
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Foam fragments in a foamed matrix.

Recovery or working-up of waste materials (polymerisation processes involving purification or recycling of waste polymers or their depolymerisation products C08B , C08C , C08F , C08G , C08H ; mechanical treatments B29)
Definition statement
This group covers:

Physical and chemical recycling of waste polymers with the purpose of recovering monomer(s), oligomer(s) and/or polymers with the purpose of making new polymers (same or different).

References relevant to classification in this group
This group does not cover:

Polymerisation processes involving purification or recycling of waste polymers or their depolymerisation products

Mechanical treatments

B29

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Collecting, recovering, recycling or eliminating the paint sludge from the washing liquid

Recovering or eliminating the paint sludge from washing liquid

Recovery of plastics or other constituents of waste material containing plastics, e.g. mechanical aspects of recycling

Layered products made from or containing mainly scrap material

Layered products made of or containing mainly scrap material

Agglomerating foam fragments, e.g. waste foam

Use of waste materials, e.g. treated or untreated sewage sludge

Compositions of (unvulcanized) reclaimed rubber

Compositions of precrosslinked rubber or scrap rubber or used vulcanised rubber

Paint detackifiers or coagulants, e.g. for the treatment of oversprays in paint spraying installations

Chemical paint or ink removers

Special rules of classification within this group
  • The treatment of specific polymers is indicated using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2300/00-C08J 2399/00.
  • When the presence of one or several additional polymers, present in minority, is of relevance, this additional polymer is specified using Indexing Codes of the group C08J 2400/00-C08J 2499/00.

Example - Recycling of saturated polyesters is classified in C08J 11/00 and C08J 2367/02.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words are often used as synonyms in combination with the corresponding polymer:

"recycle(-ing)"; "reclaim(-ing)"; "discard(-ing)"; "recuperate(-ing)"; "rejuvenate(-ing)"; "reutilize(-ing)"; "regenerate(-ing)"; "salvage(-ing)"; "waste"; "scrap"; "recover(-ing)"; "reject(ed)"; "post-consumed".

of solvents, plasticisers or unreacted monomers
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Cleaning or purifying waste polymers by removing residual monomers, solvents, plasticizers, and the like.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Post polymerisation treatment of polymer obtained by reactions involving carbon to carbon unsaturated bonds; Purification

Treatment of polymeric surfaces with solvents or swelling agents

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

of polymers
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

After-treatment of waste polymers involving mainly chemical modification of polymers, use of functional compatibilizers, and the like.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chemical modification of membranes

After treatment of addition polymers (obtained by reactions involving polymers obtained by reactions involving carbon to carbon unsaturated bonds; purification)

After treatment of condensation/ polyaddition polymers

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

without chemical reactions
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Physical recovery or recycling of polymers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Recovery or recycling of polymers by mechanical means

Post polymerization treatment of polymers obtained by reactions involving carbon to carbon unsaturated bonds; Purification

Agglomerating foam fragments, e.g. waste foam

Compositions of (unvulcanized) reclaimed rubber

Compositions of scrap (vulcanized) rubber

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

using selective solvents for polymer components (working-up tar by extraction with selective solvents C10C 1/18 ; working-up pitch, asphalt, bitumen by selective extraction C10C 3/08)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Recovery, extracting or recycling of polymer components from a waste mixture using selective solvents.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Working-up tar for by extraction with selective solvents

Treatment of polymeric substrates with solvents or swelling agents

Working-up pitch, asphalt, bitumen by selective extraction

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

by chemically breaking down the molecular chains of polymers or breaking of crosslinks, e.g. devulcanisation (depolymerisation to the original monomer C07; production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from rubber or rubber waste C10G 1/10 ; { depolymerisation of halogenated hydrocarbon polymers C07C 17/367 ; depolymerisation of polyesters, C07C 51/09 , C07C 63/26 ; depolymerisation of polyamides C07D 201/12 ; depolymerisation of rubber C08C 19/08})
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Depolymerization of waste polymers.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Depolymerisation to the original monomer

C07

Depolymerisation of halogenated hydrocarbon polymers

Depolymerisation of polyesters

Depolymerisation of polyamides

Depolymerisation of rubber

Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from rubber or rubber waste

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

{by treatment with enzymes}
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Decomposing or depolymerizing of waste polymers with enzymes or micro-organisms.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparation of polyesters of hydroxy-carboxylic acids by using micro-organisms

Processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless by biological methods, i.e. processes using enzymes or micro-organisms

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

by dry-heat treatment only (destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials for production of gas, coke, tar or similar matters C10B)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Recovery or recycling of chemical compounds by thermal decomposition of waste polymers, e.g. by pyrolysis or incineration.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subgroup does not cover:

Destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials for production of gas, coke, tar or similar matters

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Destructive distillation of synthetic polymeric materials. e.g. tyres

Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from rubber or rubber waste

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "pyrolyis", "incineration", "thermal decomposition" and "cracking" are often used as synonyms in combination with the corresponding polymer.

by treatment with steam or water
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Hydrolysis of waste polymers with water or steam or water in supercritical state.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "hydrolysis" and "decomposition or depolymerization in water" are often used as synonyms in combination with the corresponding polymer.

by treatment with inorganic material (C08J 11/14 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Depolymerization of waste polymers using inorganic materials such as catalysts.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Group C08J 11/14 takes precedence over group C08J 11/16.

by treatment with organic material
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Depolymerization of waste polymers with organic materials.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expression/word "solvolysis" is often used as a synonym in combination with the corresponding polymer.

by treatment with hydrocarbons or halogenated hydrocarbons
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Depolymerisation of waste polymers with halogenated hydrocarbons.

by treatment with organic oxygen-containing compounds
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Depolymerisation of waste polymers with oxygen containing compounds, e.g. peroxides.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

containing hydroxyl groups
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Depolymerisation of waste polymers by alcoholysis or glycloysis.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words are often used as synonyms in combination with the corresponding polymer:

"alcoholysis", "glycolysis.

containing carboxylic acid groups, their anhydrides or esters
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Depolymerisation of waste polymers with organic compounds containing carboxylic acid groups, their anhydrides or esters.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

by treatment with organic compounds containing nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus
Definition statement
This subgroup covers:

Depolymerisation of waste polymers with organic compounds containing nitrogen, sulphur or phosphorous; e.g. (cyclo)aliphatic amines, thiocarbamates, and the like.

Special rules of classification within this group

Please see the Rules under C08J 11/00.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013