This class includes generally chain, staple, horseshoe, and
ox-shoe making, swivel making being included under Chain making.
Also the article subclasses of Chains, including general purpose
and ornamental chains and swivels.
For further explanation in regard to what may be included
in the above art and article subclasses, see the definitions, particularly
those given under the head of each of the arts.
Chain Making. Relates to the broad art of chain making and
includes all patents for machines, apparatus, blanks and processes
relating to the manufacture of chains or links, except such as shall
be referred to hereinafter. Includes patents relating to the manufacture
of swivels (see References to This Class, below).
Note. The manufacture of simple links for car-couplings will
be found in appropriate subclasses under this head.
SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS
Rolling machines or rolls designed especially for the manufacture
of chains, chain-links, horseshoes, horseshoe bars or calks, and
staples in which there is invention in the construction or operation
of the means or parts which give the form to the blank or article
produced are included in this class; otherwise in Class 72, Metal
If the invention resides simply in the manner of attaching
the dies to the rolls, the patents will be found in Class 72, Metal
This class is closely related to Classes 29, Metal Working;
72, Metal Deforming; 83, Cutting; and 140, Wireworking, which classes
should be kept in mind in completing a search in this class.
Machines which coil the wire or rod into a helix or which
coil the helix and cut-off coils or sections to form links are found
in Class 72, Metal Deforming. If the machine, in addition to coiling
and cutting, gives link form to the part cut off or assembles such
parts into a chain, it will be classified in this class.
Electric heating and welding machines and processes comprising
any invention in the means of applying or process of application
are classified elsewhere. If however, the use of electricity is
incidental and the claims embrace no novel features relating thereto,
the patents will be classified herein.
SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS
This subclass is indented under subclass 1. Apparatus for making chains formed or oval or elongated
links bent into substantially U shape, the link being passed through
the previously-formed link or links before being bent.
This subclass is indented under subclass 1. Machines for forming chains with solid links from a continuous
bar or blank by rolling, swaging, or cutting and without bending,
winding, or welding. This type of machine usually forms the chain
from a bar cruciform in cross-section.
Note. To distinguish between rolling- machines and machines
for making weldless chains by rolling, see note under general class
This subclass is indented under subclass 13. Apparatus for making chains from sheet metal having links
formed from sheet metal with prongs or projections and corresponding
apertures or notches, whereby the links may be connected with one
another. Chains of this character are usually designed for ornamental purposes.
This subclass is indented under subclass 16. Machines for forming wire-curb-chains by coiling the wire
into a helix, cutting it into sections, bending it into link form,
the links being assembled to form the chains, and giving to the links
a curbed or twisted form.
This subclass is indented under subclass 16. Machines which feed a continuous wire or rod to a cutting
mechanism, passing it through the previously formed link, and then
bend it into link form, wrapping or twisting the ends of the wire
around other portions of the link in order to securely fasten said
ends, and so dispense with welding. In some cases no specific feeding
or cutting means are shown.
subclass 72 for making wire heddles or heddle eyes; subclass 88
for making or forming wire rings, hoops, or closed wire loops; subclass 102
for forming loops in or doubling wire; and subclass 104 for forming eyes
or closed loops in wire.
This subclass is indented under subclass 16. Machines for forming chains from a continuous rod or wire
by coiling such rod or wire into a helix, cutting off sections to
form links, and assembling and uniting the links to form a completed
This subclass is indented under subclass 16. Machines for bending link-blanks into U- shaped
links and forming eyes at the ends of the links, the blank generally
being thrust through the eyes of the previously formed link before
This subclass is indented under subclass 16. Combined machines and devices for bending the links into
form and welding the ends together. In some of the machines of
this type, the links are automatically assembled before welding.
These machines may also include means for completing the act of
welding by shaping the links.
Advancing Material or Indeterminate Length, appropriate subclasses for methods of, and apparatus
for, feeding material without utilizing the leading or trailing
ends to effect movement of the material.
This subclass is indented under subclass 16. Combined machines for making chains by winding several convolutions
of the stock or wire into link form and welding the same into an
integral link. These machines are usually constructed so that the
convolutions of the link being wound shall pass through the previously formed
link; also, machines which simply perform the operation of winding
Metal Working, subclasses 33+ and 700+ for assembly
subclasses 428+ for an assembly method, particularly subclasses
432+ for piercing of one workpiece by another, e.g., a
staple, etc., and subclasses 505+ for deforming one element
about another, e.g., clenching a clip, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 1. Machines and apparatus for trimming, straightening, stretching,
or otherwise imparting uniform dimensions to chain-links after they
have received their general form.
This subclass is indented under subclass 1. Apparatus particularly adapted for use in welding chain-links.
All machines in which there is invention in the form of die are
included in this group. Includes machines having, in addition to
the welding means, means for completing the weld by sizing or shaping
Note. Welding-machines in which the invention resides entirely
in the means for operating the power hammer or press are included
in Class 228, Metal Fusion Bonding, as are also those machines adapted
for general welding and having no construction peculiar to chain
welding machines. For distinction between Class 59 and Class 219,
Electric Heating, see note under definition of Chain making.
Work Holders, appropriate subclasses. Class 269 is the residual locus
for patents to a device for clamping, supporting and/or
holding an article (or articles) in position to be operated on or
treated. See notes thereunder for other related loci.
This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Miscellaneous combined machines for performing the above
operations. Machines of this type may or may not have means for
feeding forward the blank for operation upon by the machine.
This subclass is indented under subclass 38. Machines which in addition to cutting, bending, shaping,
punching, and creasing perform one or more operations relating to
the bending or forming of calks or clips.
This subclass is indented under subclass 38. Machines in which a reciprocating motion is imparted to
the die-block around which the blank is bent or to the jaws which
bend the blank around the die-block.
This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Machines in which reciprocating motion is communicated to
the die-block around which the blank is bent or to jaws which bend
the blank around the die-block.
This subclass is indented under subclass 45. Combined machines which have reciprocating means for punching
and creasing the shoe in addition to the reciprocating jaws or die-block for
bending and shaping the blank.
This subclass is indented under subclass 47. Combined bending, shaping, punching, and creasing, rotary
die-block machines having in addition to the rotary die-block rotary
means for punching and creasing the shoe.
This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Miscellaneous combined machines performing the above operations.
Machines of this type may or may not have means for feeding forward
the blanks to the cutting apparatus.
This subclass is indented under subclass 49. Combined cutting, bending and shaping horseshoe-making machines
characterized by a rotary die-block or former around which the blank
is bent in the formation of the shoe.
This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Miscellaneous machines for bending the blank into the form
of a horseshoe and at the same time or subsequently giving shape
to the shoe by swaging or other means.
This subclass is indented under subclass 36. Dies designed to be used in forming or making horseshoes;
also tools for use in making or shaping calks and horseshoes and
not adapted for general purposes.
This subclass is indented under subclass 36. Blanks and bars designed especially for use in the manufacture
of horseshoes; also machines and apparatus for producing blanks
and bars which are not classified in the subclasses under this head.
Note. Patents having claims both to the blank or bar and
to the shoe are classified in Class 168, Farriery.
This subclass is indented under subclass 62. Rolling-machines and rolls for forming blanks or bars particularly
designed for horseshoes. One or more of the operations of beveling, punching,
and creasing or calk-forming may be performed during the rolling
of the blank.
Note. This subclass does not include machines which bend
the blank into the general form of horseshoe or which operate on
the blank after it has been so bent.
Note. To distinguish between the machines of this group and
those found in Class 72, Metal Deforming, see Lines with Other Classes
under the general definition of this class.
This subclass is indented under subclass 36. Machines and devices which perform one or more of the above
operations such as show means for forming the calk or clip from
the horseshoe-blank or operating upon the calk in connection with
Note. The thickening of the heels may be included in the
operation of shaping in subclass 58 or in any of the subclasses under
Combined machines which include shaping.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Machines, apparatus, blanks, and processes for making or
forming staples of general U-shape having legs substantially equal
in length and adapted to be driven into wood or other material,
including staples for general purposes and such as are made by machines which
cannot be classified in the specific art classes and subclasses.
Note. For the distinctions between this class and Class 72,
Metal Deforming, see Lines with Other Classes under the general
definition of this class.
subclass 3 for buckle-making; subclass 4 for machines for
forming staples for fastening buttons to shoes; subclass 5 for cotter-pin-making;
and subclass 13 for machines for making staples for paper-fasteners.
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Combined machines which perform the operations of cutting,
bending, and barbing or corrugating. This type of machine may or
may not have an automatic feeding mechanism for feeding the wire
to the cutting apparatus.
Note. See Notes under general head of Staple Making.
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Machines which perform the above operations, the point-forming
operation being distinct and separate from the operation of cutting
the wire or rod into lengths.
Note. See Notes under subclass 71, Staple Making.
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Machines for cutting the wire into lengths and bending into
staple form. These machines may or may not have an automatic feeding
mechanism, and the cutting mechanism may also operate to point the
Note. See appropriate subclasses under Chain Making and Horseshoe-Making.
This subclass is indented under subclass 75. Machines for cutting and bending having a rotary former
or die-block around which the staple is bent or rotary jaws or lugs
for bending it around a stationary die-block.
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Processes of manufacture and blanks or bars designed to
be used in staple making.
Note. The line between this class (59) and Class 206, Special
Receptacle or Package, and Class 411, Expanded, Threaded, Driven,
Headed, Tool-Deformed, or Lock-Threaded Fastener, is as follows:
In this class (59), this subclass (77), the blank may have the appearance
of a mass of partially-shaped, nonsevered, staple-like elements;
however, significant additional shaping, plus severing, is required
to convert the blank into a plurality of staples. In Class 206,
subclasses 340+, the package may be one of severably-connected
staples. In Class 411, subclasses 442+, a plurality of
fasteners of the class are secured one to another, e.g., a strip
of staples, etc.
Note. A claim, even though stated to be a "blank",
which is readable upon a completed article for Class 411, Expanded, Threaded,
Driven, Headed, Tool-Deformed, Locked-Threaded Fastener, subclasses
442 and 457 is classified therein, for such a claim is generic to both
the blank and the article, and therefore is considered to be best
classified with the article.
Note. Patents having claims to both the article and process
or method are found in Class 411, Expanded, Threaded, Driven, Headed,
Tool-Deformed, or Locked-Threaded Fastener, subclasses 457+.
Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,
subclasses 571+ for metallic stock having a weakened portion for severing,
and subclass 587 for a metallic workpiece mimicking the cross section
of finished stock.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. This is the generic locus of concatenated elements known
as "chains" and includes both general-purpose
and ornamental chains and swivel link mechanisms.
Note. Patents showing bars, beads, links, or rings strung
upon or attached to parallel flexible elements, or lugs or projections
attached to continuous flexible elements such as belts or cables,
will be found in 474, Endless Belt Power Transmission Systems or
Components, or in Class 63, Jewelry, depending upon whether they
are designed as machine elements or for jewelry or personal wear.
This subclass is indented under subclass 78. Chains, generally used for supporting chandeliers or the
like, in which the links are provided with grooves, openings, or
passageways for receiving electric conductors or for providing a conduit
for gas or other fluid. The chain may be provided with end fittings
such as nipples, hooks, eyes, etc., for attaching the chain to a fixed
object or for attaching an article to the chain. The mere recital,
broadly, in the claims of electric conductors does not operate to exclude
a patent which would otherwise be classified herein.
subclasses 69+ for elastic extension devices which are extensible
upon application of tension and recover when the tension is removed;
and subclasses 80+ for a panel of interlinked extensible/recoverable
spring-influenced members, e.g., bed spring panel, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 78. Chains ornamental in appearance designed for jewelry or
personal wear, and includes chains having alternate or different
links composed of different materials, or the links joined in a manner
to render the chain ornamental in appearance, or the individual
links composed of different metals or materials which render them
ornamental in appearance, or having parts or features rendering
the chains ornamental in appearance, but which parts or features
would possess no particular utility in a general purpose chain.
Metallic bead chains are included in this subclass.
Note. Where the invention resides in the structure of an
ornamental fabric, per se, and does not include features characteristic
of chains, it will be classified in Class 63, Jewelry, appropriate
subclasses or Class 245, Wire Fabrics and Structure, appropriate
Note. This subclass does not include wire curb-chains or
chains made up of twisted-wire links. Such chains are found in
this class, subclass 83.
This subclass is indented under subclass 78. Chains composed of wire links or elements. If the invention
be limited to the link structure, the patents will be classified
in the appropriate subclass under the head of Links.
Note. As to what wire chains should be included under ornamental
chains, see definition of subclass 80, herein. Elastic wire chains
will be found in subclass 79 herein.
This subclass is indented under subclass 84. Links or coupling devices of the general form of a chain-link
which are designed to replace broken links or connect chains or
parts of chains without heating or welding. These links should be
capable of receiving two chain-links and furnishing bearings for
the same, one at each end of the detachable link.
Note. This subclass does not include hooks or coupling members
or devices which are especially designed for other purposes and
are classifiable elsewhere, as whiffletree-connectors, clevises,
etc. Lap links or rings designed for general use and which answer
the above requirements will be included in this subclass.
Buckles, Buttons, Clasps, etc.,
subclasses 598.2+ for a ring shaped projection member of a separable-fastener,
subclasses 598.4+ for a hook with a gate for closing its
access throat, and subclasses 698.1+ for a hook shaped
projection member of a separable-fastener.
Endless Belt Power Transmission Systems or Components, appropriate subclasses for links for connecting sprocket-chains,
subclasses 202+ for a positive drive power transmission belt and
links used in such belts.
This subclass is indented under subclass 85. Couplings for chains or parts of chains comprising U or
link shaped members pivoted together by a removable pin and having
means for normally retaining the pin in position.
This subclass is indented under subclass 85. Links comprising two main members, usually constituting
the sides of the links, which members overlap each other at and
for some distance adjacent their extremities. The members may or
may not have interlocking lugs and recesses.
This subclass is indented under subclass 90. Links usually formed from wire having their ends wrapped
or twisted about other portions of the links, thereby securely fastening
said ends and dispensing with welding.
This subclass is indented under subclass 78. Various devices not otherwise classifiable, such as hooks,
bars, and rings to be attached at or intermediate the ends of the
chain and becoming a part of and being used in connection with the
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