Cooperative Patent Classification

CPC Definition - Subclass H03K

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Last Updated Version: 2016.11
PULSE TECHNIQUE (measuring pulse characteristics G01R; mechanical counters having an electrical input G06M; information storage devices in general G11; sample-and-hold arrangements in electric analogue stores G11C 27/02; construction of switches involving contact making and breaking for generation of pulses, e.g. by using a moving magnet, H01H; static conversion of electric power H02M; generation of oscillations by circuits employing active elements which operate in a non-switching manner H03B; modulating sinusoidal oscillations with pulses H03C, H04L; discriminator circuits involving pulse counting H03D; automatic control of generators H03L; starting, synchronisation or stabilisation of generators where the type of generator is irrelevant or unspecified H03L; coding, decoding or code conversion in general H03M)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Methods, circuits, devices or apparatus using active elements operating in a discontinuous or switching manner for generating, counting, amplifying, shaping, modulating, demodulating or otherwise manipulating signals;
  • Electronic switching not involving contact-making and braking;
  • Logic circuits handling electric pulses.

In general, it should be noted that the word 'Pulse' in the title description is a clear limiting feature for this subclass.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

measuring pulse characteristic

measuring electrical signals (to get a value)

testing electrical circuits

mechanical counters having an electrical input

information storage devices in general

G11

sample-and-hold arrangements in electric analogue stores

construction of switches involving contact making and breaking for generation of pulses, e.g. by using a moving magnet

static conversion of electric power

generation of oscillations by circuits employing active elements which operate in a non-switching manner

odulating sinusoidal oscillations with pulses

discriminator circuits involving pulse counting

automatic control of generators

starting, synchronisation or stabilisation of generators where the type of generator is irrelevant or unspecified

coding, decoding or code conversion in general

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Differential

really means differential, not just complementary, i.e. two signals with an inverter in between are not differential

Circuits for generating electric pulses; Monostable, bistable or multistable circuits (H03K 4/00 takes precedence; for digital computers G06F 1/025, {G06F 1/04})
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Latches and flip-flops;
  • Non-linear (switching) oscillators;
  • Latching level shifters.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Duty cycle correction circuits

Pulse width modulation

Random number generators

Linear (non-switching) oscillators

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Latches used in scan test of integrated circuits

Latches and flip-flops used as static stores in semiconductor memories

Power pulse generators for driving lasers

Voltage- and current controlled oscillators

Special rules of classification

Latching level shifters should be classified in the corresponding bistable circuit subgroups of this main group.

Generating pulses having essentially a finite slope or stepped portions (generation of supply voltages from deflection waveforms H04N 3/18)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Relaxation oscillators.
  • Switched-capacitor oscillators
  • Ramp and sawtooth generators.
Relationships with other classification places

Multivibrators generating pulse signals other than finite-sloped or staircase signals should be classified in H03K 3/00.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Modifying slopes of pulses

Direct-digital frequency synthesizers

Generation of supply voltages from deflection waveforms

Special rules of classification

H03K 4/026: Digital generators followed by a digital-to-analog converter to produce analogue output stepped signals.

Manipulating pulses not covered by one of the other main groups in this subclass (circuits with regenerative action H03K 3/00, H03K 4/00; by the use of non-linear magnetic or dielectric devices H03K 3/45)
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Regenerative action

internal or external positive feed-back.

Delay line

transmission line

{Changing the frequency (modulating pulses H03K 7/00; frequency dividers H03K 21/00 - H03K 29/00; additive or subtractive mixing of two pulse rates into one G06F 7/605; pulse rate dividers G06F 7/68)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mostly pulse rate multiply by 2 circuits based on delaying and combining.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Pulse frequency multipliers

Changing the DC level (television signals H04N 3/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Level shifters interfacing between logic families or coupling logic circuit stages

Shaping pulses (discrimination against noise or interference H03K 5/125)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For reducing generated interference

For impedance matching

For reducing power consumption

For baseband data transmission

by increasing duration; by decreasing duration
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also used for slew rate control circuits.

by the use of delay lines or other analogue delay elements
Definition statement

This place covers:

For instance circuits for staggering turn on signals.

{using dispersive delay lines}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Delay lines having propagation speed depending on input frequency.

by limiting; by thresholding; by slicing, i.e. combined limiting and thresholding (H03K 5/07 takes precedence; comparing one pulse with another H03K 5/22; providing a determined threshold for switching H03K 17/30)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Clamping circuits in general

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

For details of threshold comparators

Clamping for ESD protection

{modified by switching, e.g. by a periodic signal or by a signal in synchronism with the transitions of the output signal}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The value of the threshold is generated by feedback AND the value is modified by switching.

{generated by feedback}
Definition statement

This place covers:

i.e. the value of the threshold is generated by feedback.

{modified by switching, e.g. by a periodic signal or by a signal in synchronism with the transitions of the output signal}
Definition statement

This place covers:

The switching only relating to the switching instants.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

If the value of the threshold being switched is generated by feedback

If the value is generated by feedback AND modified by switching

by steepening leading or trailing edges
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mostly used for pulse compression circuits using non-linear transmission lines having propagation speed depending on input amplitude, such as diode loaded transmission lines, to steepen one of the pulse edges and slow the other.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Changing the slew rate of leading and/or falling pulses in general

Accelerating switching

Suppression or limitation of noise or interference (specially adapted for transmission systems H04B 15/00, H04L 25/08)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Mostly suppression of glitches in binary signals by delay and subsequent logic combination with the original signal.

Some documents (often also classified in H03K 5/156 or H03K 5/1565) relate to phase noise suppression in (interpolated) clock signals.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Suppressing noise by slew rate control

Special rules of classification

For glitches produced when switching from one clock signal to another G06F 1/08 takes precedence.

Arrangements having a single output and transforming input signals into pulses delivered at desired time intervals {(measuring time intervals using electronic timing, e.g. counting means G04F 1/005)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Mainly used for delay circuits but also for some generic pulse circuits having multiple inputs and a single output
  • Phase interpolation
Special rules of classification

Additional aspects are classified as follows

Phase interpolation circuits H03K 2005/00052

Digitally controlled
Special rules of classification

Also classify in: H03K 2005/00058 (controlled by a digital setting)

by the use of time reference signals, e.g. clock signals
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Synchronising a signal to a clock signal
  • Using a clock signal as a reference for controlling a delay, e.g. synchronous mirror delay circuits (SMDs), in which a detected number of gates in a first delay line - through which a signal edge propagates in a predetermined time defined by the reference clock - is used for controlling the number of delay elements in a second delay line for compensation.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Synchronisation of pulses generated from circuits classified in H03K 4/00

Synchronisation of clock signals in data processing equipment

Clocked shift registers

PLL, DLL

Synchronisation in TDM systems

Synchronising data receiver with transmitter, e.g. using clock data recovery

Arrangements in which pulses are delivered at different times at several outputs, i.e. pulse distributors (distributing, switching or gating arrangements H03K 17/00)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Distributing clock signals in data processing equipment:

{with asynchronously driven series connected output stages}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Tapped arrangement

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

using a chain of active delay devices

H03K5/132

{with parallel driven output stages; with synchronously driven series connected output stages}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Pulse distributor with output stages driven more or less synchronously either in parallel in a tree-like structure OR sequentially with shift register like structure.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Distributing clock signals in data processing equipment

{using devices arranged in a shift register}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Shift registers per se

with two complementary outputs
Definition statement

This place covers:

Providing simultaneous switching of two complementary signals.

{non-overlapping}
Definition statement

This place covers:

In particular suitable for preventing simultaneous conduction in push pull stages.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Protecting switching stages against overload by arrangements in the control circuit

Complementarily driven MOS switches

Preventing simultaneous conduction in DC/DC converters

Arrangements in which a pulse is delivered at the instant when a predetermined characteristic of an input signal is present or at a fixed time interval after this instant (switching at zero crossing H03K 17/13; {measuring characteristics of individual pulses G01R 29/02})
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

indicating of signal events

Peak detectors
Definition statement

This place covers:

Peak instant detectors only

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Peak level detectors

AM demodulators and envelope detectors

{the output pulses having a constant duty cycle}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also contains ccts for suppressing jitter and phase noise in pulse signals.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Generators (i.e. circuits not having a signal input) with duty cycle adjustment

Duty cycle modulation schemes

Applications of delay lines not covered by the preceding subgroups
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transversal filters

Monitoring patterns of pulse trains (indicating amplitude G01R 19/00; indicating frequency G01R 23/00; measuring characteristics of individual pulses G01R 29/02)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Detecting presence of valid pulse signal, e.g monitoring amplitude and/or frequency of pulse signal.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Distribution of clock signals

Measuring electrical variables

the characteristic being amplitude
Definition statement

This place covers:

Pulse comparators.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Comparators using latches or having hysteresis

Thresholding or clamping

DC comparators

Indicating signal level

Current (mirror) comparators: Only the ones giving full swing outputs classified here

Circuits comparing digital numbers

Sense amplifiers

Manipulating pulses having a finite slope and not covered by one of the other main groups of this subclass (circuits with regenerative action H03K 4/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Slew rate correction in ramp or triangular waveform generators..

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Slew rate limiting

Modulating pulses with a continuously-variable modulating signal
Definition statement

This place covers:

Continuous modulating signal meaning (quasi-)analog.

Only basic schemes for modulating one or more pulse characteristics are classsified here. See also application fields.

\

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Discrete pulse modulation

Position modulation, i.e. PPM
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Impulse radio, UWB signals

Frequency or rate modulation, i.e. PFM or PRM
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Random signal generators

Random number generators

G06F1/58R

Noise generators

For spread spectrum clock signals

Duration or width modulation {Duty cycle modulation}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Basic modulation concept such as comparing voltage to (quasi-)analog ramp signal.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

For signal generators

switch mode controllers

Class D amplifiers

D/A converters

For data signals

Demodulating pulses which have been modulated with a continuously-variable signal
Definition statement

This place covers:

Only for documents not showing the modulator or where the demodulator is clearly the main aspect.

Electronic switching or gating, i.e. not by contact-making or -braking (selection of the stylus or auxiliary electrode in electric printing B41J 2/405; sample-and-hold arrangements G11C 27/02; switching or interrupting devices in waveguides H01P; gated amplifiers H03F 3/72; switching arrangements for exchange systems using static devices H04Q 3/52)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Composite switches: multiple types of transistors form a switching unit e.g. IGBT
  • Output circuit: drain-source or collector-emitter path including load
  • Input circuit: means connected to gate- or base-connection
  • Feedback from the output to the input circuit: does not include e.g. common source or emitter connections as a voltage reference
{Switching arrangements with several input- or output terminals (code converters H03M 5/00, H03M 7/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

General multiplexers (block diagrams)

Special rules of classification

More detailed structures are classified as follows:

bipolar transistor based mux circuits: H03K 17/62 and subgroups

field-effect transistor based mux circuits: H03K 17/693

diode based mux circuits: H03K 17/76

Modifications for accelerating switching
Definition statement

This place covers:

Acceleration means

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

the mere speed gain one gets by using a different material, type of transistor, etc

{in composite switches}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Composite switches -> mainly IGBTs

Modifications for ensuring a fully conducting state
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Diode replacement circuits

Modifications for protecting switching circuit against overcurrent or overvoltage
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

For testing etc. of semiconductors

Safety devices eventually

Special rules of classification

Protection circuits for protecting the switch go in here, those protecting the load go in H02H 3/00 (remember to distribute it in classification). We will therefore in almost any case have to search in there as well.

Any document with a switch and a temperature detector is classified in H03K 2017/0806.

by measures taken in the control circuit
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuits whose output signals could be used for x-bar current prevention in a half-bridge, i.e. non-overlapping signals

by measures taken in the output circuit
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For solid state switches which are protected by having a mechanical switch (MEMS) in series

Modifications for increasing the maximum permissible switched voltage
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

by merely different types of transistors

Modifications for increasing the maximum permissible switched current
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

by merely different types of transistors

Modifications for switching at zero crossing (generating an impulse at zero crossing H03K 5/153)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

zero crossing detectors

Modifications for eliminating interference voltages or currents
Definition statement

This place covers:

Caused by the switching, e.g. reducing switching noise

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

means for preventing simultaneous conduction

{Soft switching}
Special rules of classification

Soft switching aspects are also classified in H02H 9/001

{Soft switching}
Special rules of classification

Soft switching aspects are also classified in H02H 9/001

Modifications for indicating state of switch
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any kind of state, i.e. not only the switching state but also e.g. if short-circuited, how many times overloaded so far etc. etc.

indicating -> display or generation of feedback signals to higher entity etc.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Indicating

display or generation of feedback signals e.g. to a higher entity etc...

Modifications for ensuring a predetermined initial state when the supply voltage has been applied (bi-stable generators H03K 3/12)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Merely power-on-reset circuits of any kind

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Arrangements for measuring currents or voltages Indicating that current or voltage is either above or below a predetermined value

Resetting means

Storing the actual state when the supply voltage fails
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

latches for opamps or comparator

logic circuit

bipolar transistor

field-effect transistor

Time-programme switches providing a choice of time-intervals for executing more than one switching action and automatically terminating their operation after the programme is completed (electronic clocks comprising means to be operated at preselected times or after preselected time-intervals G04G 15/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also Christmas tree type pre-programmable plugs

Modifications for providing a predetermined threshold before switching (shaping pulses by thresholding H03K 5/08; {for logic circuits H03K 19/0021})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Keeping an absolute switching threshold or switching at a threshold different from the threshold of the switching element

Special rules of classification

Diode replacement Transistors can also be classified in H03K 17/06 or H03K 17/063.

using field-effect transistors
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

IGBTs

characterised by the way in which the control signal is generated (mechanical structural details of control members of switches or keyboards, such as keys, push-buttons, levers or other mechanisms for transferring force to the activated elements, not directly producing electronic effects H01H; keyboards for special applications, see the relevant places, e.g. B41J, G06F 3/023, H04L 15/00, H04L 17/00, H04M 1/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Some detection methods which are not to be found elsewhere & details related to the operation of generic sensors.

This class contains different sensing priciples:

microwave

RF energy sensor

ultrasonic

infrasonic

acoustically activated

temperature activated

Power supply related documents are found here and in H03K 17/945 if for generic sensor. H03K 17/951 is for power supply for non-generic sensor, even if not magnetic.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Optical passive sensors

Doppler-effect microwave sensor

Ultrasonic alarms

Alarms using Doppler-effect

Pyroelectric alarms

Radio-controlled

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

for reflection on object

for HF proximity sensors operating with electromagnetic waves (near field)

Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

RF energy sensor

e.g. to sense absorption of RF energy by a resonant tank circuit at predetermined frequencies, where the tank circuit corresponds to each keybutton. An emitter device emits energy in a path of tank circuit towards the RF energy sensor. A determination device determines a depression state of the keybuttons in accordance with absorption

{using an optical detector (H03K 17/968 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Detection only, no switching

Optical scanner

G02B26/08M4B

Photocouplers

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Light barriers and using reflection on object

Proximity switches (H03K 17/96 takes precedence; {proximity fuzes F42C 13/00; detecting masses or objects, e.g. by using a magnetic or optical detector G01V, e.g. G01V 3/00, G01V 8/10})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Constructional details, housings for sensors, network of proximity sensors, programming of proximity switches

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Explicitly for magnetic proximity sensors

Housings for sensors

{Measures for increasing reliability}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Temperature compensation, self-test, redundant sensors, security switches (using codes), passive and active responders, protection against noise and interference

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Transponders in proximity switches

Passive transponders,

{Measures for supplying operating voltage to the detector circuit}
Definition statement

This place covers:

For practical purposes also power supply details of non-magnetic touch sensors.

{using non-linear magnetic devices}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Also bistable magnetic elements (Barkhausen effect, Wiegand effect, Matteucci effect).

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electronic switching or gating using a magnetic movable element

Wiegand effect

Barkhausen effect

{using galvanomagnetic devices}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hall effect sensors, magnetoresistance.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

If target is magnetic:

Hall effect:

Magnetoresistance:

{using inductive coils}
Special rules of classification

H03K 17/9537 takes precedence.

{in a resonant circuit}
Definition statement

This place covers:

LC-resonant circuit in general (e.g. signal is interrogation pulse, usually generating damped or decaying oscillations)

{forming part of an oscillator}
Definition statement

This place covers:

LC-resonant circuit forming part of oscillator; the variable parameter is undetermined

{with variable frequency}
Definition statement

This place covers:

LC-resonant circuit forming part of oscillator; the variable parameter is oscillation frequency

{with variable amplitude}
Definition statement

This place covers:

LC-resonant circuit forming part of oscillator; the variable parameter is oscillation amplitude

using a capacitive detector
Definition statement

This place covers:

Charge transfer, phase comparison, frequency shift, resistance-capacitance timing circuits

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electrically operated windows or roofs

Distance measurement

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Capacitive touch switches

Detection of varying capacitance

Housings for sensors

Measuring capacitance

Touch switches
Definition statement

This place covers:

Constructional details, detection principles, simulation of slider, key illumination details

{Capacitive touch switches}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Detection principle

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring capacitance

{using a plurality of detectors, e.g. keyboard}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digitisers by capacitive means

{using a force resistance transducer}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Means for interpreting an external force as a variable resistance (e.g. strain gauges)

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Resistive touch switches

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring force or stress in general

Measuring force or stress using distributed sensing elements

Digitisers using force sensing means

Adjustable resistors adjustable by mechanical pressure of force

Adjustable resistors by using means responding to magnetic or electric fields, e.g. by addition of magnetisable or piezoelectric particles to the resistive material

Adjustable resistors on resistive material dispersed in an elastic material

Adjustable by changing surface pressure between resistive masses or resistive and conductive masses

Switches with contacts carried by or formed from layers in a multilayer structure, e.g. membrane switches

Switches characterised by the material of the contacts, e.g. conductive polymers

{Optical touch switches}
Definition statement

This place covers:

ONLY documents which disclose reflection on a permanent interface surface

{using a plurality of detectors, e.g. keyboard}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Simulation of slider, in combination with display

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Digitisers by opto-electronic means

{using a light guide}
Definition statement

This place covers:

With deformation of the light guide

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Touch

Deformation

{Resistive touch switches}
Definition statement

This place covers:

An object (e.g. finger) provides path for current

Switches controlled by moving an element forming part of the switch
Definition statement

This place covers:

Tactile feedback, illuminated, rotary, ...

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Joysticks with analog output

using opto-electronic devices
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Optical rotary encoders per se

having a plurality of control members, e.g. keyboard
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coding in connection with keyboards or like devices using opto-electronic means

H03M211/26

using a magnetic movable element
Definition statement

This place covers:

Type of magnetic sensor: inductance, hall sensor, magnetoresistance

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hall sensors

using a capacitive movable element
Definition statement

This place covers:

The movable part is an electrode forming part of the switch or the dielectric

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical means for transferring the output of a sensing member by varying capacitance

Logic circuits, i.e. having at least two inputs acting on one output; Inverting circuits {(inverting circuits used as delay elements H03K 5/13)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Circuits having at least two inputs acting on one output inverting circuits or buffers.

Relationships with other classification places

When a circuit is used or adapted for switching a load, it is classified in H03K 17/00. When it is used/adapted for driving a logic circuit (e.g. output buffer), it goes to H03K 19/00.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Inverting circuits used as delay element

Clock generation/distribution

Program control

Hot Plugging (device-to-bus)

CAD, Layout and Routing

I/O data interface arrangement

ESD protection

Emergency protective circuits

Baseband systems (for transmission): line drivers, impedance matching, termination

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Nano-technology logic

Special rules of classification

The groups H03K 19/00369 take precedence over H03K 19/0005

H03K 19/003: Circuits for increasing the reliability, not for notifying the user that a failure took place

H03K 19/00323: Skew compensation

H03K 19/00346: Slope control, slew rate adaptation

H03K 19/007: Circuits in this class go, when they fail, to a safe state. They do not notify the user of a failure

H03K 19/01 covers accelerating switching in logic circuits and should not be confused with H03K 17/04 which covers accelerating the switching of a switch

H03K 19/177: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA).

Details of pulse counters or frequency dividers {(number-of-one counters G06F 7/607)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of logic circuits having electric(digital) pulses as input signals and either counting incoming pulses or producing an output pulse stream based on the incoming pulse stream having a modified pulse repeating period.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Changing Frequency

High Security Counting

Measuring Pulse Width Time

Coincidence Detection

G01T1/72

Non-integer Counting and Performing Operations by counting

Member-of-one (population) Counter

Binary Multiplication andPulse rate divider

PLLs including Dividers

Input circuits
Definition statement

This place covers:

Special logic at input for pulse treatment e.g. pulse shaping

Illustrative examples of subject matter classified in this group:

media0.jpg

Figure taken from DE3842874

Output circuits
Definition statement

This place covers:

Special logic at register outputs e.g. for a counter value dependent reset.

media1.jpg

Figure taken from JP57199337

Circuits for carrying over pulses between successive decades
Definition statement

This place covers:

Logic counter having multiple counting stages including a carry over bit between stages.

media2.jpg

Figure taken from US5,946,369

Circuits for visual indication of the result
Definition statement

This place covers:

Logic for representing the result to a user.

media3.jpg

Figure taken from DE3031612

Starting, stopping or resetting the counter (counters with a base other than a power of two H03K 23/48, H03K 23/66)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Logic for influencing the counter status.

media4.jpg

Figure taken from EP0471390.

Monitoring; Error detection; Preventing or correcting improper counter operation
Definition statement

This place covers:

Monitoring whether an error occured during the counting process (not the process producing the pulses)

media5.jpg

Figure taken from DE2550177

Pulse counters comprising counting chains; Frequency dividers comprising counting chains (H03K 29/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Logic for digital counting chains used in pulse counters or frequency dividers

{using elements not covered by groups H03K 23/002 and H03K 23/74 - H03K 23/84}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Other elements as complementary IGFET's, electrically-ignited compounds e.g. pyrotechnical static relays

{Counters counting in a non-natural counting order, e.g. random counters}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Detailed counting encoding scheme.

Gating or clocking signals applied to all stages, i.e. synchronous counters {(H03K 23/74 - H03K 23/84 take precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details regarding the clock used for triggering the counting of incoming pulses

Gating or clocking signals not applied to all stages, i.e. asynchronous counters (H03K 23/74 - H03K 23/84 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Counter with a "rippling" trigger pulse form stage to stage - asynchronous counters.

with a base or radix other than a power of two (H03K 23/40 - H03K 23/62 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Variable counting base, non-integer or odd-number counters.

Pulse counters with step-by-step integration and static storage; Analogous frequency dividers
Definition statement

This place covers:

Static storage type counters - e.g. capacitive type

media6.jpg

Figure taken from EP0916188

Pulse counters in which pulses are continuously circulated in a closed loop; Analogous frequency dividers (feedback shift register counters H03K 23/54)
Definition statement

This place covers:

media7.jpg

Figure taken from GB2008296.

Pulse counters comprising multi-stable elements, e.g. for ternary scale, for decimal scale; Analogous frequency dividers
Definition statement

This place covers:

A triggering pulse is generated in response to each input signal to be counted. The triggering pulse is applied to the device to change the voltage across the device. The voltage across the device is output as an indication of the number of received input signals. The device may be a resonant tunnelling diode with multiple peaks in its current versus voltage characteristic. The device may be a resonant tunnelling diode with multiple peaks in its current versus voltage characteristic.

media8.jpg

Figure taken from US 5,033,069