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SOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL ( making or covering furrows or holes for sowing, planting, or manuring A01C 5/00 ; soil working for engineering purposes E01 , E02 , E21 ; { measuring areas for agricultural purposes G01B} )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Seat constructions
Wheels
Shelters for drivers
Seats specially adapted for vehicles, arrangement or mounting of seats in vehicles
Wheel scrapers
Making or covering furrows or holes for sowing, planting, or manuring
Soil working for engineering purposes
Measuring areas for agricultural purposes
Special rules of classification within this subclass

In A01B all relevant details of tools, method, implements or parts of agricultural machinery which are used for an action that will result in furrowing, ploughing, tilling, moving, opening, smoothing, etc, the soil (soil working) should be classified here. Some of these parts, tools, or methods may not refer directly to a blade for working the soil, but will be however directly related to the soil working action, like guiding the machine to work the soil according to a planned path or at a constant depth (which are related to steering, to the connection/hitch to the tractor, etc). Double classification in other classes, like in A01C, is allowed depending on the precise details (see the lower classification in A01B and A01C). For instance, a coulter for a seeder which has a seed pipe attached, the coulter having no specific description (no detail relevant for the soil working classification scheme), will only be classified under A01C 5/00. However, a coulter for a seeder, even if it includes a seed pipe, whose action in the soil is described in detail or has some special feature for working the soil (opening the furrow) is/may be relevant for A01B. Normally, knowledge of agricultural machines is necessary to determine the relevance. Experience in the field of agricultural machines and general knowledge of the classification in A01B, A01C and A01D should be required in order to establish a proper classification. References are not limiting but informative, to make readers aware of the existence of other potential classification for details related to soil working which may not be covered in A01B or which may be found easier in other groups.

The following IPC groups are not used in the internal ECLA classification system. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following ECLA groups:

A01B69/04 covered by A01B 69/008

A01B69/06 covered by A01B 69/005

A01B69/08 covered by A01B 69/006

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Plant
Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of multicellular eukaryotic mostly photosynthetic organisms typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.
Hand tools ( edge trimmers for lawns A01G 3/06 ; { machines for working soil A01B 35/00 ; making hand tools B21D} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hand tools for gardening or for agricultural purposes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Edge trimmers for lawns
Machines for working soil
Making hand tools
Spades; Shovels { hand-operated dredgers E02F 3/02}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hand shovels for gardening or agricultural purposes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Shovels for snow
Hand held dredgers or shovels
Hoes; Hand cultivators { rakes A01D 7/00 ; forks A01D 9/00 ; picks B25D}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rakes
Forks
Percussive tools
Attaching the blades or the like to handles ( handles for tools, or their attachment, in general B25G) ; Interchangeable or adjustable blades
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Handles for tools, or their attachment, in general
Tractor-drawn ploughs (A01B 3/04 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Animal-drawn ploughs
Use of electric power for propelling ploughs {for rotary cultivators or the like ( electric current collectors B60L 5/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electric current collectors
Ploughs with rolling non-driven tools, e.g. discs ( with rotary driven tools A01B 9/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ploughs with rotary driven tools
Ploughs with rotary driven tools ( tilling implements with rotary driven tools A01B 33/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tilling implements with rotary driven tools
Ploughs or like machines for special purposes ( for drainage E02B 11/02) ; {Ditch diggers, trench ploughs, forestry ploughs, ploughs for land or marsh reclamation ( machines for aerating meadows A01B 45/02 ; making furrows A01C 5/00 ; dredging machines in general E02F) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines for aerating meadows
Making furrows
Drainage device-laying apparatus
Dredging machines in general
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

All ploughs dig, but most of them do it in a continuous manner, they have the form of a blade or disk which is pulled under the soil in a straight line until the headland is reached. This group is for special designs, in which the ploughs perform, for example, a sidewards oscillating movement in addition to its linear displacement, or for ploughs containing tools/blades which perform some kind of additional discontinuous work on the soil.

for making or working ridges, e.g. with symmetrically arranged mouldboards, {e.g. ridging plough}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines for planting potatoes or tubers
Machines for transplanting seedlings
Arrangements for preventing damage to the vines, or the like, {e.g. hydraulic ( machines specially adapted for working in vineyards A01B 39/16) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Machines specially adapted for working in vineyards
for working subsoil
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details about the subsoiler's or mouldboard's blades
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expression "Subsoiler" and "mouldboard" are often used as synonyms.,

Shares { ( making ploughshares by rolling B21H) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details about the subsoiler's or mouldboard's blades

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Making ploughshares by rolling
Mouldboards
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details about the subsoiler's or mouldboard's blades

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Subsoiler, machines for working subsoil
Frames ( means or arrangements to facilitate transportation A01B 73/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means or arrangements to facilitate transportation
Discs ( bearings therefor A01B 71/04) ; Scrapers for cleaning discs; Sharpening attachments ( sharpening in general B24)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bearings of rotating parts
Shaping in general
Ploughs with special additional arrangements, e.g. means for putting manure under the soil, clod-crushers (A01B 49/00 takes precedence ) ; {Means for breaking the subsoil}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combined machines
{Means for putting manure, debris, straw or the like under the soil ( to plough-in weeds A01B 39/18) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
To plough-in weeds
Liquid manure or sludge injectors
Harrows with non-rotating tools { ( harrows for working in vineyards A01B 39/16) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Harrows for working in vineyards
Harrows with rotary non-driven tools ( tilling implements with rotary driven tools A01B 33/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tilling implements with rotary driven tools
Frames ( means or arrangements to facilitate transportation A01B 73/00) ; Drawing-arrangements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means or arrangements to facilitate transportation
Discs (A01B 15/16 takes precedence; bearings therefor A01B 71/04) ; Scrapers for cleaning discs; Sharpening attachments; {Lubrication of bearings} (sharpening in general B24)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Discs; Scrapers for cleaning discs; Sharpening attachments
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bearings of rotating parts
Sharpening in general
Harrows with special additional arrangements, e.g. means for distributing fertilisers; Harrows for special purposes (A01B 39/00 takes precedence; { fertiliser distributors A01C 15/00} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Other machines specially adapted for working soil on which crops are growing, e.g. harrows for special purposes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fertiliser distributors
Clod-crushers
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

There is no clear technical distinction between a harrow and a clod crusher. Here we classify, in order to make a distinction, harrows which are explicitly used for clod crushing and/or stone crushers for agricultural purposes (note that stone crusher is different from stone gatherer/remover, A01B 43/00). Double classification is possible for other details of the harrow. Clod crushing rollers can be also classified in A01B 29/00 attending to specific features covered there.

Rollers { ( rollers for roads E01C) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rollers for roads
Drags {graders for field cultivators ( graders in general E02F) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Graders in general
{of the walk-behind type ( walk-type tractors B62D 51/04) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Walk-type tractors
with special additional arrangements (A01B 49/00 takes precedence; for sowing or fertilising A01B 49/06)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combined machines
Tilling implements with rotary driven tools for sowing or fertilising
Other machines for working soil {not specially adapted for working soil on which crops are growing} (A01B 37/00 , A01B 39/00 , A01B 77/00 take precedence; { hand tools A01B 1/00} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices for loosening soil compacted by wheels or the like
Other machines specially adapted for working soil on which crops are growing
Machines for lifting and treating soil
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hand tools
Undercarriages (A01B 23/04 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Frames; Drawing-arrangements
for working ridges, {e.g. for rows of plants and/or furrows}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Making ridges on soil were plants are not growing
for working in vineyards, orchards, or the like; {Arrangements for preventing damage to vines ( ploughs adapted for working in vineyards A01B 13/06) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ploughs adapted for working in vineyards
for weeding
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details about mechanical weeding in-between rows of plants are classified, e.g. involving a tool penetrating the soil.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanical or chemical weeding
Mechanical weeding or uprooting of weeds with manual (hand held) means
Undercarriages (A01B 23/04 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Frames; Drawing-arrangements
with special additional arrangements (A01B 49/00 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combined machines
Gatherers for removing stones, undesirable roots of the like from the soil, e.g. tractor-drawn rakes {for harvesting root crops A01D}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For harvesting root crops
for cutting sods or turves { machines for lifting and treating soil A01B 77/00}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines for lifting and treating soil
Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools { seeding machines A01C 7/00 ; harvesters combined with soil-working implements A01D 43/12}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Seeding machines
Harvesters combined with soil-working implements
Undercarriages specially adapted for mounting-on various kinds of agricultural tools or apparatus ( general vehicle aspects, see the relevant subclass of class B60 or B62)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
General vehicle aspects
{of the automotive vehicle type, e.g. including driver accomodation (A01B 51/023 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Propelled by a motor of the Gantry-type
Devices specially adapted for connection between animals or tractors and agricultural machines or implements (A01B 63/00 takes precedence; vehicle connections in general B60D; draught assemblies for animal drawn vehicles, in general B62C 5/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Specific details of tractor-implement hitches

Details relating to electrical connectors for supplying electrical power to implements

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tractors, aspects of the tractor
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Connection of supply lines
B50D1/62
Lifting or adjusting devices for agricultural implements
Vehicle connections in general
Draught assemblies for animal drawn vehicles, in general
preventing or limiting side-play of implements ( preventing overstrain A01B 61/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preventing overstrain
supported at three points, e.g. by quick-release couplings (A01B 59/06 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices for machines mounted on tractors
{for ploughs or like implements (A01B 59/061 and subgroups take precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices specially adapted for enabling connection or disconnection controlled from the driver's seat
Devices for, or parts of, agricultural machines or implements for preventing overstrain (preventing overstrain in vehicle connections, in general B60D; preventing overstrain in couplings per se F16D)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preventing overstrain in vehicle connections in general
Preventing overstrain in couplings per se
Lifting or adjusting devices or arrangements for agricultural machines or implements ( lifting mechanisms for the cutter-bar of a mower A01D 34/24 ; adjusting devices for the cutter-bar of a mower A01D 34/28 ; constructional features of lifting devices per se B66F)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details concerning the implement or the connection between tractor and implement

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hydraulic pressure and supply systems inside the tractor
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lifting mechanisms for the cutter-bar of a mower
Adjusting devices for the cutter-bar of a mower
Constructional features of lifting devices per se
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Classification here covers only details related to the implement, and not to the tractor or vehicle, which have their own classification under B62D.

Mounting implements on power-lift linkages (A01B 59/043 takes precedence; preventing or limiting side-play of implements A01B 59/041 ; preventing overstrain A01B 61/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pulling means arranged on the rear part of the tractor supported at three points
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preventing or limiting side-play of implements
Preventing overstrain
Devices for controlling the tractor motor by resistance of tools ( preventing overstrain A01B 61/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preventing overstrain
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

When pulling soil working elements, like ploughs or subsoilers, the tractor must provide a certain tractive force while maintaining constant speed. This may be important for some soil working actons in which soil working tools rotate at a speed which is dependent on the forward speed of the tractor. Also for achieveing a homogeneous soil working with certain tools when soil compaction or resistance conditions change from one area of the field to the next. Here the resistance of the spoil to penetration of the tools is measured, and the motor is adjusted to maintain constant speed/power.

Steering of agricultural machines or implements; Guiding agricultural machines or implements on a desired track ( vehicle course control in general G05D 1/02)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods for planting or sowing in patterns
Precision agriculture
Vehicle course control in general
{Steering by means of optical assistance, e.g. television cameras ( steering devices for road marking vehicles E01C 23/163) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Steering devices for road marking vehicles
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

The steering referred to here is normally either automatic or semiautomatic (assisted guiding), so that the soil working follows a more precise path (following marks, or trenches created beforehand, so that soil working takes place in precisely parallel tracks, or follows a desired pattern).

Construction or arrangement of setting or adjusting mechanisms, of implement or tool drive or of power take-off; Means for protecting parts against dust, or the like; Adapting machine elements to or for agricultural purposes { ( adjusting mechanisms in general G05G) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adjusting mechanisms in general
Bearings of rotating parts, e.g. for soil-working discs ( { discs A01B 15/16 , A01B 23/06} ; bearings in general F16C)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Discs
Bearings in general
Means for protecting against dust, or the like, or for cleaning agricultural implements (A01B 15/16 , A01B 19/10 and A01B 23/06 take precedence; screening of rotary driven tilling tools A01B 33/12 ; screening of rotary parts in general F16P 1/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Discs; Scrapers for cleaning discs; Sharpening attachments
Lifting or cleaning apparatus
Discs; Scrapers for cleaning discs; Sharpening attachments
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Screening of rotary parts in general
Means or arrangements to facilitate transportation of agricultural machines or implements, e.g. folding frames to reduce overall width ( arrangements of lifting devices for soil working implements A01B 63/00 ; { carriers for harvesters or mowers A01D 75/002 ; arrangements or carriers for haymakers A01D 78/1007 , A01D 80/005 ; } vehicles adapted for load transportation or to transport, to carry or to comprise special loads or objects B60P ; motor vehicles, trailers B62D)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements of lifting devices for soil working implements
Carriers for harvesters or mowers
Arrangements or carriers for haymakers
Vehicles adapted for load transportation or to transport, to carry or to comprise special loads or objects
Motor vehicles, trailers
Special rules of classification within this group

In the main group (A01B 73/00) also special details about implement's wheels for transportation are classified. Telescopic frames are also classified here. Documents classified here may have extra classes depending on the type of implement.

{for endwise transportation, i.e. the direction of transport being substantially perpendicular to the direction of agricultural operation (A01B 73/02 takes precedence ) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Folding frames
{ the axis being oriented in a longitudinal direction A01B 73/042 takes precedence }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Folding frames specially adapted for actively driven implements
{ the axis being oriended in transverse direction A01B 73/042 takes precedence }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Folding frames specially adapted for actively driven implements
Parts, details or accessories of agricultural machines or implements, not provided for in groups A01B 51/00 to A01B 75/00
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Machines covered in groups
Machines for lifting and treating soil ( biocides, pest repellants or attractants, plant growth regulators A01N 25/00 to A01N 65/00 ; fertilisers C05 ; soil-conditioning or soil-stabilising materials C09K 17/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Biocides, pest repellents or attractants, plant growth regulators
Fertilizers
Soil-conditioning or soil-stabilising materials
{Precision agriculture}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Guiding agricultural machines or implements
Methods for calculating the fertilizer's needs or for sowing in patterns
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Here documents which disclose methods for working soil that do not fit within the usual and common soil working techniques, or that involve more complexity and precision than a simple tilling. For example, a method which mentions that under certain climatic conditions the soil should be tilled in a particular manner or with a particular schedule. Or a method for working a specific type of soil in a specific manner. Or smart farming techniques and methods which cover parts of the agricultural cycle related to soil working, etc.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013