CPC Definition - Subclass H02M

Last Updated Version: 2021.05
APPARATUS FOR CONVERSION BETWEEN AC AND AC, BETWEEN AC AND DC, OR BETWEEN DC AND DC, AND FOR USE WITH MAINS OR SIMILAR POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; CONVERSION OF DC OR AC INPUT POWER INTO SURGE OUTPUT POWER; CONTROL OR REGULATION THEREOF (transformers H01F; dynamo-electric converters H02K 47/00; controlling transformers, reactors or choke coils, control or regulation of electric motors, generators or dynamo-electric converters H02P)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Only circuits or apparatus for the conversion of ac or dc input power into ac or dc output power, or the conversion of ac or dc input power into surge output power, or arrangements for control or regulation of such circuits or apparatus.

Relationships with other classification places

The individual electro-technical devices employed when converting electric power are covered by the relevant subclasses, e.g. inductors, transformers H01F, capacitors, electrolytic rectifiers H01G, mercury-vapour rectifying or other discharge tubes H01J, semiconductor devices H01L, impedance networks or resonant circuits not primarily concerned with the transfer of electric power H03H.

Voltage and current regulation circuits operating according to the non-switched (linear) principle are classified in subclass G05F

The subject matter of starting, regulating, electronically commutating, braking, or otherwise controlling electrical machines using power converters covered by this subclass is classified in subclass H02P.

Arrangements of power converters of this subclass in power distribution networks, not being concerned with the particular converter designs, are classified in subclass H02J.

Measuring of circuit parameters such as currents, voltages or magnetic flux in general and not particularly intended for power converters of this subclass, is classified in subclass G01R.

General mechanical arrangements of electronic components other than mechanical arrangements particularly intended for power converters of this subclass, are classified in subclass H05K.

Protection circuits in general, other than those forming an integral part of power converters of this subclass are classified in subclass H02H

Enabling and disabling of power switches, other than particularly intended for power switches in power converters of this subclass, is classified in subclass H03K.

Use and generation of Pulse Width Modulation schemes, other than particularly intended for power converters of this subclass, are classified in subclass H03K

General testing and monitoring of power converters of this subclass are classified in subclass G01R

Power converters particularly adapted for charging batteries are classified in subclass H02J.

Uninterruptible Power Supplies are classified in subclass H02J

Dynamically controlled power converters, that serve the purpose of signal amplification rather than energy supply as in this subclass, are classified in H03F

Power supply circuits particularly intended for operating light sources are classified in subclass H05B

Power supply circuits and arrangements particularly intended for computer type gear are classified in subclass G06F

Power supply circuits and arrangements particularly intended for video type gear are classified in subclass H04N

Switched capacitor power conversion circuits particularly intended for supply of semiconductor memory circuits are classified in subclass G11C

Generation of pulsed high-voltages used to generate sparks is classified in H01T/F23Q/F02P

Power converters being used in a particular application and characterised by their operation in that application, without focus on the design of power converter, are classified in the subclass relevant for the application.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Transformers

H01F

Dynamo-electric converters

H02K 47/00

Controlling transformers, reactors or choke coils, control or regulation of electric motors, generators or dynamo-electric converters

H02P

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Conversion of current or voltage specially adapted for use in electronic time-pieces with no moving parts

G04G 19/02

For digital computers

G06F 1/00

Static converters specially adapted for igniting or operating discharge lamps

H05B 41/28

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Testing power supplies

G01R 31/40, G01R 31/42

Systems for regulating electric or magnetic variables in general, e.g. using transformers, reactors or choke coils, combination of such systems with static converters

G05F

Emergency protective circuit arrangements...for static converters or rectifiers

H02H 7/12

Connection or control of one converter with regard to conjoint operation with a similar or other source of supply

H02J

Pulse generators

H03K

Electronic switching or gating

H03K 17/00

Generation or supply of power specially adapted for television receivers

H04N 5/63

Special rules of classification

Switch Mode Power Converters are generally made up of generic, functional elements. Such generic elements are rectifiers (AC-DC-conversion), inverters (DC-AC-conversion), transformers (AC-AC-conversion), filters, regulation loops, resonance-circuits, drivers, snubbers etc. Of these generic elements only few may appear at first glance to be novel over the prior art and it serves no purpose repeatedly to classify all elements. Only those elements that appear novel should form basis for the classification.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

SMPS

Switch Mode Power Supply. A general designation for the type of power converters where power is converted in small quantities at a very rapid pace. The energy entering into the conversion circuit or out of the conversion circuit is controlled by power switches. In an SMPS the power switches are typically operated either to be fully conducting or fully non-conducting, opposite to linear voltage regulators where the power switch is used as partly conductive.

Chopper

Chopper is another name for a switch mode circuit. Chopper refers to that the signal (energy flow) is cut-up into small amounts.

Conversion

In respect of an electric variable, e.g. voltage or current, conversion means the change of one or more of the parameters of the variable, e.g. amplitude, frequency, phase, polarity.

PFC

Power Factor Correction. PFC relates to AC power input. Power Factor Correction is the discipline of rendering the input current sine-wave-shaped, with little harmonics and in phase with the AC input voltage. The aim is to make the AC input power load appear purely resistive for efficient use of the AC distribution network.

Snubber

A circuit aiming at absorbing or redirecting inductive energy generated during switched power conversion when a power switch is turned off (rendered non-conductive).

Details of apparatus for conversion
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Details of power converters that are generic for different types of power converters.
  • Power switch driving circuits particularly intended for switch mode power converters.
  • Adaptation of power converters for operation from different kind of input sources.
  • Means for reducing ripple or harmonics on inputs or outputs.
  • Contact mechanisms of dynamic converters.
  • Means for protecting power converters.
  • Means for starting and stopping power converters.
  • Means for preventing simultaneous conduction of switches.
  • Means for preventing magnetic saturation.
  • Circuits or arrangements for Power Factor Correction.
  • Circuits or arrangements for compensating for electromagnetic interference.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protection circuits in general

H02H

Protection circuits in general, other than those forming an integral part of power converters

H02H 7/10, H02H 7/12

Electronic switching or gating

H03K 17/00

Circuits specially adapted for the generation of control voltages for semiconductor devices incorporated in static converters
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details of circuits used in static power converters for generating driving voltages or currents necessary for controlling, e.g. via a gate or base terminal, the switching state of power semiconductor devices (e.g., gate drivers).

The scope of this subgroup is not intended to cover logical control circuits in a static converter without additional, specialized driver circuitry for controlling the gate or base of a power semiconductor switching device.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Electronic switching or gating

H03K 17/00

the power supply of the control circuit being connected in parallel to the main switching element (H02M 1/092 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Control signals being transmitted optically

H02M 1/092

Means for protecting converters other than automatic disconnection
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Emergency protective circuit arrangements specially adapted for converters with automatic disconnection

H02H 7/10

Conversion of dc power input into dc power output
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Conversion of DC power input into DC power output without conversion into AC.
  • Conversion of DC power input into DC power output with conversion into AC.
  • Conversion of DC power input into DC power output using dynamic converters.
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protection circuits in general

H02H

Electric motor control with feedback of internal parameters of the motor

H02P

Electronic switching or gating

H03K 17/00

Generation or supply of power specially adapted for television receivers

H04N 5/63

using capacitors charged and discharged alternately by semiconductor devices with control electrode {, e.g. charge pumps}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Charge pumps for substrate bias voltage generators

G05F 3/205

Charge pumps for static stores

G11C 5/145, G11C 16/06

Charge pumping structures for internal polarisation

H01L 27/0222

using discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode (H02M 3/07 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Capacitors charged and discharged alternately by semiconductor devices with control electrode

H02M 3/07

in push-pull configuration {(H02M 3/33576 takes precedence; with self-oscillating arrangements H02M 3/3382, H02M 3/3385)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Semiconductor devices having at least one active switching element at the secondary side of an isolation transformer

H02M 3/33576

With self-oscillating arrangements

H02M 3/3382, H02M 3/3385

in a self-oscillating arrangement (H02M 3/337 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Semiconductor devices in push-pull configuration

H02M 3/337

with electromagnetically-operated vibrating contacts, e.g. chopper
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Self-interrupters in general

H01H 51/34

Conversion of ac power input into ac power output, e.g. for change of voltage, for change of frequency, for change of number of phases
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Direct conversion of AC input power into different AC output power, e.g. by change of voltage, frequency or number of phases, without intermediate conversion into DC.
  • Conversion of AC input power into AC output power with intermediate conversion onto DC (DC-link).
  • Conversion of AC input power into AC output power using dynamic conversion means.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Uninterruptible power supplies

H02J 9/00

Electric motor control with feedback of internal parameters of the motor

H02P

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Protection circuits in general

H02H

Electronic switching or gating

H03K 17/00

using devices of a thyratron or thyristor type requiring extinguishing means
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Two stages of AC-AC conversion, e.g. having a high frequency intermediate link

H02M 5/225

Conversion of frequency

H02M 5/27

using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Two stages of AC-AC conversion, e.g. having a high frequency intermediate link

H02M 5/225

Conversion of frequency

H02M 5/297

Conversion of ac power input into dc power output; Conversion of dc power input into ac power output
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Constructional details of power converters.
  • Conversion of AC power input into DC power output without reversal.
  • Conversion of DC power input into AC power output without reversal.
  • Conversion of AC power input into DC power output or DC power input into AC power output with possibility of reversal.
  • Conversion of AC power input into DC power output or DC power input into AC power output using dynamic converter means.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Electric motor control with feedback of internal parameters of the motor

H02P

Switched power amplifiers (class D)

H03F

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Semiconductor device modules

H01L

arranged for operation in parallel {(H02M 7/2176 takes precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Semiconductor devices comprising a passive stage to generate a rectified sinusoidal voltage and a controlled switching element in series between such stage and the output

H02M 7/2176

with electromagnetically-operated vibrating contacts, e.g. chopper
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Self-interrupters in general

H01H 51/34

using devices of a thyratron or thyristor type requiring extinguishing means {(H02M 7/4807, H02M 7/483, H02M 7/493 and H02M 7/4826 take precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

High frequency intermediate AC stage

H02M 7/4807

Discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode operating from a resonant DC source, i.e. the DC input voltage varies periodically, e.g. resonant DC-link inverters

H02M 7/4826

in a push-pull configuration (H02M 7/517 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Special starting equipment

H02M 7/517

using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal {(H02M 7/4807, H02M 7/493 and H02M 7/4826 take precedence)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

High frequency intermediate AC stage

H02M 7/4807

Discharge tubes with control electrode or semiconductor devices with control electrode operating from a resonant DC source, i.e. the DC input voltage varies periodically, e.g. resonant DC-link inverters

H02M 7/4826

in a self-oscillating arrangement (H02M 7/538 takes precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

In a push-pull configuration

H02M 7/538

with automatic control of output wave form or frequency (H02M 7/5375 - H02M 7/5387 take precedence)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Special starting equipment

H02M 7/5375

Push-pull configuration

H02M 7/538

Self-oscillating arrangement

H02M 7/5383

Bridge configuration

H02M 7/5387

with electromagnetically-operated vibrating contacts, e.g. chopper
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Self-interrupters in general

H01H 51/34

using devices of a thyratron or thyristor type requiring extinguishing means
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices of a thyratron or thyristor type arranged for operation in parallel

H02M 7/77

using devices of a triode or transistor type requiring continuous application of a control signal
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices of a triode or transistor type arranged for operation in parallel

H02M 7/81

with electromagnetically-operated vibrating contacts, e.g. chopper
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Self-interrupters in general

H01H 51/34

Power conversion systems not covered by the preceding groups
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Switch mode power converters not falling under any of the groups described previously.
  • Power converters with pulsed power output.
  • Power converters including piezo-electric elements performing power conversion.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Generation of pulsed high-voltages used to generate sparks

H01T 15/00, F23Q, F02P/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Piezo-electric devices

H01L 41/00