CPC Definition - Subclass F01D

Last Updated Version: 2017.08
NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES (machines or engines for liquids F03; non-positive displacement pumps F04D)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Non-positive-displacement engines for elastic fluids, e.g. steam turbines,
  • Non-positive-displacement engines for liquids and elastic fluids,
  • Non-positive-displacement machines for elastic fluids,
  • Non-positive-displacement machines for Iiquids and elastic fluids.
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Machines or engines for liquids

F03

Non-positive-displacement pumps

F04D

Special rules of classification

In this subclass the indexing scheme F05D is used as follows:

F05D 2200/00: mathematical features

F05D 2210/00: working fluid

F05D 2220/00: application

F05D 2230/00: manufacture

F05D 2240/00:components

F05D 2250/00: geometry

F05D 2260/00: function

F05D 2270/00: control

F05D 2300/00: materials

Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines (wit working-fluid flows in opposite axial directions for balancing axial thrust F01D 3/02; with other than pure rotation F01D 23/00; turbines characterised by their use in special steam systems, cycles, or processes, regulating devices therefor F01K)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines: i.e. machine or engine that uses an impeller or propeller and through which fluid is moved

Relationships with other classification places

Machines or engines with working-fluid flows in opposite axial directions for balancing axial thrust F01D 3/02, with other than pure rotation F01D 23/00, turbines characterised by their use in special steam systems, cycles, or processes, regulating devices therefor F01K

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Machines or engines with working-fluid flows in opposite axial directions for balancing axial thrust

F01D 3/02

Machines or engines with other than pure rotation

F01D 23/00

Turbines characterised by their use in special steam systems, cycles, or processes, regulating devices therefor

F01K

with stationary working-fluid guiding means and bladed or like rotor, {e.g. multi-bladed impulse steam turbines} (F01D 1/24 takes precedence; without stationary working-fluid guiding means F01D 1/18)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Machines or engines without stationary working-fluid guiding means

F01D 1/18

Special rules of classification

F01D 1/24 takes precedence

with pressure velocity transformation exclusively in rotor, e.g. the rotor rotating under the influence of jets issuing from the rotor, {e.g. Heron turbines (the working fluid being a combustion products F02C 3/165; jet propulsion plants per se F02K)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aspects of working fluid being guided through a rotor construction such that the action of the expelled working fluid jet creates a reaction on the rotor, i.e. a turning motion is induced upon the rotor

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

The working fluid being a combustion product

F02C 3/165

Jet propulsion plants per se

F02K

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 1/32

media0.jpg

taken from DE102009005872

using fluid friction
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aspects of extracting power from working fluid by making use of the viscous forces within the fluid, usually by the provision of a stack of closely arranged plates through which the working fluid is forced, such as e.g. a Tesla turbine

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 1/36

media1.jpg

taken from WO2009150427

of the screw type
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 1/38

media2.jpg

taken from FR937311

characterised by having one fluid flow in one axial direction and another fluid flow in the opposite direction
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 3/02

media3.jpg

taken from FR937311

axial thrust being compensated by thrust-balancing dummy piston or the like
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 3/04

media4.jpg

taken from US2326112

Blades; Blade-carrying members (nozzle boxes F01D 9/02); Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members {(special arrangements in rotors dealing with breaking off of part thereof F01D 21/045)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Nozzle boxes

F01D 9/02

Special arrangements in rotors dealing with breaking off of part thereof

F01D 21/045

{Repairing methods or devices}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Restoring or reconditioning fractured or cracked metal turbine components, e.g. blades or rotors

B23P 6/045

Maintenance management and planing of maintenance routines

G05B 23/00

{for flow machines or engines with only one axial stage (for more than one stage F01D 5/06)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For more than one stage

F01D 5/06

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/021

media5.jpg

taken from GB944166

{with concentric rows of axial blades}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/022

media6.jpg

taken from US6578351

{of the screw type}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/023

media7.jpg

taken from US4500254

{Fixing blade carrying members on shafts (attachment of a member on a shaft in general F16D 1/06; for non-positive displacement pumps F04D 29/00)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

For non-positive displacement pumps

F04D 29/00

Attachment of a member on a shaft in general

F16D 1/06

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/025

media8.jpg

taken from US2010297468

{Shaft to shaft connections}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/026

media9.jpg

taken from US2010226786

{the rotor disc being formed of sheet laminae (rotor blade aggregates of unitary construction F01D 5/34)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Rotor discs which are made by stacking several sheets of metallic or composite plate like elements together and attaching them to each other, e.g. by gluing or clamping in order to form a single rotor disk or a stacked rotor assembly.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rotor blade aggregates of unitary construction such as bladed disks (BLISKS) or other integrally manufactured rotor and disc arrangements, e.g. machined from a billet, manufactured by composite materials or manufactured individually and finally joined to a non separable unit, e.g. by friction welding

F01D 5/34

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/028

media10.jpg

taken from GB630395

Annular blade-carrying members having blades on the inner periphery of the annulus and extending inwardly radially, i.e. inverted rotors
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/03

media11.jpg

taken from US2006016172

for radial-flow machines or engines
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/04

media12.jpg

taken from JP59113202

{of the Ljungström type}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Ljungström type machines in which the working fluid usually flows radially outwardly between two counter rotating bladed plates or more generally speaking turbines in which the fluid is expanded in a radial direction passing through consecutive turbine stages, wherein the turbine blades are mounted in circular alternating rows on plate like structures

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/041

media13.jpg

taken from EP811752

{the wheel comprising two adjacent bladed wheel portions, e.g. with interengaging blades for damping vibrations}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/045

media14.jpg

taken from US4183719

for counteracting blade vibration
Definition statement

This place covers:

All aspects of blade vibration and countermeasures thereof if related to the blade itself and its construction

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring mechanical vibrations

G01H

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/16

media15.png

taken from US6033186

{Film cooling (F01D 5/187 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

All aspects of film cooled blades, arrangement and shape of film cooling holes

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/186

media16.jpg

taken from EP2267276

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Shower head (cooling)

ditto

Film cooling

expression used in order to describe the cooling technology used in order to cool a blade with an external layer of coolant

{Convection cooling}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/187

media17.jpg

taken from EP2299058

{with an insert in the blade cavity to guide the cooling fluid, e.g. forming a separation wall}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/188

media18.jpg

taken from EP2107214

{the insert having a tubular cross-section, e.g. airfoil shape}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/189

media19.jpg

taken from US2010124499

Specially-shaped blade tips to seal space between tips and stator {(F01D 5/225 takes precedence)}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/20

media20.png

taken from EP1367222

Blade-to-blade connections, {e.g. for damping vibrations}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

In combination with seals

F01D 11/005 and lower subclasses

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/22

media21.png

taken from US6402474

allocate this Indexing Code if document is addressing vibrations and damping thereof

using wire or the like
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/24

media22.jpg

taken from JP59108804

Antivibration means not restricted to blade form or construction or to blade-to-blade connections {or to the use of particular materials}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring mechanical vibrations

G01H

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/26

media23.jpg

taken from EP1980715

Selecting particular materials; {Particular measures relating thereto;} Measures against erosion or corrosion
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making articles from metallic powder

B22F

{Selecting composite materials, e.g. blades with reinforcing filaments}
Relationships with other classification places

Shaping/repair of composites

B29C

Special rules of classification

Indexing Code-codes for fibers, materials, resin etc. in F05D 2300/00

{Protective coatings for blades}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Coatings in general

C23C 28/00

Special rules of classification

Composition of the coating(s) is covered by C23C 28/00

{of axial insertion type}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/3007

media24.jpg

taken from EP2233696

{with side plates}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/3015

media25.jpg

taken from EP1895103

Rotors with blades adjustable in operation; Control thereof (for reversing F01D 1/30)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Rotors with blades adjustable in operation, e.g. unshrouded fans with a single rotor or two counter-rotating rotors

media26.png

taken from US2006188375

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Rotors for reversing

F01D 1/30

Stators (non-fluid guiding aspects of casings, regulating, controlling, or safety aspects, see the relevant groups)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Stators, i.e. stationary fluid guiding arrangements such as nozzles etc

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Safety

F01D 21/00

Casings

F01D 25/24 and F01D 25/26

Regulation or control

F02C 9/00

{Nozzle boxes}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Nozzle boxes, i.e. usually a bladed section of a guiding apparatus with inner and outer shrouds segments that when assembled with several other nozzle boxes results in a stator structure. Two or four nozzle boxes form a complete circular fluid supply assembly

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 9/047

media27.jpg

taken from EP1703083

{for radial admission}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Nozzles or nozzles boxes forming a ring or a sector and in which working fluid is supplied radially onto a turbine stage or a turbine wheel

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 9/048

media28.jpg

taken from US200805689

Fluid supply conduits to nozzles or the like
Definition statement

This place covers:

The fluid conduits themselves, i.e. anything that supplies fluid into the casing of the turbine or ducts fluid around the casing, e.g. from a bleed valve to the user or a hot section of the turbine

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 9/06

media29.jpg

taken from EP967376

{Fluid supply or removal conduits traversing the working fluid flow, e.g. for lubrication-, cooling-, or sealing fluids (see also F01D 25/16, F01D 25/24 and F01D 25/26)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bearings

F01D 25/16

Casings

F01D 25/24

Double casings

F01D 25/26

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 9/065

media30.jpg

taken from US2010275572

Preventing or minimising internal leakage of working-fluid, e.g. between stages (sealings in general F16J {; sealing arrangements for transition ducts of combustor cans F01D 9/023})
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sealing issues related to centrifugal compressors

F04D

Sealing in general

F16J

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Sealing arrangements for transition ducts of combustor cans

F01D 9/023

{for sealing space between stator blade and rotor}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 11/00

media31.jpg

taken from US3146938

{by packing rings; Mechanical seals}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 11/003

media32.jpg

taken from GB866636

Actively adjusting tip-clearance
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Blade tip magnetic field sensors

G01P 3/487

by selectively cooling-heating stator or rotor components
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 11/24

media33.jpg

taken from EP1555394

Combinations of two or more machines or engines (F01D 15/00 takes precedence; regulating or controlling, see the relevant groups; combinations of two or more pumps F04; fluid gearing F16H)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of engines with devices driven thereby

F01D 15/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Combinations of two or more pumps

F04D

Fluid gearing

F16H

{with at least two independent shafts, i.e. cross-compound}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 13/003

media34.jpg

taken from JP359003104

{one being a reverse turbine}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Machines or engines containing a separate turbine for reverse operation

media35.jpg media36.jpg

taken from US4245467

Working-fluid interconnection of machines or engines
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 13/02

media37.jpg

taken from US4986732

Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of engines with devices driven thereby (regulating or controlling see the relevant groups; aspects predominantly concerning driven devices, see the relevant classes for the devices)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Adaptation off machines or engines for special use, combinations of engines with devices driven thereby: gas turbines in combination with pumps, electrical generators, turbines specifically adapted for driving vehicles, air turbines used in compressed air driven power tools or dentistry applications

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Dental machines

A61C 1/00

Portable grinding machines

B24B 23/00

Adaptations for driving, or combinations with, electric generators
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Features relating to the electrical generator

H02K

Regulating or controlling by varying flow (for reversing F01D 1/30; by varying rotor-blade position F01D 7/00; specially for starting F01D 19/00; shutting-down F01D 21/00; regulating or controlling in general G05 {; specially adapted for hand-held tools or the like F01D 15/06})
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Regulating or controlling by varying flow for reversing

F01D 1/30

Specially for starting

F01D 19/00

Shutting-down

F01D 21/00

Regulating or controlling in general

G05

responsive to speed
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measurement of rotational speed

G01P

responsive to condition of working-fluid, e.g. pressure
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressure sensors

G01L

{for radial flow, i.e. the vanes turning around axes which are essentially parallel to the rotor centre line (F01D 17/167 takes precedence)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vanes assemblies usually activated by a unison ring or the like in which the vanes are turning uniformly around an axis that is parallel to the rotor main axis, e.g. like in a conventional automotive turbocharger assembly

Special rules of classification

If specific for turbochargers classify also in F05D 2220/40 as additional information or F02C 6/12 as invention information

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 17/165

media38.png

taken from US2003014972

{of vanes moving in translation}
Special rules of classification

If specific for turbochargers classify also in F05D 2220/40 as additional information or F02C 6/12 as invention information

Starting of machines or engines; Regulating, controlling, or safety means in connection therewith (warming-up before starting F01D 25/10; turning or inching gear F01D 25/34)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Warming-up before starting

F01D 25/10

Turning or inching gear

F01D 25/34

Control of a generator (circuit) during starting/stopping of driving means

H02P 9/08

Shutting-down of machines or engines, e.g. in emergency; Regulating, controlling, or safety means not otherwise provided for
Definition statement

This place covers:

Shutting-down of machines or engines, e.g. in emergency; regulating, controlling, or safety means not otherwise provided for, e.g. shutting down operations or methods should be classified in here if none of the sub groups apply

{Arrangements for testing or measuring (for measuring vibrations G01H)}
Relationships with other classification places

Measurements by optical means

G01B

Measuring vibrations

G01H

Measuring linear or angular speed

G01P

Trip gear
Definition statement

This place covers:

Trip mechanisms for trip valves

media39.jpg

taken from US4379544

Non-positive-displacement machines or engines with movement other than pure rotation, e.g. of endless-chain type
Definition statement

This place covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

media40.png

taken from DE3139802

{Cleaning of turbomachines}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cleaning in general

B08B

Administration of workflow

G06Q 10/00

Arrangement of bearings; Supporting or mounting bearings in casings (bearings per se F16C)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bearings in general

F16C

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/16

media41.jpg

representative image taken from EP1013896

This subgroup also contains features relating to turbochargers.

If information is presented about the overall bearing configuration see also F02C 7/06.

If specific for turbochargers classify also in F05D 2220/40

{Bearing supports}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/162

media42.jpg media43.jpg

taken from EP1630358 and US5080555

{Flexible supports; Vibration damping means associated with the bearing}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/164

media44.jpg

taken from EP1553324

{Sliding contact bearing (gas bearings F01D 25/22)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gas bearings in turbomachines

F01D 25/22

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/166

media45.jpg

taken from US4371219

{for axial load mainly}
Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/168

media46.jpg media47.jpg

taken from US2005047690 and US2005147335

Lubricating arrangements (of machines or engines in general F01M)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Aspects related to lubrication of the engine such as lubrication circuits, lubricant supply, scavenging and the like, covers also features relating to turbochargers and lubrication thereof

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lubricating arrangements of machines or engines in general

F01M

Special rules of classification

If specific for turbochargers classify also in F05D 2220/40

Casings (modified for heating or cooling F01D 25/14); Casing parts, e.g. diaphragms, casing fastenings (casings for rotary machines or engines in general F16M {; special arrangements in stators dealing with breaking-off of part of rotor F01D 21/045})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Casings for turbomachinery and also features relating to turbocharger casings.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Special arrangements in stators dealing with breaking-off of part of rotor

F01D 21/045

Casings modified for heating or cooling

F01D 25/14

Casings for rotary machines or engines in general

F16M

Special rules of classification

If specific for turbochargers classify also in F05D 2220/40

{Temporary support structures, e.g. for testing, assembling, installing, repairing; Assembly methods using such structures}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices holding or positioning work or tools

B23Q

Tools for holding and clamping

B25B

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/285

media48.png

taken from GB1211313

Exhaust heads, chambers, or the like
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Silencing or noise abatement in jet pipes or walls

F02K 1/827

Noise attenuators in general

G10K 11/00

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/30

media49.jpg media50.jpg

taken from EP1262666 and US3945760

{with fluid, e.g. liquid injection}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Exhaust heads or chambers or diffusers comprising an additional injection of fluid such as air or liquids for any desired purpose such as cooling, cleaning of exhaust, deswirling etc.

Special rules of classification

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/305

media51.jpg

taken from US3885822

Turning or inching gear
Definition statement

This place covers:

Auxiliary equipment for rotating the rotor of a gas or steam turbine at low rpm, e.g. for inspection purposes or prevention of sagging and the like

media52.jpg

taken from US4430575