Cooperative Patent Classification

CPC Definition - Subclass E21D

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Last Updated Version: 2016.11
SHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS (soil-conditioning or soil-stabilising materials C09K 17/00; drilling or cutting machines for mining or quarrying E21C; safety devices, transport, rescue, ventilation or drainage E21F)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods or apparatus for making or lining tunnels, galleries or large underground chambers, using underground mining methods only, i.e. not involving disturbance of the ground surface.

Techniques and tools for stabilising such underground constructions against the pressure of the surrounding soil or rock.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Soil conditioning or soil stabilising materials

Underground spaces made by foundation engineering, i.e. involving disturbance of the ground surface.

Deep drilling

Drilling or cutting machines for mining or quarrying

Safety devices, transport, rescue, ventilation or drainage

Sinking shafts
Definition statement

This place covers:

Vertical excavation of shafts from the surface and removal of cuttings:

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Special rules of classification

Shafts can also be used as a starting point for the excavation of tunnels or for the excavation of galleries or horizontal bores for the production of hydrocarbons. Only the specific technical details disclosed relative to each part of the operative sequence should be classified in the corresponding groups.

Raising shafts, i.e. working upwards from the bottom
Definition statement

This place covers:

Shafts starting from a gallery at a lower level, and which can be made by a single boring machine of by drilling multiple boreholes:

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References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Making drillholes for rock anchors

Lining shafts; Linings therefor (E21D 11/00 takes precedence; {sinking with simultaneous lowering of the lining E21D 1/08})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods, materials and apparatuses for lining a shaft, regardless of the method of excavation:

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References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Sinking with simultaneous lowering of the lining

Lining tunnels or galleries

Shaft equipment, e.g. timbering within the shaft {(lifts in hoistways or mines B66B 15/00 - B66B 19/00)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Equipment installed permanently or removably in the shaft other than excavating or lining equipment

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References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lifts in hoistways or mines

Shafts not provided for in groups E21D 1/00 - E21D 7/00
Definition statement

This place covers:

Shafts characterised by features other than the excavation form or the lining installed, such as by a particular layout:

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Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof (E02D 29/045, E02D 29/063 take precedence; linings per se E21D 11/00); Layout of tunnels or galleries
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods or apparatus for excavating tunnels. This includes the stabilisation of the soil prior to the excavation, and the constructive details of the tunnel boring machines:

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References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Tunnel linings per se

Tunnels or galleries, built in the open air or by methods involving disturbance of the ground surface all along the location line

Tunnels submerged into, or built in, open water

Laying of pipes by horizontal earth drilling techniques

Making by using a driving shield, {i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining (pushing prefabricated elements through the ground from an access pit E21D 9/005)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining; Tunnel boring machines featuring driving shields with a cutting action or for protection against collapse of the tunnel:

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Making by using boring or cutting machines (E21D 9/08 takes precedence; mining picks E21C 35/18)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Tunnel boring machines for which no driving shield is mentioned:

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Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling (E21D 15/00 - E21D 23/00 take precedence; specially for shafts E21D 5/00; {driving shields in combination with means for lining the tunnel E21D 9/06}; lining pressure water galleries, linings therefor E02B 9/06)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Materials, methods and machines for lining the surface of an excavated tunnel:

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Relationships with other classification places

E21D 9/06 has several subgroups relative to a combination of driving shield and devices for lining the tunnel. The specific details of the lining operation are also classified in the corresponding subgroup under E21D 11/00.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Linings specially for shafts

Setting anchoring bolts

Anchoring bolts

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Driving shields in combination with means for lining the tunnel

Lining pressure water galleries, linings therefor

Special rules of classification

Documents mentioning aspects of lining, but focussing on the details covered by groups E21D 15/00 - E21D 23/00 are classified only in those groups.

Large underground chambers; Methods or apparatus for making them (lining E21D 11/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Underground chambers having a three-dimensional volume, in contrast with vertical linear cavities (shafts) or with horizontal linear cavities (tunnels)

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References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Linings per se

Modification of passages or chambers for storage purposes

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Storing fluids in natural or artificial cavities or chambers in the earth

Modification of mine passages or chambers for storage purposes, especially for liquids or gases

Props (in the building art E04G 25/00); Chocks, {e.g. made of flexible containers filled with backfilling material}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Props: elongated supports to prop the roof of tunnels or galleries.

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Chocks: roof support formed by fillable bags or stapled cribs:

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References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Props in the building art

Special rules of classification

Props forming part of supports for step-by-step movement are classified in E21D 23/00. If one such prop contains specific details not covered by E21D 23/00, then it should also be classified in E21D 15/00.

Caps for supporting mine roofs
Definition statement

This place covers:

A cap is understood as the roof or top piece in a three-piece , support or beam set used for tunnel support. A piece of plank, timber, support or beam placed on top of a prop, stull, or post. The horizontal member of a set of timber, support or beam used as a roadway support:

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Provisional protective covers for working space (E21D 9/06, E21D 23/00 take precedence)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Means for protecting a work area from rocks falling from the roof or tunnels other than the final lining. This temporary roof support can be in the form of movable shields, caps or covers, of mobile or temporary roof supports, or of linings fixed to the walls and intended to be supplemented by additional lining at a subsequent stage:

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Special rules of classification

Documents mentioning aspects of provisional support by way of a driving shield for tunnels, or of mine roof supports for step-by-step movement, are classified instead in E21D 9/06 and in E21D 23/00 respectively.

Setting anchoring-bolts (anchoring bolts for shafts, tunnels or galleries E21D 21/00; means for anchoring structural elements or bulkheads specially adapted to foundation engineering E02D 5/74; dowels or other devices fastened in walls or the like by inserting them in holes made therein for that purpose F16B 13/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods and machines for installing anchoring bolts or rock bolts, including machines for drilling a hole and inserting an bolt in combination. Under this main group is also classified the use of resins or mortars for fixing anchoring-bolts:

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References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Anchoring bolts for shafts, tunnels or galleries

Means for anchoring structural elements or bulkheads specially adapted to foundation engineering

Dowels or other devices fastened in walls or the like by inserting them in holes made therein for that purpose

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Removing dust

Cleaning by suction

B25D17/18

Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor {in galleries or longwall working}, or shaft-lining protection ({ground anchors E02D 5/80; anchorings for building constructions E04B 1/41, E21D 21/00}; dowels or other devices fastened in walls or the like by inserting them in holes made therein for that purpose F16B 13/00; {bolts with visible load G01L 1/00})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Anchoring bolts, also known as rock bolts or roof bolts, characterised by their construction or by additional elements forming part of them, such as washer or anchoring heads.

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References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Ground anchors E02D 5/80

Anchorings for building constructions

Dowels or other devices fastened in walls or the like by inserting them in holes made therein for that purpose

Bolts with visible load

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lining anchored in the rock

Mine roof supports for step- by- step movement, e.g. in combination with provisions for shifting of conveyors, mining machines, or guides therefor ({transport of mine roof support units E21F 13/008; } shifting of mine conveyors at the working face E21F 13/08)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Hydraulic jacks and frame for supporting the roof of the coal seam, as in longwall mining. A shearer cuts the coalface ahead of the support, and the support moves forward as the cutting progresses. The overburden collapses behind the support after passage of the same:

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References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Props

Coal ploughs

Guiding a mining machine along a conveyor for cut mineral

Transport of mine roof support units

Scraper chain conveyors

Shifting of mine conveyors at the working face

Details of hydraulic circuits