CPC Definition - Subclass E02D

Last Updated Version: 2017.08
FOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS (specially adapted for hydraulic engineering E02B); UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES {(tunnels, tunnelling, mining E21)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods, devices and machinery for making foundations;

Engineering with the ends of making foundations or underground structures involving the disturbance of the ground surface.

Investigation of foundation soil in situ;

Improving soil or rock;

Structural elements adapted to foundation engineering and equipment and methods of placing or removing them;

Preventing excavation walls or embankments from collapsing;

Keeping dry of foundation sites in the ground;

Caissons and the joining of caissons;

Testing, repairing, straightening, lowering or lifting foundation structures.

Relationships with other classification places

E02F covers soil-shifting and dredging independent from the purpose of foundations;

E21B covers drilling of earth or rock in general and without the intent of making foundations;

G01N covers investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties;

G01V covers geophysics in general and prospecting;

E02B covers hydraulic engineering.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Foundation means specially adapted for overhead structures, e.g. gantries

E01F 9/696

Investigation of foundation soil in situ (investigation involving boring or specially adapted to earth drilling E21B 25/00, E21B 49/00; investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties, in general G01N, e.g. sampling G01N 1/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any investigation of a soil with respect to envisaged activities of building foundations on surface of that soil or partially or completely embedded in that soil covered by the investigation.

The investigations may be carried out before or after work for making the foundation is being done.

Investigations may also be done while the foundation work is in progress.

The investigations may comprise evaluation of physical properties, e.g. Young's modulus, compressibility, density, water saturation, weight, bearing capacity, pore-water pressure, permeability etc.

The investigation may comprise evaluation of chemical properties e.g. ph value.

The investigation distinguishes between soil itself and the fluids circulating in it.

The investigation in situ.

Sampling of probes like soil or water for off-site investigation.

The group covers the devices for exerting the investigation work as well as the method.

Relationships with other classification places

E21B covers drilling of earth or rock in general;

G01N covers investigating or analysing materials by deteremining their chemical or physical properties.

G01V covers geophysics in general and prospecting.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Apparatus for obtaining or removing undisturbed cores, e.g. core barrels, core extractors

E21B 25/00

Containers for collecting substances in boreholes or wells

E21B 27/00

Testing the nature of borehole walls; sampling of soil or fluids

E21B 49/00

Devices for testing in situ the hardness or other properties of minerals

E21C 39/00

Sampling involving an extraction tool, e.g. core bit

G01N 1/08

Suction devices for sampling of fluids, e.g. pumps

G01N 1/14

Investigating characteristics of particles or permeability, pore volume etc.

G01N 15/00

Investigating or analyzing materials by use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

G01N 29/00

Prospecting using seismology

G01V 1/00

Prospecting using optical means

G01V 8/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Foundation soil

Soil wherein or whereon a foundation for e.g. a building will be erected on

In situ

At the place and in the state of the occurence of the soil

Improving or preserving soil or rock, e.g. preserving permafrost soil (securing of slopes or inclines E02D 17/20; damming or interrupting passage of underground water E02D 19/12; improving soil for agricultural purposes A01; soil stabilisation for road building or like purposes E01C 21/00, E01C 23/10; setting rock anchoring bolts E21D)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Improving of soil by adding or mixing with materials such as fibres, filaments, open mesh, stones, lost bodies, water, sand, gravel, chemical agents like grout or cement.

Improving of soil by compacting using mechanical, thermal, electrical or electro-chemical means.

Mechanical means include rolling, tamping, vibrating etc. of the soil on its surface or by penetrating the soil.

Relationships with other classification places

A01 covers soil working in agriculture or forestry;

E01C covers paving of roadway surface;

E21D covers rock anchoring in tunnels or mining pits.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Securing of slopes or inclines

E02D 17/20

Placing or applying sealing substances

E02D 19/16

Wheels or wheel attachments designed for increasing traction

B60B 15/00

Machines, tools or auxiliary devices for preparing or distributing paving materials, for working the placed materials, or for forming, consolidating, or finishing the paving

E01C 19/00

Apparatus or processes for surface or soil stabilisation for road building or like purposes, e.g. mixing local aggregate with binder

E01C 21/00

Auxiliary devices or arrangements for constructing, repairing, reconditioning, or taking-up road or like surfaces

E01C 23/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Improving or preserving

Improving a foundation soil shall in this context be understood as increasing its load bearing capacity by excluding disadvantages such as high content of water or lack of compaction.

Trench roller

Compaction roller designed to be operated on the bottom of a trench

Slope roller

Compaction roller designed to be operated on a slope or on a largely non-limited area

To vibrate

To move or cause to move forth and back rapidly

To tamp

To force or pack down firmly by repeated blows

Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering (engineering elements in general F16)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sheet piles made of steel and their locking forms;

Sheet piles of concrete and their locking forms;

Bulkheads made of concrete in situ, of prefabricated parts and concrete in situ;

Piles made of timber, steel or concrete;

Prefabricated piles or piles cast in position, e.g. concrete piles;

Concrete piles cast in position with or without the use of mould-pipes or moulds;

Mould-pipes or moulds for making piles or bulkheads;

Pile shoes;

Means for anchoring piles or bulkheads.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Foundation slots (made of concrete)

E02D 17/13

Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting

E04C 3/00

Pegs, stakes or the like

E04H 15/62

Drilling rods or pipes

E21B 17/00

Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor

E21D 21/00

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Bulkhead

A Wall or partition built to hold back earth or water

In situ

Fabricated at the place of the intended use

Mould-pipe

A Pipe used as the mould for the pile, normally a concrete pile cast in situ

Methods or apparatus for placing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds (for both placing and removing E02D 11/00; {accessories for coupling driver to piles or the like E02D 13/10; for trees or other plants A01G 17/16; placing posts E04H 17/26})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Inserting sheet piles, piles or mould-pipes for purpose of foundation into a soil.

Specifying the process of placing the above elements which may be done by driving, by vibrating, by pressure or pulling power, by screwing down, by using fluid jets, by using several means simultaneously, by means arranged inside a hollow pipe or mould pipe.

Machines and equipment for exerting these operations.

Relationships with other classification places

E21B covers earth drilling, e.g. deep drilling per se. In contrast, this class is aiming to insert a foundation element such as a pile or to inject e.g. grout in a soil to form a foundation element like a pile.

E04H covers sockets for posts and how to insert them in a ground.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

For both placing and removing

E02D 11/00

Sockets or holders for posts driven into the ground

E04H 12/2215

Sockets or holders for posts driven into the ground by screwing

E04H 12/2223

Devices for erecting or removing fences

E04H 17/26

Earth drilling, e.g. deep drilling

E21B

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

To drive

To force or bring down a foundation element by means other than by vibrating, by pressure or pulling power, by screwing down, by fluid jets, or by means arragned inside the pile.

To vibrate

To move or cause to move forth and back rapidly

Removing sheet piles bulkheads, piles, mould-pipes or other moulds {or parts thereof} (for both placing and removing E02D 11/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Removing the top section of piles,

Removing by withdrawing,

Removing by cutting-off an element under water

Relationships with other classification places

E02D 7/00 covers the placing of sheet piles, piles, mould-pipes or other moulds;

E21B is about earth drilling including the withdrawal of the equipment.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Methods or apparatus for both placing and removing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, or other mould-pipes

E02D 9/00

Devices for erecting or removing fences

E04H 17/26

Derricks or masts for drilling machines

E21B 15/00

Methods or apparatus {specially adapted} for both placing and removing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, or mould-pipes (features relating to placing only E02D 7/00, to removing only E02D 9/00{; placing apparatus which without special provisions, can be operated to remove, e.g. vibrating drivers E02D 7/00})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods or apparatus equally suitable for placing and removing foundation elements such as sheet piles, piles or mould-pipes. In contrast, E02D 7/00 only covers the placing of foundation elements, E02D 9/00 only covers the removing of such elements.

Relationships with other classification places
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Methods or apparatus for only placing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds

E02D 7/00

Methods or apparatus for only removing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds

E02D 9/00

Accessories for placing or removing piles or bulkheads{, e.g. noise attenuating chambers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Accessories adapted to remove bulkheads, enabling control during the process of placing, removing of obstacles, follow-blocks and guide devices assisting in placing foundation elements.

Relationships with other classification places

E21B covers earth drilling in general

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Accessories for drilling tools

E21B 12/00

Derricks; masts

E21B 15/00

Automatic control systems specially adapted for drilling operations

E21B 44/00

Survey of boreholes or wells

E21B 47/00

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Components for drivers

E02D 7/14

Scaffolds (as components for drivers)

E02D 7/16

Handling building or like materials for hydraulic engineering or foundations ({soil-shifting E02F;} conveying or working-up concrete or similar masses in general E04G 21/02)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Handling materials when used for hydraulic engineering or for foundations;

Handling of bulk concrete including filling into shuttering, mould-pipes, pile tubes, bore-holes or narrow shafts and under water;

Sinking workpieces into water;

Placing gravel or light material under water.

Relationships with other classification places

E02F 1/00 covers general working methods with dredgers or soil-shifting machines;

E04G 21/00 covers preparing, conveying, or working-up building materials or building elements in situ;

E02B covers hydraulic engineering.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Concrete piles cast in position by making use of mould-pipes or other mould

E02D 5/38

Concrete piles cast in position by making use of mould-pipes or other mould in open water

E02D 5/40

Placing of hollow pipes or mould pipes by means arranged inside the pile or pipe

E02D 7/28

Devices for applying linings on banks or the water bottom

E02B 3/121

Banks of the bodies of water

E02B 3/122

Lining canals

E02B 5/02

Conveying or working-up concrete or similar masses in general

E04G 21/02

Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments (soil-shifting apparatus E02F; earth drilling E21)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Pits for foundations and their borderings;

Narrow shafts or ditches and trenches for foundation;

Stiffening or bordering the sides of ditches or trenches by using travelling trench shores and shoring struts;

Covering and back-filling of those trenches;

Machines for making foundation slots, i.e. diaphragm walls;

Securing of slopes or inclines, e.g. to counter erosion, by flexible securing means e.g. geotextiles, prefabricated modular blocks or by sheet piles and piles.

Relationships with other classification places

E02F covers general working methods with dredgers or soil-shifting machines;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Concrete diaphragms per se

E02D 5/18

Foundations for dams

E02D 27/40

Protection like protecting fences against snowslide or avalanches

E01F 7/04, E01F 15/00

Stream regulation, e.g. breaking up subaqueous rock, cleaning the beds of waterways, directing the water flow and removing of sediment or solid rock

E02B 3/02

Soil shifting apparatus unless used for making foundations, e.g. diaphragm wall

E02F 1/00

Dredgers or soil shifting machines with equipment for back-filling trenches or ditches

E02F 5/12

Dredgers or soil shifting machinesfor making embankments

E02F 5/22

Keeping dry foundation sites or other areas in the ground (sheet piles or bulkheads E02D 5/02)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Protecting areas, particularly foundation areas like foundation pits, from the entry of water;

Water may arise as open water or underground water;

Lining sumps when in trenches, ditches or other foundation pits.

The methods comprising the building of coffer-dams, making open ditches or trenches, lowering the level of ground water, e.g. by pumping, interrupting the waters passage by freezing, damming, making sealing aprons or forcing out the water by e.g. compressed air.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Consolidating soil by placing solidifying or pore-filling substances in the soil

E02D 3/12

Sheet piles or sheet pile bulkheads

E02D 5/02

Pneumatic caissons to keep of the water

E02D 23/04

Permanent sheet piling boxes

E02D 27/30

Collecting drinking water

E02B 3/00

Sealing or joints in connection with hydraulic engineering when correcting rivers or streams

E02B 3/16

Freezing the soil when sinking shafts, e.g. mining shafts

E21D 1/12

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Sealing aprons

Diaphragms made from bituminous or clay material in contrast to diaphragm wall which is widely understood a concrete wall.

Caissons; Construction or placing of caissons (tunnels submerged into or built in open water E02D 29/063{; moles, piers, quays, breakwaters incorporating caissons E02B 3/06; foundation formed by caissons E02D 27/18 - E02D 27/22; caisson-like artificial islands E02B 17/00})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Caissons and pneumatic caissons, their use involving bringing materials and persons in there;

Particularities of the use of such caissons comprising lowering and sinking, increasing lowering, jointing caissons to the foundation soil, solving problems such as skin friction while lowering.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Foundation formed by caissons

E02D 27/18 - E02D 27/22

Tunnels submerged into or built in open water

E02D 29/063

Breakwaters incorporating caissons

E02B 3/06

Caisson-like artificial islands

E02B 17/00

Sinking mine shaft

E21D 1/00

Air locks in mines

E21F 1/14

Joining caissons, sinkers, or other units to each other under water
Definition statement

This place covers:

Underwater connection of elements used for foundation underwater such as caissons, sinkers, or other units

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Jointing caissons to (uneven) foundation soil

E02D 23/16

Foundations as substructures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Foundations when flat on the foundation soil, deeply embedded foundations such as pile foundations;

Foundations for special purposes, e.g. in earthquake territories, in frozen ground, in moors, for masts or machines;

special type of fixing the foundation to the ground such as anchoring or building underneath existing buildings for their recovery.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Consolidating foundation soil in general

E02D 3/02 - E02D 3/12

Sinking worpieces into water or soil

E02D 15/08

Equipment for dwelling or working under water

B63C 11/00

Tanks per se

B65D 88/00

Foundations for railway sleepers

E01B

Foundations for paving of roads

E01C 3/00

Bridges for supporting conduits

E01D 18/00

Dams per se

E02B 3/10, E02B 7/04

Elevated canals

E02B 5/005

Arrangements or adaptations of tanks for water supply

E03B 11/00

Making of a new substructure subsequent to lifting or moving of buildings

E04G 23/06

Building constructions with protection arrangements against earthquakes

E04H 9/02

Sockets or holders for poles or masts per se

E04H 12/22

Special lay-out of foundations with respect to the particularities of the machines to be supported

F16M 9/00

{Independent} underground or underwater structures (underground tanks B65D 88/76; hydraulic engineering, e.g. sealings or joints, E02B; underground garages E04H 6/00; underground air-raid shelters E04H 9/12; burial vaults E04H 13/00); Retaining walls
Definition statement

This place covers:

Underground or underwater structures as independent buildings or constructions, e.g. retaining or protecting walls, caverns, tunnels, siphons;

Tunnels for conduits;

Manhole shafts and covers therefore;

Joints in constructions and their arrangement;

Retaining walls

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details of ground anchors

E02D 5/80

Securing of slopes or inclines

E02D 17/20

Submerged foundations

E02D 27/52

Shafts for underground tanks

B65D 90/10

Lifting devices for covers in general

B66F 19/005

Pontoons or floating bridges

E01D 15/14

Arrangements for absorbing or reflecting air-transmitted noise from road or railway traffic

E01F 8/00

Arrangements for absorbing or reflecting air-transmitted noise from road or railway traffic using gabions

E01F 8/025

Piers or quay walls

E02B 3/06

Joints for hydraulic engineering in general

E02B 3/16

Siphon weirs

E02B 7/18

Design and layout of power plants

E02B 9/00

Tunnels for pressure water conduits

E02B 9/06

Shafts for sewerage

E03F 5/02

Gully gratings

E03F 5/06

Siphons for sewerage

E03F 5/20

Sealing of joints not restricted to foundation structures

E04B 1/68

Layout of tunnels in general

E21D 9/14

Large underground chambers or caverns made only by underground methods

E21D 13/00

Siphons in general

F04F 10/00

Tunnels for cables

H02G 9/02

Protective arrangements for foundations or foundation structures {(protective casings for piles E02D 5/60)}; Ground foundation measures for protecting the soil or the subsoil water, e.g. preventing or counteracting oil pollution (spillage retaining means for tanks B65D 90/24)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Protecting foundations from harmful influence such as water, humidity, noxious gases, corrosion by soil or water, transmission of vibrations, soil pressure, upward hydraulic pressure or frost heave.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Anchored foundations

E02D 27/50

Sealings for hydraulic engineering in general

E02B 3/16

Sealings for building structures in general

E04B 1/66

Testing foundations or foundation structures (testing methods and apparatus, see the relevant subclasses of class G01; testing structures or apparatus as regards function, in general, G01M; testing or determining chemical or physical properties, in general G01N)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Testing of foundation structures such as piles or other foundation structure

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

General testing of structures and apparatus with respect to their function

G01M

Testing or determining chemical or physical properties in general

G01N

Straightening, lifting, or lowering of foundation structures or of constructions erected on foundations {(foundations for sinking territories with incorporated means for remedying settlement E02D 27/34; lifting or moving buildings E04G 23/06)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Altering the level of a foundation

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Foundations for sinking territories with incorporated means for remedying settlement

E02D 27/34

Straightening, lowering, lifting foundation structures

E02D 35/00

Repair of damaged foundations

E02D 37/00

Lifting or moving buildings

E04G 23/06

Repair of damaged foundations or foundation structures {(renewing piles E02D 5/64; roads E01C 11/005; bridges E01D 22/00; repairing buildings E04G 23/02)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Repairing improper foundations

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Foundations for sinking territories with incorporated means for remedying settlement

E02D 27/34

Straightening, lowering, lifting foundation structures

E02D 35/00

Lifting or moving buildings

E04G 23/06