Cooperative Patent Classification

CPC Definition - Subclass E02D

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Last Updated Version: 2016.11
FOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS, EMBANKMENTS (specially adapted for hydraulic engineering E02B); UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURE (tunnels, tunnelling, mining E21)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods, devices and machinery for making foundations;

Engineering with the ends of making foundations or underground structures involving the disturbance of the ground surface.

Investigation of foundation soil in situ;

Improving soil or rock;

Structural elements adapted to foundation engineering and equipment and methods of placing or removing them;

Preventing excavation walls or embankments from collapsing;

Keeping dry of foundation sites in the ground;

Caissons and the joining of caissons;

Testing, repairing, straightening, lowering or lifting foundation structures.

Relationships with other classification places

E02F covers soil-shifting and dredging independent from the purpose of foundations;

E21B covers drilling of earth or rock in general and without the intent of making foundations;

G01N covers investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties;

G01V covers geophysics in general and prospecting;

E02B covers hydraulic engineering.

Investigation of foundation soil in situ (investigation involving boring or specially adapted to earth drilling E21B 25/00, E21B 49/00; investigating or analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties, in general G01N, e.g. sampling G01N 1/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any investigation of a soil with respect to envisaged activities of building foundations on surface of that soil or partially or completely embedded in that soil covered by the investigation.

The investigations may be carried out before or after work for making the foundation is being done.

Investigations may also be done while the foundation work is in progress.

The investigations may comprise evaluation of physical properties, e.g. Young's modulus, compressibility, density, water saturation, weight, bearing capacity, pore-water pressure, permeability etc.

The investigation may comprise evaluation of chemical properties e.g. ph value.

The investigation distinguishes between soil itself and the fluids circulating in it.

The investigation in situ.

Sampling of probes like soil or water for off-site investigation.

The group covers the devices for exerting the investigation work as well as the method.

Relationships with other classification places

E21B covers drilling of earth or rock in general;

G01N covers investigating or analysing materials by deteremining their chemical or physical properties.

G01V covers geophysics in general and prospecting.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Apparatus for obtaining or removing undisturbed cores, e.g. core barrels, core extractors

Containers for collecting substances in boreholes or wells

Testing the nature of borehole walls; sampling of soil or fluids

Devices for testing in situ the hardness or other properties of minerals

Sampling involving an extraction tool, e.g. core bit

Suction devices for sampling of fluids, e.g. pumps

Investigating characteristics of particles or permeability, pore volume etc.

Investigating or analyzing materials by use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

Prospecting using seismology

Prospecting using optical means

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Foundation soil

Soil wherein or whereon a foundation for e.g. a building will be erected on

In situ

At the place and in the state of the occurence of the soil

Improving or preserving soil or rock, e.g. preserving permafrost soil (securing of slopes or inclines E02D 17/20; damming or interrupting passage of underground water E02D 19/12; improving soil for agricultural purposes A01; soil stabilisation for road building or like purposes E01C 21/00, E01C 23/10; setting rock anchoring bolts E21D)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Improving of soil by adding or mixing with materials such as fibres, filaments, open mesh, stones, lost bodies, water, sand, gravel, chemical agents like grout or cement.

Improving of soil by compacting using mechanical, thermal, electrical or electro-chemical means.

Mechanical means include rolling, tamping, vibrating etc. of the soil on its surface or by penetrating the soil.

Relationships with other classification places

A01 covers soil working in agriculture or forestry;

E01C covers paving of roadway surface;

E21D covers rock anchoring in tunnels or mining pits.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Securing of slopes or inclines

Placing or applying sealing substances

Wheels or wheel attachments designed for increasing traction

Machines, tools or auxiliary devices for preparing or distributing paving materials, for working the placed materials, or for forming, consolidating, or finishing the paving

Apparatus or processes for surface or soil stabilisation for road building or like purposes, e.g. mixing local aggregate with binder

Auxiliary devices or arrangements for constructing, repairing, reconditioning, or taking-up road or like surfaces

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Improving or preserving

Improving a foundation soil shall in this context be understood as increasing its load bearing capacity by excluding disadvantages such as high content of water or lack of compaction.

Trench roller

Compaction roller designed to be operated on the bottom of a trench

Slope roller

Compaction roller designed to be operated on a slope or on a largely non-limited area

To vibrate

To move or cause to move forth and back rapidly

To tamp

To force or pack down firmly by repeated blows

Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering (engineering elements in general F16)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Sheet piles made of steel and their locking forms;

Sheet piles of concrete and their locking forms;

Bulkheads made of concrete in situ, of prefabricated parts and concrete in situ;

Piles made of timber, steel or concrete;

Prefabricated piles or piles cast in position, e.g. concrete piles;

Concrete piles cast in position with or without the use of mould-pipes or moulds;

Mould-pipes or moulds for making piles or bulkheads;

Pile shoes;

Means for anchoring piles or bulkheads.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Foundation slots (made of concrete)

Structural elongated elements designed for load-supporting

Pegs, stakes or the like

Drilling rods or pipes

Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Bulkhead

A Wall or partition built to hold back earth or water

In situ

Fabricated at the place of the intended use

Mould-pipe

A Pipe used as the mould for the pile, normally a concrete pile cast in situ

Methods or apparatus for placing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds (for both placing and removing E02D 11/00; {accessories for coupling driver to piles or the like E02D 13/10; for trees or other plants A01G 17/16; placing posts E04H 17/26})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Inserting sheet piles, piles or mould-pipes for purpose of foundation into a soil.

Specifying the process of placing the above elements which may be done by driving, by vibrating, by pressure or pulling power, by screwing down, by using fluid jets, by using several means simultaneously, by means arranged inside a hollow pipe or mould pipe.

Machines and equipment for exerting these operations.

Relationships with other classification places

E21B covers earth drilling, e.g. deep drilling per se. In contrast, this class is aiming to insert a foundation element such as a pile or to inject e.g. grout in a soil to form a foundation element like a pile.

E04H covers sockets for posts and how to insert them in a ground.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

For both placing and removing

Sockets or holders for posts driven into the ground

Sockets or holders for posts driven into the ground by screwing

Devices for erecting or removing fences

Earth drilling, e.g. deep drilling

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

To drive

To force or bring down a foundation element by means other than by vibrating, by pressure or pulling power, by screwing down, by fluid jets, or by means arragned inside the pile.

To vibrate

To move or cause to move forth and back rapidly

Removing sheet piles bulkheads, piles, mould-pipes or other moulds {or parts thereof} (for both placing and removing E02D 11/00)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Removing the top section of piles,

Removing by withdrawing,

Removing by cutting-off an element under water

Relationships with other classification places

E02D 7/00 covers the placing of sheet piles, piles, mould-pipes or other moulds;

E21B is about earth drilling including the withdrawal of the equipment.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Methods or apparatus for both placing and removing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, or other mould-pipes

Devices for erecting or removing fences

Derricks or masts for drilling machines

Methods or apparatus {specially adapted} for both placing and removing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, or mould-pipes (features relating to placing only E02D 7/00, to removing only E02D 9/00; {placing apparatus which without special provisions, can be operated to remove, e.g. vibrating drivers E02D 7/00})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Methods or apparatus equally suitable for placing and removing foundation elements such as sheet piles, piles or mould-pipes. In contrast, E02D 7/00 only covers the placing of foundation elements, E02D 9/00 only covers the removing of such elements.

Relationships with other classification places
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Methods or apparatus for only placing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds

Methods or apparatus for only removing sheet pile bulkheads, piles, mouldpipes, or other moulds

Accessories for placing or removing piles or bulkheads, {e.g. noise attenuating chambers}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Accessories adapted to remove bulkheads, enabling control during the process of placing, removing of obstacles, follow-blocks and guide devices assisting in placing foundation elements.

Relationships with other classification places

E21B covers earth drilling in general

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Accessories for drilling tools

Derricks; masts

Automatic control systems specially adapted for drilling operations

Survey of boreholes or wells

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Components for drivers

Scaffolds (as components for drivers)

Handling building or like materials for hydraulic engineering or foundations ({soil-shifting E02F;} conveying or working-up concrete or similar masses in general E04G 21/02)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Handling materials when used for hydraulic engineering or for foundations;

Handling of bulk concrete including filling into shuttering, mould-pipes, pile tubes, bore-holes or narrow shafts and under water;

Sinking workpieces into water;

Placing gravel or light material under water.

Relationships with other classification places

E02F 1/00 covers general working methods with dredgers or soil-shifting machines;

E04G 21/00 covers preparing, conveying, or working-up building materials or building elements in situ;

E02B covers hydraulic engineering.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Concrete piles cast in position by making use of mould-pipes or other mould

Concrete piles cast in position by making use of mould-pipes or other mould in open water

Placing of hollow pipes or mould pipes by means arranged inside the pile or pipe

Devices for applying linings on banks or the water bottom

Banks of the bodies of water

Lining canals

Conveying or working-up concrete or similar masses in general

Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments (soil-shifting apparatus E02F; earth drilling E21)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Pits for foundations and their borderings;

Narrow shafts or ditches and trenches for foundation;

Stiffening or bordering the sides of ditches or trenches by using travelling trench shores and shoring struts;

Covering and back-filling of those trenches;

Machines for making foundation slots, i.e. diaphragm walls;

Securing of slopes or inclines, e.g. to counter erosion, by flexible securing means e.g. geotextiles, prefabricated modular blocks or by sheet piles and piles.

Relationships with other classification places

E02F covers general working methods with dredgers or soil-shifting machines;

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Concrete diaphragms per se

Foundations for dams

Protection like protecting fences against snowslide or avalanches

Stream regulation, e.g. breaking up subaqueous rock, cleaning the beds of waterways, directing the water flow and removing of sediment or solid rock

Soil shifting apparatus unless used for making foundations, e.g. diaphragm wall

Dredgers or soil shifting machines with equipment for back-filling trenches or ditches

Dredgers or soil shifting machinesfor making embankments

Keeping dry foundation sites or other areas in the ground (sheet piles or bulkheads E02D 5/02)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Protecting areas, particularly foundation areas like foundation pits, from the entry of water;

Water may arise as open water or underground water;

Lining sumps when in trenches, ditches or other foundation pits.

The methods comprising the building of coffer-dams, making open ditches or trenches, lowering the level of ground water, e.g. by pumping, interrupting the waters passage by freezing, damming, making sealing aprons or forcing out the water by e.g. compressed air.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Consolidating soil by placing solidifying or pore-filling substances in the soil

Sheet piles or sheet pile bulkheads

Pneumatic caissons to keep of the water

Permanent sheet piling boxes

Collecting drinking water

Sealing or joints in connection with hydraulic engineering when correcting rivers or streams

Freezing the soil when sinking shafts, e.g. mining shafts

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Sealing aprons

Diaphragms made from bituminous or clay material in contrast to diaphragm wall which is widely understood a concrete wall.

Caissons; Construction or placing of caissons (tunnels submerged into or built in open water E02D 29/063; {moles, piers, quays, breakwaters incorporating caissons E02B 3/06; foundation formed by caissons E02D 27/18 - E02D 27/22; caisson-like artificial islands E02B 17/00})
Definition statement

This place covers:

Caissons and pneumatic caissons, their use involving bringing materials and persons in there;

Particularities of the use of such caissons comprising lowering and sinking, increasing lowering, jointing caissons to the foundation soil, solving problems such as skin friction while lowering.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Foundation formed by caissons

Tunnels submerged into or built in open water

Breakwaters incorporating caissons

Caisson-like artificial islands

Sinking mine shaft

Air locks in mines

Joining caissons, sinkers, or other units to each other under water
Definition statement

This place covers:

Underwater connection of elements used for foundation underwater such as caissons, sinkers, or other units

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Jointing caissons to (uneven) foundation soil

Foundations as substructures
Definition statement

This place covers:

Foundations when flat on the foundation soil, deeply embedded foundations such as pile foundations;

Foundations for special purposes, e.g. in earthquake territories, in frozen ground, in moors, for masts or machines;

special type of fixing the foundation to the ground such as anchoring or building underneath existing buildings for their recovery.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Consolidating foundation soil in general

Sinking worpieces into water or soil

Equipment for dwelling or working under water

Tanks per se

Foundations for railway sleepers

Foundations for paving of roads

Bridges for supporting conduits

Dams per se

Elevated canals

Arrangements or adaptations of tanks for water supply

Making of a new substructure subsequent to lifting or moving of buildings

Building constructions with protection arrangements against earthquakes

Sockets or holders for poles or masts per se

Special lay-out of foundations with respect to the particularities of the machines to be supported

{Independent} underground or underwater structures (underground tanks B65D 88/76; hydraulic engineering, e.g. sealings or joints, E02B; underground garages E04H 6/00; underground air-raid shelters E04H 9/12; burial vaults E04H 13/00); Retaining walls
Definition statement

This place covers:

Underground or underwater structures as independent buildings or constructions, e.g. retaining or protecting walls, caverns, tunnels, siphons;

Tunnels for conduits;

Manhole shafts and covers therefore;

Joints in constructions and their arrangement;

Retaining walls

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Details of ground anchors

Securing of slopes or inclines

Submerged foundations

Shafts for underground tanks

Lifting devices for covers in general

Pontoons or floating bridges

Arrangements for absorbing or reflecting air-transmitted noise from road or railway traffic

Arrangements for absorbing or reflecting air-transmitted noise from road or railway traffic using gabions

Piers or quay walls

Joints for hydraulic engineering in general

Siphon weirs

Design and layout of power plants

Tunnels for pressure water conduits

Shafts for sewerage

Gully gratings

Siphons for sewerage

Sealing of joints not restricted to foundation structures

Layout of tunnels in general

Large underground chambers or caverns made only by underground methods

Siphons in general

Tunnels for cables

Protective arrangements for foundations or foundation structures {(protective casings for piles E02D 5/60)}; Ground foundation measures for protecting the soil or the subsoil water, e.g. preventing or counteracting oil pollution (spillage retaining means for tanks B65D 90/24)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Protecting foundations from harmful influence such as water, humidity, noxious gases, corrosion by soil or water, transmission of vibrations, soil pressure, upward hydraulic pressure or frost heave.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Anchored foundations

Sealings for hydraulic engineering in general

Sealings for building structures in general

Testing foundations or foundation structures (testing methods and apparatus, see the relevant subclasses of class G01; testing structures or apparatus as regards function, in general, G01M; testing or determining chemical or physical properties, in general G01N)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Testing of foundation structures such as piles or other foundation structure

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

General testing of structures and apparatus with respect to their function

Testing or determining chemical or physical properties in general

Straightening, lifting, or lowering of foundation structures or of constructions erected on foundations {(foundations for sinking territories with incorporated means for remedying settlement E02D 27/34; lifting or moving buildings E04G 23/06)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Altering the level of a foundation

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Foundations for sinking territories with incorporated means for remedying settlement

Straightening, lowering, lifting foundation structures

Repair of damaged foundations

Lifting or moving buildings

Repair of damaged foundations or foundation structures {(renewing piles E02D 5/64; roads E01C 11/005; bridges E01D 22/00; repairing buildings E04G 23/02)}
Definition statement

This place covers:

Repairing improper foundations

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Foundations for sinking territories with incorporated means for remedying settlement

Straightening, lowering, lifting foundation structures

Lifting or moving buildings