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CRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION (cracking to hydrogen or synthesis gas C01B; cracking or pyrolysis of hydrocarbon gases to individual hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof of definite or specific constitution C07C; cracking to cokes C10B) ; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES (inhibiting corrosion or incrustation in general C23F)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand or non-melting solid carbonaceous materials (e.g. wood, coal), from oxides of carbon (e.g. Fischer-Tropsch processes), from oxygen-containing organic materials (e.g. fatty acids or fatty oils) or from gases (e.g. natural gas).

Distillation, dewatering or demulsification of hydrocarbon oils.

Catalytic or non-catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen.

Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen.

Reforming naphtha.

Hydrotreatment processes involving refining, cracking or other treatment of hydrocarbon oils in the presence of hydrogen or hydrogen generating compounds.

Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from lower carbon number hydrocarbons, e.g. oligomerisation or polymerisation to make longer carbon chains. Multi-step processes for treating hydrocarbon oils in the presence or absence of hydrogen.

Working up of normally gaseous mixtures of undefined composition obtained from cracking processes.

Treatment of hydrocarbon oils or fatty oils for lubricating purposes, including thickening by voltolisation. Recovery of refining of mineral waxes, e.g. montan wax.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass covers the production or treatment of normally liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. The production or treatment of normally solid or gaseous carbonaceous materials is covered by subclasses C10B, C10C, C10F, C10J, C10K.

The borderline between C10G 2/00, C10L 3/06 and C07C 1/02 is not entirely clear in respect of the production of hydrocarbons from oxides of carbon (e.g. using processes such as the Fischer-Tropsch process starting from synthesis gas or syngas). Multiple classifications exist in this area.

Processes using enzymes or micro-organisms in order to liberate, separate or purify a pre-existing compound or composition, or to treat textiles or clean solid surfaces of materials are further classified in subclass C12S.

Processes in general and apparatus for distillation are classified in B01D and working-up unidentified gaseous mixtures obtained by cracking hydrocarbon oils are classified in C10G 7/00

Catalytic reactors are in general classified in B01J and refining of hydrocarbon oils, in the absence of hydrogen, with solid sorbents are classified in C10G 25/00

Apparatus used in C10G are classified in B01D, B01D when the apparatus is the invention.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanical separation of oil from oil-shale, oil-sand or the like
Cracking mainly to hydrogen or synthesis gas
Preparation of individual hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof of definite or specified constitution, including by cracking or pyrolysis of hydrocarbon gases
Compositions essentially based on waxes
Chemical modification of drying-oils by voltolising
Cracking to produce cokes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Distillation in general
Destructive distillation of oil-shale
Lubricating compositions
Inhibiting corrosion or incrustation in general
Protection of pipes against corrosion or incrustation
Special rules of classification within this subclass

Groups C10G 9/00 - C10G 49/00 are limited to one-step processes; combined or multi-step processes are covered by groups C10G 51/00 - C10G 69/00. Refining or recovery of mineral waxes is covered by group C10G 73/00.

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:

  • "in the presence of hydrogen" or "in the absence of hydrogen" mean treatments with hydrogen, in free form or as hydrogen generating compounds, is added, or not added, respectively;
  • "hydrotreament" is used for conversion processes as defined in group C10G 45/00 or group C10G 47/00;
  • "hydrocarbon oils" covers mixtures or hydrocarbons such as tar oils or mineral oils;
  • In this subclass, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Cracking
Cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e.g. light hydrocarbons) by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors. the rate of cracking and the end products are strongly dependent on the temperature and the presence of any catalysts.
Refining
Refining is the process of purification of a substance. The term is usually used of a natural resource that is almost in a usable form, but which is more useful in a purer form. For instance, most types of natural petroleum will burn straight from the ground, but they will burn poorly and quickly clog an engine with residues and byproducts. the Term "refining" is broad and may include more drastic transformations. the refining of liquids is often accomplished by distillation or fractionation.
Reforming (catalytic)
Thermal or catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert naphtha boiling range feedstocks, typically having low octane ratings, into high-octane liquid products called reformates which are components of high-octane gasoline (also known as petrol). The process represents the total effect of numerous simultaneous reactions, such as dehydrogenation, isomerisation, cracking and polymerisation.
Destructive hydrogenation
Splitting of molecules of the raw material with addition of hydrogen to them, also called direct liquefaction, liquefaction of coal by reacting it with hydrogen at high temperature and pressure
Voltolising
Subjecting oils to treatment with an electric discharge.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

cat-cracking
catalytic cracking
Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal ( mechanical winning of oil from oil-shales, oil-sand, or the like B03B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Pretreatments for liquefaction processes;
  • Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand or non-melting solid carbonaceous, biomass, e.g. bagasse, vegetation, hay, straw, cornstalk
  • Oil release using microorganisms, electric or magnetic means or radiation (not classified in C10G 32/00).
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Production of liquid hydrocarbons starting from solids using pressure
Mechanical separation of oil from oil-shales, oil-sand or the like
Production of liquid hydrocarbons from rubber, rubber waste, plastic
{ Combinations of processes provided in groups C10G 1/02 to C10G 1/08}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Liquefaction processes of feedstocks, being already partially liquefied in a pretreatment step.

Combinations of processes provided in groups C10G 1/02 to C10G 1/08.

{Controlling or regulating of liquefaction processes ( controlling or regulation in general G05) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling or regulating in general
by distillation ( destructive distillation of oil-shale C10B 53/06)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Destructive distillation of oil-shale
Apparatus for destructive distillation
Destructive distillation of liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks
Gasification with production of H2 and CO
For apparatus
{Separation of insoluble materials}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Production of liquid hydrocarbons mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous by separation of insoluble materials

Separation process of bitumen from froth, which can be prepared by a process classified in C10G 1/047.

by destructive hydrogenation
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
destructive hydrogenation
reaction of splitting of molecules of the raw material with addition of hydrogen to them, e.g. direct liquefaction of coal by reacting coal with hydrogen at high temperature and pressure
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "Hydroretorting" and "destructive hydrogenation" are often used as synonyms.

with moving catalysts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand or similar material in the presence of a catalyst, the catalyst being moving or not.

from rubber or rubber waste
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Production of liquid hydrocarbons from rubber or polymers as such.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Destructive distillation of carbonaceous materials
Lubricating compositions
Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures of undefined composition from oxides of carbon
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from CO or CO2, Fisher-Tropsch reaction

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Production of liquid hydrocarbons of defined composition
Production of liquid hydrocarbons form oxygenated hydrocarbons
{from carbon monoxide with hydrogen}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures of undefined composition from gas not from a liquid like in reforming reaction

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Production of liquid hydrocarbons of defined composition
{with the use of catalysts}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes using Fischer-Tropsch reactions as such (no details), e.g. in combination with other process steps.

{of the iron-group}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Iron group
Fe, Co and Ni
{of the platinum-group}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Platinum-group
Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt
{with stationary catalyst bed}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Stationary catalyst bed
Fixed bed reactor, trickle bed reactor
{with moving solid catalysts}
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Moving solid catalysts
an ebullated bed reactor, a slurry bed reactor, or a loop reactor
{according to the "moving-bed" method}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures of undefined composition from oxides of carbon with moving solid catalysts according to the ebulating bed techniques
Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures of undefined composition from oxides of carbon with moving solid catalysts according to the fluidised-bed technique
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Moving bed method
process where there is a netto movement of the catalyst, i.e. a laminar flow, the whole catalyst moves up or down in one direction. (all the catalyst moves up or down, moves in one direction
{from carbon monoxide with water vapor}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures of undefined composition from carbon monoxide with water vapour

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Production of liquid hydrocarbons of defined composition
Production of gases containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen from solid carbonaceous materials by partial oxidation processes involving oxygen or steam
{from carbon dioxide with hydrogen}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Production of liquid hydrocarbons of defined composition
Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oxygen-containing or organic materials, e.g. fatty oils, fatty acids ( production from non-melting solid oxygen-containing carbonaceous materials C10G 1/00 ; preparation of individual hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof of definite or specified contribution C07C)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preparation of individual hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof of definite or specified contribution
Production from non-melting solid oxygen-containing carbonaceous materials
by cooling or compressing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recovery of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from gases by cooling or compressing, e.g. straight condensation cooling

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Recovery of liquid hydrocarbon from gases by condensation cooling is classified in C10G 5/00

Distillation of hydrocarbon oils is classified in C10G 7/00

Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen by cooling is classified in C10G 31/06

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Production of liquid hydrocarbons starting from gas using pressure
Cryogenic processing
Distillation of hydrocarbon oils ( distillation in general B01D)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Distillation in general
Processes combining adsorption and distillation
Dewatering
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Treatment of water, waste water, sewage or sludge
Dewatering with electrical or magnetic means
Dewatering with chemical means
Dewatering with mechanical means
Azeotropic or extractive distillation ( refining of hydrocarbon oils, in the absence of hydrogen, by extraction with selective solvents C10G 21/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Refining of hydrocarbon oils, in the absence of hydrogen, by extraction with selective solvents
Thermal non-catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dehydrogenation of parafins to olefins; dehydrogenation of naphthenes to aromatics.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Thermal non-catalytic cracking mainly producing hydrogen
{Coking (in order to produce liquid products mainly) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Coking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils to produce liquid products

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Thermal cracking with production of gas, coke or tar as main product
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " Delayed coking" and " coking" are often used as synonyms.

Removing incrustation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Thermal non-catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils by pressure distillation characterised by the apparatus for removing incrustation, e.g corrosion

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Removing incrustation in general
Preventing or removing incrustation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preventing or removing incrustation in general
with heated gases or vapours
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Steam cracking
cracking in the presence of steam
Catalytic cracking, in the absence of hydrogen, of hydrocarbon oils ( cracking in direct contact with molten metals or salts C10G 9/34)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cracking in direct contact with molten metals or salts
{Energy recovery from regenerator effluent gases ( using steam turbines, see F01K 23/064 ; using gas turbines, see F01K 25/14 ; the combined use of gas and steam turbines, see F01K 3/185) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Using steam turbines
Using gas turbines
Combined use of gas and steam turbines
{Controlling or regulating ( controlling or regulating in general G05) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling or regulating in general
using halogen acids or oxyacids of halogen ( acids generating halogen C10G 27/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen by liquid-liquid treatment forming two immiscible phases using halogen acids or oxyacids of halogen, e.g. acid halide, HF (hydrogen flouride)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Refining with acids generating halogen
with acid-forming oxides ( refining with CO2 or SO2 as a selective solvent C10G 21/06)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen by liquid-liquid treatment forming two immiscible phases using acid-forming oxides, e.g. oleum

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Refining with CO2 or SO2 as a selective solvent
Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by extraction with selective solvents (C10G 17/00 , C10G 19/00 take precedence; dewaxing oils C10G 73/02)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Dewaxing oils
Organic compounds only
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining processes using a mixture of compounds from groups C10G 21/14 - C10G 21/26.

Organic compounds not provided for in a single one of groups C10G 21/14 to C10G 21/26
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining processes using as a solvent a compound containing two or more elements from the group (oxygen, halogen, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, phosphor and silicon);

organic compounds not provided for in a single one of groups C10G 21/14 - C10G 21/26.

Controlling or regulating ( controlling or regulating in general G05)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling or regulating in general
Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, with solid sorbents
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining processes using physical adsorbents.

Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in this group, classification is also made in group

B01D 15/08 insofar as subject matter of general interest relating to

chromatography is concerned.

{ Specific sorbent material, not covered by C10G 25/02 or C10G 25/03}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Specific sorbent materials, like silica, alumina, etc. not covered by C10G 25/02 or C10G 25/03.

with ion-exchange material
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes using ion-exchange material as adsorbent, thus no ion-exchange takes place, i.e. the material adsorbs the impurity without leaving an ion (being part of the material) in the hydrocarbon liquid.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Ion-exchange material
material that can exchange ions, e.g. clay
with crystalline alumino-silicates, e.g. molecular sieves
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, with crystalline alumino silicates, e.g. molecular sieves, zeolites

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

molecular sieves means crystalline alumino-silicates, ALPO, SAPO.

in the presence of alkaline solutions
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Oxidation processes using as the catalyst an alkaline solution, e.g. sodium hydroxide solution

in the presence of copper chloride
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Oxidation processes using as the catalyst copper chloride.

in the presence of metal-containing organic complexes, e.g. chelates, or cationic ion-exchange resins
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen by oxidation processes using as the catalyst metal-containing organic complexes or cationic ion-exchange resins

with oxygen-generating compounds, e.g. per-compounds, chromic acid, chromates ( plumbites or plumbates C10G 19/06)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of plumbites or plumbates
Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, with other chemicals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining of hydrocarbons oils by adding a catalyst; chemisorption, other chemicals being any compound that will react with the hydrocarbon oils in order to refine them, to remove impurities.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, with solid adsorbents is classified in C10G 25/00

{by reaction with hydrocarbons added to the hydrocarbon oil}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen by reaction with hydrocarbons added to the hydrocarbon oil, e.g.

Alkylation processes.

Refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by methods not otherwise provided for ( by distillation C10G 7/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Refining by distillation
by treating with water
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Desalting processes, refining of hydrocarbon oils in the absence of hydrogen, by treating with liquid water or steam

by particle radiation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining of hydrocarbon oils by particle radiation

Nuclear radiation processes.

Dewatering or demulsification of hydrocarbon oils ( by distillation C10G 7/04)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Dewatering by distillation
Controlling or regulating ( controlling or regulating in general G05)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling or regulating in general
Reforming naphtha
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of naphtha, in order to improve the octane number or its aromatic content.

containing crystalline alumino-silicates, e.g. molecular sieves { (C10G 35/065 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Catalytic reforming naphta characterised by the catalyst containing crystalline alumino-silicates, e.g. molecular sieves, zeolites including only silica or alumina

Special rules of classification within this group

C10G 35/065 takes precedence, e.g. zeolite including other elements with or without silica or alumina like SAPO, ALPO

Controlling or regulating of reforming operations ( controlling or regulating in general G05)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling or regulating in general
Refining of hydrocarbon oils using hydrogen or hydrogen-generating compounds
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hydrogenation of olefins.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selective hydrogenation of diolefins
Selective hydrogenation of aromatics
suspended in the oil, e.g. slurries
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining processes in the presence of an ebullated bed.

to change the structural skeleton of some of the hydrocarbon content without cracking the other hydrocarbons present, e.g. lowering pour point; Selective hydrocracking of normal paraffins (C10G 32/00 takes precedence; improving or increasing the octane number or aromatic content of naphtha C10G 35/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dewaxing processes by selective hydroisomerisation and/or selective hydrocracking, without changing the boiling point.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Improving or increasing the octane number or aromatic content of naphtha
Special rules of classification within this group

Refining of hydrocarbons oils by electric or magnetic means, by irradiation or by using microorganism: C10G 32/00.

Aromatisation of hydrocarbon oil fractions ( of naphtha C10G 35/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dehydrogenation processes of naphthenes.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Aromatisation of naphtha
Controlling or regulating ( controlling or regulating in general G05)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling or regulating in general
Cracking of hydrocarbon oils in the presence of hydrogen or hydrogen generating compounds, to obtain lower boiling fractions, (C10G 15/00 takes precedence; destructive hydrogenation of non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials C10G 1/06)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Destructive hydrogenation of non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Cracking of hydrocarbon oils by electric means, electromagnetic or mechanical vibrations, by particle radiation or with gases superheated in electric arcs: C10G 15/00.

Oxides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cracking processes of hydrocabon oils in the presence of hydrogen or hydrogen generating compounds characterised by the catalyst being oxides, the oxides does not form part of the reaction. It's a bulk catalyst

Cracking processes using a bulk catalyst, i.e. in the absence of a support.

Sulfides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cracking processes of hydrocabon oils in the presence of hydrogen or hydrogen generating compounds characterised by the catalyst being sulfides

Cracking processes using a bulk catalyst, i.e. in the absence of a support.

Halides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cracking processes of hydrocabon oils in the presence of hydrogen or hydrogen generating compounds characterised by the catalyst being halides

Cracking processes using a bulk catalyst, i.e. in the absence of a support.

Non-catalytic cracking in the presence of hydrogen
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Thermal hydrovisbreaking processes.

suspended in the oil, e.g. slurries
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Refining processes in the presence of an ebullated bed.

Organic compounds, e.g. hydrogenated hydrocarbons
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hydrocarbons that can give hydrogen, e.g. parafine transformed to olefine, the hydrogen being released with the reaction is used for the cracking process

Hydrogen donor diluent cracking, e.g. tetraline.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cracking starting from oil-shale, oil-sand or non-melting solid carbonaceous material
Controlling or regulating ( controlling or regulating in general G05)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling or regulating in general
Treatment of hydrocarbon oils in the presence of hydrogen or hydrogen-generating compounds, not provided for in a single one of the groups C10G 45/02 , C10G 45/32 , C10G 45/44 , C10G 45/58 or C10G 47/00
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Processes specifying hydrotreating, hydrocracking in a list
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Treatment of hydrocarbon oils in the presence of hydrogen not provided for in a single one of the groups C10G 45/02, C10G 45/32, C10G 45/44, C10G 45/58 or C10G 47/00, i.e. processes in general that can be applied to any process in the presence of hydrogen.

Exceptions are C10G 49/002, C10G 49/005, C10G 49/007, C10G 49/22 and C10G 49/24: documents should be classified in C10G 49/002, C10G 49/005, C10G 49/007, C10G 49/22 or C10G 49/24 and C10G 45/00 (if hydrorefining) or C10G 47/00 (if hydrocracking).

{in the presence of hydrogen from a special source or of a special composition or having been purified by a special treatment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment in the presence of hydrogen from a special source (refining, cracking, general) , e.g. Fischer-Tropsch tail gas.

Any specific source other than hydrogen, specific cleaning treatment

Separation of effluents
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment in the presence of hydrogen (refining, cracking, general) comprising separation of the effluents.

Starting-up hydrotreatment operations
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Start-up treatment in the presence of hydrogen (refining, cracking, general).

Controlling or regulating ( controlling or regulating in general G05)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling or regulating in general
Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from lower carbon number hydrocarbons, e.g. by oligomerisation ( preparation of individual hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof of definite or specified constitution C07C)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preparation of individual hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof of definite or specified constitution
Alkylation processes
including only extraction steps, e.g. deasphalting by solvent treatment followed by extraction of aromatics ( refining in one step with two or more solvents which are introduced or withdrawn separately C10G 21/02)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Refining in one step with two or more solvents which are introduced or withdrawn separately
Working-up undefined normally gaseous mixtures obtained by processes covered by groups C10G 9/00 , C10G 11/00 , C10G 15/00 , C10G 47/00 , C10G 51/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

working-up undefined normally gaseous mixture obtained by processes covered by C10G 9/00, C10G 11/00, C10G 15/00, C10G 47/00 and C10G 51/00.

working up implies improvement of the material, it's a kind of processing

Treatment by methods not otherwise provided for of hydrocarbon oils or fatty oils for lubricating purposes ( by Fischer-Tropsch C07C 1/00 ; lubricating compositions C10M)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lubricating compositions
Thickening by voltolising ( chemical modification of drying oils by voltolising C09F 7/04)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Chemical modification of drying oils by voltolising
Recovery or refining of mineral waxes, e.g. montan wax ( compositions essentially based on waxes C08L 91/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Compositions essentially based on waxes
Controlling or regulating ( controlling or regulating in general G05)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling or regulating in general
Inhibiting corrosion or fouling in apparatus for treatment or conversion of hydrocarbon oils, in general (C10G 7/10 , C10G 9/16 take precedence; protection of pipes against corrosion or incrustation F16L 58/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Treatment of apparatus for treatment or conversion of hydrocarbons oils in general, against corrsion or fouling

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Protection of pipes against corrosion or incrustation
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013