Cooperative Patent Classification


CPC Definition - Subclass G03B

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Last Updated Version: 2018.05
APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS FOR TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS OR FOR PROJECTING OR VIEWING THEM; APPARATUS OR ARRANGEMENTS EMPLOYING ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR (optical parts of such apparatus G02B; photosensitive materials or processes for photographic purposes G03C; apparatus for processing exposed photographic materials G03D)
Definition statement

This place covers:

Details common to at least two of the following types of photographic apparatus: cameras, projectors, printers

  • Film-strip handling
  • Focusing arrangements
  • Adjustment of optical system relative to image or object surface, other than for focusing

Photographic apparatus

  • Cameras
  • Projectors or projection-type viewers, or their details
  • Photographic printing apparatus, or their details
  • Combinations of cameras, projectors, or photographic printing apparatus with non-photographic non-optical apparatus

Details common to cameras

  • Control of exposure by setting shutters, diaphragms, or filters separately or conjointly, in particular remote control
  • Exposure-making shutters
  •  Diaphragms
  • Filters or other obturators specially adapted for photographic purposes
  • Optical viewfinders
  •  Devices used in connection with camera focusing, including focusing aids or autofocus systems
  • Special procedures or apparatus for taking photographs

Photographic techniques and processes

  • Processes – and solely those processes – characterised by the use or manipulation of apparatus classifiable per se in this subclass, in particular:
  • Associated working of cameras or projectors with sound-recording or -reproducing means
  • Colour photography, other than mere exposure or projection of a colour film
  • Stereoscopic photography
  • Panoramic or wide-screen photography
  • Photographing extended surfaces
  • Photographing internal surfaces
  • High-speed photography
  • Other special photographic techniques
  • Obtaining records using waves other than optical waves, or visualising such records by using optical means
  • Testing correct operation of photographic apparatus or parts thereof
Relationships with other classification places

G03B and G03C:

Photographic processes are covered by subclass G03B when the process relates to the exposure of the photosensitive medium, in order to generate the latent image, whereas subclass G03C covers the photographic processes that involve a chemical transformation of the photosensitive medium, such that the latent image is transformed into a visible and permanent record.

G03B and H04N:

H04N relates to pictorial communication and covers processes and apparatus where the photographic record is obtained in a purely electronic format and the concept of the invention relates to a concept specific to the electronic format.

The printing of a record obtained via the processes or apparatus of subclass H04N is classified in classB41if the only chemical processing involved consists in the after-treatment of ink applied to the recording surface, but is classified in subclass G03B if a latent image is produced.

Electronic image capturing apparatus or processes where an electronic image sensor converts an optical image into electrical signals, e.g. by controlling the electronic image sensor or by processing the electrical signals, are typically – but not always – covered by Subclass H04N.

With respect to projectors or projection-type viewers, this subject matter is typically – but not always – covered by Subclass H04N when it is characterised by the processing or handling of the electronic image signals. Due regard should be given to the Special Rule of Classification stated below

The following aspects of cameras or projectors are also covered by H04N:

  • Aspects of apparatus or methods for image capture peculiar to the presence or use of an electronic image sensor [EIS] or image projection peculiar to the presence or use of an electronic spatial light modulator [ESLM] and their related controls insofar they are peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS or ESLM;
  • Processing of electrical image signals from the EIS or provided to the ESLM is covered by H04N 5/00, H04N 9/00;
  • Electronic viewfinders H04N 5/225, H04N 5/232, e.g. control of image pickup devices based on information indicated by the electronic viewfinder displaying an image signal generated by the EIS;
  • Electrical and mechanical aspects of camera modules using electronic image sensors and related constructional details as in mobile phones or webcams H04M 1/00, H04N 5/00;
  • Details of projectors peculiar to the use of an ESLM, e.g. dichroic and polarizing arrangements specially adapted for the ESLM H04N 9/00;
  • Remote control of cameras or projectors peculiar to the EIS or the ESLM, e.g. affecting their operation, or based on a generated electrical image signal, H04N 5/00, H04N 9/00;
  • Adaptations peculiar to the use of an EIS or ESLM or the display, the transmission, recording or other use of electrical image data and related circuitry, e.g. mounting of EIS or ESLM, integrated cleaning system for the EIS, dust mapping, cooling of the EIS H04N;
  • Video cameras, TV cameras, e.g. in studios, CCTV cameras, surveillance cameras and camcorders; Constructional and mechanical details related to such cameras, e.g. housings, even when not peculiar to the presence of an electronic image sensor [EIS] H04N 5/00;
  • Systems or apparatus wherein the inventive contribution lies in features covered above, concerning cameras when interacting with those to be covered by G03B, e.g. switch-over between electronic motion-blur correction of electronic viewfinder during focussing and optical motion-blur correction of the lens during exposure, electronic-motion blur correction of the electronic image signal based on output signals of additional sensor, or interaction between mechanical shutter and electronic control of the charge accumulation period of the EIS H04N.

The following diagrams are intended to illustrate the relationship between H04N and G03B

media0.png

Thus, in G03B aspects of apparatus or methods for taking photographs using an electronic image sensor [EIS] for image capture are classified insofar as they correspond to those of said apparatus or methods for taking photographs using light sensitive film, i.e. insofar not peculiar to the presence or use of the EIS, e.g. mounting of optical elements or flashes, and their related controls insofar they are not peculiar to the presence of the EIS, e.g. exposure, focus, (opto-) mechanical motion blur (anti-shake);

media1.png

In G03B, aspects of apparatus or methods for projecting or viewing images using an electronic spatial light modulator [ESLM] are classified insofar as they correspond to those of said apparatus or methods for projecting or viewing images using film stock, photographic film or slides, i.e. insofar as not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, e.g. mounting of optical elements not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, and their related controls not peculiar to the presence of the ESLM, e.g. cooling, beam shaping, optical keystone correction;

As far as processes are concerned, only processes characterised by the use or manipulation of apparatus classified in G03B.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Optical parts for apparatus or arrangements for taking photographs or for projecting or viewing them

Photosensitive materials for photographic purposes

Apparatus for processing exposed photographic materials; Accessories therefor

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by photographical inspection

Objective-type instruments for examining the eyes specially adapted for eye photography

Photographic composing devices

Photogrammetry; Photographic surveying

Recording indications of measuring instruments by photographic means

Indicating the weight by photographic recording

Photometry using photographic effects

Measuring linear or angular speed using photographic means; Measuring differences of linear or angular speeds using photographic means

Photographic dosimeters

Microscopes arranged for photographic purposes or projection purposes

Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data by photographic printing

Photographic arrangements structurally combined with the vessel in vessels common to two or more basic types of discharge tubes or lamps

Photographic arrangements structurally combined with the vessel in cathode-ray tubes or in electron-beam tubes

Photographic arrangements structurally combined with the vessel in discharge tubes with provision for introducing objects or material to be exposed to the discharge

Particle spectrometers or separator tubes with detection performed by photographic film

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Photographic exposure meters

Adjusting means for lenses adapted for automatic focusing

Systems for automatic generation of focusing signals

Means for focusing of apparatus for photomechanical production of textured or patterned surfaces

Image processing per se

Data storage: Information storage based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer; Static stores

Optical elements or arrangements associated with solid state imager structures;

Constructional and mechanical details related to Video cameras, TV cameras (e.g. in studios), CCTV cameras, surveillance cameras and camcorders even when not peculiar to the presence of an electronic image sensor [EIS]

Processing or use of electrical image signals from the EIS for the generation of camera control signals. e.g. focusing, exposure control, electronic blur correction, display in electronic viewfinder

Transforming light or analogous information into electric image information

Transforming X-rays into electric image information

Transforming infrared radiation into electric image information

Transforming light into electric information using solid-state image sensors

Special rules of classification

When the following subject matter is classified in this subclass, it is desirable to classify it also in Subclass H04N, when some aspects are considered of interest for search purposes:

  • Digital still cameras, or their details
  • Projectors or projection-type viewers using an electronic spatial light modulator, or their details
  • Video cameras, CCTV cameras, surveillance cameras and camcorders, or details thereof
Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Photography

the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, e.g. silver halide based chemical or an electronic image sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects expose such a light sensitive medium during a timed exposure, usually through a photographic lens in a device known as a camera

Camera

a device capturing image information represented by light patterns reflected or emitted from objects, and exposing a light sensitive film or an electronic image sensor during a timed exposure, usually through an optical lens, and producing an image on a light sensitive film or an electrical image information signal respectively

Projector

a device displaying image information by projection of light patterns, usually through an optical lens, wherein the light patterns are generated by illuminating an image, e.g. film or slide, or by converting an electric image signal into an optical signal using an electronic spatial light modulator

EIS

Electronic image sensor: optoelectronic transducer, converting optical image information into an electrical signal susceptible of being processed, stored, transmitted or displayed

Additional sensor

a sensor, other than the electronic image sensor, used for controlling a camera

ESLM

Electronic spatial light modulator: optoelectronic transducer converting electric signals representing image information into optical image information

Records

Photographs or any other kind of latent, directly-visible or permanent storage of pictorial information, which consist of an imagewise distribution of a quantity, e.g. an electric charge pattern, recorded on a carrier member

Optical

Applies to visible light but also to ultra-violet radiation or infra-red radiation

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

AE

Automatic Exposure

AF

Auto Focus

APS

Advanced Photographic System

DEP

Double Exposure Prevention

DSLR

Digital Single Lens Reflex Camera

SLR

Single Lens Reflex Camera

OVF

optical viewfinder

EVF

electronic viewfinder

Measuring or indicating length of the used or unused film; Counting number of exposures
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring length in general

Counting number of exposures
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring length per se

Counting mechanisms per se

Focusing arrangements of general interest for cameras, projectors or printers
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Focusing aids for cameras

Means for focusing for cameras

Means for automatic focusing of projectors or projection-type viewers

Means for automatic focusing of photographic printing apparatus or copying cameras

adapted for remote control
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control systems in general

G05

Two or more co-operating pivoted blades, e.g. iris type (shutters functioning as diaphragms by limiting extent of opening movement G03B 9/08)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Shutters functioning as diaphragms by limiting extent of opening movement

Shutters
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Devices or arrangements for the control of the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light arriving from an independent light source

Mechanism for delaying opening of shutter (separate from shutter G03B 17/38)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Mechanism for delaying opening of shutter separate from shutter

Filters or other obturators specially adapted for photographic purposes
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical filters per se

{Lens caps as separate accessory (accessories in general G03B 17/56)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Accessories in general

Viewfinders; Focusing aids for cameras; Means for focusing for cameras; Autofocus systems for cameras
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hoods or caps for eliminating unwanted light from lenses, viewfinders, or focusing aids

Reflex cameras with single objective and a movable reflector or a partly- transmitting mirror

Cameras with paired lenses, one of which forms image on photosensitive material and the other forms a corresponding image on a focusing screen

Optical rangefinders per se

Viewfinders
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Viewfinders per se

Electronic viewfinders

to compensate for change of camera lens or size of picture
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zoom viewfinders per se

Illuminating scene
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Functional features or details of lighting devices or systems thereof; Structural combinations of lighting devices with other articles, not otherwise provided for

Combinations of cameras with non-electronic flash apparatus; Non-electronic flash units
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Control of exposure in accordance with both the intensity of the flash source and the distance of the flash source from object, e.g. in accordance with "guide number" of flash bulb and the focusing of the camera

Testing correct operation of photographic apparatus or parts thereof, e.g. flash apparatus

Light sources using charges of combustible material

Circuit arrangements for light sources using a charge of combustible material

Combinations of cameras with electronic flash apparatus; Electronic flash units
Definition statement

This place covers:

e.g. flash units without mechanical connection to the camera

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Discharge lamps

Circuit arrangements or apparatus for igniting or operating discharge lamps

for photographing the track of moving objects (high-speed photography G03B 39/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

High-speed photography

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Plates or blocks in which tracks of nuclear particles are made visible by after treatment, using photographic emulsion

Details of cameras or camera bodies; Accessories therefor (lens hoods or caps G03B 11/04)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Lens barriers, covers, shields (for retractable lenses) if not integral part of camera body

collapsible, foldable or extensible, e.g. book type
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Bellows per se

Hollow bodies having parts which are deformable or displaceable under pressure, e.g. bellows

Signals indicating condition of a camera member or suitability of light (indicating depth of field G03B 13/30)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Indicating depth of field

Counting number of exposures (of film strips G03B 1/66)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Of film strips

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Counting mechanisms

adapted for combination with other photographic or optical apparatus
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Microscopes

Telescopes

with both developing and finishing apparatus
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processing apparatus

Accessories (carrying-cases A45C 11/38)
Definition statement

This place covers:

external battery compartments, support of camera body

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Camera cases

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Lens caps

Camera tripods

Stands or trestles as support for apparatus or articles placed thereon

Means for attachment of apparatus allowing quick-release

Movement that the support can allow for the object to be supported

Tripods

Monopod or tripod having a central telescopic column

Tripods with telescopic legs

Means for supporting on, or holding steady relative to, a person,

Cameras (details G03B 17/00)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Details of cameras or camera bodies;Accessories therefor

Plate or cut-film cameras (with provision for alternative use with roll film G03B 19/08)
Definition statement

This place covers:

e.g. cameras with a (movable) ground glass screen.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Plate or cut-film cameras with provision for alternative use with roll film

Motion-picture cameras (with non-intermittently running film G03B 41/02)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Motion-picture cameras with non-intermittently running film

Projectors or projection-type viewers; Accessories therefor (devices for changing pictures G03B 23/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Devices for changing pictures

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Optical distortion correction, e.g. keystone

Viewers, other than projection viewers, giving motion-picture effects by persistence of vision, e.g. zoetrope

Photographic printing apparatus

Tables specially adapted to be used with domestic photographic projectors

Lighting devices or systems producing a varying lighting effect

Optical projection comparators

Interactive projectors (whiteboards) with input means to control the projection

Television systems' projection arrangements for image reproduction

Electronic correction of distortions, e.g. video signal processing

Laser projectors using scanning devices

Projectors peculiar to the use of an electronic spatial light modulator

Projectors with built-in or built-on screen
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Projection screens

Lamp housings
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Condensers

Microscope condensers

Projecting separately subsidiary matter simultaneously with main image
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Light pointers

{Cassettes (G03B 21/326, G03B 21/328 take precedence; for containing light-sensitive material G03B 17/265)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Means for fixing the film on the axis of a reel or spindle

Means for fixing the film on the periphery of a reel

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Holders for containing light sensitive material and adapted to be inserted within the camera, e.g. cassettes specially adapted for motion picture film

Mechanisms transmitting motion to film-strip feed; Mechanical linking of shutter and intermittent feed
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Film-strip handling of general interest for cameras, projectors or printers

Control devices operated by the film strip during the run
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mechanical linking of shutter and intermittent feed for altering frame speed or regulating constancy of film speed

Means for automatic focusing, e.g. to compensate thermal effects
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Automatic focusing in general

Systems for automatic generation of focusing signals

Accessories
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tables specially adapted to be used with domestic photographic projectors

Devices for changing pictures in viewing apparatus or projectors
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Film-strip handling of general interest for cameras, projectors or printers

Telescopes, e.g. binoculars; Periscopes; Instruments for viewing the inside of hollow bodies

Viewing or reading apparatus

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Picture

Any flat representation, whether transparent or not, e.g. produced by photography, writing, or printing

Viewers, other than projection viewers, giving motion-picture effects by persistence of vision, e.g. zoetrope
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

High-speed photography

Photographic printing apparatus
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Film-strip handling of general interest for cameras, projectors or printers

Illumination arrangements, e.g. positioning of lamps, positioning of reflectors (controlling the exposure G03B 27/72)
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling or varying light intensity, spectral composition, or exposure time in photographic printing apparatus

adapted to be combined with processing apparatus
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processing apparatus per se

{Gas processing (gas processing apparatus G03D 7/00)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Gas processing apparatus

{Heat development (heat development apparatus G03D 13/002)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Heat development apparatus

Means for automatic focusing therefor
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Systems for automatic generation of focusing signals

with slit or like diaphragm moving over original for progressive exposure (G03B 27/34 takes precedence {; projection optics per se G03B 27/525})
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Means for automatic focusing for projection printing apparatus

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Projection optics for slit exposure

{Arrangements for applying a supplementary information onto the sensitive material, e.g. coding (producing marks on the film in cameras G03B 17/24)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Producing marks on the film in cameras

{Projection optics (for electro-photographic copiers in particular G03G 15/04)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Projection optics for electro-photographic copiers

Automatic registration or positioning of originals with respect to each other or the photosensitive layer
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces in photo-mechanical production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. of integrated circuits

Lamp housings; Illuminating means
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling or varying light intensity, spectral composition, or exposure time in photographic printing apparatus

Baseboards, masking frames, or other holders for the sensitive material (G03B 27/53 takes precedence {; for electrophotographic copiers G03G 15/65})
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Automatic registration or positioning of originals with respect to each other or the photosensitive layer

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus relating to the handling of copy material for electrographic processes using a charge pattern

Holders for the original (G03B 27/53 takes precedence {; for electrophotographic copiers G03G 15/60})
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Automatic registration or positioning of originals with respect to each other or the photosensitive layer

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus relating to the handling of originals for electrographic processes using a charge pattern

Controlling or varying light intensity, spectral composition, or exposure time in photographic printing apparatus
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Exposure meters per se

Control of light, e.g. intensity, colour, phase

Combinations of cameras, projectors or photographic printing apparatus with non-photographic non-optical apparatus, e.g. clocks or weapons; Cameras having the shape of other objects (combinations with flash apparatus G03B 15/03)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Combinations with flash apparatus 

Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes

Arrangements specially adapted for eye photography

Theodolites combined with cameras

Structural combination of reactor core or moderator structure with viewing means, e.g. with television camera, periscope, window

Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined with the vessel

Optical or photographic arrangements structurally combined

Optical or photographic arrangements associated with the tube

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time-pieces combined with other articles which do not interfere with the running or time-keeping of the time-piece

Associated working of cameras or projectors with sound-recording or sound-reproducing means
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cinematographic processes of taking pictures or printing combined with sound-recording

Record carriers characterised by the selection of the material and comprising cinematographic film or slide with integral magnetic track

Colour photography, other than mere exposure or projection of a colour film (printing apparatus G03B 27/00; stereoscopic colour photography G03B 35/00)
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Stereoscopic colour photography

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Printing apparatus

G03F35/00

using lenticular screens (integral with film G03C)
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Colour photography using lenticular screens integral with film

using colour-pattern screens (integral with film G03C)
References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Colour photography using lenticular screens integral with film

Stereoscopic photography
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Panoramic or wide-screen photography

Photogrammetry

{Photographing internal surfaces, e.g. of pipe, (G03B 37/02 - G03B 37/06 take precedence; instruments for performing medical examinations of cavities or tubes of the body by photographic inspection A61B 1/00)}
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Automatic registration or positioning of originals with respect to each other or the photosensitive layer

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes

Special techniques not covered by groups G03B 31/00 - G03B 39/00; Apparatus therefor
References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

Associated working of cameras or projectors with sound-recording or -reproducing means

Colour photography, other than mere exposure or projection of a colour film

Stereoscopic photography

Panoramic or wide-screen photography;Photographing extended surfaces, e.g. for surveying;Photographing internal surfaces, e.g. of pipe

High-speed photography

Obtaining records using waves other than optical waves; Visualisation of such records by using optical means
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Investigating or analysing materials using electromagnetic radiation, other than infrared, visible or ultraviolet radiation, e.g. microwaves, or particles

Investigating or analysing materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves; Visualisation of the interior of objects by transmitting ultrasonic or sonic waves through the object

Radar or analogous systems specially adapted for mapping or imaging

Sonar systems specially adapted for mapping or imaging

Holography

using X-rays
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measurement of nuclear or X-radiation

X-ray apparatus involving X-ray tubes; Circuits therefor

{Apparatus for direct X-ray cinematography (circuit arrangements for obtaining a series of X-ray photographs or for X-ray cinematography H05G 1/60)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Circuit arrangements for obtaining a series of X-ray photographs or for X-ray cinematography

{Apparatus for indirect X-ray cinematography, i.e. by taking pictures on ordinary film from the images on the fluorescent screen (by transforming the picture information intermediately into electrical signals G03B 27/725)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Controlling or varying light intensity in photographic printing apparatus by transforming the picture information intermediately into electrical signals

{for dental applications (see also A61B 6/14); (individual packages for X-ray film G03C 3/003)}
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, applications or adaptations for dentistry

Individual packages for X-ray film, e.g. for dental applications

using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

Measurement of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves

Visualisation of records by optical means
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Diffraction optics systems using spatial filters;

Optics for phase object visualising

Testing correct operation of photographic apparatus or parts thereof
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Measuring specific variables

G01

Testing shutters
References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Time-interval measuring