Cooperative Patent Classification

CPC Definition - Subclass C08K

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Last Updated Version: 2016.11
USE OF INORGANIC OR NON-MACROMOLECULAR ORGANIC SUBSTANCES AS COMPOUNDING INGREDIENTS (pesticides, herbicides A01N; pharmaceuticals, cosmetics A61K; explosives C06B; paints, inks, varnishes, dyes, polishes, adhesives C09; lubricants C10M; detergents C11D; artificial filaments or fibres D01F; textile treating compositions D06)
Definition statement

This place covers:

  • Polymeric compositions comprising inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances as compounding ingredients, which are not used to chemically modify the polymer, i.e. inert additives;
  • Inorganic or non-macromolecular organic substances which should start or accelerate a crosslinking but which are not chemically embedded in the polymer structure;
  • Radical crosslinking agents, e.g. peroxides or S-containing vulcanisation agents;
  • Coupling agents, i.e. compounds able to improve the adhesion between filler and macromolecule
  • Carbodiimide and derivatives (compounds which have the same chemical role as carbodiimides).
  • Vulcanizing agents for diene resins
Relationships with other classification places

This subclass does not cover chemical elements or compounds or their preparation as such, which subject matter is covered by classes C01 (inorganic chemistry) or C07 (organic chemistry).

Blowing agents are classified in C08J.

Glass which is defined by the chemical nature of its ingredients is classified in C03C.

Polymeric compositions comprising inorganic substances and being suitable for ceramic, cement or stone like applications (but not claimed) is classified in C04B.

Polymeric compositions comprising inorganic substances and being suitable for thermoconducting, electroconducting, insulating, magnetic or resistor applications (but not claimed) are classified in H01B, H01C or H01F.

Polymeric compositions comprising inorganic substances and being suitable for medical or dental applications (but not claimed) are classified in A61K.

References
Application-oriented references

Examples of places where the subject matter of this place is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Disinfectants, pesticides or herbicides

Pharmaceutical, medical, medicinal, dental, therapeutical or cosmetic compositions

Layered products

Compositions of cements, mortars, concrete or ceramics

Explosive or thermic compositions

Use of reinforcing fibrous material in the manufacture of articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances

Organic dyes and pigments; Mordants; Lakes

Treatment of inorganic materials to enhance their pigmenting or filling properties

Paints based on inorganic substances, with or without organic additives

Anti-corrosive paints containing metal dust

Paints containing biocides, e.g. fungicides, insecticides, pesticides

Magnetisable or magnetic paints or lacquers

Electrically-conductive paints

Paints containing free metal

Use of compounds as anti-settling agents in coating compositions

Use of compounds as anti-skinning agents in coating

Use of compounds as levelling agents in coating compositions

Other additives in coating compositions

Chemical paint or ink removers with abrasives

Chemical paint or ink removers with surface-active agents

Pigment pastes, e.g. for mixing in paints

Polishing compositions

Electrically-conductive adhesives

Non-macromolecular additives in adhesives

Inorganic additives in adhesives

Organic additives in adhesives

Macromolecular additives in adhesives

Compositions for sealing or packing joints or covers

Compositions for stopping leaks

Compositions for drilling of boreholes or wells

Soil-conditioning or soil-stabilising materials

Lubricating compositions

Detergent compositions

Artificial filaments or fibres

Textile treating compositions

Conductors or insulators

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Making microcapsules or microballoons

Making fibre-reinforced granules

Pretreatment of reinforcements or fillers

Releasing, lubricating or separating agents

Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements or fillers

Tyres characterised by the chemical composition

Stabilisation of cellulose esters of organic acids

Stabilisation of cellulose esters of inorganic acids

Preservation of rubber latex

Chemical modification of rubber

Polymerisation in the presence of compounding ingredients, e.g. plasticisers, dyestuffs, fillers

Processes of plasticising macromolecular compounds

Processes of compounding polymers with additives, in general

Processes of crosslinking, e.g. vulcanising, of macromolecules

Anti-oxidant compositions; Compositions inhibiting chemical change

Fireproofing of macromolecular materials

Special rules of classification

Subgroups of C08K are used for an additive in admixture with a single polymer only.

If an additive is used in admixture with a mixture of polymers, the symbols of the subgroups of C08K are replaced by the symbols of the corresponding Indexing Code C08K, the subgroups in C08K are identical to those in C08K, any further details on the kind of polymer mixture are to be found in the subgroups of the C08L classification.

An ingredient is classified in the last appropriate place.

Mixtures with two or three ingredients are classified in the appropriate groups of C08K, e.g. a mixture of Al2O3, an ether and an amine is classified in C08K 3/22, C08K 5/06 and C08K 5/17.

For mixtures with more than three essential ingredients, the following applies:

  • a mixture of ingredients is classified in the most indented group covering all the essential ingredients of the mixture, e.g.:
  • a mixture of a monohydric and a polyhydric alcohol C08K 5/05;
  • a mixture of two polyhydric alcohols C08K 5/053;
  • a mixture of an alcohol and an ether C08K 5/04;
  • a mixture of an ether and an amine C08K 5/00;
  • a mixture of an amine and a metal C08K 13/02.

Ammonium salts are classified in the same way as metal salts.

The use of an ingredient for a specific polymer is classified by adding, in a C-Set, to the group symbol of C08K, the subdivision of C08L 1/00 - C08L 99/00.

Example: Polystyrene containing a carboxylic amide is classified in (C08K 5/20, C08L 25/06).

If an additive within the meaning of C08K can alternatively be used in admixture with a polymer which is selected from a list of several polymers (each of those polymers does however not form a blend of polymers) then all possible combinations can be classified seperately up to a number of three different polymers, e.g. polystyrene or PVC containing a carboxylic amide is classified in (C08K 5/20, C08L 25/06) and in (C08K 5/20, C08L 27/06).

See also general Indexing Codes as listed in C08K 2201/00-C08K 2201/019.

Places to classify non-radical crosslinking and chain-extending agents:

In C08K are classified radical cross-linking agents. When the added compound reacts as cross linking agent or chain extension agent via a non radical mechanism (condensation or addition mechanism), it should not be classified in C08K. These are the places where such compounds in combination with polymers can be classified. They are principally classified by the type of cross-linking agent or by the type of the chemical modification of the polymer to be cross-linked.

a) For C08B polymers (polysaccharides):

It should be referred to C08B for each specific polymer

b) For Diene rubbers (C08C):

c) For Vinyl polymers (C08F):

In C08F 8/00, it should be referred to the chemistry of the modified polymer which is cross-linked.

d) For Polyurethanes (C08G 18/00):

In C08G 18/00, the use of cross linking agents is classified according to the corresponding chemistry (e.g. polyisocyanates)

Carbodiimides as cross linker can also be found in C08G 18/797

e) For Epoxy resins (C08G 59/00 ) :

Cross linking agents are classified in C08G 59/40

f) For Polyesters and polycarbonates(C08G 63/00-C08G 63/64):

Symbols in C08G 63/91 and C08G 64/42 can be given.

g) For Polyethers (C08G 65/00 ):

Symbols in C08G 65/32C08G 65/338 can be given.

h) For Other polymers in C08G:

Symbols can be given according to the modification of the polymer induced by the cross-linking reaction or the modification of the polymer which allows the cross-linking reaction.

Glossary of terms

In this place, the following terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:

Acyclic

The absence of a ring structure.

Carbocyclic

The presence of a ring or ring system where all ring members are carbons.

Condensed

The presence of two rings that share at least one ring member.

Heterocyclic

The presence of a ring or ring system wherein at least one ring member is not a carbon atom.

Inorganic compound

Compound devoid of a carbon atom and containing a non-metallic element, or a compound containing a carbon atom, and satisfying one of the following criteria: the compound cannot have a carbon atom having direct bonding to another carbon atom, or the compound cannot have direct bonding between a carbon atom and a halogen or hydrogen atom, or the compound cannot have direct bonding between a carbon and a nitrogen atom by a single or double bond.The following are exceptions to the above and are to be considered as inorganic compounds: compounds consisting of only carbon atoms (e.g. fullerenes), cyanogen, cyanogen halides, cyanamide, metal carbides, phosgene, thiophosgene, hydrocyanic acid, isocyanic acid, isothiocyanic acid, fulminic acid, unsubstituted carbamic acid, and salts of the previously mentioned acids and which contain the same limitations as to a carbon atom.

Macromolecular compound

Natural or synthetic (co)polymer or resin or rubber

Metal

Any element other than hydrogen, carbon, halogen (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine), oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, phosphorus, silicon, boron, noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon).

Organic compound

Compound satisfying one of the following criteria: at least two carbon atoms bonded to each other, or one carbon atom bonded to at least one hydrogen atom or halogen atom, or one carbon atom bonded to at least one nitrogen atom by a single or double bond.Exceptions to the above criteria are: compounds consisting of only carbon atoms (e.g. fullerenes), cyanogen, cyanogen halides, cyanamide, metal carbides, phosgene, thiophosgene, hydrocyanic acid, isocyanic acid, isothiocyanic acid, fulminic acid, unsubstituted carbamic acid, and salts of the previously mentioned acids; these exceptions are considered to be inorganic compounds for classification purposes.

Quinone

Compound derived from compounds containing a six-membered aromatic ring or a system comprising six-membered aromatic rings (which system may be condensed or not condensed) by replacing two or four >CH groups of the six-membered aromatic rings by >C=O groups, and by removing one or two carbon-to-carbon double bonds, respectively, and rearranging the remaining carbon-to-carbon double bonds to give a ring or ring system with alternating double bonds, including the carbon-to-oxygen bonds; this means that acenaphthenequinone or camphorquinone are not considered as quinones.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents, the following abbreviations are often used:

Phr

Parts per hundred parts of rubber

Use of inorganic ingredients
Definition statement

This place covers:

Polymeric compositions comprising inert inorganic substances as compounding ingredients.

Relationships with other classification places

This group does not cover the preparation of the inorganic ingredients only, without their use as additive in the sense of C08K.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polymeric compositions comprising inorganic substances and being suitable for laser marking applications (but not claimed)

Polymeric compositions comprising inorganic substances and being suitable for film applications (but not claimed)

Polymeric compositions comprising inorganic substances and being suitable for miscellaneous applications like liquid crystalls, fire proofing materials or luminescent materials (but not claimed)

Polymeric compositions comprising inorganic substances and being suitable for fire resistant wire or cable applications (but not claimed)

Polymeric compositions comprising inorganic substances and being suitable for electromagnetic shielding (EMI) applications (but not claimed)

Special rules of classification

(1) The special rules of classification as outlined for C08K apply

(2) The inorganic substances are classified into the appropriate groups according to their chemical nature, e.g. diamonds which consist of the chemical element carbon are to be classified in C08K 3/04 (carbon).

Further subdivisions:

For an inorganic substance which is to be classified but is not specifically chemically defined and only described as 'Crosslinking or vulcanising agent, including accelerators'.

For an inorganic substance which is to be classified but not specifically chemically defined and only described as 'Additives activating the degradation of the macromolecular compound'.

For an inorganic substance which is to be classified but not specifically chemically defined and only described as ' Filler, pigment or reinforcing additive'.

For an inorganic substance which is to be classified but not specifically chemically defined and only described as 'Stabiliser against oxidation, heat, light or ozone'.

For an inorganic substance which is to be classified but not specifically chemically defined and only described as 'Biocide'.

For an inorganic substance which is to be classified but not specifically chemically defined and only described as 'Flame-proofing or flame-retarding additive'.

For an inorganic substance which is to be classified but is not specifically chemically defined and only described as 'Antistatic'.

For glass used as inorganic substance.

If glass is used as inorganic substance and its ingredients are specifically mentioned according to their chemical nature, then rule (1) above applies.

Use of organic ingredients
Definition statement

This place covers:

Use of organic ingredients: polymeric compositions comprising organic substances as compounding ingredients.

References
Limiting references

This place does not cover:

the preparation of the organic ingredients alone, without their use as additives in the sense

the general processes of compounding and after-treatment

Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polymeric compositions comprising organic substances and being suitable for laser marking applications (but not claimed)

Polymeric compositions comprising organic substances and being suitable for film applications (but not claimed)

Polymeric compositions comprising organic substances and being suitable for miscellaneous applications like liquid crystals, fire proofing materials, luminescent or tenebrescent materials (but not claimed)

Polymeric compositions comprising organic substances and being suitable for conductors or conductive bodies (but not claimed)

Polymeric compositions comprising organic substances and being suitable for fire resistant cable or wire applications (but not claimed)

Special rules of classification

(1) The special rules of classification as outlined for C08K apply.

(2) The organic substances are classified into the appropriate groups according to their chemical nature, e.g. compounds containing ester and phenol groups are classified in C08K 5/134.

The following Indexing Codes are to be used in this group:

Further subdivisions:

For an organic substance which is to be classified but not specifically chemically defined and only described as 'plasticiser'.

For an organic substance which is to be classified but not specifically chemically defined and only described as 'crosslinking or vulcanising agent' or 'accelerator '.

For an organic substance which is to be classified but not specifically chemically defined and only described as 'stabiliser against oxidation, heat, light, ozone'.

For an organic substance which is to be classified but not specifically chemically defined and only described as 'nucleating', 'clarifying', or 'crystallisation improving' agent.

In this group, 'Thiols' is meant to also comprise derivatives obtained from substitution of the thiolic H atom.

Use of ingredients characterised by shape
Definition statement

This place covers:

All additives of C08K which are characterized by their shape, e.g. fibres, spherical particals, expanded particles, porous particles and hollow particles

Polymer fibres like aramide fibres are to be classified in C08K 7/02 and in their corresponding place in C08L.

Reinforced polymer or resin compositions and composites are classified in C08K 7/00 when the amount of the fibres is generally lower than 50 % (volume or weight). Composites based on an higher content of fibres or based on fabric (woven or non-woven) are classified in C08J 5/04 or in C08J 5/24

C08J 5/04 and C08J 5/24 refer to the reinforcement of polymer matrix (making composites) by using high amounts of fibres (generally more than 50 % (volume or weight)) in the sense that the fibres constitute the structure of the final product.

Relationships with other classification places

This group does not cover the preparation of the ingredients characterised by shape only, without their use as additive in the sense of C08K.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polymeric compositions comprising carbon nanotubes or preparation of such carbon nanotubes

Polymeric compositions comprising carbon filaments or preparation of such filament

Special rules of classification

Further subdivisions:

For example, carbon nanotubes as additive material.

Use of pretreated ingredients
Definition statement

This place covers:

All additives of C08K which are characterized by being pretreated before their use as additive, the pretreatment encompassing physical as well as chemical pretreatment (resulting in physical but also in chemical attachment of the pretreating agent to the surface of the additive).

The chemical nature of pretreating agent is according to the classification scheme and as explained below.

Relationships with other classification places

This group does not cover the preparation of the pretreated ingredients only, without their use as additive in the sense of C08K.

References
Informative references

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparation of those additives is classified in C09C 3/06

Preparation of those additives is classified in C09C 3/08

Preparation of those additives is classified in C09C 3/12

Preparation of those additives is classified in C09C 3/10

Special rules of classification

Further subdivisions:

This subgroup defines physical/chemical pretreatment by non-macromolecular organic substances only

This subgroup defines physical/chemical pretreatment by non-macromolecular organic silicon containing substances only

This subgroup defines physical/chemical pretreatment by macromolecular organic substances only

This subgroup is used only, if the claims and/or examples of the respective document explicitely show/define/claim a literally 'encapsulation' of the respective pretreating agent on the additive

This subgroup is used only, if the claims and/or examples of the respective document explicitely show/define/claim a literally 'absorption' of the respective pretreating agent on the additive

Use of ingredients of unknown constitution, e.g. undefined reaction products
Definition statement

This place covers:

Any additive in the meaning of C08K which does not fall within any of the subgroups C08K 3/00, C08K 5/00, C08K 7/00, C08K 9/00 or C08K 13/00.

Relationships with other classification places

This group does not cover the preparation of the ingredients of unknown constitution only, without their use as additive in the sense of C08K.

Use of mixtures of ingredients not covered by one single of the preceding main groups, each of these compounds being essential
Definition statement

This place covers:

This subgroup should be used for classification only for mixtures with more than three essential ingredients as outlined in Special rules of classification in C08K.