Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property
AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
PART I GENERAL PROVISIONS AND BASIC PRINCIPLES
PART II STANDARDS CONCERNING THE AVAILABILITY, SCOPE AND USE OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
1. Copyright and Related Rights
3. Geographical Indications
4. Industrial Designs
6. Layout-Designs (Topographies) of Integrated Circuits
7. Protection of Undisclosed Information
8. Control of Anti-Competitive Practices in Contractual Licences
PART III ENFORCEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
1. General Obligations
2. Civil and Administrative Procedures and Remedies
3. Provisional Measures
4. Special Requirements Related to Border Measures
5. Criminal Procedures
PART IV ACQUISITION AND MAINTENANCE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
AND RELATED INTER-PARTES PROCEDURES
PART V DISPUTE PREVENTION AND SETTLEMENT
PART VI TRANSITIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
PART VII INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS; FINAL PROVISION
AGREEMENT ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
Desiring to reduce distortions and impediments to international trade, and taking into account the
need to promote effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights, and to ensure that
measures and procedures to enforce intellectual property rights do not themselves become barriers to
Recognizing, to this end, the need for new rules and disciplines concerning:
(a) the applicability of the basic principles of GATT 1994 and of relevant international
intellectual property agreements or conventions;
(b) the provision of adequate standards and principles concerning the availability, scope and
use of trade-related intellectual property rights;
(c) the provision of effective and appropriate means for the enforcement of trade-related
intellectual property rights, taking into account differences in national legal systems;
(d) the provision of effective and expeditious procedures for the multilateral prevention and
settlement of disputes between governments; and
(e) transitional arrangements aiming at the fullest participation in the results of the
Recognizing the need for a multilateral framework of principles, rules and disciplines dealing with
international trade in counterfeit goods;
Recognizing that intellectual property rights are private rights;
Recognizing the underlying public policy objectives of national systems for the protection of
intellectual property, including developmental and technological objectives;
Recognizing also the special needs of the least-developed country Members in respect of maximum
flexibility in the domestic implementation of laws and regulations in order to enable them to create a sound
and viable technological base;
Emphasizing the importance of reducing tensions by reaching strengthened commitments to resolve
disputes on trade-related intellectual property issues through multilateral procedures;
Desiring to establish a mutually supportive relationship between the WTO and the World
Intellectual Property Organization (referred to in this Agreement as "WIPO") as well as other relevant
Herebyagree as follows:
GENERAL PROVISIONS AND BASIC PRINCIPLES
Nature and Scope of Obligations
1. Members shall give effect to the provisions of this Agreement. Members may, but shall not be
obliged to, implement in their law more extensive protection than is required by this Agreement, provided
that such protection does not contravene the provisions of this Agreement. Members shall be free to
determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of this Agreement within their own legal
system and practice.
2. For the purposes of this Agreement, the term "intellectual property" refers to all categories of
intellectual property that are the subject of Sections 1 through 7 of Part II.
3. Members shall accord the treatment provided for in this Agreement to the nationals of other
Members. In respect of the relevant intellectual property right, the nationals of other Members shall be
understood as those natural or legal persons that would meet the criteria for eligibility for protection
provided for in the Paris Convention (1967), the Berne Convention (1971), the Rome Convention and the
Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits, were all Members of the WTO members
of those conventions. Any Member availing itself of the possibilities provided in paragraph3 of Article 5
or paragraph2 of Article6 of the Rome Convention shall make a notification as foreseen in those provisions
to the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the "Council for TRIPS").
Intellectual Property Conventions
1. In respect of PartsII, III and IV of this Agreement, Members shall comply with Articles1 through
12, and Article 19, of the Paris Convention (1967).
2. Nothing in PartsI to IV of this Agreement shall derogate from existing obligations that Members
may have to each other under the Paris Convention, the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention and the
Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits.
1. Each Member shall accord to the nationals of other Members treatment no less favourable than
that it accords to its own nationals with regard to the protection of intellectual property, subject to the
exceptions already provided in, respectively, the Paris Convention (1967), the Berne Convention(1971), the
Rome Convention or the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits. In respect of
performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting organizations, this obligation only applies in
respect of the rights provided under this Agreement. Any Member availing itself of the possibilities
provided in Article6 of the Berne Convention (1971) or paragraph 1(b) of Article16 of the Rome
Convention shall make a notification as foreseen in those provisions to the Council for TRIPS.
2. Members may avail themselves of the exceptions permitted under paragraph1 in relation to judicial
and administrative procedures, including the designation of an address for service or the appointment of an
agent within the jurisdiction of a Member, only where such exceptions are necessary to secure compliance
with laws and regulations which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement and where such
practices are not applied in a manner which would constitute a disguised restriction on trade.
With regard to the protection of intellectual property, any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity
granted by a Member to the nationals of any other country shall be accorded immediately and
unconditionally to the nationals of all other Members. Exempted from this obligation are any advantage,
favour, privilege or immunity accorded by a Member:
(a) deriving from international agreements on judicial assistance or law enforcement of a
general nature and not particularly confined to the protection of intellectual property;
(b) granted in accordance with the provisions of the Berne Convention (1971) or the Rome
Convention authorizing that the treatment accorded be a function not of national treatment
but of the treatment accorded in another country;
(c) in respect of the rights of performers, producers of phonograms and broadcasting
organizations not provided under this Agreement;
(d) deriving from international agreements related to the protection of intellectual property
which entered into force prior to the entry into force of the WTO Agreement, provided that
such agreements are notified to the Council for TRIPS and do not constitute an arbitrary
or unjustifiable discrimination against nationals of other Members.
Multilateral Agreements on Acquisition or
Maintenance of Protection
The obligations under Articles3 and 4 do not apply to procedures provided in multilateral
agreements concluded under the auspices of WIPO relating to the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual
For the purposes of dispute settlement under this Agreement, subject to the provisions of Articles3
and 4 nothing in this Agreement shall be used to address the issue of the exhaustion of intellectual property
The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights should contribute to the promotion of
technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology, to the mutual advantage of
producers and users of technological knowledge and in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare,
and to a balance of rights and obligations.
1. Members may, in formulating or amending their laws and regulations, adopt measures necessary to
protect public health and nutrition, and to promote the public interest in sectors of vital importance to their
socio-economic and technological development, provided that such measures are consistent with the
provisions of this Agreement.
2. Appropriate measures, provided that they are consistent with the provisions of this Agreement,
may be needed to prevent the abuse of intellectual property rights by right holders or the resort to practices
which unreasonably restrain trade or adversely affect the international transfer of technology.
STANDARDS CONCERNING THE AVAILABILITY, SCOPE
AND USE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
SECTION 1: COPYRIGHT AND RELATED RIGHTS
Relation to the Berne Convention
1. Members shall comply with Articles 1 through 21 of the Berne Convention (1971) and the
Appendix thereto. However, Members shall not have rights or obligations under this Agreement in respect
of the rights conferred under Article 6bis of that Convention or of the rights derived therefrom.
2. Copyright protection shall extend to expressions and not to ideas, procedures, methods of operation
or mathematical concepts as such.
Computer Programs and Compilations of Data
1. Computer programs, whether in source or object code, shall be protected as literary works under
the Berne Convention (1971).
2. Compilations of data or other material, whether in machine readable or other form, which by
reason of the selection or arrangement of their contents constitute intellectual creations shall be protected as
such. Such protection, which shall not extend to the data or material itself, shall be without prejudice to
any copyright subsisting in the data or material itself.
In respect of at least computer programs and cinematographic works, a Member shall provide
authors and their successors in title the right to authorize or to prohibit the commercial rental to the public
of originals or copies of their copyright works. A Member shall be excepted from this obligation in respect
of cinematographic works unless such rental has led to widespread copying of such works which is
materially impairing the exclusive right of reproduction conferred in that Member on authors and their
successors in title. In respect of computer programs, this obligation does not apply to rentals where the
program itself is not the essential object of the rental.
Term of Protection
Whenever the term of protection of a work, other than a photographic work or a work of applied
art, is calculated on a basis other than the life of a natural person, such term shall be no less than 50years
from the end of the calendar year of authorized publication, or, failing such authorized publication within
50 years from the making of the work, 50 years from the end of the calendar year of making.
Limitations and Exceptions
Members shall confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which
do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate
interests of the right holder.
Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms
(Sound Recordings) and Broadcasting Organizations
1. In respect of a fixation of their performance on a phonogram, performers shall have the possibility
of preventing the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the fixation of their unfixed
performance and the reproduction of such fixation. Performers shall also have the possibility of preventing
the following acts when undertaken without their authorization: the broadcasting by wireless means and
the communication to the public of their live performance.
2. Producers of phonograms shall enjoy the right to authorize or prohibit the direct or indirect
reproduction of their phonograms.
3. Broadcasting organizations shall have the right to prohibit the following acts when undertaken
without their authorization: the fixation, the reproduction of fixations, and the rebroadcasting by wireless
means of broadcasts, as well as the communication to the public of television broadcasts of the same.
Where Members do not grant such rights to broadcasting organizations, they shall provide owners of
copyright in the subject matter of broadcasts with the possibility of preventing the above acts, subject to the
provisions of the Berne Convention (1971).
4. The provisions of Article 11 in respect of computer programs shall apply mutatismutandis to
producers of phonograms and any other right holders in phonograms as determined in a Member's law. If
on 15 April 1994 a Member has in force a system of equitable remuneration of right holders in respect of
the rental of phonograms, it may maintain such system provided that the commercial rental of phonograms
is not giving rise to the material impairment of the exclusive rights of reproduction of right holders.
5. The term of the protection available under this Agreement to performers and producers of
phonograms shall last at least until the end of a period of 50 years computed from the end of the calendar
year in which the fixation was made or the performance took place. The term of protection granted
pursuant to paragraph3 shall last for at least 20 years from the end of the calendar year in which the
broadcast took place.
6. Any Member may, in relation to the rights conferred under paragraphs1, 2 and 3, provide for
conditions, limitations, exceptions and reservations to the extent permitted by the Rome Convention.
However, the provisions of Article 18 of the Berne Convention (1971) shall also apply, mutatismutandis, to
the rights of performers and producers of phonograms in phonograms.
SECTION 2: TRADEMARKS
Protectable Subject Matter
1. Any sign, or any combination of signs, capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one
undertaking from those of other undertakings, shall be capable of constituting a trademark. Such signs, in
particular words including personal names, letters, numerals, figurative elements and combinations of
colours as well as any combination of such signs, shall be eligible for registration as trademarks. Where
signs are not inherently capable of distinguishing the relevant goods or services, Members may make
registrability depend on distinctiveness acquired through use. Members may require, as a condition of
registration, that signs be visually perceptible.
2. Paragraph 1 shall not be understood to prevent a Member from denying registration of a trademark
on other grounds, provided that they do not derogate from the provisions of the Paris Convention (1967).
3. Members may make registrability depend on use. However, actual use of a trademark shall not be
a condition for filing an application for registration. An application shall not be refused solely on the
ground that intended use has not taken place before the expiry of a period of three years from the date of
4. The nature of the goods or services to which a trademark is to be applied shall in no case form an
obstacle to registration of the trademark.
5. Members shall publish each trademark either before it is registered or promptly after it is registered
and shall afford a reasonable opportunity for petitions to cancel the registration. In addition, Members may
afford an opportunity for the registration of a trademark to be opposed.
1. The owner of a registered trademark shall have the exclusive right to prevent all third parties not
having the owner’s consent from using in the course of trade identical or similar signs for goods or services
which are identical or similar to those in respect of which the trademark is registered where such use would
result in a likelihood of confusion. In case of the use of an identical sign for identical goods or services, a
likelihood of confusion shall be presumed. The rights described above shall not prejudice any existing prior
rights, nor shall they affect the possibility of Members making rights available on the basis of use.
2. Article 6bis of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to services. In
determining whether a trademark is well-known, Members shall take account of the knowledge of the
trademark in the relevant sector of the public, including knowledge in the Member concerned which has
been obtained as a result of the promotion of the trademark.
3. Article 6bis of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to goods or services
which are not similar to those in respect of which a trademark is registered, provided that use of that
trademark in relation to those goods or services would indicate a connection between those goods or
services and the owner of the registered trademark and provided that the interests of the owner of the
registered trademark are likely to be damaged by such use.
Members may provide limited exceptions to the rights conferred by a trademark, such as fair use of
descriptive terms, provided that such exceptions take account of the legitimate interests of the owner of the
trademark and of third parties.
Term of Protection
Initial registration, and each renewal of registration, of a trademark shall be for a term of no less
than seven years. The registration of a trademark shall be renewable indefinitely.
Requirement of Use
1. If use is required to maintain a registration, the registration may be cancelled only after an
uninterrupted period of at least three years of non-use, unless valid reasons based on the existence of
obstacles to such use are shown by the trademark owner. Circumstances arising independently of the will
of the owner of the trademark which constitute an obstacle to the use of the trademark, such as import
restrictions on or other government requirements for goods or services protected by the trademark, shall be
recognized as valid reasons for non-use.
2. When subject to the control of its owner, use of a trademark by another person shall be recognized
as use of the trademark for the purpose of maintaining the registration.
The use of a trademark in the course of trade shall not be unjustifiably encumbered by special
requirements, such as use with another trademark, use in a special form or use in a manner detrimental to
its capability to distinguish the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. This
will not preclude a requirement prescribing the use of the trademark identifying the undertaking producing
the goods or services along with, but without linking it to, the trademark distinguishing the specific goods
or services in question of that undertaking.
Licensing and Assignment
Members may determine conditions on the licensing and assignment of trademarks, it being
understood that the compulsory licensing of trademarks shall not be permitted and that the owner of a
registered trademark shall have the right to assign the trademark with or without the transfer of the business
to which the trademark belongs.
SECTION 3: GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS
Protection of Geographical Indications
1. Geographical indications are, for the purposes of this Agreement, indications which identify a good
as originating in the territory of a Member, or a region or locality in that territory, where a given quality,
reputation or other characteristic of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.
2. In respect of geographical indications, Members shall provide the legal means for interested parties
(a) the use of any means in the designation or presentation of a good that indicates or suggests that the
good in question originates in a geographical area other than the true place of origin in a manner which
misleads the public as to the geographical origin of the good;
(b) any use which constitutes an act of unfair competition within the meaning of Article10bis of the
Paris Convention (1967).
3. A Member shall, exofficio if its legislation so permits or at the request of an interested party,
refuse or invalidate the registration of a trademark which contains or consists of a geographical indication
with respect to goods not originating in the territory indicated, if use of the indication in the trademark for
such goods in that Member is of such a nature as to mislead the public as to the true place of origin.
4. The protection under paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall be applicable against a geographical indication
which, although literally true as to the territory, region or locality in which the goods originate, falsely
represents to the public that the goods originate in another territory.
Additional Protection for Geographical Indications
for Wines and Spirits
1. Each Member shall provide the legal means for interested parties to prevent use of a geographical
indication identifying wines for wines not originating in the place indicated by the geographical indication
in question or identifying spirits for spirits not originating in the place indicated by the geographical
indication in question, even where the true origin of the goods is indicated or the geographical indication is
used in translation or accompanied by expressions such as "kind", "type", "style", "imitation" or the like.
2. The registration of a trademark for wines which contains or consists of a geographical indication
identifying wines or for spirits which contains or consists of a geographical indication identifying spirits
shall be refused or invalidated, exofficio if a Member's legislation so permits or at the request of an
interested party, with respect to such wines or spirits not having this origin.
3. In the case of homonymous geographical indications for wines, protection shall be accorded to each
indication, subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 of Article 22. Each Member shall determine the
practical conditions under which the homonymous indications in question will be differentiated from each
other, taking into account the need to ensure equitable treatment of the producers concerned and that
consumers are not misled.
4. In order to facilitate the protection of geographical indications for wines, negotiations shall be
undertaken in the Council for TRIPS concerning the establishment of a multilateral system of notification
and registration of geographical indications for wines eligible for protection in those Members participating
in the system.
International Negotiations; Exceptions
1. Members agree to enter into negotiations aimed at increasing the protection of individual
geographical indications under Article 23. The provisions of paragraphs4 through 8 below shall not be
used by a Member to refuse to conduct negotiations or to conclude bilateral or multilateral agreements. In
the context of such negotiations, Members shall be willing to consider the continued applicability of these
provisions to individual geographical indications whose use was the subject of such negotiations.
2. The Council for TRIPS shall keep under review the application of the provisions of this Section;
the first such review shall take place within two years of the entry into force of the WTO Agreement. Any
matter affecting the compliance with the obligations under these provisions may be drawn to the attention
of the Council, which, at the request of a Member, shall consult with any Member or Members in respect
of such matter in respect of which it has not been possible to find a satisfactory solution through bilateral
or plurilateral consultations between the Members concerned. The Council shall take such action as may
be agreed to facilitate the operation and further the objectives of this Section.
3. In implementing this Section, a Member shall not diminish the protection of geographical
indications that existed in that Member immediately prior to the date of entry into force of the WTO
4. Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to prevent continued and similar use of a particular
geographical indication of another Member identifying wines or spirits in connection with goods or services
by any of its nationals or domiciliaries who have used that geographical indication in a continuous manner
with regard to the same or related goods or services in the territory of that Member either (a)for at least 10
years preceding 15 April 1994 or (b)in good faith preceding that date.
5. Where a trademark has been applied for or registered in good faith, or where rights to a trademark
have been acquired through use in good faith either:
(a) before the date of application of these provisions in that Member as defined in PartVI; or
(b) before the geographical indication is protected in its country of origin;
measures adopted to implement this Section shall not prejudice eligibility for or the validity of the
registration of a trademark, or the right to use a trademark, on the basis that such a trademark is identical
with, or similar to, a geographical indication.
6. Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to apply its provisions in respect of a geographical
indication of any other Member with respect to goods or services for which the relevant indication is
identical with the term customary in common language as the common name for such goods or services in
the territory of that Member. Nothing in this Section shall require a Member to apply its provisions in
respect of a geographical indication of any other Member with respect to products of the vine for which the
relevant indication is identical with the customary name of a grape variety existing in the territory of that
Member as of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
7. A Member may provide that any request made under this Section in connection with the use or
registration of a trademark must be presented within five years after the adverse use of the protected
indication has become generally known in that Member or after the date of registration of the trademark in
that Member provided that the trademark has been published by that date, if such date is earlier than the
date on which the adverse use became generally known in that Member, provided that the geographical
indication is not used or registered in bad faith.
8. The provisions of this Section shall in no way prejudice the right of any person to use, in the course
of trade, that person’s name or the name of that person’s predecessor in business, except where such name
is used in such a manner as to mislead the public.
9. There shall be no obligation under this Agreement to protect geographical indications which are not
or cease to be protected in their country of origin, or which have fallen into disuse in that country.
SECTION4: INDUSTRIAL DESIGNS
Requirements for Protection
1. Members shall provide for the protection of independently created industrial designs that are new
or original. Members may provide that designs are not new or original if they do not significantly differ
from known designs or combinations of known design features. Members may provide that such protection
shall not extend to designs dictated essentially by technical or functional considerations.
2. Each Member shall ensure that requirements for securing protection for textile designs, in
particular in regard to any cost, examination or publication, do not unreasonably impair the opportunity to
seek and obtain such protection. Members shall be free to meet this obligation through industrial design
law or through copyright law.
1. The owner of a protected industrial design shall have the right to prevent third parties not having
the owner’s consent from making, selling or importing articles bearing or embodying a design which is a
copy, or substantially a copy, of the protected design, when such acts are undertaken for commercial
2. Members may provide limited exceptions to the protection of industrial designs, provided that such
exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with the normal exploitation of protected industrial designs and do
not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the owner of the protected design, taking account of
the legitimate interests of third parties.
3. The duration of protection available shall amount to at least 10 years.
SECTION 5: PATENTS
Patentable Subject Matter
1. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs2 and 3, patents shall be available for any inventions,
whether products or processes, in all fields of technology, provided that they are new, involve an inventive
step and are capable of industrial application. Subject to paragraph4 of Article65, paragraph8 of Article-
70 and paragraph3 of this Article, patents shall be available and patent rights enjoyable without
discrimination as to the place of invention, the field of technology and whether products are imported or
2. Members may exclude from patentability inventions, the prevention within their territory of the
commercial exploitation of which is necessary to protect ordrepublic or morality, including to protect
human, animal or plant life or health or to avoid serious prejudice to the environment, provided that such
exclusion is not made merely because the exploitation is prohibited by their law.
3. Members may also exclude from patentability:
(a) diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical methods for the treatment of humans or animals;
(b) plants and animals other than micro-organisms, and essentially biological processes for the
production of plants or animals other than non-biological and microbiological processes. However,
Members shall provide for the protection of plant varieties either by patents or by an effective suigeneris
system or by any combination thereof. The provisions of this subparagraph shall be reviewed four years
after the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement.
1. A patent shall confer on its owner the following exclusive rights:
(a) where the subject matter of a patent is a product, to prevent third parties not having the owner’s
consent from the acts of: making, using, offering for sale, selling, or importing for these purposes that
(b) where the subject matter of a patent is a process, to prevent third parties not having the owner’s
consent from the act of using the process,and from the acts of: using, offering for sale, selling, or
importing for these purposes at least the product obtained directly by that process.
2. Patent owners shall also have the right to assign, or transfer by succession, the patent and to
conclude licensing contracts.
Conditions on Patent Applicants
1. Members shall require that an applicant for a patent shall disclose the invention in a manner
sufficiently clear and complete for the invention to be carried out by a person skilled in the art and may
require the applicant to indicate the best mode for carrying out the invention known to the inventor at the
filing date or, where priority is claimed, at the priority date of the application.
2. Members may require an applicant for a patent to provide information concerning the applicant’s
corresponding foreign applications and grants.
Exceptions to Rights Conferred
Members may provide limited exceptions to the exclusive rights conferred by a patent, provided
that such exceptions do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent and do not
unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate
interests of third parties.
Other Use Without Authorization of the Right Holder
Where the law of a Member allows for other use of the subject matter of a patent without the
authorization of the right holder, including use by the government or third parties authorized by the
government, the following provisions shall be respected:
(a) authorization of such use shall be considered on its individual merits;
(b) such use may only be permitted if, prior to such use, the proposed user has made efforts to obtain
authorization from the right holder on reasonable commercial terms and conditions and that such efforts
have not been successful within a reasonable period of time. This requirement may be waived by a
Member in the case of a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency or in cases of
public non-commercial use. In situations of national emergency or other circumstances of extreme
urgency, the right holder shall, nevertheless, be notified as soon as reasonably practicable. In the case of
public non-commercial use, where the government or contractor, without making a patent search, knows or
has demonstrable grounds to know that a valid patent is or will be used by or for the government, the right
holder shall be informed promptly;
(c) the scope and duration of such use shall be limited to the purpose for which it was authorized, and
in the case of semi-conductor technology shall only be for public non-commercial use or to remedy a
practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-competitive;
(d) such use shall be non-exclusive;
(e) such use shall be non-assignable, except with that part of the enterprise or goodwill which enjoys
(f) any such use shall be authorized predominantly for the supply of the domestic market of the
Member authorizing such use;
(g) authorization for such use shall be liable, subject to adequate protection of the legitimate interests
of the persons so authorized, to be terminated if and when the circumstances which led to it cease to exist
and are unlikely to recur. The competent authority shall have the authority to review, upon motivated
request, the continued existence of these circumstances;
(h) the right holder shall be paid adequate remuneration in the circumstances of each case, taking into
account the economic value of the authorization;
(i) the legal validity of any decision relating to the authorization of such use shall be subject to judicial
review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member;
(j) any decision relating to the remuneration provided in respect of such use shall be subject to judicial
review or other independent review by a distinct higher authority in that Member;
(k) Members are not obliged to apply the conditions set forth in subparagraphs(b) and(f) where such
use is permitted to remedy a practice determined after judicial or administrative process to be anti-
competitive. The need to correct anti-competitive practices may be taken into account in determining the
amount of remuneration in such cases. Competent authorities shall have the authority to refuse termination
of authorization if and when the conditions which led to such authorization are likely to recur;
(l) where such use is authorized to permit the exploitation of a patent ("the second patent") which
cannot be exploited without infringing another patent ("the first patent"), the following additional conditions
(i) the invention claimed in the second patent shall involve an important technical advance of
considerable economic significance in relation to the invention claimed in the first patent;
(ii) the owner of the first patent shall be entitled to a cross-licence on reasonable terms to use the
invention claimed in the second patent; and
(iii) the use authorized in respect of the first patent shall be non-assignable except with the assignment
of the second patent.
An opportunity for judicial review of any decision to revoke or forfeit a patent shall be available.
Term of Protection
The term of protection available shall not end before the expiration of a period of twenty years
counted from the filing date.
Process Patents: Burden of Proof
1. For the purposes of civil proceedings in respect of the infringement of the rights of the owner
referred to in paragraph1(b) of Article28, if the subject matter of a patent is a process for obtaining a
product, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the defendant to prove that the process to
obtain an identical product is different from the patented process. Therefore, Members shall provide, in at
least one of the following circumstances, that any identical product when produced without the consent of
the patent owner shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be deemed to have been obtained by the
(a) if the product obtained by the patented process is new;
(b) if there is a substantial likelihood that the identical product was made by the process and the owner
of the patent has been unable through reasonable efforts to determine the process actually used.
2. Any Member shall be free to provide that the burden of proof indicated in paragraph1 shall be on
the alleged infringer only if the condition referred to in subparagraph(a) is fulfilled or only if the condition
referred to in subparagraph(b) is fulfilled.
3. In the adduction of proof to the contrary, the legitimate interests of defendants in protecting their
manufacturing and business secrets shall be taken into account.
SECTION 6: LAYOUT-DESIGNS (TOPOGRAPHIES) OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Relation to the IPIC Treaty
Members agree to provide protection to the layout-designs (topographies) of integrated circuits
(referred to in this Agreement as "layout-designs") in accordance with Articles2 through 7 (other than
paragraph3 of Article6), Article12 and paragraph3 of Article16 of the Treaty on Intellectual Property in
Respect of Integrated Circuits and, in addition, to comply with the following provisions.
Scope of the Protection
Subject to the provisions of paragraph1 of Article37, Members shall consider unlawful the
following acts if performed without the authorization of the right holder: importing, selling, or otherwise
distributing for commercial purposes a protected layout-design, an integrated circuit in which a protected
layout-design is incorporated, or an article incorporating such an integrated circuit only in so far as it
continues to contain an unlawfully reproduced layout-design.
Acts Not Requiring the Authorization of the Right Holder
1. Notwithstanding Article 36, no Member shall consider unlawful the performance of any of the acts
referred to in that Article in respect of an integrated circuit incorporating an unlawfully reproduced layout-
design or any article incorporating such an integrated circuit where the person performing or ordering such
acts did not know and had no reasonable ground to know, when acquiring the integrated circuit or article
incorporating such an integrated circuit, that it incorporated an unlawfully reproduced layout-design.
Members shall provide that, after the time that such person has received sufficient notice that the layout-
design was unlawfully reproduced, that person may perform any of the acts with respect to the stock on
hand or ordered before such time, but shall be liable to pay to the right holder a sum equivalent to a
reasonable royalty such as would be payable under a freely negotiated licence in respect of such a layout-
2. The conditions set out in subparagraphs (a) through (k) of Article31 shall apply mutatis mutandis
in the event of any non-voluntary licensing of a layout-design or of its use by or for the government without
the authorization of the right holder.
Term of Protection
1. In Members requiring registration as a condition of protection, the term of protection of layout-
designs shall not end before the expiration of a period of 10 years counted from the date of filing an
application for registration or from the first commercial exploitation wherever in the world it occurs.
2. In Members not requiring registration as a condition for protection, layout-designs shall be
protected for a term of no less than 10 years from the date of the first commercial exploitation wherever in
the world it occurs.
3. Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2, a Member may provide that protection shall lapse 15 years
after the creation of the layout-design.
SECTION 7: PROTECTION OF UNDISCLOSED INFORMATION
1. In the course of ensuring effective protection against unfair competition as provided in Article10bis
of the Paris Convention (1967), Members shall protect undisclosed information in accordance with
paragraph2 and data submitted to governments or governmental agencies in accordance with paragraph3.
2. Natural and legal persons shall have the possibility of preventing information lawfully within their
control from being disclosed to, acquired by, or used by others without their consent in a manner contrary
to honest commercial practices so long as such information:
(a) is secret in the sense that it is not, as a body or in the precise configuration and assembly of its
components, generally known among or readily accessible to persons within the circles that normally deal
with the kind of information in question;
(b) has commercial value because it is secret; and
(c) has been subject to reasonable steps under the circumstances, by the person lawfully in control of
the information, to keep it secret.
3. Members, when requiring, as a condition of approving the marketing of pharmaceutical or of
agricultural chemical products which utilize new chemical entities, the submission of undisclosed test or
other data, the origination of which involves a considerable effort, shall protect such data against unfair
commercial use. In addition, Members shall protect such data against disclosure, except where necessary
to protect the public, or unless steps are taken to ensure that the data are protected against unfair
SECTION 8: CONTROL OF ANTI-COMPETITIVE PRACTICES
IN CONTRACTUAL LICENCES
1. Members agree that some licensing practices or conditions pertaining to intellectual property rights
which restrain competition may have adverse effects on trade and may impede the transfer and
dissemination of technology.
2. Nothing in this Agreement shall prevent Members from specifying in their legislation licensing
practices or conditions that may in particular cases constitute an abuse of intellectual property rights
having an adverse effect on competition in the relevant market. As provided above, a Member may adopt,
consistently with the other provisions of this Agreement, appropriate measures to prevent or control such
practices, which may include for example exclusive grantback conditions, conditions preventing challenges
to validity and coercive package licensing, in the light of the relevant laws and regulations of that Member.
3. Each Member shall enter, upon request, into consultations with any other Member which has cause
to believe that an intellectual property right owner that is a national or domiciliary of the Member to which
the request for consultations has been addressed is undertaking practices in violation of the requesting
Member's laws and regulations on the subject matter of this Section, and which wishes to secure
compliance with such legislation, without prejudice to any action under the law and to the full freedom of
an ultimate decision of either Member. The Member addressed shall accord full and sympathetic
consideration to, and shall afford adequate opportunity for, consultations with the requesting Member, and
shall cooperate through supply of publicly available non-confidential information of relevance to the matter
in question and of other information available to the Member, subject to domestic law and to the conclusion
of mutually satisfactory agreements concerning the safeguarding of its confidentiality by the requesting
4. A Member whose nationals or domiciliaries are subject to proceedings in another Member
concerning alleged violation of that other Member's laws and regulations on the subject matter of this
Section shall, upon request, be granted an opportunity for consultations by the other Member under the
same conditions as those foreseen in paragraph 3.
ENFORCEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
SECTION 1: GENERAL OBLIGATIONS
1. Members shall ensure that enforcement procedures as specified in this Part are available under
their law so as to permit effective action against any act of infringement of intellectual property rights
covered by this Agreement, including expeditious remedies to prevent infringements and remedies which
constitute a deterrent to further infringements. These procedures shall be applied in such a manner as to
avoid the creation of barriers to legitimate trade and to provide for safeguards against their abuse.
2. Procedures concerning the enforcement of intellectual property rights shall be fair and equitable.
They shall not be unnecessarily complicated or costly, or entail unreasonable time-limits or unwarranted
3. Decisions on the merits of a case shall preferably be in writing and reasoned. They shall be made
available at least to the parties to the proceeding without undue delay. Decisions on the merits of a case
shall be based only on evidence in respect of which parties were offered the opportunity to be heard.
4. Parties to a proceeding shall have an opportunity for review by a judicial authority of final
administrative decisions and, subject to jurisdictional provisions in a Member's law concerning the
importance of a case, of at least the legal aspects of initial judicial decisions on the merits of a case.
However, there shall be no obligation to provide an opportunity for review of acquittals in criminal cases.
5. It is understood that this Part does not create any obligation to put in place a judicial system for the
enforcement of intellectual property rights distinct from that for the enforcement of law in general, nor does
it affect the capacity of Members to enforce their law in general. Nothing in this Part creates any
obligation with respect to the distribution of resources as between enforcement of intellectual property
rights and the enforcement of law in general.
SECTION 2: CIVIL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND REMEDIES
Fair and Equitable Procedures
Members shall make available to right holders civil judicial procedures concerning the
enforcement of any intellectual property right covered by this Agreement. Defendants shall have the right
to written notice which is timely and contains sufficient detail, including the basis of the claims. Parties
shall be allowed to be represented by independent legal counsel, and procedures shall not impose overly
burdensome requirements concerning mandatory personal appearances. All parties to such procedures
shall be duly entitled to substantiate their claims and to present all relevant evidence. The procedure shall
provide a means to identify and protect confidential information, unless this would be contrary to existing
1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority, where a party has presented reasonably available
evidence sufficient to support its claims and has specified evidence relevant to substantiation of its claims
which lies in the control of the opposing party, to order that this evidence be produced by the opposing
party, subject in appropriate cases to conditions which ensure the protection of confidential information.
2. In cases in which a party to a proceeding voluntarily and without good reason refuses access to, or
otherwise does not provide necessary information within a reasonable period, or significantly impedes a
procedure relating to an enforcement action, a Member may accord judicial authorities the authority to
make preliminary and final determinations, affirmative or negative, on the basis of the information
presented to them, including the complaint or the allegation presented by the party adversely affected by the
denial of access to information, subject to providing the parties an opportunity to be heard on the
allegations or evidence.
1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party to desist from an infringement,
inter alia to prevent the entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of imported goods that
involve the infringement of an intellectual property right, immediately after customs clearance of such
goods. Members are not obliged to accord such authority in respect of protected subject matter acquired or
ordered by a person prior to knowing or having reasonable grounds to know that dealing in such subject
matter would entail the infringement of an intellectual property right.
2. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Part and provided that the provisions of PartII
specifically addressing use by governments, or by third parties authorized by a government, without the
authorization of the right holder are complied with, Members may limit the remedies available against such
use to payment of remuneration in accordance with subparagraph(h) of Article 31. In other cases, the
remedies under this Part shall apply or, where these remedies are inconsistent with a Member's law,
declaratory judgments and adequate compensation shall be available.
1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder
damages adequate to compensate for the injury the right holder has suffered because of an infringement of
that persons intellectual property right by an infringer who knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to
know, engaged in infringing activity.
2. The judicial authorities shall also have the authority to order the infringer to pay the right holder
expenses, which may include appropriate attorney's fees. In appropriate cases, Members may authorize the
judicial authorities to order recovery of profits and/or payment of pre-established damages even where the
infringer did not knowingly, or with reasonable grounds to know, engage in infringing activity.
In order to create an effective deterrent to infringement, the judicial authorities shall have the
authority to order that goods that they have found to be infringing be, without compensation of any sort,
disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to avoid any harm caused to the right
holder, or, unless this would be contrary to existing constitutional requirements, destroyed. The judicial
authorities shall also have the authority to order that materials and implements the predominant use of
which has been in the creation of the infringing goods be, without compensation of any sort, disposed of
outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to minimize the risks of further infringements. In
considering such requests, the need for proportionality between the seriousness of the infringement and the
remedies ordered as well as the interests of third parties shall be taken into account. In regard to
counterfeit trademark goods, the simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient,
other than in exceptional cases, to permit release of the goods into the channels of commerce.
Right of Information
Members may provide that the judicial authorities shall have the authority, unless this would be out
of proportion to the seriousness of the infringement, to order the infringer to inform the right holder of the
identity of third persons involved in the production and distribution of the infringing goods or services and
of their channels of distribution.
Indemnification of the Defendant
1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order a party at whose request measures were
taken and who has abused enforcement procedures to provide to a party wrongfully enjoined or restrained
adequate compensation for the injury suffered because of such abuse. The judicial authorities shall also
have the authority to order the applicant to pay the defendant expenses, which may include appropriate
2. In respect of the administration of any law pertaining to the protection or enforcement of
intellectual property rights, Members shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability
to appropriate remedial measures where actions are taken or intended in good faith in the course of the
administration of that law.
To the extent that any civil remedy can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures on the
merits of a case, such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set forth in
SECTION 3: PROVISIONAL MEASURES
1. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to order prompt and effective provisional measures:
(a) to prevent an infringement of any intellectual property right from occurring, and in particular to
prevent the entry into the channels of commerce in their jurisdiction of goods, including imported goods
immediately after customs clearance;
(b) to preserve relevant evidence in regard to the alleged infringement.
2. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to adopt provisional measures inaudita altera parte
where appropriate, in particular where any delay is likely to cause irreparable harm to the right holder, or
where there is a demonstrable risk of evidence being destroyed.
3. The judicial authorities shall have the authority to require the applicant to provide any reasonably
available evidence in order to satisfy themselves with a sufficient degree of certainty that the applicant is
the right holder and that the applicants right is being infringed or that such infringement is imminent, and
to order the applicant to provide a security or equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and to
4. Where provisional measures have been adopted inaudita altera parte, the parties affected shall be
given notice, without delay after the execution of the measures at the latest. A review, including a right to
be heard, shall take place upon request of the defendant with a view to deciding, within a reasonable period
after the notification of the measures, whether these measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed.
5. The applicant may be required to supply other information necessary for the identification of the
goods concerned by the authority that will execute the provisional measures.
6. Without prejudice to paragraph 4, provisional measures taken on the basis of paragraphs1 and 2
shall, upon request by the defendant, be revoked or otherwise cease to have effect, if proceedings leading to
a decision on the merits of the case are not initiated within a reasonable period, to be determined by the
judicial authority ordering the measures where a Member's law so permits or, in the absence of such a
determination, not to exceed 20 working days or 31 calendar days, whichever is the longer.
7. Where the provisional measures are revoked or where they lapse due to any act or omission by the
applicant, or where it is subsequently found that there has been no infringement or threat of infringement of
an intellectual property right, the judicial authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant, upon
request of the defendant, to provide the defendant appropriate compensation for any injury caused by these
8. To the extent that any provisional measure can be ordered as a result of administrative procedures,
such procedures shall conform to principles equivalent in substance to those set forth in this Section.
SECTION 4: SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO BORDER MEASURES
Suspension of Release by Customs Authorities
Members shall, in conformity with the provisions set out below, adopt procedures to enable a
right holder, who has valid grounds for suspecting that the importation of counterfeit trademark or pirated
copyright goods may take place, to lodge an application in writing with competent authorities,
administrative or judicial, for the suspension by the customs authorities of the release into free circulation
of such goods. Members may enable such an application to be made in respect of goods which involve
other infringements of intellectual property rights, provided that the requirements of this Section are met.
Members may also provide for corresponding procedures concerning the suspension by the customs
authorities of the release of infringing goods destined for exportation from their territories.
Any right holder initiating the procedures under Article 51 shall be required to provide adequate
evidence to satisfy the competent authorities that, under the laws of the country of importation, there is
prima facie an infringement of the right holders intellectual property right and to supply a sufficiently
detailed description of the goods to make them readily recognizable by the customs authorities. The
competent authorities shall inform the applicant within a reasonable period whether they have accepted the
application and, where determined by the competent authorities, the period for which the customs
authorities will take action.
Security or Equivalent Assurance
1. The competent authorities shall have the authority to require an applicant to provide a security or
equivalent assurance sufficient to protect the defendant and the competent authorities and to prevent abuse.
Such security or equivalent assurance shall not unreasonably deter recourse to these procedures.
2. Where pursuant to an application under this Section the release of goods involving industrial
designs, patents, layout-designs or undisclosed information into free circulation has been suspended by
customs authorities on the basis of a decision other than by a judicial or other independent authority, and
the period provided for in Article55 has expired without the granting of provisional relief by the duly
empowered authority, and provided that all other conditions for importation have been complied with, the
owner, importer, or consignee of such goods shall be entitled to their release on the posting of a security in
an amount sufficient to protect the right holder for any infringement. Payment of such security shall not
prejudice any other remedy available to the right holder, it being understood that the security shall be
released if the right holder fails to pursue the right of action within a reasonable period of time.
Notice of Suspension
The importer and the applicant shall be promptly notified of the suspension of the release of goods
according to Article 51.
Duration of Suspension
If, within a period not exceeding 10 working days after the applicant has been served notice of the
suspension, the customs authorities have not been informed that proceedings leading to a decision on the
merits of the case have been initiated by a party other than the defendant, or that the duly empowered
authority has taken provisional measures prolonging the suspension of the release of the goods, the goods
shall be released, provided that all other conditions for importation or exportation have been complied with;
in appropriate cases, this time-limit may be extended by another 10 working days. If proceedings leading
to a decision on the merits of the case have been initiated, a review, including a right to be heard, shall take
place upon request of the defendant with a view to deciding, within a reasonable period, whether these
measures shall be modified, revoked or confirmed. Notwithstanding the above, where the suspension of the
release of goods is carried out or continued in accordance with a provisional judicial measure, the
provisions of paragraph 6 of Article50 shall apply.
Indemnification of the Importer
and of the Owner of the Goods
Relevant authorities shall have the authority to order the applicant to pay the importer, the
consignee and the owner of the goods appropriate compensation for any injury caused to them through the
wrongful detention of goods or through the detention of goods released pursuant to Article 55.
Right of Inspection and Information
Without prejudice to the protection of confidential information, Members shall provide the
competent authorities the authority to give the right holder sufficient opportunity to have any goods
detained by the customs authorities inspected in order to substantiate the right holder’s claims. The
competent authorities shall also have authority to give the importer an equivalent opportunity to have any
such goods inspected. Where a positive determination has been made on the merits of a case, Members
may provide the competent authorities the authority to inform the right holder of the names and addresses
of the consignor, the importer and the consignee and of the quantity of the goods in question.
Ex Officio Action
Where Members require competent authorities to act upon their own initiative and to suspend the
release of goods in respect of which they have acquired prima facie evidence that an intellectual property
right is being infringed:
(a) the competent authorities may at any time seek from the right holder any information that may
assist them to exercise these powers;
(b) the importer and the right holder shall be promptly notified of the suspension. Where the importer
has lodged an appeal against the suspension with the competent authorities, the suspension shall be subject
to the conditions, mutatis mutandis, set out at Article55;
(c) Members shall only exempt both public authorities and officials from liability to appropriate
remedial measures where actions are taken or intended in good faith.
Without prejudice to other rights of action open to the right holder and subject to the right of the
defendant to seek review by a judicial authority, competent authorities shall have the authority to order the
destruction or disposal of infringing goods in accordance with the principles set out in Article 46. In regard
to counterfeit trademark goods, the authorities shall not allow the re-exportation of the infringing goods in
an unaltered state or subject them to a different customs procedure, other than in exceptional
De Minimis Imports
Members may exclude from the application of the above provisions small quantities of goods of a
non-commercial nature contained in travellers' personal luggage or sent in small consignments.
SECTION 5: CRIMINAL PROCEDURES
Members shall provide for criminal procedures and penalties to be applied at least in cases of
wilful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale. Remedies available shall
include imprisonment and/or monetary fines sufficient to provide a deterrent, consistently with the level of
penalties applied for crimes of a corresponding gravity. In appropriate cases, remedies available shall also
include the seizure, forfeiture and destruction of the infringing goods and of any materials and implements
the predominant use of which has been in the commission of the offence. Members may provide for
criminal procedures and penalties to be applied in other cases of infringement of intellectual property
rights, in particular where they are committed wilfully and on a commercial scale.
ACQUISITION AND MAINTENANCE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
RIGHTS AND RELATED INTER-PARTES PROCEDURES
1. Members may require, as a condition of the acquisition or maintenance of the intellectual property
rights provided for under Sections 2 through 6 of PartII, compliance with reasonable procedures and
formalities. Such procedures and formalities shall be consistent with the provisions of this Agreement.
2. Where the acquisition of an intellectual property right is subject to the right being granted or
registered, Members shall ensure that the procedures for grant or registration, subject to compliance with
the substantive conditions for acquisition of the right, permit the granting or registration of the right within
a reasonable period of time so as to avoid unwarranted curtailment of the period of protection.
3. Article4 of the Paris Convention (1967) shall apply mutatis mutandis to service marks.
4. Procedures concerning the acquisition or maintenance of intellectual property rights and, where a
Member's law provides for such procedures, administrative revocation and interpartes procedures such as
opposition, revocation and cancellation, shall be governed by the general principles set out in paragraphs2
and 3 of Article41.
5. Final administrative decisions in any of the procedures referred to under paragraph 4 shall be
subject to review by a judicial or quasi-judicial authority. However, there shall be no obligation to provide
an opportunity for such review of decisions in cases of unsuccessful opposition or administrative
revocation, provided that the grounds for such procedures can be the subject of invalidation procedures.
DISPUTE PREVENTION AND SETTLEMENT
1. Laws and regulations, and final judicial decisions and administrative rulings of general application,
made effective by a Member pertaining to the subject matter of this Agreement (the availability, scope,
acquisition, enforcement and prevention of the abuse of intellectual property rights) shall be published, or
where such publication is not practicable made publicly available, in a national language, in such a manner
as to enable governments and right holders to become acquainted with them. Agreements concerning the
subject matter of this Agreement which are in force between the government or a governmental agency of a
Member and the government or a governmental agency of another Member shall also be published.
2. Members shall notify the laws and regulations referred to in paragraph1 to the Council for TRIPS
in order to assist that Council in its review of the operation of this Agreement. The Council shall attempt
to minimize the burden on Members in carrying out this obligation and may decide to waive the obligation
to notify such laws and regulations directly to the Council if consultations with WIPO on the establishment
of a common register containing these laws and regulations are successful. The Council shall also consider
in this connection any action required regarding notifications pursuant to the obligations under this
Agreement stemming from the provisions of Article6ter of the Paris Convention (1967).
3. Each Member shall be prepared to supply, in response to a written request from another Member,
information of the sort referred to in paragraph 1. A Member, having reason to believe that a specific
judicial decision or administrative ruling or bilateral agreement in the area of intellectual property rights
affects its rights under this Agreement, may also request in writing to be given access to or be informed in
sufficient detail of such specific judicial decisions or administrative rulings or bilateral agreements.
4. Nothing in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall require Members to disclose confidential information which
would impede law enforcement or otherwise be contrary to the public interest or would prejudice the
legitimate commercial interests of particular enterprises, public or private.
1. The provisions of Articles XXII and XXIII of GATT 1994 as elaborated and applied by the
Dispute Settlement Understanding shall apply to consultations and the settlement of disputes under this
Agreement except as otherwise specifically provided herein.
2. Subparagraphs 1(b) and 1(c) of Article XXIII of GATT 1994 shall not apply to the settlement of
disputes under this Agreement for a period of five years from the date of entry into force of the WTO
3. During the time period referred to in paragraph 2, the Council for TRIPS shall examine the scope
and modalities for complaints of the type provided for under subparagraphs 1(b) and 1(c) of Article XXIII
of GATT1994 made pursuant to this Agreement, and submit its recommendations to the Ministerial
Conference for approval. Any decision of the Ministerial Conference to approve such recommendations or
to extend the period in paragraph2 shall be made only by consensus, and approved recommendations shall
be effective for all Members without further formal acceptance process.
1. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4, no Member shall be obliged to apply the
provisions of this Agreement before the expiry of a general period of one year following the date of entry
into force of the WTO Agreement.
2. A developing country Member is entitled to delay for a further period of four years the date of
application, as defined in paragraph1, of the provisions of this Agreement other than Articles3, 4 and 5.
3. Any other Member which is in the process of transformation from a centrally-planned into a
market, free-enterprise economy and which is undertaking structural reform of its intellectual property
system and facing special problems in the preparation and implementation of intellectual property laws and
regulations, may also benefit from a period of delay as foreseen in paragraph 2.
4. To the extent that a developing country Member is obliged by this Agreement to extend product
patent protection to areas of technology not so protectable in its territory on the general date of application
of this Agreement for that Member, as defined in paragraph2, it may delay the application of the provisions
on product patents of Section5 of PartII to such areas of technology for an additional period of five years.
5. A Member availing itself of a transitional period under paragraphs 1, 2, 3 or 4 shall ensure that
any changes in its laws, regulations and practice made during that period do not result in a lesser degree of
consistency with the provisions of this Agreement.
Least-Developed Country Members
1. In view of the special needs and requirements of least-developed country Members, their economic,
financial and administrative constraints, and their need for flexibility to create a viable technological base,
such Members shall not be required to apply the provisions of this Agreement, other than Articles3, 4 and5,
for a period of 10 years from the date of application as defined under paragraph 1 of Article65. The
Council for TRIPS shall, upon duly motivated request by a least-developed country Member, accord
extensions of this period.
2. Developed country Members shall provide incentives to enterprises and institutions in their
territories for the purpose of promoting and encouraging technology transfer to least-developed country
Members in order to enable them to create a sound and viable technological base.
In order to facilitate the implementation of this Agreement, developed country Members shall
provide, on request and on mutually agreed terms and conditions, technical and financial cooperation in
favour of developing and least-developed country Members. Such cooperation shall include assistance in
the preparation of laws and regulations on the protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights as
well as on the prevention of their abuse, and shall include support regarding the establishment or
reinforcement of domestic offices and agencies relevant to these matters, including the training of
INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS; FINAL PROVISIONS
Council for Trade-Related Aspects of
Intellectual Property Rights
The Council for TRIPS shall monitor the operation of this Agreement and, in particular, Members'
compliance with their obligations hereunder, and shall afford Members the opportunity of consulting on
matters relating to the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights. It shall carry out such other
responsibilities as assigned to it by the Members, and it shall, in particular, provide any assistance
requested by them in the context of dispute settlement procedures. In carrying out its functions, the
Council for TRIPS may consult with and seek information from any source it deems appropriate. In
consultation with WIPO, the Council shall seek to establish, within one year of its first meeting,
appropriate arrangements for cooperation with bodies of that Organization.
Members agree to cooperate with each other with a view to eliminating international trade in goods
infringing intellectual property rights. For this purpose, they shall establish and notify contact points in
their administrations and be ready to exchange information on trade in infringing goods. They shall, in
particular, promote the exchange of information and cooperation between customs authorities with regard
to trade in counterfeit trademark goods and pirated copyright goods.
Protection of Existing Subject Matter
1. This Agreement does not give rise to obligations in respect of acts which occurred before the date
of application of the Agreement for the Member in question.
2. Except as otherwise provided for in this Agreement, this Agreement gives rise to obligations in
respect of all subject matter existing at the date of application of this Agreement for the Member in
question, and which is protected in that Member on the said date, or which meets or comes subsequently to
meet the criteria for protection under the terms of this Agreement. In respect of this paragraph and
paragraphs3 and 4, copyright obligations with respect to existing works shall be solely determined under
Article18 of the Berne Convention (1971), and obligations with respect to the rights of producers of
phonograms and performers in existing phonograms shall be determined solely under Article18 of the Berne
Convention (1971) as made applicable under paragraph6 of Article14 of this Agreement.
3. There shall be no obligation to restore protection to subject matter which on the date of application
of this Agreement for the Member in question has fallen into the public domain.
4. In respect of any acts in respect of specific objects embodying protected subject matter which
become infringing under the terms of legislation in conformity with this Agreement, and which were
commenced, or in respect of which a significant investment was made, before the date of acceptance of the
WTO Agreement by that Member, any Member may provide for a limitation of the remedies available to
the right holder as to the continued performance of such acts after the date of application of this Agreement
for that Member. In such cases the Member shall, however, at least provide for the payment of equitable
5. A Member is not obliged to apply the provisions of Article11 and of paragraph4 of Article14 with
respect to originals or copies purchased prior to the date of application of this Agreement for that Member.
6. Members shall not be required to apply Article31, or the requirement in paragraph1 of Article27
that patent rights shall be enjoyable without discrimination as to the field of technology, to use without the
authorization of the right holder where authorization for such use was granted by the government before the
date this Agreement became known.
7. In the case of intellectual property rights for which protection is conditional upon registration,
applications for protection which are pending on the date of application of this Agreement for the Member
in question shall be permitted to be amended to claim any enhanced protection provided under the
provisions of this Agreement. Such amendments shall not include new matter.
8. Where a Member does not make available as of the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement
patent protection for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemical products commensurate with its obligations
under Article27, that Member shall:
(a) notwithstanding the provisions of PartVI, provide as from the date of entry into force of the WTO
Agreement a means by which applications for patents for such inventions can be filed;
(b) apply to these applications, as of the date of application of this Agreement, the criteria for
patentability as laid down in this Agreement as if those criteria were being applied on the date of filing in
that Member or, where priority is available and claimed, the priority date of the application; and
(c) provide patent protection in accordance with this Agreement as from the grant of the patent and for
the remainder of the patent term, counted from the filing date in accordance with Article33 of this
Agreement, for those of these applications that meet the criteria for protection referred to in subparagraph-
9. Where a product is the subject of a patent application in a Member in accordance with paragraph-
8(a), exclusive marketing rights shall be granted, notwithstanding the provisions of PartVI, for a period of
five years after obtaining marketing approval in that Member or until a product patent is granted or
rejected in that Member, whichever period is shorter, provided that, subsequent to the entry into force of the
WTO Agreement, a patent application has been filed and a patent granted for that product in another
Member and marketing approval obtained in such other Member.
Review and Amendment
1. The Council for TRIPS shall review the implementation of this Agreement after the expiration of
the transitional period referred to in paragraph2 of Article65. The Council shall, having regard to the
experience gained in its implementation, review it two years after that date, and at identical intervals
thereafter. The Council may also undertake reviews in the light of any relevant new developments which
might warrant modification or amendment of this Agreement.
2. Amendments merely serving the purpose of adjusting to higher levels of protection of intellectual
property rights achieved, and in force, in other multilateral agreements and accepted under those
agreements by all Members of the WTO may be referred to the Ministerial Conference for action in
accordance with paragraph 6 of ArticleX of the WTO Agreement on the basis of a consensus proposal
from the Council for TRIPS.
Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the
consent of the other Members.
Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed:
(a) to require a Member to furnish any information the disclosure of which it considers contrary to its
essential security interests; or
(b) to prevent a Member from taking any action which it considers necessary for the protection of its
essential security interests;
(i) relating to fissionable materials or the materials from which they are derived;
(ii) relating to the traffic in arms, ammunition and implements of war and to such traffic in other goods
and materials as is carried on directly or indirectly for the purpose of supplying a military establishment;
(iii) taken in time of war or other emergency in international relations; or
(c) to prevent a Member from taking any action in pursuance of its obligations under the United-
Nations Charter for the maintenance of international peace and security.
When "nationals" are referred to in this Agreement, they shall be deemed, in the case of a separate
customs territory Member of the WTO, to mean persons, natural or legal, who are domiciled or who have a
real and effective industrial or commercial establishment in that customs territory.
In this Agreement, "Paris Convention" refers to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial
Property; "Paris Convention (1967)" refers to the Stockholm Act of this Convention of 14July1967.
"Berne Convention" refers to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works;
"Berne Convention (1971)" refers to the Paris Act of this Convention of 24July1971. "Rome Convention"
refers to the International Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms and
Broadcasting Organizations, adopted at Rome on 26October1961. "Treaty on Intellectual Property in
Respect of Integrated Circuits" (IPIC Treaty) refers to the Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of
Integrated Circuits, adopted at Washington on 26May1989. "WTO Agreement" refers to the Agreement
Establishing the WTO.
For the purposes of Articles3 and 4, "protection" shall include matters affecting the availability,
acquisition, scope, maintenance and enforcement of intellectual property rights as well as those matters
affecting the use of intellectual property rights specifically addressed in this Agreement.
Notwithstanding the first sentence of Article42, Members may, with respect to these
obligations, instead provide for enforcement by administrative action.
For the purposes of this Article, the terms "inventive step" and "capable of industrial
application" may be deemed by a Member to be synonymous with the terms "non-obvious" and
This right, like all other rights conferred under this Agreement in respect of the use, sale,
importation or other distribution of goods, is subject to the provisions of Article6.
"Other use" refers to use other than that allowed under Article30.
It is understood that those Members which do not have a system of original grant may
provide that the term of protection shall be computed from the filing date in the system of
The term "right holder" in this Section shall be understood as having the same meaning as
the term "holder of the right" in the IPIC Treaty.
For the purpose of this provision, "amanner contrary to honest commercial practices" shall
mean at least practices such as breach of contract, breach of confidence and inducement to
breach, and includes the acquisition of undisclosed information by third parties who knew, or
were grossly negligent in failing to know, that such practices were involved in the acquisition.
For the purpose of this Part, the term "right holder" includes federations and associations
having legal standing to assert such rights.
Where a Member has dismantled substantially all controls over movement of goods
across its border with another Member with which it forms part of a customs union, it shall not
be required to apply the provisions of this Section at that border.
It is understood that there shall be no obligation to apply such procedures to imports of
goods put on the market in another country by or with the consent of the right holder, or to
goods in transit.
For the purposes of this Agreement:
(a) "counterfeit trademark goods" shall mean any goods, including packaging, bearing
without authorization a trademark which is identical to the trademark validly registered in
respect of such goods, or which cannot be distinguished in its essential aspects from such a
trademark, and which thereby infringes the rights of the owner of the trademark in question
under the law of the country of importation;
(b) "pirated copyright goods" shall mean any goods which are copies made without the
consent of the right holder or person duly authorized by the right holder in the country of
production and which are made directly or indirectly from an article where the making of that
copy would have constituted an infringement of a copyright or a related right under the law of
the country of importation.