U.S. PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE
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[Manual of Classification, Class Listing] [Manual of Classification, Class 073] [Classification Definitions, Class Listing] [USPTO Home Page]

U.S. Patent Classification System - Classification Definitions
as of June 30, 2000

[Explanation of Data]

Patents classified in a subclass may be accessed by either clicking on the subclass number
preceding each subclass definition or on the " [Patents] " icon, below.
( please note that patents for some subclasses may not be available )

For classification search strategies, please refer to the Classification Index Explanation of Data web page.

(definitions have been obtained from the Patents ASSIST CD-ROM which is produced by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Electronic Products Branch)


Class 073

MEASURING AND TESTING


Class Definition:
(1) This is the generic class for processes and apparatus for making a measurement of any kind or for making a test of any kind, and takes all such subject matter not provided for in other classes.
(2) The term "test" includes inspection, processes and apparatus for determining qualities by inspection being included where not provided for in other classes.
(3) This class is the generic class for sampling and takes all sampling apparatus and processes not otherwise provided for; see subclasses 863+ and the notes thereto.
(1) Note. Processes and apparatus for its practice are classified together.
(2) Note. Substantially all apparatus classes have means to automatically control the operation of the apparatus. Such automatic controls usually involve some means to measure or test a condition or change of condition, the measuring or testing means then operating to control or regulate the apparatus in accordance with the results of the measurement or test. For such subject matter, the class appropriate to the type of apparatus controlled should be investigated. No attempt has been made to search note automatic controls.

LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS
Measuring and testing, per se, of the following types are found in Subclass References to the Current Class and References to Other Classes, below:
ACOUSTICAL;
BIOLOGICAL;
CHEMICAL;
ELECTRICAL;
GEOMETRICAL INSTRUMENTS;
INSPECTING;
OPTICAL (See Radiant Energy);
RADIANT ENERGY (See Optical)
SPEED MEASURING;
SURGICAL;
TIME MEASURING;
WEIGHING SCALES;
MASS SPECTROMETRY
(1) Note. For elements, not combined with means to indicate the result of a measurement or test, and not combined with means to automatically control art devices, that respond to a condition or change of condition. Also see the reference to the Radiant Energy class.
ART APPARATUS OR PROCESS COMBINED WITH MEASURING OR TESTING
(1) Note. Art apparatus or process significantly claimed, in combination with measuring or testing is classified in general in the class providing for the art apparatus or process. The line stated for particular classes should be consulted.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
32 for devices responsive to specific gravity of liquids. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, (1) Note, above)
54 for devices responsive to viscosity of liquids. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
174 for feelers for gauges.(See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
227 for straight line light ray type and 300+ for indicator of direction of force traversing natural media.(See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
279 for pressure responsive diaphragms for volume or rate of flow meters, per se. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
322.5 for floats, per se. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, (1) Note, above)
335 for humidity responsive elements. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
501 for feelers for gauges. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
514.01 for acceleration responsive elements. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
527 through 551, for speed responsive elements. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
649 for devices responsive to and for measuring vibrations of a body.(See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
741 for Bourbon tubes, per se, for fluid pressure gauges.(See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
861.42 for devices responsive to differential pressures. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)

REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
23, Chemistry: Physical Processes, (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
26, Textiles: Cloth Finishing, subclass 70 for inspection and examination of cloth. (Inspecting)
26, Textiles: Cloth Finishing, (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
28, Textiles: Manufacturing, 226 especially subclass 227 for apparatus and processes of detecting knots, bunches, or slubs in threads.
33, Geometrical Instruments, for measuring and testing involving only the determination of the characteristics and mutual relation of points, lines, angles, surfaces and solids and for mechanically guided means for describing lines. Class 73 has combinations of geometrical instruments with other measuring or testing means. (Geometrical Instruments)
33, Geometrical Instruments, subclass 501, for feelers for gauges 227+, for straight line light ray type and 300+, for indicator of direction of force traversing natural media. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
34, Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids, subclass 88 for combinations having inspecting means as a part thereof. (Inspecting)
34, Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids, subclass 88, 89 for such apparatus combined with inspecting, indicating or testing means. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
47, Plant Husbandry, subclass 14 for apparatus and processes for ascertaining the life in seeds.(Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
74, Machine Element or Mechanism (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
84, Music, (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
99, Foods and Beverages: Apparatus, subclass 285, 342+, for infusors and cooking devices combined with measuring and testing means.(Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
60, Power Plants, subclasses 527-531 for heat actuated mechanisms producing force or motion and having no specified motion utilizing structure (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
65, Glass Manufacturing, 29.1 and 29.12+ for glassworking or treating processes including programming, timing, cycle control, inspecting, measuring, or testing; subclasses 158+ and 160+ for glassworking and treating apparatus with inspection, programming, timing, cycle control, inspecting, measuring, or testing means. (Inspecting)
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, 5 for gyroscopes.(See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
84, Music, subclass 409 for tuning forks.(See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, appropriate subclasses. For
the line between Class 73 and Class 92, see References to Other Classes of the class definition of Class 92, under SEARCH CLASS 73. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
95, Gas Separation: Processes, for processes of gas separation, per se. Class 73 will take the combination of gas separation and significant gas analysis. The combination of gas separation and a nominal step of "analyzing" or "detecting" without further detail of the analysis or detection is insufficient to cause a patent to be placed in Class 73; that patent will be placed in Class 95. Also, if there is feedback from the analytical apparatus to control or effect a change in the gas separating operation, then classification is in Class 95. (Chemical)
96, Gas Separation: Apparatus, for apparatus for gas separation, per se. Class 73 will take the combination of gas separation apparatus and significant gas analysis means. The combination of gas separation apparatus and nominal means for "analyzing" or "detecting" without further detail of the analysis or detection means is insufficient to cause a patent to be placed in Class 73; that patent will be placed in Class 96. Also, if there is feedback means from the analytical apparatus to control or effect a change in the gas separation, then classification is in Class 96. For volume or rate of flow meters combined with gas and liquid separators, see subclass 200 in Class 73. (Chemical)
101, Printing, 35, for selective printing machines in which the control of the printing element selected is by a gauge measuring the article printed upon and the article is other than a rectangular sheet.(Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
116, Signals and Indicators, for devices for giving a signal or indication other than electrical of the presence or absence of a condition, and in 200 for nonelectrical indicating means, such as dial and pointer structure, not claimed in combination with any particular measuring or testing means provided for in Class 73. Class 73 takes the combination of measuring or testing means significantly claimed combined with a signal or indicator, and devices that respond to a condition and give a series of indications which follow or vary with the variations of the condition wherein more than a mere named operator for the signal or indicator is included.(Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
118, Coating Apparatus, 712 for coating apparatus having measuring or testing features. (Inspecting)
128, Surgery, (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
128, Surgery, 630 for methods and apparatus for diagnosing diseased or abnormal condition of the body. (Surgical)
136, Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric, (see also Note 4), subclass 182 for batteries combined with testing or indicating means.(Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
136, Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric, subclass 89 for electro-optical batteries and subclass 200, for thermal sensitive batteries.(See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
137, Fluid Handling, 227, 524 and 551+ for fluid handling means combined with an indicator register, recorder, alarm or inspection means. (See also (4) Note).(Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, subclass 90 for pipe plugs having either provision for introducing a fluid into the pipe or for the attachment of a gauge.(Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
148, Metal Treatment, 128 for process of heat treating metal in the solid state; and involving also a measuring, testing or sensing operation. The operation generally, is directed to control of the heat treatment. (Chemical)
156, Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture, subclass 64 and 378 for laminating processes and apparatus having measuring or testing features.(Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
162, Paper Making and Fiber Liberation, subclass 49, 198 and 263 for measuring and testing in combination with fiber liberation or paper making.(Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
166, Wells, 250 for well processes including measuring and testing means, subclass 264 for processes of merely sampling a well fluid and appropriate subclasses for corresponding apparatus and subclasses 64, 66 and 113 for well apparatus including measuring or testing means.(Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
177, Weighing Scales, appropriate subclasses for a weigher, per se; for a weigher with features for making a test not specifically provided for in Class 73; and for a weigher in combination with another measuring device not provided for in Class 73. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
177, Weighing Scales, appropriate subclasses for a weigher, per se; especially 50 for a weigher with features for making a test not specifically provided for in Class 73; and subclass 245 for a weigher in combination with another measuring device not provided for in Class 73.
181, Acoustics, subclass .5 for miscellaneous mechanical
detectors for sound waves.(See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
181, Acoustics, 101, 123+ and 125 for devices analogous to "sonic" or acoustical testing apparatus of this (73) class.(Acoustical)
194, Check-Actuated Control Mechanisms, for check controlled measuring and testing devices, and 302 for fraud preventing coin-testing devices. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
198, Conveyors: Power-Driven, subclass 502 for a conveyor combined with load measuring means, and subclasses 504+ for a conveyor combined with a load weighing means. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, for the combination of a measuring instrument and a circuit controller when specific structure of the circuit controller is claimed. Class 73 takes the combination of a class 73 measuring instrument and a circuit controller when the circuit controller is claimed broadly. In connection with Class 200, the definitions of the subclasses of Class 73 which provide for measuring instruments combined with other structure are modified by this note. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
203, Distillation: Processes, Separatory, 1 for a process of separatory distillation including a positive step of determining a specific characteristic for control purposes. (Chemical)
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, 400 for apparatus for performing electrolytic analysis and testing. (Chemical)
205, Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions, 775 for electrolytic analysis and testing processes. (Chemical)
209, Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids, (see also the Class 209 reference for Inspecting), for testing and assorting of solids in accordance with physical characteristics, as by sifting materials to determine the proportion of each size in the whole; attention is called particularly to assorting in 509 which includes means for testing or measuring objects and sorting them in accordance with their characteristics. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
209, Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids, subclass 702 for manual assorting involving inspecting means. (Inspecting)
221, Article Dispensing, subclass 155 for article dispensers not otherwise provided for, having transparent inspecting or
viewing means so that the articles can be dispensed and may be inspected. (Inspecting)
222, Dispensing, 154, for inspecting devices combined with fluent material dispensers so that the material to be dispensed may be inspected. (Inspecting)
222, Dispensing, (see also Class 222 reference for Inspecting), for dispensers which involve volume measuring, and see section 6 of the main class definition of Class 222, for the line with volume or rate of flow meters. The notes to Class 222 set forth the search field for apparatus for dispensing measured quantities of material.
234, Selective Cutting (e.g., Punching), 33 for a selective cutting device provided with stopping means responsive to detection of improper treatment of work (e.g., failure to punch in every column, or to follow a 2 - 5 code). (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
235, Registers, subclass 61 for mechanical calculators and subclass 92 for electrical counting techniques which may include testing or measuring. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
241, Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration, for solid comminution combined with measuring or testing of material. See section 12 of the main class definition of that class for a statement of the line. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
248, Supports, subclass 27 for means for supporting an instrument in a panel. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
250, Radiant Energy, for measuring and testing by radiant energy and measuring radiant energy. See particularly subclass 250 for wavemeters for radiated electro-magnetic waves, 253+ for methods and apparatus to irradiate earth material above or below the ground and testing the radiation modified or emitted as a result or irradiation by the material or testing the radiation emitted by the material, 281+ for methods and apparatus for the ionic separation or analysis of materials, 306+ for methods and apparatus for the inspection of solids or liquids by charged particles, 336.1+ for methods and apparatus including invisible radiant energy responsive electric signalling having detectors sensitive to infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, radio-active rays and neutron radiation or to a radiation source modified by a tested material: and 472.1+ for methods of detecting invisible radiation by a nonelectrical detector or invisible radiation nonelectrical detectors, per se. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references)
250, Radiant Energy, 336 for speed responsive devices using an invisible radiation source and an electric signalling device and, subclasses 459+ for speed responsive stroboscopes
using invisible radiation and a luminous screen.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 71 for fluorescent detectors of ray energy, subclasses 83+ for miscellaneous detectors of ray energy.(See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
250, Radiant energy, 281 for methods and apparatus for the ionic separation or analysis of ionic material by the mass to charge ratio of the ionic material (e.g., mass spectrometry). (Electrical)
252, Compositions, subclass 408 for chemical indicating compositions.(See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
252, Compositions, subclass 299.01 for liquid crystal compositions and subclass 408.1 for analytical, testing or indicating compositions involved in a physical test procedure. (Chemical)
290, Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants, for electric generating means driven by a prime mover (a motor other than an electric motor) having prime-mover controls (e.g., throttle, fuel valve, etc.) which are characteristic of controls used on prime movers. The line between Class 290 and Class 73 is as follows: Where the claimed subject matter is clearly limited to testing the prime mover, or where the generating means is designated specifically as a "dynamometer", or a generator having an absorption circuit (such as, for example, an induction disk, or a resistor across the armature circuit of the generator), original classification is in Class 73. Where the generating means is claimed merely as a "generator" or a "dynamo-electric machine" and the claim is not otherwise limited to testing, original classification is in Class 290, regardless of the specific disclosure. (Electrical)
292, Closure Fasteners, 307 for miscellaneous seals and sealing devices, which may be employed in connection with measuring and testing devices. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, appropriate subclasses, for the structure of electrical generators. The line between testing means which generate electricity in Class 73 and generating means in Class 310 is as follows: Where the claimed subject matter is limited to structural details only of a dynamoelectric machine or a generator of a dynamometer, original classification is in Class 310 regardless of the title or function assigned to the structure (for example, a "dynamometer" having detailed structure set forth which pertains only to the structure of the generating mechanism, per se, is classifiable in class (310).
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 306 for pyromagnetic devices and subclass 311 for piezoelectric devices. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry,
(1) Note, above)
315, Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems, see Note 3C.
315, Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems, 364, for processes and apparatus for testing such devices. (Electrical)
320, Electricity: Battery and Condenser Charging and Discharging, subclass 48. (Electrical)
322, Electricity: Single Generator Systems, appropriate subclasses, for systems of control of electric generators of general application. The line between testing means which generate electricity in Class 73 and generating systems in Class 322 is as follows: Where the claimed subject matter is limited (either positively or by necessary inference) to a system which includes a "dynamometer" or to a dynamoelectric machine having an absorption circuit (such as for example a dynamoelectric machine or generator having an eddy current disk or an induction disk or having a resistor connected across the output circuit thereof), original classification is in Class 73. Where the claimed subject matter is limited merely to an electric "generator" or to a "dynamoelectric machine" in combination with control means therefor, original classification is in Class 322, regardless of the disclosure, except as noted herein above in the reference to Class 290. (Electrical)
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, for testing to determine electrical properties by electrical means even though nonelectrical values are derived from the electrical values determined. Note particularly 323 for ore detection by determination of electrical properties, subclass 71.5 for the determination of nonelectric properties by measuring electric properties, and subclasses 76.11+ for the measurement of electricity, per se. (Electrical)
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 68 for electrical speed measurement. (Speed Measuring)
338, Electrical Resistors, 2 for strain gauge type resistors and subclasses 13+ for resistors whose value changes in response to a condition or conditions. Also see the Electrical reference to Class 338. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
338, Electrical Resistors, 2 includes resistors of the strain gauge type together with the device which is subject to deformation when not otherwise classifiable or with structure securing the resistor to such a device. When the meter, Wheatstone bridge connection, or other current measuring device is claimed with the resistor in the above combination, classification is in Class 73, especially subclasses 763+ and 133+. Class 338, subclasses 13+, includes resistors, per se, responsive in resistance value to a change
in condition, or resistors combined with a condition sensing actuator which modifies the resistance value of the resistor, such as indented subclasses 25+ for resistors responsive to ambient temperature, subclass 33 for resistors with a float actuator, subclasses 34+ for resistors with gas, vapor, or moisture absorbing or collecting, subclasses 36+ for resistors which are fluid or gas pressure actuated, and subclass 47 for force actuated resistors. The inclusion of a meter, Wheatstone bridge or other current measuring device in series with the resistor in this combination would be sufficient for classification in Class 73, especially subclass 29 for moisture content or vapor pressure analysis, subclasses 453 and 308 for float actuated resistors with indicators, subclasses 133+ for dynamometers, and subclasses 398+ for fluid pressure gauges of the current modifying type. (Electrical)
338, Electrical Resistors, see Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above.
340, Communications: Electrical, 670 for electrical speed alarms. (Speed Measuring)
340, Communications: Electrical, 870.01 takes telemetric signaling means useful in transmitting a measured quantity, not limited to any particular measuring instrument provided for in other classes, while Class 73 takes such telemetric signaling means in combination with a particular measuring means of the type provided for in Class 73. (Electrical)
Class 340 also, in subclasses 500+ takes electrical devices permanently associated with the object or environment being monitored for giving a signal or indication of the presence or absence of a condition but wherein no quantitative measurements may be made. Devices for making a quantitative measurement of the type provided for in Class 73 in which the instrument responds to a condition and a series of indications are given which follow or vary with the variations of the condition are in Class 73, even though employing electrical signaling means, such as lamps, to indicate visually the result. The general line is that Class 73 takes particular measuring or testing means, even though claimed in combination with electric signaling means, while Class 340 takes the signaling subcombination. (Electrical)
340, Communications: Electrical, see Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above.
342, Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation), see Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above.
342, Communications: Directive, Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation), appropriate subclasses, for those utilizing transmitted radio wave energy; see subclasses 1-205 for those utilizing reflected or otherwise returned radio wave (radar) energy. (Speed
Measuring)
342, Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation), subclasses 1-205 for miscellaneous apparatus and method which involve the use of a reflected and/or otherwise returned radio wave (radar) system for detecting an object, or to measure the distance, direction and/or velocity of an object, and subclasses 350+ for directional radio. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references)
343, Communications: Radio Wave Antennas, 700 for antennas. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
346, Recorders, appropriate subclass. (Speed Measuring)
346, Recorders, appropriate subclass. (Time Measuring)
346, Recorders. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
346, Recorders, appropriate subclass. (Electrical)
351, Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting, 200 for optical eye examining and vision testing instruments such as optometers. (Optical, also see Radiant Energy References)
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, for processes and apparatus which utilize visible light to measure the optical properties of substances, test visible light for optical properties and which use visible light to test for nonoptical properties not classified elsewhere particularly 23 for optical stroboscopes, subclasses 32+ for material strain analysis, subclasses 43+ for optical pyrometers, subclasses 124+ for lens or reflective image former testing, subclasses 213+ for photometers and subclasses 237+ for visual flaw inspection apparatus. (Optical, also see Radiant Energy References)
362, Illumination, subclass 2, 138 and 139 for inspection lamps. (Inspecting)
362, Illumination, (see also Class 362 reference for Inspecting), 23 for measuring instrument dials combined with illuminating means. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 550 wherein a data processing system or calculating computer is utilized to effect a measuring, testing, or monitoring operation on an external device or quantity, wherein the external device or quantity is only nominally claimed. When significant structure to the measuring or testing device is claimed, classification is in Class 73. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 141 for underwater vibration detectors and subclasses 178+ for geophysical vibration transducers. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, appropriate subclasses and the classes specified under "SEARCH CLASS" in the class and subclass definitions. (Time Measuring)
369, Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval, 53 for an indication or test of an information storage or retrieval device or element thereof. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
369, Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval, see Note 4.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, for testing to determine a thermal condition or property of a specimen. (Electrical)
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 6 for determination of distance or position by measuring a thermal quantity related thereto. (Geometrical Instruments)
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, for the combination of a thermal test and a thermal test and a nonthermal test. (Apparatus Or Process Combined With Measuring Or Testing)
376, Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements, 153 for detection of radiation by an induced nuclear reaction; subclasses 207+ for means to control a nuclear reaction; subclasses 207+ for means to control a nuclear reactor which means may include measuring and testing means; and subclasses 245+ for measuring or testing means; and subclasses 245+ for measuring or testing a fission reactor condition. (Chemical)
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, appropriate subclasses, especially 50, 105+ and 129+ for analyzing apparatus involving means for causing, promoting, regulating, or controlling a chemical reaction. (Chemical)
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 55 for structured visual or optical indicator, per se, such as a litmus paper or other chemical test papers. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
424, Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions, 1.11 for Class 424 compositions containing a radionuclide and subclasses 9.1+ for compositions and methods for diagnosing or testing for a body condition or determining the potency of a medicine in a living being. (Biological)
424, Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,
appropriate subclasses for class defined in vivo test compositions and methods, particularly 1.11 wherein a radionuclide or intended radionuclide is recited. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references)
428, Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles, subclass 616 for a bimetallic element, per se. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, 4 for processes in which there is a direct or indirect qualitative or quantitative measurement or test of a material which contains an enzyme or microorganism as well as processes in which a material containing an enzyme or microorganism is used to perform a qualitative or quantitative measurement or test, and compositions therefor and the processes of making such compositions; and subclasses 287.1+ for an apparatus for performing the above processes. (Chemical)
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, subclass 35 for a test method which involves both an enzyme or microbial reaction and the use of a radioactive material and subclass 288.7 for an optical enzyme or microbial reaction measuring and testing device in combination. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references)
436, Chemistry: Analytical And Immunological Testing, 57 for a test method (which involves both a chemical reaction (e.g., ion exchange) and a measurement of radioactivity or isotope distribution. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references)
455, Telecommunications, subclass 2, 67.1+, 115 and 226 for measuring and testing of modulated carrier wave communications. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references)
494, Imperforate Bowl: Centrifugal Separators, subclass 10, for apparatus of that class provided with means for measuring or testing. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing)
702, Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing, 1 for measurement system in a specific environment, subclasses 85+ for calibrating or correction system, subclasses 108+ for testing system, and subclasses 127+ for generic measurement system. Class 73 takes the combination of register claimed broadly or specifically in combination with significant measuring or testing of the type provided for in Class 73. (Electrical)
935, Genetic Engineering: Recombinant DNA Technology, Hybrid or Fused Cell Technology, and Related Manipulations of Nucleic Acids, which provides a search collection for processes of altering the genetic structure of micro-organisms; genes and methods of modifying genes and their expression; vectors and methods of modifying vectors; methods of introducing DNA into a cell; microorganisms, per
se, which have had their genetic sequence altered by recombinant DNA techniques or by cell fusion or by uptake of DNA; testing; separation techniques; apparatus; and methods of use of vectors or of the genetically engineered micro-organisms; methods of gene therapy or genetic modification of living organisms. (Chemical; and Radiant Energy {and see Optical references})


SUBCLASSES


Subclass: 1.01 [Patents]

INSTRUMENT PROVING OR CALIBRATING:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for (a) ascertaining (i.e., proving) the quality of a measuring device, a testing device, or a condition responsive device by testing the respective device, or (b) checking, adjusting, or standardizing systematically (i.e., calibrating) the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument or a condition responsive device (e.g., sensors, safety valves, etc.).
(1) Note. Where the proving or calibrating is by measuring means or testing means of a kind provided for in another measuring or testing class, the subject matter is found in the other measuring or testing class. See such measuring or testing class and the Lines With Other Classes to this class definition.
(2) Note. Where more structure of a measuring device, a testing device, or a condition responsive device is recited than that which is necessary to (a) prove or calibrate or (b) identify the measuring device, the testing device, or the condition responsive device, the subject matter goes with the analyzer or the condition responsive device.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, 455 for a line condition change responsive valve.
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, appropriate subclasses for mechanical switches with adjustment means.
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclasses for measuring invisible light combined with calibration, particularly subclass 252.1 for (a) a method for establishing a reference indication of invisible radiation or (b) a method of error determination or correction using a reference indication of invisible radiation level; and subclass 363.09 for a method of invisible radiant energy responsive electrical signalling with a radiant energy source and with calibration.
257, Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes), subclass 48 for test or calibration structure for an active solid-state device.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 74 for testing or calibrating electric meters by purely electrical means; subclass 130 for systems for measuring, testing, or sensing electricity, per se, with self calibration; subclass 202 for calibration of magnetic measuring or testing systems; and subclass 601 for calibration of impedance, admittance, or other electrically stimulated response measuring or testing systems.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 501 for an apparatus for providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined condition (e.g., alarms) combined with calibration or compensation means and subclass 870.04 for a telemetry system combined with calibration means.
342, Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation), 165 for testing or calibrating of a radar system.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for an apparatus for measuring or testing by measuring visible light combined with proving or testing means, especially subclass 6 for testing or indicating the condition of a range finder with regards to its adjustment, alignment, or calibration by measuring visible light; subclass 46 for an electric light utilizing a lamp as a standard for photometry or optical pyrometry measuring; subclass 124 for lens or reflective image former testing in general; and subclass 243 for an apparatus for measuring or testing visible light including structure for a basis for comparison with a specimen or a portion thereof under test.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, 571.01 for the use of an electronic calculator to adjust a measurement device.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 1 for calibration or testing of a thermally responsive device.
377, Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems, subclass 29 for calibrating or testing an electrical counter.
378, X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices, subclass 207 for a testing or calibration accessory of an X-ray or gamma ray system.
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, subclass 967 for a cross-reference art collection of standards, controls, materials (e.g., validation studies, buffer systems, etc.).

Subclass: 1.02 [Patents]

Gas or liquid analyzer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device which is being proven or calibrated either (1) detects or measures the composition of, or some constituent or an identifying characteristic of a gas or gaseous mixture or (2) detects or determines the composition of, a constituent of, or a property of a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.2 for a gas analyzer or sensor, per se, in particular subclasses 23.21+ for a gas analyzer including means for making a correction for an undesirable variation in a condition within an apparatus or in a test result due to such condition.
53.01 for liquid testing (e.g., liquid chromatography), per se.
73 for detecting the moisture content of a material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, subclass 401 for fault testing of a sensor or a component of an electrolytic analysis and testing apparatus and subclass 408 for such an analysis or testing apparatus with means for temperature or pressure compensation.
250, Radiant Energy, 253 for the detection of a gas either within or emanating from the earth by invisible radiation emanating from the gas naturally or as a result of irradiation by invisible radiation; and subclasses 336.1+ for testing of a gas by utilizing an electric signalling device detecting radiation induced or emitted naturally or detecting infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, or gamma radiation or neutrons modified by the gas.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for testing an electrical property of a gas, in particular 464 for analyzing gas using ionization effects.
338, Electrical Resistors, 34 for a resistor, per se, which is responsive to the condition of a gas wherein no quantitative measurements of the gas are disclosed.
340, Communications: Electrical, 632 for an electrical indicator providing a humanly perceptible signal representing a predetermined condition of a gas.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 402 for gas analysis
utilizing a colorimeter to determine the shade or color of the gas.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 50 for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze gas.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, subclass 68 for a process which utilizes a chemical reaction to analyze gas.

Subclass: 1.03 [Patents]

Reference standard:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.02. Subject matter including a means for providing a reference criterion and wherein the apparatus for proving or calibrating uses the reference criterion for comparison purposes for proving or calibrating the device.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, 427 for an electrolytic gas sample sensor, per se, combined with a gas reference material; and subclass 435 for a standard reference electrode in an electrolytic analysis or testing apparatus.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclass 243 for an apparatus for measuring or testing visible light including structure forming a basis for comparison with a specimen or a portion thereof under test.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, particularly 8 for a composition for standardization, calibration, simulation, or processes of use in preparation for chemical testing.

Subclass: 1.04 [Patents]

Permeable outlet or flawed element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.03. Subject matter wherein the reference standard comprises (a) a barrier having interstices, pores, or micropores through which the liquid or gas diffuses or (b) a solid body having a known imperfection which is detected by the gas or liquid.

Subclass: 1.05 [Patents]

Piston, sprayer, nozzle, or orifice:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.03. Subject matter wherein the reference standard comprises either (a) a solid cylinder or disk that fits snugly into a large cylinder and moves back and forth under fluid pressure (i.e., a piston), (b) a means for discharging a fine jet of liquid from a pressurized container (i.e., a sprayer), (c) a tube having a taper or constriction (i.e., a nozzle), or (d) an opening (i.e., an orifice).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.16 for either (a) proving or calibrating a flowmeter having a nozzle or (b) using a flowmeter having a nozzle to prove or calibrate a device.
216 for a Weir type flowmeter having a constriction in the form of a submerged orifice or discharge nozzle.
294 for a liquid level or depth gauge having a funnel or hose nozzle.
861.61 for a flowmeter having a pressure differential type (a) orifice or (b) flow nozzle.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
239, Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing, appropriate subclasses for a sprayer or a nozzle, per se.

Subclass: 1.06 [Patents]

Gas:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.02. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device which is being proven or calibrated is an apparatus for detecting or measuring the composition of or some constituent of a gas or gaseous mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.2 for a gas analyzer or sensor, per se, in particular subclasses 23.21+ for a gas analyzer including means for making a correction for an undesirable variation in a condition within an apparatus or in a test result due to such condition.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, 400 for an electrochemical gas sensor, per se.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, particularly 464
for analyzing gas using ionization effects and appropriate subclasses for testing gas by measuring impedance, admittance, and related quantities.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 50 for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze a gas, particularly subclass 89 for gas chromatography.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, particularly subclass 68 for a process utilizing a chemical reaction for determining the gases in the blood and subclasses 161+ for chromatography.

Subclass: 1.07 [Patents]

Span or zero:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.06. Subject matter wherein the measuring, testing, or condition responsive device produces an output signal in response to a condition being sensed and wherein the device is proven or calibrated by setting a range of values or a base value for the output signal.

Subclass: 1.08 [Patents]

Dynamometer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated measures or determines force, torque, work, or mechanical power.
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass, a dynamometer may either be employed to measure an applied load or to apply a measured load (e.g., for test purposes).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.39 for a viscometer measuring shearing torque between parallel surfaces wherein more structure of the force measuring device is recited than is necessary to describe the calibrating apparatus.
862 for a dynamometer, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
177, Weighing Scales, appropriate subclasses, in particular subclass 50 for a weighing scale combined with testing wherein more structure of the force measuring device is
recited than is necessary to describe the calibrating apparatus.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 338 for a force responsive piezoelectric sensor combined with mechanical energy coupling means.
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, appropriate subclasses for a dynamometer controlling a motor, in particular subclass 646 for a positional servo system with force or weight measuring.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 727 for piezoelectric crystal testing.
338, Electrical Resistors, subclasses 2-6 for strain gauges, per se, in particular subclass 5 for a dynamometer type strain gauge, and subclass 47 for a force actuated electrical resistor.
340, Communications: Electrical, 665 for an electrical indicating system providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined force or stress.
FORCE:
The strength or energy exerted upon or brought to bear or the cause of motion or change in motion or a state of rest.
POWER:
The rate at which work is done or the rate at which energy is transferred.
TORQUE:
A turning or twisting force or a force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion.
WORK:
The transference of energy that is produced by motion at the point of application of force which is measured by multiplying the force and the displacement of its point of application in the line of action.

Subclass: 1.09 [Patents]

Torque:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.08. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated is responsive to a force couple or moment of force that induces or resists rotation of a body about a point or an axis (i.e.,
torque).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862.041 for dynamometers comprising means responsive to plural torques wherein more structure of the force measuring device is recited than is necessary to describe the calibrating apparatus.
862.08 for a device for measuring torque, work, or power comprising sensing means responsive to a force couple or moment of force that induces or resists rotation of a body about a point or axis combined with a calibrating apparatus wherein more structure of the force measuring device is recited than is necessary to describe the calibrating apparatus.

Subclass: 1.11 [Patents]

Electrical:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.09. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated comprises means for having an effect resulting from the existence of stationary or moving electric charges.

Subclass: 1.12 [Patents]

Wrench:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.09. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated is a hand or power tool with fixed or adjustable jaws for twisting or turning an object.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862.21 for torque measuring wrench.

Subclass: 1.13 [Patents]

Weight:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.08. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated measures, tests, or is responsive to a measure of the heaviness of an object.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
177, Weighing Scales, appropriate subclasses, in particular subclass 50 for a weighing scale combined with testing wherein more structure of the force measuring device is recited than is necessary to describe the calibrating apparatus.

Subclass: 1.14 [Patents]

Rotor unbalance or a roller having a smooth surface:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.08. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated either (1) determines the amount of or the location of a mass or force causing unbalance in a rotatable body or (2) tests or measures a physical characteristic of or is responsive to a rotating cylindrical shaped body having a surface free of roughness, irregularities, or projections.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
66 for rotor unbalance measuring or testing, per se.

Subclass: 1.15 [Patents]

Load cell (e.g., strain gauge or piezoelectric sensor):
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.08. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated comprises a means which produces a signal in response to a force being applied thereto.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
760 for measuring a specimen stress or strain or for testing by stress or strain application.
862 for dynamometers where strain in a part of the measuring apparatus itself is utilized as an index of power applied thereto or transmitted thereby.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
411, Expanded, Threaded, Driven, Headed, Tool-Deformed, or Locked-Threaded Fastener, 8 for fastener devices having means functioning to facilitate measuring or to denote the attainment of a desired stress or strain in a fastener device in situ.

Subclass: 1.16 [Patents]

Volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated determines (1) a size or extent of flow of a fluent material, (2) a rate of flow of a fluent material, (3) a rate of motion of a specific dimensional amount of a fluent material, or (4) a response of a fluent material due to an acceleration other than in the normal direction of flow of the fluent material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
170.01 for fluid flow direction determination, in particular subclasses 170.11+ for fluid flow velocity determination.
861 for volume of flowmeters or rate of flowmeters and combinations of which they are a part.

Subclass: 1.17 [Patents]

Plug with leak detector:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter including a movable barrier for the introduction of a known flow volume combined with a means sensing an undesirable escape of a fluent material through an opening wherein the proving or the calibrating is performed by utilizing the movement of the barrier for the introduction of a known flow volume.

Subclass: 1.18 [Patents]

Sphere:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter wherein the movement of a three-dimensional surface, having all points of which are equidistant from a fixed point (e.g., a ball), is used for introducing a known flow volume.

Subclass: 1.19 [Patents]

Piston:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter wherein the movement of a solid cylinder or disk that fits snugly into a large cylinder and moves back and forth
under fluid pressure or displaces or compresses fluid is utilized for introducing a known flow volume.

Subclass: 1.21 [Patents]

With plural pistons:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.19. Subject matter wherein the movement of more than one piston in a cylinder is utilized for introducing a known flow volume.

Subclass: 1.22 [Patents]

With magnetic or optical sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.19. Subject matter including either (a) a body having properties of attracting materials, as iron, by virtue of a surrounding field of force created by motion of its atomic electrons and the alignment of its atoms which change in response to the movement of the piston or (b) a body whose response to light changes in response to the movement of the piston.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, for a photocell circuit generating positional information.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 200 for measuring using a magnetic sensor, per se, especially subclasses 207.11+ for determination of a displacement using a magnetic sensor, per se.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 372 for optical measuring and testing by mensuration.

Subclass: 1.23 [Patents]

With position sensing switch:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.19. Subject matter including a means for opening or closing an electrical circuit or for diverting current from one conductor to another conductor in response to a change in position of the piston.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, 61.04 for a liquid level responsive switch.

Subclass: 1.24 [Patents]

Tracer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter comprising either (a) an identification substance that can be followed through the course of a process, providing information on the pattern of events in the process or on the redistribution of parts or elements involved (i.e., a tracer substance) and a detector means wherein (1) the tracer substance is introduced into the fluid at a fixed rate and (2) the detector means is placed downstream of the fluid flow and is responsive to a concentration of a tracer substance or (b) a fixed concentration of an identification substance that can be followed through the course of a process, providing information on the pattern of events in the process or on the redistribution of parts or elements involved (i.e., a tracer substance) and a detector means wherein (1) the fixed concentration of the tracer substance is introduced into the fluid and (2) the detector means is placed downstream of the fluid flow and is responsive to the rate of introduction of the fixed concentration of the substance.
(1) Note. For the purpose of this subclass, a body or substance that moves along with the fluid flow without impeding the fluid flow is a tracer.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
170.04 for determining the direction of fluid flow by use of a tracer.
861.05 for determining a fluid flow rate by measuring the time required for a tracer placed in the fluid to travel from one position to another.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclasses for an invisible radiation tracer for measuring fluent flow, especially 259 for the use of tracer material in a well to test for leakage into or out of a well, subclasses 302+ for flow metering using invisible radiation type tracer methods, subclasses 306+ for rate of flow testing using charge particles, subclass 356.2 for flow metering using a radioactive tracer, and subclass 359.1 for use of invisible radio tracers for fluent material level tests.
378, X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices, subclass 51 for X-ray devices which may include flow metering.

Subclass: 1.25 [Patents]

Orifice or restriction:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter wherein either (a) the proving or calibrating apparatus or (b) the device being proven or calibrated either comprises (1) an opening sending out a controlled amount of flow of the fluent material or (2) a structure allowing a controlled amount of flow of the fluent material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.52 for utilizing an apparatus for measuring a differential device having a restriction to make a volume or rate of flow determination, especially subclasses 861.61+ for utilizing an apparatus for measuring a differential device having a restriction or orifice to make a volume or rate of flow determination.

Subclass: 1.26 [Patents]

Nozzle or venturi:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.25. Subject matter wherein the proving or calibrating apparatus or the device being proven or calibrated comprises (a) a tube having a taper or a constriction through which the fluent material passes or (b) a means having flared ends connected by a constricted middle through which the fluent material passes.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.62 for utilizing an apparatus for measuring a differential device having a restriction and a flow nozzle to make a volume or rate of flow determination.

Subclass: 1.27 [Patents]

Turbine, geared meter, pulse activated or counter:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated comprises either (1) a motor operated by water, steam, or air directed against cups, blades, or vanes on the rim of a wheel (i.e., turbine), (2) an instrument that measures fluent material passing through it via the use of rotary driven indicating members (i.e., geared meter), (3) a means having a property which changes in response to regularly occurring stimuli (i.e., pulse activated), or (4) a meter for totaling a parameter related to flow (i.e., counter).

Subclass: 1.28 [Patents]

Turbine or geared meter:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.27. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated includes either (1) a motor operated by water, steam, or air directed against cups, blades, or vanes on the rim of a wheel or (2) an instrument that measures fluent material passing through it via the use of rotary driven indicating members (i.e., geared meter).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.79 for utilizing a turbine to make a volume or rate of flow determination.

Subclass: 1.29 [Patents]

Anemometer or pitot tube:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated includes either (1) a means for measuring speed of wind or (2) a means that includes a tube which is placed in a moving body of fluid and is used to measure a kinetic head.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.84 for utilizing anemometer to make a volume or rate of flow determination.

Subclass: 1.31 [Patents]

With liquid level monitor or timer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter including (a) an apparatus for determining a predetermined level or depth of a body of liquid or sensing a predetermined level or depth of body of liquid or (b) an apparatus for measuring the time for travel of a fluid from one point to another.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.73 for calibrating liquid level measuring devices.
290 for liquid level measuring, per se.

Subclass: 1.32 [Patents]

Prover bell:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.31. Subject matter which includes a bell-shaped object for introducing a known volume into (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated.

Subclass: 1.33 [Patents]

With floating element or weighing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter wherein (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated includes either (1) an element which lies in a liquid without sinking or which is suspended in a gas or (2) an element for measuring the heaviness of the fluent material.

Subclass: 1.34 [Patents]

With signal processing, span or set point adjustment (e.g., zero correction):
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter wherein the apparatus for calibrating or proving comprises means for (a) performing a significant operation on an electrical signal in accordance with an algorithm or electronic circuitry, (b) performing an arithmetical or some limited logic operation to adjust a multiplier or scale, or (c) adjusting a base value (span) or an offset (e.g., zero correction).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.88 for a proving or calibrating apparatus or a device being proven or calibrated other than a volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow involving span or zero setting.
861.01 for a flowmeter with indirect temperature or density compensation.

Subclass: 1.35 [Patents]

With pressure measurement or plural flowmeters:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or
calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated comprises (1) means for determining a force per unit area exerted by the fluid or (2) more than one means for measuring a flow of a fluent material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.57 for a proving or calibrating apparatus or a device being proven or calibrated other than a volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow type and utilizing fluent pressure measurement.
700 for a fluid pressure gauge, per se.

Subclass: 1.36 [Patents]

Metering dispenser:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating a device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated is a measuring means which issues out fluent material in portions.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
168 for the testing of pumps or hydraulic equipment.

Subclass: 1.37 [Patents]

Speed, velocity, or acceleration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated detects or determines either (1) a time rate of change of position of a body (i.e., speed), (2) or a time rate of change of position of a body in a given direction (i.e., or velocity), or (3) a time rate of change of speed or velocity of a body (i.e., acceleration).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
121 for other than purely electrically or purely optically measuring speed, velocity, or acceleration in testing a vehicle brake.
167 for other than purely electrically or purely optically measuring speed, velocity, or acceleration in testing a projectile.
178 for other than a purely electrically or a purely optically measuring speed, velocity, or acceleration to test
navigational instrument.
488 for utilizing an inertial element for mechanical speed, velocity, or acceleration measuring and electrical speed, velocity, or acceleration measuring other than a purely electrical or purely optical measuring type utilizing an inertial element; in particular, subclasses 514.01+ for an acceleration measuring apparatus utilizing an inertial element.
507 for comparing the speed of one device with another by measuring speed by means being other than purely electrical or purely optical.
652 for apparatus for sensing vibrations by an inertial element.
861 for fluid flow rate measuring other than by a purely electrical or a purely optical measuring means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, subclass 231 and 232 for straight-line-light ray sighting instruments involving speed; subclasses 300+ for direction sensing and indicating instruments which may involve speed measuring of a non-purely electrical or non-purely optical measuring type, particularly subclasses 318+ wherein a gyroscope is utilized for controlling or stabilizing purposes; and subclasses 391+ for pendulums which may respond to and be calibrated in terms of acceleration.
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclasses for measuring invisible light to measure speed where no manual manipulation is involved.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 160 for purely electrical speed measuring.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for measuring visible light to determine speed.

Subclass: 1.38 [Patents]

Accelerometer utilizing an inertial element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.37. Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated comprises an inertial member having an intrinsic or relational property which changes in response to a time rate of change of speed or velocity of a body which can be used to measure acceleration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
491 for an acceleration measuring apparatus or method including means retaining a reading of maximum acceleration.
503.3 for determining speed by utilizing a gyroscope for combining acceleration and time.
504.03 for using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect on an inertial element to determine both angular rate and linear acceleration.
652 for an apparatus sensing vibrations by use of an inertial member.
866.2 for a process or an apparatus for measuring a time rate of change in a sensed condition not provided for elsewhere.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 28 for a mechanical indicator, per se, which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to acceleration and includes no quantitative measuring means.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 329 for an inertia operated mechanical energy coupling means for a piezoelectric element or device.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 162 for a purely electrical speed measuring means including an electrical accelerometer which senses acceleration by means other than an inertial element.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 669 for an electrical indicator or alarm which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined acceleration and provides no indication of a quantitative measurement.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, for an apparatus or a process for determining acceleration by measuring visible light and involving no mechanical manipulation.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280 for an acceleration responsive capacitor.

Subclass: 1.39 [Patents]

Involving pendulum or impact:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.38. Subject matter wherein either (a) the inertial member either comprises or is supported by an object suspended from a fixed support so that it is free to swing back and forth or (b) the device is responsive to a force resulting from collision of
one body with another.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.04 for a multi-sensor for determination of angular rate using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect combined with a determination of linear acceleration and including a vibratory inertial body.
504.12 for measuring angular velocity using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect on a vibratory inertial body.
514.15 for acceleration measuring by means of a vibratory inertial mass.
514.29 for measuring acceleration by means of a vibrating sensor.
514.36 for acceleration measuring by means of a pendulum type inertial element wherein no rebalance is recited.
570 for a vibrator, per se, used in testing or the testing of a vibrator.

Subclass: 1.41 [Patents]

Optical or magnetic sensing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.37. Subject matter comprising a sensing means whose characteristic changes in response to a light beam being modified in accordance with the change in the property of an inertial member due to the speed or velocity of the body or the sensing means comprising a body whose magnetic characteristic changes in response to the change in the property of the inertial member due to the speed or velocity of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
653 for an inertial type vibration sensing means having a light beam indicator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 227.14 for a condition responsive light guide and subclasses 231.1+ for a light valve actuated by an external dynamic physical quantity.
335, Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets, for a magnet or an electromagnet, per se.
336, Inductor Devices, subclass 30 for an inductor device having an acceleration responsive inductance adjusting means.

Subclass: 1.42 [Patents]

Timing apparatus (e.g., fuse, camera, or shutter):
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated measures passage of time.

Subclass: 1.43 [Patents]

Chronometer (e.g., clock, watch, or watch unbalance):
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.42. Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated includes means providing a humanly perceptible indication of a passage of time.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, appropriate subclasses for a timer, per se.

Subclass: 1.44 [Patents]

Using antenna or radio frequency (RF):
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.43. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated either (1) includes a metallic device for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic waves (i.e., an antenna) or (2) utilizes a frequency lying in the range of frequencies, between about 3 kilohertz and 300 gigahertz, over which electromagnetic radiation is used in radio transmission (i.e., radio frequency).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
342, Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation), appropriate subclasses for an antenna, per se.

Subclass: 1.45 [Patents]

Using optical sensor or element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.43. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or
calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes a means whose optical characteristic changes in response to a stimulus.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclasses for an optical sensor, per se.

Subclass: 1.46 [Patents]

With sound sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.45. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes a means whose characteristic changes in response to sound.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
649 for a vibration or sound testing sensor.

Subclass: 1.47 [Patents]

Resilient element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.45. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes a means having the capacity of returning to an original form immediately upon the withdrawal of a force which causes compression or distortion.

Subclass: 1.48 [Patents]

Using sound sensor or piezoelectric vibration sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.43. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes either (1) a means having a characteristic which changes in response to sound or (2) an element which produces electricity in response to pressure being applied thereto by a detection of vibration.
(1) Note. A tick detector, unless otherwise set forth, is found here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
649 for a vibration or sound testing sensor.

Subclass: 1.49 [Patents]

Plural watches or plural sensors:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.48. Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated includes at least two chronometers or transducers.

Subclass: 1.51 [Patents]

Resilient element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.48. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes a means having a capacity of returning to an original form immediately upon the withdrawal of a force which causes compression or distortion.

Subclass: 1.52 [Patents]

Plural watches:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.43. Subject matter wherein the devices being proven or calibrated includes at least two chronometers.

Subclass: 1.53 [Patents]

With resilient element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.43. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes a means having a capacity of returning to an original form immediately upon the withdrawal of a force which causes compression or distortion.

Subclass: 1.54 [Patents]

Coil spring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.53. Subject matter wherein the resilient element is a spirally wound elastic member.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
267, Spring Devices, 166 for coil springs, per se.

Subclass: 1.55 [Patents]

Plural coil springs:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.54. Subject matter wherein the resilient element comprises at least two spirally wound elastic members.

Subclass: 1.56 [Patents]

Optical instrument (e.g., camera shutter) or optical sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.42. Subject matter wherein the timer being proven or calibrated is either (a) an instrument which is operated by light or (b) an element whose characteristic changes in response to light.

Subclass: 1.57 [Patents]

Fluid pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated either (a) measures fluid pressure or (b) is responsive to fluid pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
700 for a fluid pressure gauge.

Subclass: 1.58 [Patents]

Vacuum:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the fluid pressure measuring device uses subatmospheric pressure or (b) the device being proven or calibrated is responsive to or measures a subatmospheric pressure.

Subclass: 1.59 [Patents]

With signal correction or processing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57. Subject matter including either (a) a means for (1) performing an operation on an electrical signal to or from the fluid pressure measuring device in accordance with a set of rules which result in a significant change in the signal or (2) performing an arithmetical or some limited logic operation upon or with a signal to or from the fluid pressure responsive or measuring device in a systematic manner or (b) a means for adjusting an electrical signal either from the fluid pressure responsive device or the fluid pressure measuring device to a desired value.

Subclass: 1.61 [Patents]

Span:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.59. Subject matter wherein the pressure responsive device is tested or calibrated for accuracy at at least two pressures.

Subclass: 1.62 [Patents]

Zero:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.59. Subject matter wherein the pressure responsive device is adjusted or checked for accuracy by checking its response to a reference pressure.

Subclass: 1.63 [Patents]

With reference source or attachment therefor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.59. Subject matter including (a) a means for providing a standard or a known pressure during the proving or calibration of either the device which (1) measures fluid pressure or (2) is responsive to fluid pressure or (b) an element adapted to be affixed to a means for providing a standard or a known pressure during the proving or calibrating of the device which either (1) measures pressure or (2) is responsive to fluid pressure.

Subclass: 1.64 [Patents]

Varying:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.63. Subject matter wherein the provided standard or the known pressure varies during the proving or calibrating of the fluid pressure measuring or the fluid pressure responsive device.

Subclass: 1.65 [Patents]

Dead weight type:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57. Subject matter including a reference pressure source comprising a known weight acting as a sole force or pressure on a known area.

Subclass: 1.66 [Patents]

Varying:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57. Subject matter including means providing a standard or the known pressure which varies during the proving or calibrating of either the fluid pressure measuring device or the fluid pressure responsive device.

Subclass: 1.67 [Patents]

Using or containing liquid:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.66. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus proving or calibrating the fluid pressure measuring device or the fluid pressure responsive device, (b) the pressure measuring means, or (c) the fluid pressure responsive means uses or includes a liquid.

Subclass: 1.68 [Patents]

With piston and cylinder:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57. Subject matter including a cylindrical solid element movable in and snugly fitted in a cylindrical housing and wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the fluid pressure measuring device or the fluid pressure responsive device, (b) the device for measuring the fluid pressure, or (c) the device responsive to the fluid pressure includes the solid element and the cylindrical housing.

Subclass: 1.69 [Patents]

Using or containing liquid:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus proving or calibrating the fluid pressure measuring device or the fluid pressure responsive device, (b) the pressure measuring means, or (c) the fluid pressure responsive means uses or includes a liquid.

Subclass: 1.71 [Patents]

Pressure activated device:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57. Subject matter wherein the pressure responsive device which is being proven or calibrated performs a nonpressure function in response to pressure.

Subclass: 1.72 [Patents]

Valve:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.71. Subject matter wherein the pressure activated device comprises a body that regulates the flow of gases, liquids, or loose materials through structure, as a pipe, or through an aperture by opening, closing, or obstructing a port or a passageway or movable control element of such body.

Subclass: 1.73 [Patents]

Liquid level or volume measuring apparatus:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated measures either (1) a height of liquid contained in a body or (2) an amount of material contained in a body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
149 for volume measuring, per se.
290 for liquid level measuring or testing, per se.

Subclass: 1.74 [Patents]

Volumetric dispenser (e.g., pipette):
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.73. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated deals out a fixed amount of a content of a body in portions.

Subclass: 1.75 [Patents]

Angle, direction, or inclination:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated (1) measures the figure formed by two lines diverging from a common point (i.e., angle), (2) a position to which motion or another position is referred (i.e., direction), or (3) a deviation from a horizontal or vertical reference point (i.e., inclination).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, appropriate subclasses for instruments for measuring an angle, a direction, or an inclination.

Subclass: 1.76 [Patents]

Compass:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.75. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated indicates direction (north, south, east or west or combinations thereof).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, appropriate subclasses for instruments for measuring an angle, a direction, or an inclination.

Subclass: 1.77 [Patents]

Gyroscope:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.75. Subject matter including a spinning mass, usually a disk or wheel,
the spin axis of which turns between two low friction supports and maintains its angular orientation with respect to inertial coordinates when not subjected to external torques wherein the spinning mass is either (a) a part of the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, 5 for special features of gyroscope, per se, and especially subclass 5.22 as the generic place for gyroscopes combined with other structure.

Subclass: 1.78 [Patents]

Aircraft, inertial navigation, or attitude:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.75. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device includes an aircraft or (b) the device being proven or calibrated either (1) is used in inertial navigation (e.g., monitoring aircraft angle, direction, or navigation), (2) is responsive to inertial navigation, or (3) is responsive to attitude.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
178 for navigation testing.

Subclass: 1.79 [Patents]

Displacement, motion, distance, or position:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated measures a vector or magnitude of a vector, the act or process of changing location, the length of a line segment joining two points, or where an object is placed.

Subclass: 1.81 [Patents]

Length, width, or height:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.79. Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated measures a spatial extent.

Subclass: 1.82 [Patents]

Apparatus for measuring by use of vibration or apparatus for measuring vibration (e.g., acoustic or ultrasonic):
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus being proven or calibrated undergoes a rapid linear motion about an equilibrium position or (b) the apparatus being proven or calibrated, tested, or adjusted measures a rapid linear motion of a body about an equilibrium position.

Subclass: 1.83 [Patents]

Liquid:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.82. Subject matter wherein either the (a) apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated uses or includes a fluid exhibiting a readiness to flow, little or no tendency to disperse, or relatively high incompressibility.

Subclass: 1.84 [Patents]

Rotary or rotor unbalance:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.82. Subject matter wherein either the (a) apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated includes either (1) a device undergoing angular motion or (2) an apparatus for determining the amount and/or location of masses or force causing unbalance in rotatable bodies.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
66 for measuring rotor unbalance, per se.
455 for a propeller rotor unbalance test.

Subclass: 1.85 [Patents]

Seismic (e.g., geophone) or with optical sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.82. Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated includes either (1) a device relating to an earthquake or earth tremor or (2) a device whose optical characteristic changes in response to sensing vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
653 for a sensing apparatus having an inertial element with a light beam indicator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, subclass 13 for testing, monitoring, or calibrating acoustic wave systems or devices used for electrical communications.

Subclass: 1.86 [Patents]

Reference standard detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.82. Subject matter including a means for providing reference criterion which is used for or intended to be used for comparison purposes in order to prove, calibrate, test, or adjust the measuring, testing, or condition responsive device and wherein significance is attributed to the means for providing the reference criterion.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, 427 for an electrolytic gas sample sensor, per se, combined with a gas reference material; and subclass 435 for a standard reference electrode in an electrolytic analysis or testing apparatus.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclass 243 for an apparatus for measuring or testing visible light including structure forming a basis for comparison with a specimen or a portion thereof under test.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, particularly 8 for a composition for standardization, calibration, simulation, or processes of use in preparation for chemical testing.

Subclass: 1.87 [Patents]

Centrifuge:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated includes a sample holding device designed to rapidly rotate.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.02 for (a) an apparatus for proving or calibrating a device for measuring or testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by use of a centrifuge or (b) proving
or calibrating a device using a centrifuge for measuring or testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid.
53.01 for an analysis of a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by use of a centrifuge.

Subclass: 1.88 [Patents]

Span or set point adjustment (e.g., zero correction):
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated produces an output signal in response to a condition being sensed and wherein the proving, the calibrating, the testing, or the adjustment of the device is made by setting a range of values or a base value for the output.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.34 for volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow apparatus which proves or calibrates the device by establishing a span or a zero or a volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow device being proven or calibrated has a span or a zero value.

Subclass: 1.89 [Patents]

Roughness or hardness:
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01. Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated produces an output signal in response to a condition being sensed and wherein the proving, the calibrating, the testing or the adjustment of the device measures (a) the amount of unevenness of a surface or (b) the amount of resistance of a surface to penetration of an indentor into the surface or the amount of resistance of a surface to scratching.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
84 for measuring or testing hardness, per se.

Subclass: 7 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter in which a measurement or test is made involving any one or any combination of the operations of abrasion, milling, rubbing, or scuffing, even though the test
is employed as an index of another property, e.g., hardness. These are, in general, "wear" tests.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
9 for analogous testing or measuring of frictional resistance, coefficient or characteristic.
862.12 for torque absorption dynamometers of the frictional drag type.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
277, Seal for a Joint or Juncture, for a generic sealing means or process, subclass 321 for a seal combined with means to indicate wear, proper seating, or presence.
434, Education, Demonstration, and Cryptography, for the demonstration of wear characteristics of materials not involving a measurement or a test feature.

Subclass: 8 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 7. Subject matter in which any one of the following is the device tested: a wheel tread, tire, vehicle track or roadway.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
146 for testing the same devices in other ways.

Subclass: 9 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for measuring or determining the frictional drag or resistance between solid bodies when moved relative to one another.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
7 for testing or measuring by abrasion, milling, rubbing, or scuffing, i.e., "wear" tests.
862.11 through 862.18, for torque measuring dynamometers e.g., pony brakes.

Subclass: 10 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 9. Subject matter in which the effect of a lubricant upon the frictional drag between relatively movable solid bodies is determined, there being means for applying or maintaining the supply of lubricant.
(1) Note. These tests are usually termed tests of the lubricant.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
7 for "wear" tests involving application of a lubricant.
32 for determination of specific gravity or density of lubricants.
53.01 for determination of viscosity of lubricants and other miscellaneous tests of lubricants.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
434, Education and Demonstration, and Cryptography, subclass 388, for lubricant demonstration devices not involving measuring or testing features.

Subclass: 11.01 [Patents]

TESTING IMPACT DELIVERING DEVICE (E.G., A HAMMER):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for testing a device which delivers an impact while in use.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.08 for proving or calibrating a device responsive to force, torque, work, or mechanical power.
12.01 for testing by impact.
112 for power plant or unit efficiency measuring.
167 for projectile testing, per se.
488 for speed or acceleration measuring, per se.
862.381 for force measuring, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
346, Recorders, subclass 7 and 129 for a record tracer movement responsive to inertial or mass inclination.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 31 for calorimetry, per se.

Subclass: 11.02 [Patents]

Shot peener:
This subclass is indented under subclass 11.01. Subject matter wherein the device being tested is a means for providing an acceleration to a pellet for the purpose of impacting.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
7 for testing by abrasion, milling, rubbing, or scuffing, per se.
37.5 for measuring dimension, size, and shape using fluid pressure.
104 for surface testing or measuring, per se.
760 for testing for specimen stress or strain, or testing by stress or strain application.

Subclass: 11.03 [Patents]

Pile driving hammer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 11.01. Subject matter wherein the device being tested comprises an impact hammer for driving a columnar structure into the earth.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
12.01 for testing by impact, per se.
82 for an impactor for testing hardness.
84 for testing soil hardness by driving a pile into soil.
488 for speed and acceleration measuring, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
72, Metal Deforming, subclass 53 for metal deforming by shot blasting.
405, Hydraulic and Earth Engineering, 232 for a process or an apparatus for installing a pile.

Subclass: 11.04 [Patents]

TESTING OF SHOCK ABSORBING DEVICE (E.G., AUTOMOBILE SHOCK ABSORBER, GUN RECOIL APPARATUS, ETC.):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for testing a device whose function while it is in use is to absorb shock.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
12.01 for testing by shock.
79 for testing for hardness by observing rebound.
112 for a power plant or unit efficiency measurement.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
105, Railway Rolling Stock, subclass 392.5 for a shock absorber for a railway vehicle.
188, Brakes, 266 for a fluid-type shock absorber for a railway vehicle.
213, Railway Draft Appliances, subclass 1 for a one-shot shock absorber and subclass 32 for a draft gear assembly, per se.
248, Supports, appropriate subclass for support-type shock absorbers.
267, Spring Devices, appropriate subclass for spring-type shock absorbers.
340, Communications: Electrical, 500 for an electrical indicator which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to the attainment of a predetermined condition; particularly, subclass 665 for a predetermined mechanical force.

Subclass: 11.05 [Patents]

Torsional vibration damper:
This subclass is indented under subclass 11.04. Subject matter wherein the device being tested is used to lessen or reduce the amplitude of torsional vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
574 for using vibration for testing for mechanical impedance, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, appropriate subclass for subject matter of that class type combined with vibration dampers.
188, Brakes, 378 for vibration dampers, per se.

Subclass: 11.06 [Patents]

Railway draft gear:
This subclass is indented under subclass 11.04. Subject matter wherein the device being tested transmits pull from one railway car to another railway car.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
213, Railway Draft Appliances, subclass 1 for a one-shot shock absorber and subclass 32 for a draft gear assembly, per se.

Subclass: 11.07 [Patents]

In situ vehicle suspension:
This subclass is indented under subclass 11.04. Subject matter wherein the device being tested is a structure which suspends a vehicle body on its running gear.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
280, Land Vehicles, subclass 784 for a vehicle frame having an impact shock absorber.

Subclass: 11.08 [Patents]

By applying reciprocating or oscillating motion:
This subclass is indented under subclass 11.07. Subject matter wherein the testing is done by applying a periodic motion to the device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
570 for vibration testing, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
280, Land Vehicles, subclass 784 for a vehicle frame having
an impact shock absorber.

Subclass: 11.09 [Patents]

By applying reciprocating or oscillating motion:
This subclass is indented under subclass 11.04. Subject matter wherein the testing is done by applying a back-and-forth periodic motion to the device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
570 for vibration testing, per se.

Subclass: 12.01 [Patents]

TESTING BY IMPACT OR SHOCK:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for testing a specimen by subjecting it to one or more sudden blows.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
11.01 for testing an impact delivering device.
11.04 for the testing of a shock absorbing apparatus.
35.14 for testing a body by measuring the effect of an explosion on the body.
78 for hardness testing.
161 for spring testing, per se.
167 for testing ordnance or projectile.
570 for testing by vibration, per se.
788 for loading a specimen to determine shear or strain.
862 for measuring a force or a force component.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, subclass 32 for a collision released identification tag, per se, and subclass 203 for a mechanical indicator, per se, which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to the presence or absence of an impact.
173, Tool Driving or Impacting, appropriate subclasses for an impacting device, per se.
188, Brakes, appropriate subclasses for an internal resistance motion retarder, per se.
251, Valves and Valve Actuation, appropriate subclasses for a fluid actuated valve, per se.
267, Spring Devices, 136 for a resilient shock or vibration absorber, per se.
340, Communications: Electrical, for an electrical indicator or alarm which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined force.

Subclass: 12.02 [Patents]

Resilient ball (e.g., golf ball, baseball, etc.):
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.01. Subject matter wherein the specimen being tested is an elastic spherical body usually used in games or sports.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
79 for hardness testing by measuring rebound.
167 for projectile testing, per se.
865.3 for the testing of a body by subjecting it to motion, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
124, Mechanical Guns and Projectors, appropriate subclass for mechanical guns and projectors.

Subclass: 12.03 [Patents]

Typewriting ribbon or carbon paper:
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.01. Subject matter wherein the specimen being tested is either a typewriter ribbon or carbon paper.
(1) Note. Carbon paper is used in the popular sense of the word to mean that type of paper which transfers a surface coating when pressed against a surface, as by a typewriter key.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
150 for testing of a coating, per se.
159 for a filament testing, per se.

Subclass: 12.04 [Patents]

Accelerated or decelerated specimen (e.g., propelled or dropped specimen support carriage):
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.01. Subject matter wherein either the specimen or the specimen and its support is subjected to a sudden change in velocity.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
167 for projectile testing, per se.
788 for applying a load to a specimen in order to test for stress or strain.
865.3 for testing by imparting motion to a specimen.

Subclass: 12.05 [Patents]

Particle or projectile specimen:
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.04. Subject matter wherein the specimen is either a particle or a projectile.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
167 for other types of testing of projectiles.
570 for applying a load to a specimen in order to test for stress or strain.
865.3 for testing by imparting motion to a specimen.

Subclass: 12.06 [Patents]

Dropped:
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.04. Subject matter wherein the change in velocity of the specimen is caused by dropping the specimen or the specimen and its support onto a fixed surface.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
79 for testing for hardness using rebound.
760 for applying a load to a specimen in order to test for
stress or strain.
865.3 for testing by imparting motion to a specimen.

Subclass: 12.07 [Patents]

By hydraulic or pneumatic forces:
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.04. Subject matter wherein the change in velocity of the specimen is caused by either (a) liquid pressure or (b) air pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
82 for hydraulically driven impact-type hardness testing.
167 for other types of testing of projectiles.
760 for applying a load to a specimen by hydraulic or pneumatic loading means in order to test for stress or strain.
865.3 for testing by imparting motion to a specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
124, Mechanical Guns and Projectors, subclass 73 for fluid pressure actuated guns and projectors.
251, Valves and Valve Actuation, appropriate subclass for valve and fluid actuated valves, per se.
406, Conveyors: Fluid Current, appropriate subclass for a fluid current conveyor, per se.

Subclass: 12.08 [Patents]

Specimen directly subjected to a fluid pressure pulse or wave:
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.01. Subject matter wherein the source of the blow to the specimen is a fluid pressure pulse or wave.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
406, Conveyors: Fluid Current, appropriate subclass for a fluid current conveyor, per se.

Subclass: 12.09 [Patents]

Specimen impactor detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.01. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the device which subjects a specimen to a blow.

Subclass: 12.11 [Patents]

Particle or projectile:
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.09. Subject matter wherein the impactor is either a particle or a projectile.

Subclass: 12.12 [Patents]

Reciprocating or oscillating:
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.09. Subject matter wherein the impactor moves towards and away from the specimen in such a fashion so as to apply periodic blows to the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
570 for vibration testing, per se.

Subclass: 12.13 [Patents]

Dropped:
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.09. Subject matter wherein the impactor is released above the specimen and accelerated by gravity until it strikes the specimen.

Subclass: 12.14 [Patents]

Pivoted:
This subclass is indented under subclass 12.13. Subject matter wherein the impactor swings about a fixed axis.

Subclass: 19.01 [Patents]

GAS CONTENT OF A LIQUID OR A SOLID:
This subclass is indented under the class definition.
Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for determining the nature or amount of gas in a substance other than gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.20 for a process or apparatus for analyzing gas.
73 for a process or apparatus for determining the moisture content of materials.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
95, Gas Separation: Processes, for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps).
96, Gas Separation: Apparatus, for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means).
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, 400 for an apparatus which utilizes electrolytic action for analysis or testing.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 68 for an apparatus which utilizes a chemical reaction to determine the gas content of a liquid or solid.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, for a process which utilizes a chemical reaction to determine the gas content of a liquid or a solid, particularly subclass 68 for determining the gas content of blood.
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, 113 for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 19.02 [Patents]

By gas chromatography:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01. Subject matter wherein the effluent of a mixture of gases, which has contacted a solvent or sorbent which separates the mixture into fractional components, is successively tested to determine the quantity, quality or identity of a component of the effluent.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.35 for gas analysis using gas chromatography, and particularly subclass 23.40 for a gas detector which uses gas chromatography to analyze gas.
53.01 for liquid testing, (e.g., liquid chromatography).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
95, Gas Separation: Processes, 82 for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps), using chromatography.
96, Gas Separation: Apparatus, 101 for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means), of the chromatos:graphic type.
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, 400 for electrochemical gas sensors, per se.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, 660 for a process of removing a constituent from a liquid by sorption, particularly subclasses 656+ for selective sorptions (e.g., chromatography) subclasses 85+ for a liquid separator with recorder or register and subclasses 263+ for a liquid separator utilizing a bed of particulate material.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, particularly 464 for analyzing gas using ionization effects, and appropriate subclasses for testing gas by measuring impedance, admittance, and related quantities.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 50 for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze a gas, particularly subclass 89 for gas chromatography.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, appropriate subclasses for a process of gas analysis which utilizes a chemical reaction to determine the gas content of a liquid or a solid, and particularly subclass 68 for determining the gas content of blood, and subclasses 161+ for chromatography.

Subclass: 19.03 [Patents]

By vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01. Subject matter wherein the liquid or solid is subjected to vibratory forces to determine its gas content.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
24.01 for detection of gas, per se, by measuring the effect
of the gas being tested on vibration.
570 for testing, per se, using vibration.
861.18 for measuring the volume or rate of flow of fluent material by sensing vibration.

Subclass: 19.04 [Patents]

By rate of flow of the gas:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01. Subject matter wherein the gas content of the liquid or solid is determined by measuring the rate of flow of the gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.16 for calibration of flow meters.
155 for determining fluid flow in bore holes.
170.07 and 170.11, for determining the rate of flow and direction of flow of fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
181 for determining the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861 for measuring the flow of fluent material, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
48, Gas: Heating and Illuminating, 180.1 for metering and mixing two gases where one is a fuel.
116, Signals and Indicators, for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon occurrence of fluid flow.
128, Surgery, 630 for flow-measuring means with structure particularly adapted for placement on or in a living body.
137, Fluid Handling, 98 for a self-proportioning flow system; and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 48 for measuring the rate of flow drilling fluid.
222, Dispensing, particularly 14, 59+ and 71+ for volume or rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
250, Radiant Energy, particularly subclass 258, 259+, 302+, 356.1, and 432+ for miscellaneous radiant energy responsive devices.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340, Communications: Electrical, 606 for electric means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as flow of a fluid.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 27 for flow-measuring means employing lasers.
377, Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems, subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
700, Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications, subclasses 282-285 for flow control.

Subclass: 19.05 [Patents]

By pressure of the gas:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01. Subject matter wherein the gas content of the liquid is determined by measuring the pressure of the gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
24.04 for measuring vapor pressure of gas by vibration.
25.04 for measuring vapor pressure of gas by measuring a thermal property of the gas.
29.01 for determining the vapor pressure of gas being tested.
31.04 for analyzing gas by pressure measurement, per se.
37 for a testing apparatus or process for subjecting a specimen directly to fluid pressure (positive or negative) to determine a property of the specimen.
78 for a device for measuring hardness as an index of fluid pressure, particularly subclass 80 for a tonometer and subclass 81 for a tire hardness gauge.
115 for a process or an apparatus which measures the pressure within an engine to determine its efficiency.
299 for a hydrostatic pressure type of liquid level or depth gauge.
384 for a barometer.
700 for measurement of the pressure of fluent material.
861.42 for a pressure differential measuring device for determining volume or rate of flow.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
128, Surgery, 672 for a blood pressure measuring device.
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, 26, for a device of that class type combined with pressure compensator.
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, 81 for a fluid pressure operated switch.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 201 for an expanding fluid type thermometer.

Subclass: 19.06 [Patents]

Of a beverage:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.05. Subject matter wherein the gas content of a potable liquid (i.e., a liquid suitable for consumption by a human being) is determined.

Subclass: 19.07 [Patents]

Of metal:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01. Subject matter wherein the substance whose gas content is being determined is a metal.

Subclass: 19.08 [Patents]

Of concrete, mortar, or plastic while in a fluent state:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01. Subject matter wherein the substance whose gas content is being determined is concrete, mortar, or plastic while capable of flowing.

Subclass: 19.09 [Patents]

Of mud:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01. Subject matter wherein the substance whose gas content is being
determined is a mixture of soil with a liquid.

Subclass: 19.1 [Patents]

Of a liquid:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01. Subject matter wherein the substance whose gas content is being determined is a substance which exhibits a characteristic readiness to flow, little or no tendency to disperse, and relatively high incompressibility.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.06 for determining the gas content of a beverage by measuring the pressure of the gas.
53.01 for testing of a liquid or liquid suspension of solids.

Subclass: 19.11 [Patents]

Lubricant:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.1. Subject matter wherein the liquid whose gas content is being determined is a substance capable of reducing friction, heat and wear when introduced as a film between solid surfaces.

Subclass: 19.12 [Patents]

Particular separator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for separating the gas from the liquid or solid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
31.07 for a particular separator used in gas analysis, per se.
863.21 for a sampler, per se, which separates constituents of the sample.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
95, Gas Separation: Processes, for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps).
96, Gas Separation: Apparatus, for apparatus for gas
separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means).

Subclass: 23.2 [Patents]

GAS ANALYSIS:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for detecting or measuring the composition of, or some constituent of, a gas or gaseous mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 253 for the detection of a gas within or emanating from the earth by invisible radiation emanating from the gas naturally or as a result of irradiation by invisible radiation, subclasses 336.1+ for testing of a gas by utilizing an electric signalling device detecting radiation induced or emitted naturally, or detecting infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, or gamma radiation or neutrons modified by the gas.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for testing and electrical property of a gas.
338, Electrical Resistors, 34 for a resistor, per se, which is responsive to the condition of a gas wherein no quantitative measurements of the gas are disclosed.
340, Communications: Electrical, 632 for an electrical indicator providing a humanly perceptible signal representing a predetermined condition of a gas.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 402 for gas analysis utilizing a colorimeter to determine the shade or color of the gas.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 50 for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze gas.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, subclass 68 for a process which utilizes a chemical reaction to analyze gas.

Subclass: 23.21 [Patents]

With compensation detail (for error or drift correction, etc.):
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter including means for making a correction for an undesirable variation in a condition within an apparatus or
in a test result due to such condition.

Subclass: 23.22 [Patents]

For gas chromatography:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.21. Subject matter in which the effluent of a mixture of gases, which has contacted a solvent or sorbent which separates the mixture into fractional components, is successively tested to determine the quantity, quality or identify of a component of the effluent.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.35 through 23.40, for a gas analysis detector, per se, which may be used in gas chromatography.
53.01 for liquid testing (e.g., liquid chromatography).
863 for sample preparation or sampling, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
95, Gas Separation: Processes, 82 for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps), using chromatography.
96, Gas Separation: Apparatus, 101 for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means), of the chromatos:graphic type.
204, Chemistry: Electrical and wave Energy, 400 for an electrochemical gas sensor, per se.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, 660 for a process of removing a constituent from a liquid by sorption, particularly subclasses 656+ for selective sorptions (e.g., chromatography), subclasses 85 for a liquid separator with recorder or register, and subclasses 263+ for a liquid separator utilizing a bed of particulate material.
324, Electricity: Measuring, and Testing, particularly 464 for analyzing gas using ionization effects, and appropriate subclasses for testing gas by measuring impedance, admittance, and related quantities.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 50 for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze a gas, particularly subclass 89 for gas chromatography.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, particularly subclass 68 for a process utilizing a chemical reaction for determining the gases in the blood, and
subclasses 161+ for chromatography.

Subclass: 23.23 [Patents]

Baseline drift correction circuitry:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.22. Subject matter which includes circuitry for correcting a systematic shift in the spectra of the chromatogram.

Subclass: 23.24 [Patents]

Rate of flow:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.22. Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted is the rate of flow of the gas being tested or of the carrier gas.

Subclass: 23.25 [Patents]

Temperature:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.22. Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted is the temperature of the gas or the chromatography.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 100 for temperature measurement, per se.

Subclass: 23.26 [Patents]

Gradient:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.25. Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted is the temperature variations along the column or columns of the chromatography.

Subclass: 23.27 [Patents]

Pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.22. Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted is
the pressure of the gas effluent or of the carrier gas.

Subclass: 23.28 [Patents]

For density or specific gravity:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.21. Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted affects the determination of the mass per unit volume of the gas or the ratio of the density of the gas to the density of some substance taken as a standard when both densities are obtained by weighing in air.

Subclass: 23.29 [Patents]

Pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.28. Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted is the pressure of the gas being measured or tested, which pressure is used to determine the density or specific gravity of the gas.

Subclass: 23.3 [Patents]

Breath analysis:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter wherein the gas being tested is exhaled by a human being or other animal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
128, Surgery, 717 for breath analyzing inside the body.
340, Communications: Electrical, 632 for a humanly perceptible indication of a predetermined condition of the breath.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 84 for a breath analyzer utilizing a chemical change to analyze air exhaled from a human being or other animal.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, appropriate subclasses for a process of gas analysis which utilizes a chemical reaction, particularly subclass 132 for ethanol determination, and subclass 900 for a cross-reference art collection of breath testing processes.

Subclass: 23.31 [Patents]

Gas of combustion:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter wherein the gas being tested is the product of a combustion process.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
340, Communications: Electrical, 632 for a humanly perceptible indication of a predetermined condition of a gas of combustion.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 94 for a detector, per se, of combustible gas.

Subclass: 23.32 [Patents]

Air-fuel ratio:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.31. Subject matter wherein the ratio of the amount of air to the amount of fuel in the gas of combustion is determined.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
123, Internal-Combustion Engines, 434 and particularly subclasses 672+ for measuring the composition of exhaust gas and utilizing the measurement to control the air-fuel ratio.

Subclass: 23.33 [Patents]

Solid content:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.32. Subject matter wherein the nature or amount of particulate matter in the gas of combustion is determined.

Subclass: 23.34 [Patents]

Odor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter wherein stimulation of the olfactory organ of an animal is used to detect or measure the gas.

Subclass: 23.35 [Patents]

Gas chromatography:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Process or apparatus in which the effluent of a mixture of gases, which has contacted a solvent or sorbent which separates the mixture into fractional components, is successively tested to determine the quantity, quality or identity of a component of the effluent.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.02 for a gas chromatography process or apparatus for determining the presence of, or the amount of, gas in a liquid or a solid.
35.05 for a gas detector, per se, which may be used in gas chromatography.
53.01 for liquid testing (e.g., liquid chromatography).
863 for a sampling device, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
95, Gas Separation: Processes, 82 for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps), using chromatography.
96, Gas Separation: Apparatus, 101 for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means), of the chromatos:graphic type.
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, 400 for electrochemical gas sensors, per se.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, 660 for a process of removing a constituent from a liquid by sorption, particularly subclasses 656+ for selective sorptions (e.g., chromatography), subclasses 85+ for a liquid separator with recorder or register and subclasses 263+ for a liquid separator utilizing a bed of particulate material.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, particularly 464 for gas analysis using ionization effects, and appropriate subclasses for testing gas by measuring impedance, admittance, and related quantities.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 50 for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze a gas, particularly subclass 89 for gas chromatography.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, for a process of gas analysis which utilizes a chemical reaction, particularly 161 for chromatography.

Subclass: 23.36 [Patents]

With electrical computer or data processor control:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35. Subject matter including a programmable electronic device which can store, retrieve and process data, which device controls the chromatography.

Subclass: 23.37 [Patents]

With spectrometer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35. Subject matter combined with an instrument used to measure the spectral characteristics of light.

Subclass: 23.38 [Patents]

Petrochemical:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35. Subject matter in which the gas being tested is a derivative of petroleum.

Subclass: 23.39 [Patents]

Column detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35. Subject matter comprising detail of a tubular structure which is either packed with a material having a known absorption characteristic and/or is coated with a liquid of a high molecular weight and having known properties.

Subclass: 23.4 [Patents]

Detector detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the sensing means.

Subclass: 23.41 [Patents]

Including sample preparation or sampling:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35. Subject matter wherein the sample is treated or modified before being tested, or a predetermined portion of a mass of material is obtained for testing, or a previously obtained sample transported or handled in preparation for analysis, or a previously obtained sample is introduced into an analyzer.
(1) Note. Included here is a liquid sample which is gasified prior to injection into the column.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
863 for sample preparation or sampling, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, subclass 89 for a sample undergoing a chemical reaction.

Subclass: 23.42 [Patents]

Detail of gas handling means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the means for confining, directing, or controlling the flow of gaseous material.

Subclass: 24.01 [Patents]

By vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter in which the composition of a gas or a constituent of a gas is determined by detecting or measuring the transmission of vibration through the gas being tested.

Subclass: 24.02 [Patents]

Produced by radiant energy:
This subclass is indented under subclass 24.01. Subject matter wherein the vibration is produced by energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or traveling subatomic, atomic or molecular particles.

Subclass: 24.03 [Patents]

Solid content of gas:
This subclass is indented under subclass 24.01. Subject matter wherein the nature or amount of particulate matter in gas is determined.

Subclass: 24.04 [Patents]

Moisture content or vapor pressure of gas:
This subclass is indented under subclass 24.01. Subject matter wherein the amount of moisture in the gas being analyzed or the pressure of the vapor in the gas is determined.

Subclass: 24.05 [Patents]

Density or specific gravity of gas:
This subclass is indented under subclass 24.01. Subject matter for determining the mass per unit volume of the gas or the ratio of the density of the gas to the density of some substance taken as a standard when both densities are obtained by weighing in air.

Subclass: 24.06 [Patents]

Detector detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 24.01. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the means for sensing the vibration.

Subclass: 25.01 [Patents]

By thermal property:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter in which the composition of a gas or a constituent of a gas is determined by detecting or measuring the heat transmitting or heat related properties of the gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
29.02 for hygrometers utilizing temperature measuring.

Subclass: 25.02 [Patents]

With magnetic property (e.g., paramagnetic gas):
This subclass is indented under subclass 25.01. Subject matter wherein the gas being analyzed produces a modification of the magnetic field of a measuring device.

Subclass: 25.03 [Patents]

Thermoconductivity:
This subclass is indented under subclass 25.01. Subject matter wherein the heat transmitting property of a gas is determined.

Subclass: 25.04 [Patents]

Moisture content or vapor pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 25.01. Subject matter wherein the amount of moisture in the gas or the pressure of the vapor in the gas is measured or detected.

Subclass: 25.05 [Patents]

Detector detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 25.01. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the sensing means.

Subclass: 28.01 [Patents]

Solid content of gas:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter wherein the nature or amount of particulate matter in gas is determined.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
31.01 for measuring other impurities in the air.
170.25 for measuring solid particles originating in the outer space surrounding the Earth.
863.21 for sampling involving separation of constituents where no testing device is claimed.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, 1 for continuous gas or vapor phase colloid system (e.g., smoke, fog, aersol, cloud, mist) or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents subclass 114 for processes of or compositions for or subcombination compositions for the breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems of conitinuous gas or vapor phase (e.g., fog dispelling, dust suppressing, contrail suppressing); in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 28.02 [Patents]

Particle charging:
This subclass is indented under subclass 28.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a parameter related to electrically charged particles (e.g., the total electrical field produced by the particles being charged).

Subclass: 28.03 [Patents]

Pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 28.01. Subject matter wherein the force per unit area applied over a surface by the gas is measured in order to determine the solid content of the gas.

Subclass: 28.04 [Patents]

Separator detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 28.01. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the means separating the solid from the gas.

Subclass: 28.05 [Patents]

Impactor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 28.04. Subject matter wherein separation is accomplished by directing a fluid current of gas containing solid particles toward a solid surface wherein the isolated particles remain on the surface.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
863.21 for subject matter under the class definition for obtaining a predetermined portion of a mass of material being tested including isolation of individual components of the source or sample.

Subclass: 28.06 [Patents]

Fractionalizing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 28.05. Subject matter wherein the particles are distributed on the surface according to size.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
863.22 for sampling, per se, including isolation of individual components of a source or sample by directing a fluid current containing particles toward a solid surface wherein the isolated particles remain on the surface.

Subclass: 29.01 [Patents]

Moisture content or vapor pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter including means for determining the amount of liquid diffused in the gas or the pressure exerted by liquid diffused into the gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
24.04 for determining the moisture content or vapor pressure of a gas by measuring the transmission of vibration through the gas.
25.04 for determining the moisture content or vapor pressure of a gas by measuring a thermal property of the gas.

Subclass: 29.02 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01. Subject
matter wherein the amount of the liquid is the actual amount of water vapor in a unit volume of air (e.g., the absolute humidity) or the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the amount of water vapor which the air would hold if it were saturated at that temperature (e.g., the relative humidity).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
29.01 for other thermal testing of a gas.
73 for humidity determining means combined with additional apparatus for testing or determining the moisture content of a substance.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, 61.06 for humidity controlled electric switches.
236, Automatic Temperature and Humidity Regulation, principally subclass 44 for humidity responsive devices combined with regulating means.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for devices wherein the atmosphere or gas changes in electrical conductance, in response to humidity and such property, is taken as a measure of humidity. Where no electrical property of the material under test is measured, but an additional element is exposed to the material to have its electrical properties affected by a physical property of the separate element measured, the art is in Class 73, Measuring and Testing.
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 35 for electrical resistors whose resistance value is responsive to humidity or changes in humidity.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclass 178 for relays controlled by humidity.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 109 for a measuring device providing a composite indication of temperature and humidity and subclass 142 for the combination of a thermometer and another measuring device wherein the thermometer is not a subcombination of a hygrometer. In the latter case when a thermometer is merely claimed as a subcombination of a hygrometer, the device would be classified in this class (73).

Subclass: 29.03 [Patents]

Pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01. Subject
matter wherein the pressure of the gas is measured to determine the amount of vapor present in the gas.

Subclass: 29.04 [Patents]

With visual indication:
This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by directly observing the visible effect of a gas on a sensor.

Subclass: 29.05 [Patents]

Detector detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the sensing means.

Subclass: 30.01 [Patents]

Density or specific gravity:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter including means for determining the mass per unit volume of the gas or the ratio of the density of the gas to the density of some substance taken as a standard when both densities are obtained by weighing in air.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
32 for determining the density or specific gravity of a liquid or solid.
152.05 for determining a characteristic of a formation in a borehole by measuring density.

Subclass: 30.02 [Patents]

By pressure measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 30.01. Subject matter wherein pressure is measured in order to determine density or specific gravity of gas.

Subclass: 30.03 [Patents]

By rate of flow:
This subclass is indented under subclass 30.01. Subject matter wherein the density of specific gravity of a gas is determined by measuring the rate of the flow of the gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
118.2 for the measuring of the air intake of an auxiliary unit of an engine or a motor.
861 for a device determining the volume of flow, speed, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow of fluent material.

Subclass: 30.04 [Patents]

Detector detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 30.01. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the sensing means.

Subclass: 31.01 [Patents]

Ambient air:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter wherein the gas being tested is the naturally occurring mixture of gases surrounding the earth.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
28.01 for measuring the solid content of air not originating in the outer space surrounding the Earth.

Subclass: 31.02 [Patents]

Impurity:
This subclass is indented under subclass 31.01. Subject matter wherein the mixture is being tested for undesirable content.

Subclass: 31.03 [Patents]

Impurity:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject
matter wherein the gas is being tested for undesirable content.

Subclass: 31.04 [Patents]

Pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter wherein the force per unit area exerted by the gas on a surface is measured.

Subclass: 31.05 [Patents]

Detector detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the sensing means.

Subclass: 31.06 [Patents]

Semiconductor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 31.05. Subject matter wherein the detector includes semiconductor material.

Subclass: 31.07 [Patents]

Particular separator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the means for isolating a constituent of a gaseous mixture.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include chromatos:graphic separation of gases, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.02 for chromatos:graphic separation of gases whose content in a solid or a liquid is being measured.
19.12 for a particular separator of a gas from a liquid or a solid.
23.35 for chromatos:graphic separation of gases whose composition or constituent is being detected or measured.
863 for gas sampling, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
95, Gas Separation: Processes, for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps).
96, Gas Separation: Apparatus, for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means).
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 83 for an apparatus for gas sampling involving the use of sorbents or chemicals wherein a chemical reaction is utilized to analyze the gas.

Subclass: 32 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for determining the density and/or specific gravity of liquids or solids.
(1) Note. Included here is an apparatus for measuring density of a liquid suspension of a solid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
30 for determination of the density or specific gravity of gases.
152.05 for determining a characteristic of a formation in a borehole by measuring density.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 558 for measuring the density of a substance which involves a computation and only nominal claimed structure to the measuring device.

Subclass: 35.01 [Patents]

ENGINE DETONATION (E.G., KNOCK):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for performing a test or measurement by determining or detecting abnormal rapid combustion in an internal combustion engine.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
116 for engine or motor testing, per se, including pressure measuring in an engine or a motor.
570 for testing (a) by applying vibration to a body or (b) by sensing vibration, per se.
700 for a fluid pressure gage, per se.
865.6 for testing, per se, in a simulated environment.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
123, Internal-Combustion Engines, subclass 425 for engine knock control of ignition timing and subclass 435 for knock control of a pressure responsive charge forming device.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 378 for purely electrical testing of an internal combustion engine ignition system or device.
701, Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location, subclass 111 for determining engine knock by use of an electrical computer wherein no more than a nominally recited knock sensor is claimed.

Subclass: 35.02 [Patents]

Fuel rating (e.g., octane rating):
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.01. Subject matter wherein a measurement of a quality of a test fuel is made by detecting an abnormal rapid combustion (e.g. knock) of the test fuel in the engine and comparing the knock of the test fuel with a knock value of a second fuel having a known fuel rating.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
53.01 for liquid analysis, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
123, Internal-Combustion Engines, 575 for diverse fuel supply for an internal-combustion engine.
261, Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus, subclass 36.2 for fluid distribution means in a carburetor.

Subclass: 35.03 [Patents]

Combustion signal compared to reference signal varied by a condition of the engine:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.01. Subject matter including a combustion signal produced by a sensing
means whose characteristic changes in response to the combustion and which is compared with a reference signal responsive to a condition of the engine to determine detonation.
(1) Note. A reference signal is presumed to be varied by a condition of the engine unless otherwise stated as being fixed.
(2) Note. The reference signal may be derived from the combustion itself as, for example, by integration.

Subclass: 35.04 [Patents]

Including calculation means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.03. Subject matter comprising an element for performing a mathematical computation utilizing the reference signal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
701, Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location, subclass 111 for application of an electrical computer or data processing to determine a vehicle engine knock wherein computer detail or data processing detail is recited and wherein no more than a nominally recited sensor is claimed.

Subclass: 35.05 [Patents]

Automatic gain control or feedback control:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.03. Subject matter including either (a) an amplifier having a gain controlled by some condition of the engine or (b) a circuit arrangement comprising several stages including an earlier stage and a later stage wherein the later stage produces an output signal which is fed to the earlier stage of the arrangement for control purposes.

Subclass: 35.06 [Patents]

Combustion signal compared to a fixed reference signal or utilizing a threshold value:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.01. Subject matter including a combustion signal produced by a sensing means whose characteristic changes in response to combustion and which is either (a) compared to a predetermined signal or (b) limited to that portion over a predetermined minimum
value.

Subclass: 35.07 [Patents]

Specific type of detonation sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.01. Subject matter comprising a specified sensing means whose characteristic changes in response to detecting detonation and which is intended to produce a signal in response to the change in the characteristic.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
866.5 for a probe or a probe mounting, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, appropriate subclass for an electrochemical sensor, per se.
250, Radiant Energy, 216 for a photocell, per se.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 328 for a condition responsive piezoelectric sensor, per se.
336, Inductor Devices, appropriate subclass for a condition responsive inductive sensor, per se.
338, Electrical Resistors, appropriate subclass for a condition responsive resistor, per se.
359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements, appropriate subclass for an optical element, per se.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, appropriate subclass for a condition responsive capacitor, per se.

Subclass: 35.08 [Patents]

Ionization:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.07. Subject matter wherein the sensing means comprises spaced electrodes between which electrical current passes in proportion to ionization of combustion gases in the engine.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 459 for an ionization detector, per se.

Subclass: 35.09 [Patents]

Vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.07. Subject matter wherein the sensing means detects a rapid periodic motion of a body about an equilibrium position, which rapid periodic motion of the body is caused by detonation.
(1) Note. An acoustic detector for knock sensing is included here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
570 for other testing by vibration.

Subclass: 35.11 [Patents]

Piezoelectric:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.09. Subject matter wherein the sensing means comprises a pressure responsive material which generates an electric signal in response to vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 329 for a vibration responsive piezoelectric detector, per se.

Subclass: 35.12 [Patents]

Pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.07. Subject matter wherein the sensing means detects a rapid fluctuation in pressure caused by detonation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
115 for measuring pressure in an engine.
700 for a fluid pressure gage, per se.

Subclass: 35.13 [Patents]

Piezoelectric:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.12. Subject matter wherein the sensing means comprises pressure
responsive material which generates an electrical signal in response to the pressure fluctuation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 338 for a pressure responsive piezoelectric detector, per se.

Subclass: 35.14 [Patents]

EXPLOSIVE:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for (a) determining a physical characteristic of a body or material by measuring a disruptive force or a disruptive pressure produced by an explosion of the body or material or (b) testing a body or material by applying a disruptive force or a disruptive pressure due to an explosion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
12.01 for testing by impact or shock, per se.
167 for ordnance testing especially by measuring pressure in a gun barrel.
700 for a pressure gage, per se.
865.6 for testing, per se, in a simulated environment.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
102, Ammunition and Explosives, for an explosive, per se.
346, Recorders, subclass 7 for an inertia recorder.

Subclass: 35.15 [Patents]

By time measurement (e.g., burning rate, detonation velocity):
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.14. Subject matter wherein the explosion produces a traveling wavefront and the determination of a parameter of the explosion is made by measuring the time required for the wave front in the explosion to proceed from one point to another.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 160 for electrical speed determining by measuring time between the occurrence of electrical pulses.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, for a time measuring system and device and especially, 89 for an interval timer, per se.

Subclass: 35.16 [Patents]

Electric sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.14. Subject matter comprising a sensing means for producing an electrical signal response to a disruptive force or a disruptive pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
866.5 for a probe or a probe mounting, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy for a photocell, per se.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311 for a condition responsive piezoelectric sensor, per se.
336, Inductor Devices, appropriate subclasses for a condition responsive inductive sensor, per se.
338, Electrical Resistors, 13 for a condition responsive resistor, per se.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for condition responsive devices measuring visible light.
359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements, appropriate subclass for an optical element, per se.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280 for a condition responsive capacitor, per se.

Subclass: 35.17 [Patents]

Safety feature or containment structure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.14. Subject matter including means for either (a) protecting a person from the effects of the explosive during testing or (b) restricting effects of the explosion to a predetermined space during testing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
571 for a test chamber for vibration testing, per se.
865.6 for a test chamber, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
102, Ammunition and Explosives, subclass 331 for a blasting charge case, per se.
109, Safes, Bank Protection or a Related Device, appropriate subclasses for a safety structure, per se.
220, Receptacles, appropriate subclass for container structure, per se, and in particular 88.1 for a fire preventing attachment for a receptacle, per se.

Subclass: 36 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for testing illuminating fluids to determine flash point, vapor pressure and end point.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
35.02 for measuring engine knock or detonation.
35.14 for testing of an explosive.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 8 for flammability testing, and subclasses 16+ for transformation point determination, in general.

Subclass: 37 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for subjecting a specimen directly to fluid pressure (positive or negative) to determine properties of the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.16 for proving or calibrating volume or rate of flow meters and elements thereof.
1.57 for proving or calibrating pressure responsive devices and gauges.
12.01 for testing by impact or shock where the impact or
shock is transmitted by a fluid.
807 and 838+, for the use of fluids to determine the bursting strength of sheet material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, subclass 90 for test plug closures for conduits.
141, Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means, for processes and apparatus for filling of receivers with gases, liquids, or fluent solids, or for evacuating receivers, particularly 4 and 65+ for gas filling or evacuating.
445, Electric Lamp or Space Discharge Component or Device Manufacturing, for processes and apparatus for gas filling and/or evacuation of lamp and discharge device envelopes in connection with other manufacture or repair operations.
700, Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications, subclass 301 for pressure control.

Subclass: 37.5 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Subject matter for checking dimensions, shape or size of an object, or the spacing of selected portions thereof, having at least one unit for the direct application of fluid pressure thereto and utilizing the escape of fluid about the specimen as an index of its dimension, shape, size or spacing.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, 556 and 700+ for processes and apparatus for determining size or dimension by means of a mechanical contact or feeler which in turn influences the fluid flow, pressure or volume of indicating means.

Subclass: 37.6 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37.5. Subject matter in which the object is in motion during the test.

Subclass: 37.7 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37.6. Subject matter in which the object under test is a sheet, cable or filament.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
159 and see the search notes thereto, for other sheet or filament tests.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
226, Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length, 10 for fluid actuated material detectors for control of means which advance material of indefinite length and subclass 22 for pneumatic detectors to sense the lateral position of material.

Subclass: 37.8 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37.5. Subject matter for making measurements of each of two correlated objects or two portions of the same object.

Subclass: 37.9 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37.5. Subject matter for measurement of size of bores and similar concave openings in specimens.

Subclass: 38 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Subject matter for determining through the direct application of fluid under pressure the porosity (i.e., volume of interstices) of solids, the fineness of powdered materials, or action of filters; also, the determining of permeability (i.e., the passage or diffusibility of fluids through a specimen).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.05 for determining a characteristic of a formation in a borehole by measuring permeability or porosity.

Subclass: 39 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Subject matter, for the testing of the operating or control mechanism of fluid pressure operated brakes (e.g., air or hydraulic types for motor vehicles, trains, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
7 for testing the wear surfaces of brakes by abrasion, milling, rubbing or scuffing.
121 for other types of brake testing.
862.09 particularly subclasses 862.09+ for dynamo-meters having brakes.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
188, Brakes, particularly subclass 141 and 151+ for fluid pressure types.
303, Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake Systems.

Subclass: 40 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Subject matter for testing or determining leakage of a specimen or body.
(1) Note. The combination of means for testing specimens with means to reject those specimens which fail to pass the test is in Class 209, Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids, subclasses 509+ except where the test is a leakage test.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
48, Gas: Heating and Illuminating, 193 for detecting and preventing leakage from gas mains.
137, Fluid Handling, subclass 15.11 for a process of detecting or repairing a leak of a pipe, joint, valve, or tank.
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, subclass 90 for closure plugs useful in connection with leakage tests of pipes.
209, Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids, see Note 1.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 4, for leakage testing by measuring thermal parameters.

Subclass: 40.5 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 40. Subject matter for testing fluid operative systems or fluid handling conduits while in their operative assembly or position.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
48, Gas: Heating and Illuminating, subclass 193, for means associated with a gas main to detect or indicate leaks without positive means to create a condition whereby leakage is produced in a defective pipe or joint; and subclass 195 for the preparation of odorous material and/or the insertion thereof into a gas main.
166, Wells, subclass 179 and the subclasses here noted for packer or plug devices in wells which are inherently capable of use as fluid pressure leakage testers.

Subclass: 40.7 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 40. Subject matter wherein a probe gas, smoke, vapor or powder is applied to a specimen and its escape or penetration is detected.

Subclass: 41 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 40. Subject matter wherein the article under test (usually a can or other receptacle) is moved by a conveyor during or through the test operation.

Subclass: 41.2 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 41. Subject matter including immersing the article in a liquid.

Subclass: 41.3 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 41.2. Subject matter including means for segregating or discarding a defective article (e.g., the operator presses a button to reject a defective specimen).

Subclass: 41.4 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 41.3. Subject matter automatically responsive to a defective condition of the article.

Subclass: 45 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 41. Subject matter including means for segregating or discarding a defective article.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
41.3 for similar structure combined with immersion testing.

Subclass: 45.1 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 45. Subject matter responsive to a defective condition of the article.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
41.4 for similar structure combined with immersion testing.

Subclass: 45.2 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 45.1. Subject matter controlled or operated by electric or electromagnetic means.

Subclass: 45.3 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 45.1. Subject matter wherein the article is sustained against a test head by vacuum unless leakage of the article destroys the vacuum and permits the article to fall by gravity.

Subclass: 45.4 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 45.1. Subject matter relating to presealed containers.

Subclass: 45.5 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 40. Subject matter including immersing the specimen in a liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
41.2 for immersion test with conveyor means for moving the specimen through the liquid.

Subclass: 45.6 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 45.5. Subject matter for testing a pneumatic inner tube, casing, or tubeless tire.

Subclass: 45.7 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 45.6. Subject matter relating to mesh structure for inclosing the tire to prevent it from bursting under pressure.

Subclass: 45.8 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 45.5. Subject matter relating to a radiator.

Subclass: 46 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 40. Subject matter for testing or determining leakage between parts mechanically fitted together and capable of being separated without destruction (e.g., faucets, separable pipe joints having interfitted parts, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
37 and 40, for fluid pressure testing of rivets, welded seams, etc., for various purposes including leakage.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
277, Seal for a Joint or Juncture, for a generic sealing means or process, subclass 320 for a seal combined with means to indicate fluid leakage.

Subclass: 47 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 46. Subject matter for leakage testing of engine heads, i.e., any one or any combination of valve, piston or piston ring.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
119 for miscellaneous tests of engine parts.

Subclass: 48 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 46. Subject matter for leakage testing of tire valves.

Subclass: 49 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 40. Subject matter for testing of pneumatic tubeless tires, inner tubes or casings.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
45.6 for testing such articles by immersion.

Subclass: 49.1 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 40. Subject matter for testing for leakage of a pipe section.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
46 for similar testing of a separable joint.
49.5 for strength testing of pipe.

Subclass: 49.2 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 40. Subject matter for testing a receptacle.

Subclass: 49.3 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 49.2. Subject matter the receptacle being a presealed container.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
45.4 for testing for leakage of a sealed receptacle on a conveyor and with automatic discard means.
52 for other testing of a sealed receptacle.

Subclass: 49.4 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Subject matter
wherein a test liquid pressure is induced by a single stroke ram or plunger.

Subclass: 49.5 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Subject matter for testing pipe.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
49.1 for testing for leakage of a pipe section.

Subclass: 49.6 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 49.5. Subject matter including power operated means for closing or sealing the pipe ends.

Subclass: 49.7 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Subject matter for testing of a motor auxiliary or part.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
118 for other testing of auxiliary units.
119 for other testing of motor parts.

Subclass: 49.8 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 37. Subject matter relating to a clamp, plug or other sealing feature.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
49.6 for power operated means for sealing ends of a pipe under test.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, subclass 90 for a test plug closure for a conduit.

Subclass: 52 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for testing of sealed receptacles (usually cans). Test is usually for spoilage of contents, presence of foreign matter therein, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
37 particularly subclasses 45.4 and 49.3, for testing of sealed receptacles with extraneously applied fluid pressure.
824 for testing of sealed receptacles by rotating squeezing elements.

Subclass: 53.01 [Patents]

LIQUID ANALYSIS OR ANALYSIS OF THE SUSPENSION OF SOLIDS IN A LIQUID:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for detecting or determining the composition of, a constituent of, or a property of a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid.
(1) Note. Determining is considered to include measuring.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
10 for testing the effect of a lubricant on frictional resistance or coefficient.
32 for determining the specific gravity or the density of a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid wherein the density measuring is not used to further determine some other property of the liquid or the liquid suspension.
35.02 for measuring engine knock or detonation in order to determine a fuel rating.
152.42 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by analyzing a fluid.
169 for determining the physical characteristic of dough.
170.17 for a rain gauge.
290 for a liquid level gauge.
592 for liquid leakage or liquid location detection by using vibration.
700 for a fluid pressure gauge.
861 for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of a liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
128, Surgery, 630 for testing liquids wherein the test is conducted within a living body.
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, appropriate subclasses for electrolytic sensor, per se.
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclasses for using invisible light to test liquids and, in particular, 301 for methods of determining oil presence, contamination, or concentration using radiant energy; subclasses 306+ for inspection of liquids by charged particles, subclasses 336.1+ for invisible radiant energy signalling of conditions of liquids and subclasses 573+ for optical or pre-optical systems having a liquid in the path there of wherein the modification of or the emission of radiant energy resulting from the irradiation of the liquid is tested.
340, Communications: Electrical, 603 for a humanly perceptible indication of a predetermined condition of a liquid.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for determining a property of a liquid by measuring visible light.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, appropriate subclass for an apparatus for testing a liquid wherein a chemical reaction is involved.
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, 113 for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 53.02 [Patents]

Butter fat content:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the constituent is butter fat.

Subclass: 53.03 [Patents]

Paper or wood suspension (e.g., paper or wood pulp):
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring either the degree to which paper pulp or wood pulp relinquishes its water content or the percentage of water content relinquished.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
29.02 for determining the moisture content of a gas.
73 for determining the moisture content of solid or the absorptive characteristic of material for a liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
162, Paper Making and Fiber Liberation, subclass 258 for a device for regulating the ratio of liquid to fiber of pulp and subclass 263 for the combination of means for testing or permitting the examination of water in liquid laid fibrous product and a structure or mechanism for producing and/or treating water or liquid laid fibrous products.

Subclass: 53.04 [Patents]

By measuring fluid flow characteristic (e.g., by volume or rate of flow or by change in fluid level):
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.03. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a parameter which is characteristic of the liquid being in motion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.16 for proving or calibrating volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate, or flow or mass rate of flow.
1.73 for proving or calibrating a liquid level or volume measuring apparatus.
54.13 for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion
means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
54.19 for detail of a timing means in a device wherein viscosity is determined by gravity movement of an object in a liquid.
61.64 for determining settling or filtering ability by measuring volumetric or flow or sedimentation rate.
61.73 for utilizing flow effect to measure settling or filtering ability.
152.21 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a flow of a fluid during drilling.
170.11 for determining the direction and rate of flow of a fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
178 for the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861 for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of liquid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, appropriate subclass for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon the occurrence of a predetermined condition of a fluid.
128, Surgery, 668 for measuring blood flow in the body wherein there is disclosed structure for placement in a living body.
137, Fluid Handling, 98 for a self-proportioning flow system and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, appropriate subclass for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid combined with a device of that class type.
222, Dispensing, particularly subclass 14, 59, and 71 for volume or rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
250, Radiant Energy, particularly subclass 258, 259+, 356.1, and 432 for miscellaneous radiant energy responsive devices.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340, Communications: Electrical, 606 for electrical means
for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as the flow of fluid.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 27 for flow measuring means employing a laser.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, 89, for time interval measuring, per se.
377, Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems, subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
700, Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications, subclasses 282-285 for flow control.

Subclass: 53.05 [Patents]

Lubricant testing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the capability of a substance to reduce friction, heat, and wear when it is introduced as a film between two relatively movable solid surfaces.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
10 for an apparatus or a process for determining the effect of a lubricant upon the frictional drag between two relatively movable solid surfaces.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 301 for an apparatus or method for utilizing invisible radiant energy in testing for the presence of, the concentration of or contamination in oil.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclass 70 for determining the contamination of oil by measuring a characteristic of electromagnetic wave energy in the visible range.

Subclass: 53.06 [Patents]

By analyzing a characteristic of a measuring surface:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.05. Subject matter wherein determination is made by analyzing or observing the effect of the lubricant upon a surface.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
104 for surface inspection or testing, per se.

Subclass: 53.07 [Patents]

By solid content:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.05. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring an amount of particulate matter in the liquid.

Subclass: 54.01 [Patents]

Viscosity:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject wherein the determination is of the resistance of the liquid to change in shape or a force within the liquid that opposes motion therein (e.g. flow, usually by internal force reaction or energy absorption).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
822 for viscosity measurement in a solid by compressional testing.
843 for viscosity measurement in a solid by shear testing using a rotary element.
862.08 for torque measurement, per se.
862.38 for force measurement, per se.

Subclass: 54.02 [Patents]

Combined with other measuring means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter including another type of measuring process or apparatus.

Subclass: 54.03 [Patents]

Of concrete (e.g., slump indicator):
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter wherein the liquid is a mixture of cement, sand and gravel.

Subclass: 54.04 [Patents]

Friction tube (e.g., capillary):
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by using a small slender tubular conduit wherein the surface of the liquid in contact with the conduit forms an elevation or a depression due to either the molecular attraction of the molecules of the liquid to each other or the attraction of the molecules of the liquid to the molecules of the surface of the tube.

Subclass: 54.05 [Patents]

Plural tubes:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.04. Subject matter including more than one conduit.

Subclass: 54.06 [Patents]

By pressure measuring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.05. Subject matter wherein the determination includes measuring the force, per unit area, of the fluid moving through the conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.14 for determining viscosity by measuring pressure of the liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means.
61.47 for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73 for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78 for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46 for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51 for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700 for liquid pressure measurement, per se.

Subclass: 54.07 [Patents]

By time interval of travel or flow rate measuring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.04. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the volume of or the mass rate of flow of the liquid or the time elapsed for the liquid to move a predetermined distance.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.16 for proving or calibrating volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate, or flow or mass rate of flow.
53.04 for utilizing flow characteristics to measure a property of a paper or pulp suspension.
54.13 for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
54.19 for detail of a timing means in a device wherein viscosity is determined by gravity movement of an object in a liquid.
61.64 for the utilization of flow properties in order to determine settling or filtering ability.
61.73 for utilization of flow characteristic to measure the solid content of a liquid suspension.
152.29 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a rate of flow of a fluid, per se.
170.11 for determining the direction and rate of flow of a fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
178 for the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861 for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of liquid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, appropriate subclass, for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon the occurrence of a predetermined condition of a fluid.
128, Surgery, 668 for measuring blood flow in the body wherein there is disclosed structure for placement in a living body.
137, Fluid Handling, 98 for a self-proportioning flow system and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, appropriate subclass for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid combined with a device of that class type.
222, Dispensing, particularly subclass 14, 59, and 71 for volume of rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340, Communications: Electrical, 606 for electrical means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as the flow of fluid.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for flow measuring devices of the optical type including no manipulation other than that necessary for an optical test.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, 89, for time interval measuring, per se.
377, Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems, subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
700, Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications, subclass 281 for control of fluid level or volume, subclasses 282-285 for flow control.

Subclass: 54.08 [Patents]

Including a photocell:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.07. Subject matter including means having an electrical characteristic which changes in response to light.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.13 for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
866.5 for a sensor, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 200 for photocell detectors, per se.

Subclass: 54.09 [Patents]

By pressure measuring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.04. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force per unit area of the liquid moving through the conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.06 for measuring viscosity by pressure difference measuring using plural friction tubes.
54.14 for determining viscosity by measuring pressure of the liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means.
61.47 for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73 for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78 for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46 for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51 for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700 for liquid pressure measurement, per se.

Subclass: 54.11 [Patents]

Orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by utilizing the reaction of the liquid to flowing through an orifice, a nozzle, or an extrusion means.

Subclass: 54.12 [Patents]

Plural fluids (e. g., comparison):
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.11. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring reactions of plural liquids.

Subclass: 54.13 [Patents]

By time interval of travel or flow rate measuring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.11. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the volume or the mass rate of flow or the time elapsed for the liquid to move a predetermined distance.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.16 for proving or calibrating volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate, or flow or mass rate of flow.
53.04 for utilizing flow characteristics to measure a property of a paper or pulp suspension.
54.07 for time interval of travel or rate of flow measuring using friction tubes to determine viscosity.
54.19 for detail of a timing means in a device wherein viscosity is determined by gravity movement of an object in a liquid.
61.64 for the utilization of flow properties in order to determine settling or filtering ability.
61.73 for utilization of flow characteristic to measure the solid content of a liquid suspension.
152.21 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a rate of flow of a fluid during drilling.
152.29 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a rate of flow of a fluid, per se.
170.11 for the determining the direction and rate of flow of a fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
178 for the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861 for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of liquid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, appropriate subclass, for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon the occurrence of a predetermined condition of a fluid.
128, Surgery, 668 for measuring blood flow in the body wherein there is disclosed structure for placement in the living body.
137, Fluid Handling, 98 for a self-proportioning flow system and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, appropriate subclass for a device for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid in combination with an art device of that class type.
222, Dispensing, particularly subclass 14, 59, and 71 for volume of or rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340, Communications: Electrical, 606 for electrical means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as the flow of fluid.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for an optical measuring of fluid flow utilizing visible light but having no other manipulation recited other than that for use in an optical measurement of that class.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, 89 for time interval measuring, per se.
377, Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems, subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
700, Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications, subclass 281 for control of fluid level or volume, subclasses 282-285 for flow control.

Subclass: 54.14 [Patents]

By force, pressure, or displacement measuring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.11. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring either the force, pressure, or displacement force used to move or extrude the liquid or the pressure of the liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
61.47 for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73 for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78 for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46 for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51 for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700 for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
862.08 for torque measuring, per se.
862.38 for measuring force, per se.

Subclass: 54.15 [Patents]

Gravity movement of an object in a liquid ( e. g., a bubble):
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring rate at which an object rises (usually a bubble) or sinks in the liquid.

Subclass: 54.16 [Patents]

With detail of temperature or pressure regulating or compensating means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.15. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for controlling, regulating, or compensating for a thermal effect or pressure on the liquid.

Subclass: 54.17 [Patents]

Using a reference fluid:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.15. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by comparing the time of flight of an object through the liquid being tested with the time of flight of same or a second identical object through a liquid of a known standard viscosity.

Subclass: 54.18 [Patents]

With means for restoring an object to its initial starting position (e.g., magnetic or fluid means):
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.15. Subject matter including means for returning the object to its original position after the completion of each test.

Subclass: 54.19 [Patents]

Including detail of a timing detection circuit:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.15. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to an electrical circuit for detecting the time of flight of the object in the liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.13 for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, 89 for time interval measuring, per se.

Subclass: 54.21 [Patents]

Including an object concentricity guide means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.15. Subject matter including means for maintaining a constant gap between the container for the liquid and the falling object.

Subclass: 54.22 [Patents]

Adhesion between wetted surfaces:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the molecular attraction of the liquid to closely adjacent wetted surfaces between which it is located.

Subclass: 54.23 [Patents]

Force reactance to member driven therein:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force reaction of the liquid to a member (e.g., a disc, an impeller, a resonator, etc.) driven therein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.31 for measuring the driving force of a rotationally driven member in order to determine viscosity.
64.49 for determining the surface tension by measuring force.
862.08 for torque measuring, per se.
862.38 for force measuring, per se.

Subclass: 54.24 [Patents]

By vibration:
Subject matter under 54.23 wherein the determination is made by subjecting the member to mechanical vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.03 for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01 for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05 for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.41 for utilizing vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.45 for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture measuring vibration.
61.49 for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75 for measuring the solid components of a liquid utilizing vibration.
61.79 for utilizing vibration to determine the effect of the content of a liquid.
64.42 for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
64.53 for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
592 for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.

Subclass: 54.25 [Patents]

Dampening effect (e.g., frequency, amplitude, speed, or power measurement):
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.24. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a power, force, or current required to maintain a predetermined vibrational frequency or amplitude or change in frequency or amplitude of a vibrator driven by a constant force.

Subclass: 54.26 [Patents]

With detail of a drive means or a detecting means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.25. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a circuitry or other means used to vibrate the member or to the means which measure the vibrational effect of the member.

Subclass: 54.27 [Patents]

With detail (e. g., circuitry) of a drive means or a detecting means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.24. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a circuitry or other means used to vibrate the member or to the means which measure the vibrational effect of the member.

Subclass: 54.28 [Patents]

Rotationally driven member:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.23. Subject matter wherein the member is subjected to rotational motion of more than 360 degrees.
(1) Note. Oscillations of less than 360 degrees are considered vibrations.

Subclass: 54.29 [Patents]

Comparator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.28. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by comparing measurements of a member rotating in a first liquid with the same or an identical member rotating in a second liquid.

Subclass: 54.31 [Patents]

By measuring the driving force or the speed of the driven member:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.28. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the drive current or voltage for maintaining the member rotating at a constant speed or by measuring a speed of the driven member when driven by a constant force.

Subclass: 54.32 [Patents]

By measuring an opposed drag force:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.28. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a force exerted on a secondary member due to a viscous drag force.

Subclass: 54.33 [Patents]

By measuring angular displacement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.32. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the amount of movement imparted to the secondary member due to movement of the rotationally driven member.

Subclass: 54.34 [Patents]

By measuring a counterbalance or restoring force:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.32. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force is which is necessary to maintain stationary a secondary member which is displaced by a viscous drag force caused by the rotation of the driven member.

Subclass: 54.35 [Patents]

Including detail of a motor drive, a stator, or a housing structure of a motor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.28. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to either a means for converting energy to a form which results in the movement of the driven member, a stationary part of such means or an enclosure for such means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, appropriate subclass for electric motor structure or housing, per se.
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, appropriate subclass for a drive circuit for a motor or motor control, per se.

Subclass: 54.36 [Patents]

Penetrometer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.23. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the depth of or the rate of penetration of a member driven into the liquid with a predetermined force or by measuring a characteristic of the predetermined force on a member driven therein.

Subclass: 54.37 [Patents]

By movement or displacement between shearing surfaces:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.23. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the relative movement between adjacent or parallel surfaces when subjected to a predetermined force for a predetermined time.

Subclass: 54.38 [Patents]

Detector detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.23. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a sensing means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862 for a force responsive sensors or a torque responsive sensor.
866.5 for a sensing means, per se.

Subclass: 54.39 [Patents]

Shearing torque between parallel surfaces:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force which is necessary to shear a film of liquid disposed between closely adjacent relatively slidable surfaces.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.24 for similar subject matter wherein a reaction force is measured.

Subclass: 54.41 [Patents]

Vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the effect of the liquid or the suspension being tested on vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.03 for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01 for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05 for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24 for determining viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance to a member vibrated therein.
61.45 for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture measuring vibration.
61.49 for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75 for measuring the solid components of a liquid utilizing vibration.
61.79 for utilizing vibration to determine the effect of the content of a liquid.
64.42 for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
64.53 for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
592 for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.

Subclass: 54.42 [Patents]

Thermal:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a heat or a temperature related property.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
61.46 and 61.76+, for determining content or the effect of the constituent of a liquid mixture by means of a thermal measurement.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 43 for determining the inherent thermal properties, per se, of a liquid, subclass 54 for thermal measurement of liquid volume and subclass 139 for measuring the temperature of a liquid metal.

Subclass: 54.43 [Patents]

With detail of a pressure or a temperature regulating means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a means for controlling temperature or pressure within the apparatus for analyzing the liquid or the liquid suspension.

Subclass: 60.11 [Patents]

Cleaning or foaming ability:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring either the ability of the liquid or the liquid suspension to remove undesirable matter from a surface or the ability of liquid or the liquid suspension to foam bubbles.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations
Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, 113 for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 61.41 [Patents]

Content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by detecting or measuring the amount of or the presence of a constituent of a liquid mixture, the ratio of one constituent to at least another constituent, or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.2 for similar processes and apparatus for gas analysis, particularly subclasses 23.35+ for gas chromatography and subclasses 28.01+ for determining the solid content of a gas.
64.41 for tests of gelling or coagulation even though this effect may be disclosed as being caused by the presence of some constituent.
863.21 for samplers, per se, which isolate particulate matter from a liquid for latter analysis or inspection.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
62, Refrigeration, subclass 58 and 123+ for processes and apparatus, per se, for fractionally solidifying by freezing and separation.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, appropriate subclasses, for the separation of a solid from a liquid.

Subclass: 61.42 [Patents]

Metallic particle constituent:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41. Subject matter wherein the determination being made is of a liquid containing metallic particles.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 204 for determining magnetic properties of a liquid or a liquid mixture.

Subclass: 61.43 [Patents]

Liquid constituent of a liquid mixture:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring or detecting the amount, ratio, presence, or effect of one or more constituents of a mixture of liquids.

Subclass: 61.44 [Patents]

Plural liquid constituent (e.g., multiphase liquid):
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring or detecting the amount, ratio, presence, or effect of plural liquid constituents of a liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, 113 for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 61.45 [Patents]

By vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.44. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by detecting or measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.03 for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring
the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01 for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05 for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24 for determining viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance to a member vibrated therein.
54.41 for utilizing vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.49 for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75 for measuring the solid components of a liquid utilizing vibration.
61.79 for utilizing vibration to determine the effect of the content of a liquid.
64.42 for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
64.53 for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
592 for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, 113 for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 61.46 [Patents]

By thermal measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a heat or a temperature related property.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.42 for a thermal measurement of the viscosity of a liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for thermal measuring and testing, per se, or temperature measuring, per se.

Subclass: 61.47 [Patents]

By pressure measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force per unit area of the liquid or the liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.14 for determining viscosity of a liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means by measuring pressure.
61.73 for measuring pressure in order to determine the solid content of a liquid mixture.
61.78 for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46 for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51 for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700 for liquid pressure measurement, per se.

Subclass: 61.48 [Patents]

By optical irradiation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the effect of the sediment on visible light.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclasses for a photocell, per se, and for analyzing a liquid utilizing invisible light which is modified by transmission through or emission by the liquid being tested wherein the modified light is tested.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for
an optical measuring of fluid using visible light and involving no manipulation other than that necessary to perform the optical test.

Subclass: 61.49 [Patents]

By vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring of detecting the effect of the liquid on vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.03 for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
40.05 for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24 for determining the viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance of the liquid to the member vibrated therein.
54.41 for utilizing vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.45 for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture by utilizing vibration.
61.75 for utilizing vibration to measure the solid content of a liquid mixture.
61.79 for utilizing vibration to measure the content or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.42 for utilization of vibration for detecting gelling or coagulation characteristics of a liquid.
64.49 for determining surface tension by utilizing vibration.
64.53 for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
592 for utilizing vibration to test for liquid leakage or a pipe flaw.

Subclass: 61.51 [Patents]

Buoyant detector:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43. Subject
matter wherein the detector floats on the surface of the liquid.

Subclass: 61.52 [Patents]

Chromatography:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by successively testing the effluence of a mixture of liquids, which has contacted a solvent or sorbent which separates the mixture into fractional components in order to determine the quantity, quality or identity of a component of the effluent.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.1 for a gas chromatos:graphic process or apparatus for determining the presence of or the amount of gas in a liquid.
23.35 for the analysis of gas by chromatography.
863 for liquid sampling, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, 400 for electrolytic analysis and testing apparatus.
205, Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions, 775 for electrolytic analysis or testing processes.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, 85 for a liquid separator with a recorder, subclass 198.2 for a device for removing a constituent from a liquid by sorption combined with means to add treating material, subclasses 263+ for a liquid separator utilizing a bed of particulate material and subclasses 660+ for a process of removing a constituent from a liquid by sorption.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, particularly 459 for liquid analysis using ionization effects and appropriate subclasses for testing a liquid by measuring an electrical property of the liquid.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 409 for a process of liquid chromatography wherein a liquid substance, a solute in a solvent, or a miscible liquid is examined by transmission of light to furnish a quantitative or qualitative determination with respect to a chemical composition of the liquid analyzed in the absence of a color development.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting,
Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, subclass 70 for chromatos:graphic analysis of a liquid utilizing a chemical reaction.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, subclass 161 for a process or composition in which the results of a chemical reaction is subjected to a chromatos:graphic separation or analysis.

Subclass: 61.53 [Patents]

Column detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a tubular structure which is either packed with a material having a known absorption characteristic or is coated with a liquid of a high molecular weight and having known properties.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.39 for column detail of gas chromatography in gas analysis.

Subclass: 61.54 [Patents]

Paper or thin layer type:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52. Subject matter wherein the sorbent is a paper or other thin layer material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, subclass 198.3 for liquid separation using the layer chromatography.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, subclass subclass 162 for subject of that class type utilizing paper or thin layer plate chromatography.

Subclass: 61.55 [Patents]

Including sampling, sample handling, or sample preparation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52. Subject matter combined with means for obtaining a predetermined amount of a liquid to be tested, for treating a liquid sample in preparation for its analysis or for isolating individual components of a liquid prior to analysis thereof.
(1) Note. "Sampling" includes: (a) Transporting or handling previously obtained samples of liquid in preparation for analysis. or (b) Introducing previously obtained liquid samples in preparation for analysis. or (c) The preparation of a liquid sample prior to the analysis thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.41 for a chromatos:graphic gas analyzer including sample preparation or sampling.
23.42 for a chromatos:graphic gas analysis including detail of gas handling.
61.59 for a liquid analyzer using chromatography and including detail of sampling, sample handling or sample preparation.
155 for the measurement of liquid flow characteristics in a well bore utilizing sampling.
170.29 for the measurement of an oceanos:graphic phenomena combined with sampling the ocean.
863 for liquid sampling, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
4, Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons, appropriate subclass for a urine sampler combined with toilet or means to attach the sampler to the toilet.
23, Chemistry: Physical Processes, for a sampling process wherein a step of causing or promoting a chemical reaction, or regulating or controlling a chemical reaction are claimed.
128, Surgery, appropriate subclasses for body fluid samplers having means to contact the human body.
141, Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means, appropriate subclass, in particularly 21, 29+, 110, and 130 for a device or method of filling a receiver which is not part of a sampling system.
159, Concentrating Evaporators, subclass 30 for a combination of a concentrating vessel with means for withdrawing a quantity of liquid for examination.
166, Wells, in particularly 107, 142+, 162+, and 264 for an apparatus or method for sampling well fluids.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, 513 for gravitational separators and especially subclasses 514+ for milk and cream separators.
222, Dispensing, appropriate subclass for subject of that
class type which may include an apparatus or process for obtaining a predetermined portion of material from a mass but not for testing purposes.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 288 for mass spectrometers with sample supply.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 36 for subject matter of that class type including sample preparation and subclasses 244+ for sample holders.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 140 for a molten metal lance which may include a sample chamber and subclass 157 a thermometer combined with a sample cup.
417, Pumps, appropriate subclass for sampling pumps, per se.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, for a sampler wherein means for causing, promoting, regulating, or controlling a chemical reaction is claimed.
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, 309.1 for inoculators, streakers, or samplers adapted for use with microorganisms and enzymes; and subclass 288.6 for a microorganism or enzyme measuring and testing apparatus, including a column separation means.
604, Surgery, subclass 181 for syringes.

Subclass: 61.56 [Patents]

Detail of fluid handling means (e.g., valve, control, etc.):
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the means for confining, directing, or controlling the flow of liquid material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
141, Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means, appropriate subclass, in particularly 21, 29+, 110, and 130 for a device or method of filling a receiver which is not part of a sampling system.
159, Concentrating Evaporators, subclass 30 for a combination of a concentrating vessel with means for withdrawing a quantity of liquid for examination.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, 513 for gravitational separators and especially subclasses 514+ for milk and cream separators.
222, Dispensing, appropriate subclass for subject of that
class type which may include an apparatus or process for obtaining a predetermined portion of material from a mass but not for testing purposes.

Subclass: 61.57 [Patents]

With detail of compensation or regulating means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for controlling a condition within the apparatus or making a correction in a test result due to such condition.

Subclass: 61.58 [Patents]

Detector detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a sensing means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
61.61 for a sensing means for detecting liquid constituents of a liquid mixture, per se.
866.5 for a sensing means, per se

Subclass: 61.59 [Patents]

With detail of sampling, sample handling, or sample preparation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43. Subject matter combined with sampling means wherein significance is attributed to means for obtaining a predetermined amount of a liquid to be tested, for treating a liquid sample in preparation for its analysis or for isolating individual components of a liquid prior to analysis thereof.
(1) Note. "Sampling" includes: (a) Transporting or handling previously obtained samples of liquid in preparation for analysis. or (b) Introducing previously obtained liquid samples in preparation for analysis. or (c) The preparation of a liquid sample prior to the analysis thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.23 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a flow of a fluid, utilizing sampling.
170.29 for the measurement of an oceanos:graphic phenomena combined with sampling the ocean.
863 for liquid sampling, liquid sample handling, or liquid sample preparation, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
4, Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons, appropriate subclasses for a urine sampler, combined with toilet or means to attach the sampler to the toilet.
23, Chemistry: Physical Processes, appropriate subclasses for a sampling process wherein a step of causing or promoting a chemical reaction, or regulating or controlling a chemical reaction are claimed.
128, Surgery, 185 for body fluid samplers having means to contact the human body.
141, Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means, appropriate subclass, in particularly 21, 29+, 110, and 130 for a device or method of filling a receiver which is not part of a sampling system.
159, Concentrating Evaporators, subclass 30 for a combination of a concentrating vessel with means for withdrawing a quantity of liquid for examination.
166, Wells, in particularly 107, 142+, 162+, and 264 for an apparatus or method for sampling well fluids.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, 513 for gravitational separators and especially subclasses 514+ for milk and cream separators.
222, Dispensing, appropriate subclass for subject of that class type which may include an apparatus or process for obtaining a predetermined portion of material from a mass but not for testing purposes.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 288 for mass spectrometers with sample supply.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 36 for subject matter of that class type including sample preparation and subclasses 244+ for sample holders.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 140 for a molten metal lance which may include a sample chamber and subclass 157 a thermometer combined with a sample cup.
417, Pumps, for sampling pumps, per se.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, appropriate subclass
for a sampler wherein means for causing, promoting, regulating or controlling a chemical reaction is claimed.
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, 309.1 for inoculators, streakers, or samplers adapted for use with microorganisms and enzymes.
604, Surgery, subclass 181 for syringes.

Subclass: 61.61 [Patents]

Detector detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a sensing means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
61.58 for a sensing means for chromatos:graphic determination of content or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
866.5 for a sensing means, per se.

Subclass: 61.62 [Patents]

Depositing characteristic:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the ability of the constituent of a liquid to form a deposit or a coating on a surface (e.g., slime or seal).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
86 for tests for treating a nonliquid specimen to determine the effect of a liquid on brittleness or erosion resistance.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
252, Compositions, 175 for scale inhibiting compositions.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, subclass 53 for corrosion testing apparatus.
510, Cleaning Compositions for Solid Surfaces, Auxiliary Compositions Therefor, or Processes of Preparing the Compositions, for cleaning compositions, including detergents, for solid surfaces and 245 for scale removing compositions.

Subclass: 61.63 [Patents]

Settling or filtering ability:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by detecting or measuring a characteristic associated with the tendency of the sediment to settle at the bottom of the liquid or a characteristic associated with resistance offered by the mixture when passing through material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, 113 for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 61.64 [Patents]

By volume or flow rate:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.63. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the volume of flow, the speed, the volume rate of flow or mass rate of flow of the liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.16 for proving or calibrating volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate, or flow or mass rate of flow.
1.73 for proving or calibrating a liquid level or volume measuring apparatus.
53.04 for a property of a paper or wood suspension by measuring flow characteristic.
54.13 for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
54.19 for detail of a timing means in a device wherein viscosity is determined by gravity movement of an object in a liquid.
61.73 for utilizing flow effect to measure solid components of a liquid suspension.
152.18 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a flow of a fluid or by analyzing a fluid.
170.11 for determining the direction and rate of flow of a fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
178 for determining the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861 for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of liquid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, appropriate subclasses, for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon the occurrence of a predetermined condition of a fluid.
128, Surgery, 668 for measuring blood flow in the body wherein there is disclosed structure for placement in the living body.
137, Fluid Handling, 98 for a self-proportioning flow system and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, appropriate subclasses for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid combined with a device of that class.
222, Dispensing, particularly subclass 14, 59, and 71 for volume or rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
250, Radiant Energy, particularly subclass 258, 259+, 356.1, and 432 for miscellaneous radiant energy responsive devices.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340, Communications: Electrical, 606 for electrical means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as the flow of fluid.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for an optical measuring of fluid flow not involving nonoptical measuring or testing beyond that found in Class 356.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 510 for an application of computers or data processing in fluid flow studying.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, 89 for time interval measuring, per se.
377, Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems, subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.

Subclass: 61.65 [Patents]

Sedimentation rate:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.63. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the rate at which the sediment settles to the bottom of the liquid.

Subclass: 61.66 [Patents]

With means for accelerating solids (e.g., particles):
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.65. Subject matter including means for imparting an increase in the rate at which the sediment settles.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, 113 for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 61.67 [Patents]

By pressure measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.65. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.14 for determining viscosity of a liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means by measuring pressure.
61.47 for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73 for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78 for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46 for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51 for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700 for liquid pressure measurement, per se.

Subclass: 61.68 [Patents]

Including detail of fluid handling means, sampling, sample handling, or sample preparation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.65. Subject matter combined with sampling means wherein significance is attributed to means for obtaining a predetermined amount of a liquid to be tested, for treating a liquid sample in preparation for its analysis or for isolating individual components of a liquid prior to analysis thereof and/or to means for confining, directing, or controlling the flow of liquid material.
(1) Note. "Sampling" includes: (a) Transporting or handling previously obtained samples of liquid in preparation for analysis; or (b) introducing previously obtained liquid samples in preparation for analysis; or (c) the preparation of a liquid sample prior to the analysis thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.41 for a chromatos:graphic gas analyzer including sample preparation or sampling.
23.42 for a chromatos:graphic gas analysis including detail of gas handling.
61.59 for a liquid analyzer using chromatography and including detail of sampling, sample handling, or sample preparation.
152.18 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a flow of a fluid, utilizing sampling.
170.29 for the measurement of an oceanos:graphic phenomena combined with sampling the ocean.
863 for sampling, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
4, Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons, appropriate subclass for a urine sampler, combined with toilet or means to attach the sampler to the toilet.
23, Chemistry: Physical Processes, for a sampling process wherein a step of causing or promoting a chemical reaction, or regulating or controlling a chemical reaction are claimed.
128, Surgery, 185 for body fluid samplers having means to contact the human body.
137, Fluid Handling, for valves, per se.
141, Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means, appropriate subclasses, in particularly 21, 29+, 110, and 130 for a device or method of filling a receiver which is not part of a sampling system.
159, Concentrating Evaporators, subclass 30 for a combination of a concentrating vessel with means for withdrawing a quantity of liquid for examination.
166, Wells, in particularly 107, 142+, 162+, and 264 for an apparatus or method for sampling well fluids.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, 513 for gravitational separators and especially subclasses 514+ for milk and cream separators.
222, Dispensing, appropriate subclasses for subject of that class type which may include an apparatus or process for obtaining a predetermined portion of material from a mass but not for testing purposes.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 288 for mass spectrometers with sample supply.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 36 for subject matter of that class type including sample preparation and subclasses 244+ for sample holders.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 140 for a molten metal lance which may include a sample chamber and subclass 157 a thermometer combined with a sample cup.
417, Pumps, appropriate subclasses for sampling pumps, per se.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, appropriate subclasses for a sampler wherein means for causing, promoting, regulating or controlling a chemical reaction is claimed.
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, 309.1 for inoculators, streakers, or samplers adapted for use with microorganisms and enzymes.
604, Surgery, subclass 181 for syringes.

Subclass: 61.69 [Patents]

By optical measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.65. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the effect of the sediment on light.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclasses for a photocell, per se, and for analyzing a liquid utilizing invisible light which is modified by transmission through or emission by the liquid being tested wherein the modified light is tested.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclass 436 for measuring visible light transmission or absorption of a liquid wherein the test involves no manipulation other than that involved in optical testing.

Subclass: 61.71 [Patents]

For measuring solid components (e.g., particles):
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring or detecting the identity of, the amount of or the effect of a solid constituent of the liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
865.5 for measuring particle size, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 335 for determining particle size by measuring scattered visible light and subclass 544 for measuring visible light transmission to
inspect or to study a suspension of particles in a liquid.
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, 113 for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 61.72 [Patents]

By separation and subsequent measurement (e.g., by weighing, X-ray or microscope, etc.):
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.71. Subject matter including means for isolating the solid from the liquid and wherein the determination is made subsequent to the isolation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, appropriate subclass, for the separation of liquid components, per se.
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, 113 for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 61.73 [Patents]

By flowing through barrier or restriction and measuring flow effect (e.g., pressure, volume of or rate of flow):
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.71. Subject matter wherein the isolation is made by means of an element located in a flow path of the liquid and the determination is made by measuring the effect of the movement of the liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.16 for proving or calibrating volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate, or flow or mass rate of flow.
53.04 for determining paper and wood suspension properties by measuring flow characteristic.
54.13 for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
54.19 for detail of a timing means in a device wherein viscosity is determined by gravity movement of an object in a liquid.
61.64 for determining settling or filtering ability by measuring volume or flow rate of the liquid or the liquid mixture.
152.18 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a flow of a fluid or by analyzing a fluid.
170.11 for the determining the direction and rate of flow of a fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
178 for the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861 for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of liquid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, appropriate subclass, for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon the occurrence of a predetermined condition of a fluid.
128, Surgery, 668 for measuring blood flow in the body wherein there is disclosed structure for placement in a living body.
137, Fluid Handling, 98 for a self-proportioning flow system and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid combined with a device of that class type.
222, Dispensing, particularly subclass 14, 59, and 71 for volume of rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
250, Radiant Energy, particularly subclass 258, 259+, 320+, 356.1, and 432 for miscellaneous radiant energy responsive devices.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340, Communications: Electrical, 606 for electrical means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as the flow of fluid.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for an optical measuring of liquid flow not involving nonoptical measuring or testing.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, 89, for time interval measuring, per se.
377, Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems, subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
700, Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications, subclass 281 for control of fluid level or volume, and subclasses 282-285 for flow control.

Subclass: 61.74 [Patents]

Thermal:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.73. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a heat or a temperature related property.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.42 for determining viscosity by making thermal measurement.
61.46 and 61.76+, for a thermal measurement of content or the effect of the constituent of a liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 43 for determining the inherent thermal properties, per se, of a liquid, subclass 54 for thermal measurement of liquid volume and subclass 139 for measuring the temperature of a liquid metal.

Subclass: 61.75 [Patents]

Vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.71. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the effect of the suspension being tested on vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.03 for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01 for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05 for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24 for determining viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance to a member vibrated therein.
54.41 for determining viscosity by utilizing vibration.
61.45 for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture measuring vibration.
61.49 for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.79 for utilizing vibration to determine the effect of the content of a liquid.
64.42 for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
592 for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.

Subclass: 61.76 [Patents]

By thermal measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a heat or temperature related property.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.42 for determining viscosity by measuring heat transmitting or heat related properties.
61.46 and 61.74, for the thermal measurement of the liquid content of a liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 54 for thermal measurement of a liquid volume and subclass 139 for measuring the temperature of molten metal.

Subclass: 61.77 [Patents]

Vaporization (e.g., evaporation, distillation, etc.):
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.76. Subject matter wherein the property being tested is the rate at which a liquid turns into a vapor or the heat required to change a liquid into a vapor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
36 for an end point test of hydrocarbons.
61.46 and 61.74, for thermal measuring of the liquid content of a liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 16 for a test to determine a thermal characteristic of a specimen or the temperature at which the specimen changes its physical state.

Subclass: 61.78 [Patents]

By pressure measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring force per unit area.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.14 for determining viscosity of a liquid flowing through an orifice, a nozzle or an extrusion means by measuring pressure.
61.47 for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73 for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
64.47 For measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51 for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700 for liquid pressure measurement, per se.

Subclass: 61.79 [Patents]

By vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by utilizing vibration in order to measure or detect the content of or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.03 for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01 for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05 for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24 for determining viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance to a member vibrated therein.
54.41 for utilizing vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.45 for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture measuring vibration.
61.49 for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75 for measuring the solid components of a liquid utilizing vibration.
64.42 for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
64.53 for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
592 for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.

Subclass: 64.41 [Patents]

Gelling or coagulation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring or detecting the ability of the liquid to coagulate, to form a clot, or to form a stiffened or solid colloid-like mass.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, 113 for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.

Subclass: 64.42 [Patents]

By vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.41. Subject matter wherein the property is being determined by the effect of the liquid upon vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.03 for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
40.05 for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
64.53 for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
54.41 for the utilization of vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.45 for the utilization of vibration for determining a multiphase constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.49 for the utilization of vibration to determine the content or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75 for the utilization of vibration to measure the solid content of a liquid mixture.
61.79 for the utilization of vibration to measure the content or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
592 for the utilization of vibration to test for liquid leakage or a pipe flaw.

Subclass: 64.43 [Patents]

By optical measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.41. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring or detecting the effect of the liquid on light.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclass, for a photocell, per se, and 574 for an optical or preoptical system having a liquid in the path thereof wherein the modification of or the emission of the radiant energy resulting from the irradiation of the liquid is tested.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclass 436 for measuring visible light transmission or absorption of a liquid wherein the test involves no manipulation other than that involved in optical testing.

Subclass: 64.44 [Patents]

Vapor-liquid ratio:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the ratio of the amount of vapor above a confined liquid to the volume of the confined liquid.

Subclass: 64.45 [Patents]

Vapor pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the pressure of the vapor of a liquid above a confined body of liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.14 for determining viscosity of the liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means by measuring pressure.
61.47 for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73 for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78 for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46 for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51 for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700 for liquid pressure measurement, per se.

Subclass: 64.46 [Patents]

Differential pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.45. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by utilizing plural pressures.

Subclass: 64.47 [Patents]

Osmotic pressure (e.g., diffusion characteristic):
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the pressure due to diffusion of the liquid through a material (e.g., through a member which is selective to one constituent of a liquid; the art term for the member being semi-permeable member).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.14 for determining viscosity by measuring pressure of the liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means.
61.73 for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78 for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.51 for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700 for liquid pressure measurement, per se.

Subclass: 64.48 [Patents]

Surface tension:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the contractile strength of the elastic skin effect at the surface of a body of liquid.

Subclass: 64.49 [Patents]

By force or torque:
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.48. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force or the torque required to immerse the member into or to separate the member from the liquid surface or the force exerted upon a member by the liquid.

Subclass: 64.51 [Patents]

By pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.48. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a force per unit area.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.14 for determining viscosity by measuring pressure of the liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle or extrusion means.
61.47 for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73 for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78 for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46 for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
700 for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
862 for a dynamometer responsive to force or torque.

Subclass: 64.52 [Patents]

Liquid droplet:
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.48. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a characteristic of liquid drops produced by flowing a liquid through an orifice.

Subclass: 64.53 [Patents]

By vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.03 for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01 for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05 for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24 for determining viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance to a member vibrated therein.
54.41 for utilizing vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.45 for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture measuring vibration.
61.49 for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75 for measuring the solid components of a liquid utilizing vibration.
61.79 for utilizing vibration to determine the effect of the content of a liquid.
64.42 for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
592 for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.

Subclass: 64.54 [Patents]

Molecular weight:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the sum of the atomic weight of a molecule's constituent atoms.

Subclass: 64.55 [Patents]

Interface:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by detecting or measuring a property of the section along a fluid flow where liquid of a first kind immediately followed by a liquid of a second kind meets.

Subclass: 64.56 [Patents]

Sampler, constituent separation, sample handling, or sample preparation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01. Subject matter combined with means for obtaining a predetermined amount of a liquid to be tested, for treating a liquid sample in preparation for its analysis or for isolating individual components of a liquid prior to analysis thereof.
(1) Note. "Sampling" includes: (a) Transporting or handling previously obtained samples of Liquid in preparation for analysis, or (b) introducing previously obtained liquid samples in preparation for analysis, or (c) the preparation of a liquid sample prior to the analysis thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.41 for a chromatos:graphic gas analyzer including sample preparation or sampling.
23.42 for a chromatos:graphic gas analysis including detail of gas handling.
61.59 for a liquid analyzer using chromatography and including detail of sampling, sample handling, or sample preparation.
155 for the measurement of liquid flow characteristics in a well bore utilizing sampling.
170.29 for the measurement of an oceanos:graphic phenomena combined with sampling the ocean.
863 for liquid sampling, liquid handling or liquid sample preparation, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
4, Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons, appropriate subclasses for a urine sampler, combined with toilet or means to attach the sampler to the toilet.
23, Chemistry: Physical Processes, appropriate subclasses for a sampling process wherein a step of causing or promoting a chemical reaction, or regulating or controlling a chemical reaction are claimed.
128, Surgery, appropriate 185 for body fluid samplers having means to contact the human body.
141, Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means, appropriate subclass, in particularly 21, 29+, 110, and 130 for a device or method of filling a receiver which is not part of a sampling system.
159, Concentrating Evaporators, subclass 30 for a combination of a concentrating vessel with means for withdrawing a quantity of liquid for examination.
166, Wells, in particularly 107, 142+, 162+, and 264 for an apparatus or method for sampling well fluids.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, 513 for gravitational separators and especially subclasses 514+ for milk and cream separators.
222, Dispensing, appropriate subclass for subject of that class type which may include an apparatus or process for obtaining a predetermined portion of material from a mass but not for testing purposes.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 288 for mass spectrometers with sample supply.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 36 for subject matter of that class type including sample preparation and subclasses 244+ for sample holders.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 140 for a molten metal lance which may include a sample chamber and subclass 157 a thermometer combined with a sample cup.
417, Pumps, appropriate subclasses for sampling pumps, per se.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, for a sampler wherein means for causing, promoting, regulating, or controlling a chemical reaction is claimed.
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, 309.1 for inoculators, streakers, or samplers adapted for use with micro-organisms and enzymes; and subclass 288.6 for a micro-organism or enzyme measuring and testing apparatus including a column separation means.
604, Surgery, subclass 181 for syringes.

Subclass: 65.01 [Patents]

CENTER OF GRAVITY; TURNING MOMENT; METACENTRIC HEIGHT:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for determining (a) the point at which the entire weight of a body (e.g., a crank or a craft) may be considered as concentrated so that if supported at such a point the body would remain in equilibrium in any position, or (b) the ratio of the torque, applied to a rigid body free to rotate about a given axis, to the angular acceleration thus produced about that axis, or (c) the point of intersection of a vertical line through the center of buoyancy of a floating body with a vertical line through a new center of buoyancy when the body is displaced.
(1) Note. This subclass covers determination of mass distribution and balance of all bodies save rotors.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
66 for rotor balancing.
172 for weight distribution on the human foot.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
701, Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location, subclass 124 for an electrical processing or data processing system used in the determination of weight distribution of a body where only the nominal structure of a sensor is recited.

Subclass: 65.02 [Patents]

Spherical specimen:
This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01. Subject matter wherein the body is bounded by a surface, all points of which are at an equal distance from a point constituting its center.

Subclass: 65.03 [Patents]

Ball driving sporting implement (e.g., golf club, baseball bat, etc.):
This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01. Subject matter wherein the body comprises a device for imparting motion to a spherical element used in recreation.

Subclass: 65.04 [Patents]

Watercraft (e.g., metacentric height):
This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01. Subject matter wherein the body is a craft for water transport.

Subclass: 65.05 [Patents]

Air or space vehicle:
This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01. Subject matter wherein the body is a structure for (a) navigation of the air or (b) orbiting the Earth or traveling beyond the Earth's atmosphere.

Subclass: 65.06 [Patents]

Electric sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 65.05. Subject matter including means whose electron flow or electron storage characteristic changes in response to the determination being made.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
65.09 for an electric sensor, per se, for determining the center of gravity, a turning moment, or a metacentric height.
866.5 for a probe or probe mounting, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclasses for a light responsive sensor, per se.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311 for a piezoelectric sensor, per se.
338, Electrical Resistors, 2 for a strain gauge, per se, and subclasses 13+ for a condition responsive resistor, per se.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280 for a capacitor-type sensor, per se.

Subclass: 65.07 [Patents]

Dynamic:
This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by providing motion
to the body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
570 for vibration testing, per se.

Subclass: 65.08 [Patents]

Torsional oscillation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 65.07. Subject matter wherein one part of the body swings about a longitudinal axis while the other part of the body is held fast or turned in the opposite direction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
570 for vibration testing, per se.

Subclass: 65.09 [Patents]

Electric sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01. Subject matter including means whose electron flow or electron storage characteristic changes in response to the determination being made.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
65.06 for an electric sensor for determining the center of gravity, a turning moment, or a metacentric height of an air or space vehicle.
866.5 for a probe or probe mounting, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclasses for a light responsive sensor, per se.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311 for a piezoelectric sensor, per se.
338, Electrical Resistors, appropriate 2 for a strain gauge resistor, per se, and subclasses 13+ for a condition responsive resistor, per se.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280 for a capacitor-type sensor, per se.

Subclass: 66 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for determining the amount and/or location of masses or forces causing unbalance in rotatable bodies. The combination of a balance testing device with means to correct for the unbalance is classified with the latter. However, methods of testing for unbalance which broadly recite the additional step of adding or removing material in accordance with the indicated unbalance are found here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
147 for devices for testing the aerodynamic balance of propellers and helicopter rotor blades.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, 572 for miscellaneous rotor structures including those having balancing means.
82, Turning, for the combination of balancing by turning.
123, Internal-Combustion Engines, 192.1, for compensating devices for engines, e.g., crank shafts.
219, Electric Heating, for combinations of balancing by electric welding.
408, Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool, subclass 2 for balancing by drilling.
451, Abrading, for the combination of balancing by abrading.

Subclass: 73 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for the determination of either the moisture content of materials (e.g., paper, wood, grain, etc.) or the absorptive characteristics of materials for water or other liquids.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19 for determination of gas content of materials.
29 for determination of the moisture content of gases.
61.41 for determination of moisture or water content of liquids.
335 for hygrometers and hygrostats.

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324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for means and methods of moisture content determination by electrical apparatus which measures an electrical characteristic such as capacity or conductivity of the medium in which the moisture exists; note particularly 664, 689 and 694+.

Subclass: 74 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 73. Subject matter for determination of moisture content by bringing the specimen (usually sand) up to the saturation point while measuring the required addition (residual capacity) as criterion.

Subclass: 75 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 73. Subject matter in which the heat conductivity of the specimen is the criterion for determining moisture content.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 43.

Subclass: 76 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 73. Subject matter for determination of moisture content of materials wherein the moisture is extracted, collected, and measured as an index.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
34, Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids, and see the notes thereto for drying and extraction of liquids from solids in general.

Subclass: 77 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 73. Subject matter for determination of moisture content of materials wherein wet and dry bulb temperature readings are employed, as criteria.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
338 for wet and dry responsive element hygrometers and hygrostats, per se.

Subclass: 78 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for direct measurement of the hardness of materials.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
7 where abrasive or milling characteristic is employed as an index of hardness.
12.01 for other tests in which the specimen is subjected to one or more sudden blows.
104 for durability of cutting edges as an index of hardness.
821 for tests of the crushing point of material, sometimes erroneously designated as "hardness".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
100, Presses, appropriate subclasses for presses not elsewhere provided for.

Subclass: 79 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 78. Subject matter wherein hardness is measured or determined by either dropping an object on the specimen and observing rebound, or by dropping the specimen upon an anvil and observing rebound.

Subclass: 81 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 78. Subject matter wherein hardness is measured in terms of its resistance to a penetrator or to indentation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
78 for resistance to drilling as index of hardness.
700 for fluid pressure gauges, other than those which measure the hardness of the tire as an index of fluid pressure which are in this subclass (81).

Subclass: 82 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 81. Subject matter for measurement of hardness of materials wherein a penetrator or indentor is impelled against the specimen under a predetermined force.

Subclass: 83 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 81. Subject matter wherein a penetrator or indentor is urged into the specimen with successive minor (to penetrate the skin) and major loads. Usually the penetration measurement begins with the major load.

Subclass: 84 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 81. Subject matter for determining, through resistance to a penetrator, the load sustaining or bearing capacity of soil or foundations.

Subclass: 85 [Patents]

Penetrator elements or points, per se, or holders therefor employed by the apparatus or processes of subclasses 81+.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, 189.
279, Chucks or Sockets.

Subclass: 86 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for treating specimens with fluids to determine the effect of such fluids on the brittleness or the erosion resistant properties of such specimens.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
87 for determination of the instant brittleness rating of a specimen, as compared with embrittlement which is the aging of the material to brittleness.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, subclass 53 for corrosion testing apparatus.

Subclass: 87 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for determining the degree of brittleness or ductility of a specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
788 for mere determination of strength of materials, as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexing, bending or folding strength, bursting or rupture strength of sheet material, etc.

Subclass: 104 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for testing surfaces and cutting edges for defects. The surface inspection includes such variations as soft spots, cracks, fissures and other flaws not elsewhere classified.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
40 for leakage tests.
53.06 for lubricant testing by analyzing characteristics of a measuring surface.
64.48 for measuring the surface tension of a liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 302 for methods of using fluorescent and radioactive tracer material to detect flaws.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 213 and 216 for flaw detection by magnetic tests.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclass 2 for contour plotting, subclass 69 for cutting blade sharpness tests, and subclass 371 for flatness testing.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 4 for detection of flaws or leaks by thermal effects.
378, X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices, 58 for flaw analysis.

Subclass: 105 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 104. Subject matter for testing of surfaces for roughness.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, for the measurement of surface contour and depth of valleys.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 445 for light reflection tests including glass and light diffusion tests.

Subclass: 112 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for determining the working efficiency (input vs. output) of power plants or units thereof, such as condensers.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862 for dynamometers.

Subclass: 113 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 112. Subject matter for measuring fuel consumption over selected period of operation or distance traveled.

Subclass: 114 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 113. Subject matter for indicating at any given instant or for an immediately elapsed period or distance the rate of fuel consumption per mile.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
235, Registers, 61 for "miles per gallon" calculators, where the characteristics of the devices which respond to engine or vehicle operation or to fuel feed are not claimed, though they may be included by name or type as operators of the calculator.

Subclass: 115 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 112. Subject matter utilizing the pressure within an engine as a factor of its performance or efficiency.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
346, Recorders, appropriate subclass.

Subclass: 116 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for performing a test on a motor or engine to determine a distinguishing, operational characteristic.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
35.01 for testing characteristics of motor fuels in engines.
112 for power unit efficiency tests.
570 for performing similar disparate test utilizing vibrational characteristics.
700 for a gauge for checking compression in an engine.
862 for horsepower tests, work, torque, or engine loading by a dynamometer.

Subclass: 117 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 116. Subject matter where the motor drives the vehicle wheels which, in turn, are supported upon rollers or a belt which comprise part of the test means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
123 for other combinations including a roller or belt wheel support.

Subclass: 117.1 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 116. Subject matter including an enclosure or a tank which provides controlled simulated conditions.

Subclass: 117.2 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 116. Subject matter comprising plural means for performing diverse tests on a motor or an engine under operating conditions.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
117 for disparate tests while the vehicle wheel is supported on rollers or belt.

Subclass: 117.3 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 117.2. Subject matter where the tests are made without shutdown of the engine during actual operation or on a test stand.

Subclass: 117.4 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 116. Subject matter for obtaining a measurement of thrust as developed by a reaction or reciprocating engine during actual use or on a test stand.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862.381 for direct push or pull thrust measurement only.

Subclass: 118.1 [Patents]

Testing auxiliary unit:
This subclass is indented under subclass 116. Subject matter for the testing of auxiliary units of motors and power units, including carburetors, generators, starters, ignition parts, etc.
(1) Note. Ignition testing where the sensing means is mechanical in nature or responsive to pressure is herein included.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
49.7 for testing of an auxiliary unit with fluid pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 378 for ignition system testing to determine electrical properties by electrical means, and subclasses 181+ where electrical timing is involved.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, 113 where electrical timing is involved.

Subclass: 118.2 [Patents]

Intake air flow:
This subclass is indented under subclass 118.1. Subject matter wherein the auxiliary unit is the air intake passage
of the engine and the measurement is the airflow rate.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861 for the measurement of volume or rate of flow, per se.

Subclass: 119 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 116. Subject matter for testing of parts of motors and power apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
47 for leakage tests for pistons, rings, or valves.
49.7 for testing of a motor part with fluid pressure.

Subclass: 120 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 119. Subject matter in which a piston ring is the thing tested.

Subclass: 121 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for measuring or testing the action of vehicle brakes.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
7 for testing the wear qualities of brake surfaces.
9 for determining friction qualities.
39 for use of fluid pressure to test fluid pressure brake units or systems.

Subclass: 122 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 121. Subject matter in which a vehicle wheel engages a yieldably slidable
platform and the brake effect is interpreted by the reactive motion of the platform.

Subclass: 123 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 121. Subject matter wherein vehicle wheels are supported upon a belt or roller during the brake test operation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
117 for motor or engine testing involving a roller or belt type of vehicle wheel support.

Subclass: 124 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 123. Subject matter wherein the vehicle wheels are supported upon rollers or belt, characterized by the fact that the front and rear wheel supports are relatively shiftable.

Subclass: 125 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 123. Subject matter wherein the vehicle and wheels and/or an inertia member is set in motion to simulate the momentum of the vehicle and the brake test is to overcome the inertia effect.

Subclass: 126 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 123. Subject matter wherein the vehicle wheels under test while supported upon rollers or belts are driven against the action of the brakes and the driving effort employed is an index of brake condition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862 for dynamometers usable for determining driving effort of brake testers.

Subclass: 127 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 126. Subject matter comprising a portable roller or belt unit (for disposition under the vehicle wheels seriatim), equipped with means for measuring the driving effort.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
130 for other forms of single wheel drive and torque measuring testers.

Subclass: 128 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 121. Subject matter comprising devices temporarily applied to vehicle in making road brake test.

Subclass: 129 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 121. Subject matter, in which the brake testing arrangement is incorporated into the vehicle as a permanent part thereof.

Subclass: 130 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 121. Subject matter for rotating an individual vehicle wheel and measuring the required force.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
127 for roller or belt wheel support type.

Subclass: 131 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 130. Subject matter
comprising a torque measuring lever or lever system, said lever having no ground support or reaction means, for measuring the force required to move a vehicle wheel when out of ground contact against the resistance of its applied brake.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862.21 for similar torque measuring levers.

Subclass: 132 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 121. Subject matter comprising devices for depressing brake pedal with a measured force.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
254, Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force, for such devices without measuring means.

Subclass: 146 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for testing of tires, treads or roadways. "Sperry cars" are here included.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
8 for tests of such devices by abrasion, milling, rubbing, or scuffing.

Subclass: 146.2 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 146. Subject matter for testing the degree of inflation of tires, inflation sensing means being installed on vehicle structure, wheel or tire, with indicator means disposed on or within the vehicle or wheel.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
78 for testing tire inflation by its hardness, or by its resistance to indentation.
862.381 for thrust measuring means, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, subclass 34, for mechanical apparatus to indicate merely over or under pressure in tires.
137, Fluid Handling, 227 for tire stem inflation means, usually valves, with a gauge or indicator.
152, Resilient Tires and Wheels, 415 for a wheel or tire having tire inflating means, with or without pressure indicating or measuring means.

Subclass: 146.3 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 146.2. Subject matter including a direct fluid pressure sensing unit communicating with the interior of the tire, as through its valve stem.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
700 for fluid pressure gauges of more general utility.

Subclass: 146.4 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 146.3. Subject matter wherein the reading is transmitted to a distant point, usually to the instrument board of the vehicle.

Subclass: 146.5 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 146.4. Subject matter wherein the transmission is by electric means.

Subclass: 146.8 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 146.3. Subject matter wherein the gauge is mounted, or used, on the tire
stem, usually as a replacement for a valve cap.

Subclass: 147 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter in the form of wind tunnels; also means for studying the flow of fluid about plane wings, and the behavior of propellers both for air or water.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
116 for motor and engine testing.

Subclass: 148 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter in the form of basins and tanks for the testing of ship models or ships.

Subclass: 149 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for the measurement of the volumetric content of a selected space or zone.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
426 for measuring vessels.

Subclass: 150 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for the testing of coating materials (coverage, drying time, aging, weathering, etc., inks, printing and pen; adhesives and plastics) as to all qualities not provided for in preceding subclasses.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 324 for methods and apparatus for corona irradiation of materials, subclasses 432+ for the
irradiation of contained, supported, or transported fluent material, subclasses 453.11+ for the irradiation of supported objects and subclass 493.1 for the irradiation of objects or materials generally.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 7 for determining coating thickness by a thermal measurement.

Subclass: 152.01 [Patents]

BOREHOLE OR DRILLING (E.G., DRILL LOADING FACTOR, DRILLING RATE, RATE OF FLUID FLOW):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for determining a physical characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.01 for gas content measuring, per se, especially subclass 19.09 for measuring the gas content of mud.
23.2 for gas analysis, per se.
32 for density measuring, per se.
53.01 for fluid analysis, per se.
170.01 for fluid flow direction measuring, per se, in a naturally occurring body of water.
861 for a rate of fluid flow measuring not in a borehole.
863 for sampling, per se, of mud not in a well and of gas sampling from the soil by means sunk into the ground to a point not far from the surface of the ground, and especially subclass 864.52 for sampling devices comprising a receptacle with suction means.
866 for material analysis, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, 304 for a geometrical indicator for borehole study and especially for a borehole direction or inclination indicator.
116, Signals and Indicators, 112 for mechanical indicators of a predetermined fluid flow and subclasses 264+ for a mechanical indicator of the presence or the absence of fluid flow where no measuring transducer is recited.
166, Wells, subclass 64, 66, and 113 for well structure combined with measuring and testing means wherein more
structure than is necessary to perfect the testing is recited, subclass 250.02 for a comprehensive well process combined with permeability determining wherein more well detail than is necessary to determine permeability is recited, and subclass 264 for a well process comprising merely sampling a well fluid.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, 40 for a process or means of measuring or testing combined with more than a nominal recitation of an earth boring process or apparatus.
250, Radiant Energy, 256 for testing in a well bore by measuring radiant energy.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 323 and 355+ for measuring an electrical property of a borehole, in particular subclasses 366+ for well logging involving measuring an electrical property of borehole formation, and subclass 425 for measuring electrolyte properties, per se.
340, Communications: Electrical, 853.1 for well bore telemetry wherein information signals are transmitted to or from means located in a passageway in the earth.
342, Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation), subclass 22 for a radar system which is used in geophysical exploration, as for example, radar sets which are lowered down a borehole to determine the size of the borehole.
346, Recorders, appropriate subclasses for recorders for recording the operation of machines and especially 33 for a recorder combined with external recorder operating means including a well logging device, and subclasses 112+ for a graph-type recorder.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclasses 241.1+ for making borehole or drilling study by measuring visible light.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 506 for application of an electrical computer or data processing to testing of borehole or drilling when significant electrical computer or data processing detail combined with a nominally recited sensor are recited.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 25 for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth and detected by electric signal handling means passing through a well bore and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the earth, subclasses 81+ for the communication of information or intelligence in a well bore in the form of acoustic waves traveling in a medium in the well bore different from the surrounding earth and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the
earth, and subclasses 86+ for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth detected by electric signal handling means passing through a well bore and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the earth for electroacoustic borehole testing and wherein the intelligence pertains to the walls of the borehole and is obtained from a device which travels through the passageway and emits acoustic waves into a medium contained within the borehole (e.g., water, air, etc.) which are reflected from the walls back to the device and are detected.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 136 for measuring a temperature at a single location in a well bore.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, appropriate subclass for testing involving a chemical reaction.
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, subclass 9 for a process for quantitative or qualitative testing for mineral deposits by use of microorganisms which thrive in the presence of such minerals.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, 25 for a chemical analysis of a borehole.

Subclass: 152.02 [Patents]

Formation logging (e.g., borehole studies of pressure derivatives or of pressure-temperature derivatives):
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.01. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of earth both below the surface of the earth and along a surface forming the periphery of the borehole is made by measuring a parameter at plural positions within the borehole.
(1) Note. This subclass generally contains subject matter drawn to the measurement of plural kinds of parameters of a formation in a borehole. However, the measurement of a single kind of parameter at plural positions within a borehole, not provided for elsewhere, is also found here. When two parameters of the formation are being measured and one of the parameters is the depth at which a second parameter is being measured, then the subject matter is found where the second parameter is found.
(2) Note. Generally, the devices included here include a process or an apparatus for correlating the measurement of the physical characteristic of the earth with a measured depth.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.24 for a flow study involving taking a sample from a formation wall.
152.44 for the identification of a formation from the relative ease with which a drill penetrates the formation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, appropriate subclasses for instruments, per se, for measuring a distance, an angle, or the like in a well, and in particular subclass 302 and 304+ for borehole direction or inclination indicators.
181, Acoustics, 102 for well logging wherein acoustical waves are transmitted or received for the purpose of identifying geologic or subsurface structure.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 366 for well logging involving measuring electrical properties of earth formations in a well bore.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for borehole study by measuring visible light.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, 422 for an application of electrical computers and data processing to well logging wherein details of the computer or the data processing system combined with only a nominally recited sensor are recited.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 25 for utilizing traveling stresses in the earth which are detected or generated by electric signal handling means wherein the electric signal represents communicated information or intelligence regarding a characteristic or location of discontinuities in a formation in a borehole.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 136 for measuring temperature at a single location in a well bore.
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, subclass 9 for a process for quantitative or qualitative testing for mineral deposits within a borehole formation by use of enzymes or microorganisms which thrive in the presence of such minerals.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, 25 for a chemical analysis of a borehole formation.

Subclass: 152.03 [Patents]

During drilling:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.02. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole is made by making a measurement of the physical condition of the borehole during the formation of or the enlargement of an elongated hole in the earth in situ by dislocating solid material of the earth.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.19 for determining a physical characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a fluid flow during drilling.
152.43 for making a determination of a physical characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging while drilling.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 50 for a process or an apparatus for boring into the earth combined with a measuring or indicating feature and wherein more than a mere step of boring is claimed.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 254 for an apparatus or a method for making a geological test using radiant energy wherein drilling is involved.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 324 for a purely electrical measurement of a borehole fluid, subclass 356 for measuring an electrical property in a borehole while drilling, subclass 369 for well logging while drilling wherein an electrical property of an earth formation is measured, and subclass 694 for measuring resistance or conductance in order to determine water content.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for an apparatus or a method for testing drilling mud by measuring visible light.

Subclass: 152.04 [Patents]

By drill mud analysis:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.03. Subject matter wherein mud is continuously circulated into and out of a borehole and a determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole is made by measuring a condition of, a constituent of, or a composition of the mud while the mud is being circulated.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.09 for determining the amount of gas in mud, per se.
61.41 for the analysis of mud, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
166, Wells, for well mud sampling per se.
250, Radiant Energy, 253 for an apparatus or a method of testing drilling mud by measuring invisible radiant energy.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 324 for a purely electrical measurement of a borehole fluid, subclass 356 for measuring an electrical property in a borehole while drilling, subclass 369 for well logging while drilling wherein an electrical property of an earth formation is measured, and subclass 694 for measuring resistance or conductance in order to determine water content.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for drilling mud analysis by measuring visible light.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, 509 for the application of an electrical computer or data processing for testing drilling mud wherein computer apparatus detail or data processing combined with only a nominally recited sensor are recited.
378, X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices, appropriate subclass for testing drilling mud by measuring a property of an X-ray or a gamma ray.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, subclass 68.1 for a chemical apparatus for analyzing a drilling mud involving a chemical reaction.
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, subclass 9 for a process for quantitative or qualitative testing for mineral deposits by detecting microorganisms which thrive in the presence of such minerals.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, 25 for chemical testing of fluids within a borehole, especially subclasses 29+ for petroleum oils or carbonaceous minerals and subclass 30 for testing drilling mud.

Subclass: 152.05 [Patents]

Density, porosity, or permeability:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.02. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the formation is made by measuring (a) a mass per unit volume of either a bulk formation of a borehole or of selected constituents of a formation of a borehole, (b)
the ratio of a volume of interstices of either a bulk formation of a borehole or of selected constituents of a formation of a borehole to its volume, or (c) a quality of either a bulk formation of a borehole or of selected constituents of a formation of a borehole to be penetrated by a liquid or a gas passing through pores or openings therein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
30.01 for measuring the density of a gas.
32 for measuring the density of a solid or a liquid.
38 for measuring porosity or permeability by use of fluid pressure.
73 for measuring the moisture content or absorption characteristic of a material.
152.41 for determination of permeability by the injection of fluid into a formation of a borehole.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
378, X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices, appropriate subclass for testing by measuring a property of X-rays or gamma rays and in particular for 54 for determining density by measuring a property of X-rays or gamma rays.

Subclass: 152.06 [Patents]

Including oil, gas, or water saturation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.05. Subject matter wherein the determination of the characteristic of the borehole includes measuring a maximum impregnation by oil, gas, or water of a bulk formation of a borehole or of selected constituents of a formation of a borehole.
(1) Note. Fluid saturation of the formation zone may be measured directly by radiation, electrical, acoustical, or other means or by comparison tests in which fluid originally occurring in a formation is replaced by fluid having a known makeup.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
38 for measuring porosity or permeability by use of fluid pressure.
73 for measuring the moisture content or absorption characteristic of a material.
152.08 for determination of a formation logging by measuring oil, gas, or water saturation.
152.41 for determination of saturation by the injection of fluid into a formation of a borehole.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 324 for a purely electrical measurement of a borehole fluid, subclass 356 for measuring an electrical property in a borehole while drilling, and subclass 694 for measuring resistance or conductance in order to determine water content.

Subclass: 152.07 [Patents]

By a core sample analysis:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.05. Subject matter including a sample in the form of an undisturbed portion removed from the formation and wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole is made by analysis of the portion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.09 for formation logging by measuring an oil, gas, or water saturation of a core sample.
152.11 for formation logging by measuring a property of a core sample.
864.44 for sampling, per se, by use of a corer.
866 for the testing of solid material, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 58 for a process of obtaining a core sample from a borehole formation and subclass 403+ and the notes there noted for a bit for cutting an earth core.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 376 for a purely electrical measurement of a property of a subsurface core sample.

Subclass: 152.08 [Patents]

Oil, gas, or water saturation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.02. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole is made by measuring the maximum impregnation by gas, water, or oil of a bulk
formation of a borehole or of selected constituents of a formation of a borehole.
(1) Note. Fluid saturation of the formation zone may be measured directly by radiation, electrical, acoustical, or other means or by comparison tests in which fluid originally occurring in a formation is replaced by fluid having a known makeup.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
38 for measuring porosity or permeability by use of fluid pressure.
73 for measuring a moisture content or absorption characteristic of a material.
152.06 for a borehole formation logging by density, porosity, and permeability measuring and the measurement of oil, gas, or water saturation.
152.41 for a determination of a borehole physical characteristic by measuring saturation by the injection of fluid into a formation of a borehole.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 324 for a purely electrical measurement of a borehole fluid, subclass 356 for measuring an electrical property in a borehole while drilling, and subclass 694 for measuring resistance or conductance in order to determine water content.

Subclass: 152.09 [Patents]

By a core sample analysis:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.08. Subject matter including a sample in the form of an undisturbed portion removed from the formation and wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole is made by analyzing the portion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.07 for formation logging by determining the density, the porosity, or the permeability of a core sample.
152.11 for formation logging by measuring a property of a core sample, per se.
864.44 for sampling, per se, by use of a corer.
866 for the testing of solid material, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 58 for a process of obtaining a core sample from a borehole formation and subclasses 403+ and the notes there noted for a bit for cutting an earth core.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 376 for a purely electrical measurement of a property of a subsurface core sample.

Subclass: 152.11 [Patents]

By a core sample analysis:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.02. Subject matter including a sample in the form of an undisturbed portion removed from the formation and wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole is made by analysis of the portion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.07 for formation logging by determining the density, the porosity, or the permeability of a core sample.
152.09 for formation logging by measuring a gas, a water, or an oil saturation of a core sample.
864.44 for obtaining a core sample, per se.
866 for the testing of solid material, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 58 for a process of obtaining a core sample from a borehole formation and subclasses 403+ and the notes there noted for a bit for cutting an earth core.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 376 for a purely electrical measurement of a property of a subsurface core sample.

Subclass: 152.12 [Patents]

Thermal:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.02. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole is made by (a) measuring temperature at plural positions within the borehole or (b) measuring temperature related parameters at plural positions
within the borehole.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 10 for temperature gradient measuring, per se; subclasses 29+ for heat flux measuring, per se; subclasses 45+ for thermal testing of a nonthermal property, per se; and subclass 136 for temperature measuring in a well bore wherein no more than one temperature measurement in a well bore is made and no other parameter of the strata or the well bore is measured.

Subclass: 152.13 [Patents]

With heating or cooling:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.12. Subject matter including means to alter a temperature and wherein (a) the temperature altering means changes a temperature of the apparatus for making the determination of the physical characteristic of the formation or (b) the apparatus for making the determination of the physical characteristic of the formation within the borehole alters the temperature of the borehole.

Subclass: 152.14 [Patents]

With radioactivity measuring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.02. Subject matter including plural types of tests and wherein one of the tests makes a determination of a physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging by measuring naturally occurring radiation or radiation produced either (a) from a radiation source or (b) as a result of bombardment of elements of the formation by radiation of a different type.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 256 for a well testing apparatus and method measuring invisible light, subclass 257 for a well testing apparatus and method measuring invisible light and combined with detecting the location of a casing collar, and in particular, subclasses 260 and 269.1+ for a well testing device utilizing detection of radioactivity and not combined with a test other than one measuring invisible light.
378, X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices, appropriate subclass for the application of an X-ray or gamma ray system, per se, to testing.

Subclass: 152.15 [Patents]

With vibration measuring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.14. Subject matter wherein one of the tests makes a determination of a physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing or the drill rigging by measuring the effect of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging on induced, reflected, or transmitted vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.16 for a formation logging apparatus including plural types of tests, one of which includes measuring vibration.
152.32 for determining a rate of fluid flow within a borehole by measuring the effect of the rate of fluid flow on vibration.
152.47 for making a downhole measurement of a characteristic of a borehole, a casing or a drill rigging by measuring vibration during drilling.
152.57 for determining a condition of a cementing in a borehole, per se, by measuring vibration.
152.58 for determining a physical condition of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by making a measurement of vibration by an instrument located within a borehole.
570 for measuring and testing, per se, by use of vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
181, Acoustics, 102 for acoustic well logging.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 25 for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth and detected by electric signal handling means passing through a well bore and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the earth, subclasses 81+ for the communication of information or intelligence traveling through earth in a well bore in the form of acoustic waves traveling in a medium in the well bore different from the surrounding earth and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the earth, and subclasses 86+ for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth detected by electric signal handling means passing through a well bore and providing information pertaining to a characteristic of the borehole or a location of discontinuities within the earth for electroacoustic borehole testing and wherein the intelligence pertains to the walls of the borehole and is
obtained from a device which travels through the passageway and emits acoustic waves into a medium contained within the borehole (e.g., water, air, etc.) which are reflected from the walls back to the device and are detected.

Subclass: 152.16 [Patents]

With vibration measuring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.02. Subject matter including plural types of tests and wherein one of the tests makes a determination of a physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging by measuring an effect of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging on induced, reflected, or transmitted vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.15 for determining a formation logging by plural tests including measurements of radiation and vibration.
152.32 for determining a rate of fluid flow within a borehole by measuring the effect of the rate of fluid flow on vibration.
152.47 for making a downhole measurement of a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring vibration during drilling.
152.57 for determining a condition of a cementing in a borehole, per se, by measuring vibration.
152.58 for determining a physical condition of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by making a measurement of vibration by an instrument located within the borehole.
570 for measuring and testing, per se, by use of vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
181, Acoustics, 102 for acoustic well logging.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 25 for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth and detected by electric signal handling means passing through a well bore and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the earth, subclasses 81+ for the communication of information or intelligence in a well bore in the form of acoustic waves traveling in a medium in the well bore different from the surrounding earth and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the earth, and subclasses 86+ for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves
traveling through earth detected by electric signal handling means passing through a well bore and providing information pertaining to a characteristic of the well bore or a location of discontinuities within the earth for electroacoustic borehole testing and wherein the intelligence pertains to the walls of the borehole and is obtained from a device which travels through the passageway and emits acoustic waves into a medium contained within the borehole (e.g., water, air, etc.) which are reflected from the walls back to the device and are detected.

Subclass: 152.17 [Patents]

With detail of a borehole wall engaging means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.02. Subject matter including a structure engaging a wall of the borehole either for positioning or for maintaining the positioning of the apparatus while the test is being performed and wherein significance is attributed to the structure engaging the wall.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
166, Wells, subclass 241.5 for wall engaging means for well logging devices wherein more well structure is recited than is necessary for perfecting the test.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 286 for borehole wall engaging means for a well testing apparatus and method.

Subclass: 152.18 [Patents]

Fluid flow measuring or fluid analysis:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.01. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by either (a) detecting the movement of or the presence of a fluid which has traveled either (1) from the formation into the borehole, (2) from the borehole into the formation, (3) from the outside of the borehole into the borehole, or (d) from inside the borehole to the outside of the borehole; (b) measuring a rate, a direction, or a magnitude of fluid flow either (1) from the formation into the borehole, (2) from the borehole into the formation, (3) from the outside of the borehole into the borehole, or (4) from inside the borehole to the outside of the borehole, or (c) detecting or measuring the presence of or an amount of a constituent of a fluid within the borehole, the ratio of one constituent of the fluid to another constituent of the fluid or the effect of a constituent of the fluid.
(1) Note. Production indices are included here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.1 for measuring the gaseous content of a liquid.
53.01 for liquid analysis, per se.
170.01 for fluid flow direction determination not in a borehole or in a drilling study.
861 for volume or rate of fluid flow determination, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 112 for a mechanical alarm, per se, giving a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined fluid flow and subclasses 264 for a mechanical indicator structure, per se, giving a humanly perceptible signal in response to the presence or absence of fluid flow.
166, Wells, appropriate subclass for the combination of a well structure and fluid flow measuring wherein more well structure is recited than that which is necessary for perfecting the measurement.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 48 for measurement of or an indication of drilling fluid flow combined with more than a mere boring step or detail of a boring apparatus.
250, Radiant Energy, 253 for the testing of well fluid by measuring a property of invisible light and subclass 301 for a method of determining oil presence, contamination, or concentration.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 306 for measuring a rate of fluid flow by subjecting the fluid to magnetic resonance.
340, Communications: Electrical, 603 for an electrical indicator or alarm providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined fluid flow and providing no quantitative measurement.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for testing fluid by measuring a characteristic of visible light.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 422 for application of an electrical computer or data processing to borehole logging when significant electrical computer or data processing detail and nominal transducer detail is recited and subclass 510 for application of an electrical computer or data processing to the measurement of flow when significant electrical computer or data processing detail and only nominal sensor detail are
recited.
378, X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices, appropriate subclass for fluid analysis by measuring a property of X-rays or gamma rays.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 68.1 for a chemical apparatus for analyzing a liquid.
435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, subclass 9 for the detection of the presence of fluids within a borehole by sensing the presence of microorganisms in the vicinity of the fluid.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, 25 for chemical testing of fluids within a borehole, especially subclasses 29+ for petroleum oils or carbonaceous minerals, and subclass 30 for testing drilling mud.

Subclass: 152.19 [Patents]

During drilling:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.18. Subject matter wherein the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made during the process of making or enlarging an elongated hole in the earth in situ by dislocating a solid material in the earth.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.03 for formation logging during a drilling operation.
152.21 for determining a physical characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a fluid flow during drilling.
152.43 for determining a physical characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging during a drilling operation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, 40 for a process or an apparatus for boring into the earth combined with a measuring or indicating feature and wherein more than a mere step of boring is claimed.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 254 for an apparatus or a method for making a geological test using radiant energy wherein drilling is involved.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 324 for a purely electrical measurement of a borehole fluid, subclass 356 for
measuring an electrical property in a borehole while drilling, subclass 369 for well logging while drilling wherein an electrical property of an earth formation is measured, and subclass 694 for measuring resistance or conductance in order to determine water content.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for an apparatus or a method for testing drilling mud by measuring visible light.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, 25 for a chemical analyzer for conducting a test within the earth's crust.

Subclass: 152.21 [Patents]

Rate of fluid flow:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.19. Subject matter wherein the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring a speed of flow, a volume rate of fluid flow, or a mass rate of fluid flow.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.07 and 54.13, for determining viscosity by measuring a rate of fluid flow.
61.64 for measuring settling or filtering ability of a constituent of a liquid mixture by measuring a rate of fluid flow.
61.73 for measuring solid components by measuring a rate of fluid flow.
152.29 for measuring a rate of flow of a fluid in a borehole.
170.07 and 170.11+, for fluid flow direction determination not in a borehole or in a drilling study.
861 for measuring a rate of fluid flow, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 112 for a mechanical alarm, per se, producing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a rate of fluid flow within a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging; and subclasses 264+ for a mechanical indicator structure, per se, providing a humanly perceptible signal responsive to a rate of fluid flow within a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 48 for
measurement or indication of drilling fluid rate of flow combined with more than a mere boring step or details of a boring apparatus.
250, Radiant Energy, 253 for determining rate of a fluid flow within a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring invisible light.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 306 for determining a rate of flow of a volume of fluid within a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by subjecting the fluid to magnetic resonance, and subclasses 324+ for a determination of a rate of fluid flow within a borehole by making a purely electrical measurement.
340, Communications: Electrical, 608 for an electrical indicator providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined rate of flow of a fluid flowing within a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging and not providing a quantitative measurement.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for determining a rate of flow of a fluid in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring visible light.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, 420 for application of an electrical computer or data processing to a determination of a rate of fluid flow in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging when significant electrical computer or data processing detail and nominal transducer detail are recited, and subclass 510 for application of an electrical computer or data processing to a determination of rate of fluid flow, per se, when significant electrical computer or data processing detail and nominally recited sensor are claimed.
378, X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices, appropriate subclass for determining the flow rate of a fluid in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a property of an X-ray or a gamma ray.

Subclass: 152.22 [Patents]

Pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.19. Subject matter wherein the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
37 for performing a test by use of fluid pressure.
152.27 for a determination of fluid flow by measuring
pressure combined with sampling.
152.51 for a determination of a physical condition of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring pressure.
700 for fluid pressure measuring, per se.
760 for stress or strain measuring or testing by stress or strain.
862 for force measuring, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 112 for a pressure responsive mechanical alarm, per se, providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined fluid flow, and subclasses 266+ for a pressure responsive mechanical indicator which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to the presence or the absence of fluid flow.
166, Wells, subclass 64, 66, and 113 for detail of a well combined with determination of fluid flow by measuring or detecting pressure wherein more structure than is necessary to perfect the testing is recited.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, 48 for a process or a means of determining fluid flow by measuring or detecting pressure combined with more than a nominal recitation of an earth boring process or apparatus.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 611 for an electrical indicator or an electrical alarm which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined fluid flow via monitoring pressure and subclass 626 for an electrical indicator or alarm which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to the detection of a predetermined pressure.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, 420 for the application of an electrical computer or data processing to the determination of fluid flow in a borehole by measuring pressure when significant electrical computer or data processing detail combined with no more than a nominally recited sensor are claimed.

Subclass: 152.23 [Patents]

With sampling:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.18. Subject matter including means for obtaining a predetermined portion of the fluid to be tested.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
23.41 for sampling combined with a gas analyzer.
61.55 for sampling combined with an apparatus for measuring a content or an effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.56 for a sampling combined with a liquid analyzer.
152.07 for formation logging by measuring density, porosity, or permeability of a core sample.
152.09 for formation logging by measuring oil, gas, or water saturation of a core sample.
152.11 for formation logging, per se, by a core sample analysis.
863 for sampling, per se, of mud not in a well and of gas sampling from the soil by means sunk into the ground to a point not far from the surface of the ground and especially subclass 864.52 for sampling devices comprising a receptacle with suction means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
166, Wells, appropriate subclass, especially 107, 142+, and 162+ for the combination of a well structure and fluid flow measuring wherein more well structure is recited than that which is necessary for perfecting the measurement or subclass 264 for sampling well fluids (including gas), per se.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 48 for measuring or indicating drilling fluid flow combined with more than a mere boring step or detail of a boring apparatus and subclasses 232+, 244+, and 308+ for means to receive and retain a sample from an earth formation, including solid earth, in an earth boring tool.

Subclass: 152.24 [Patents]

From formation wall:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.23. Subject matter wherein the sample is taken of fluid flowing from the formation into the borehole.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.02 for a borehole study by formation logging.

Subclass: 152.25 [Patents]

With a filter:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.24. Subject matter including a barrier having interstices, pores, or micropores through which at least part of the fluid flows but which traps some components of the fluid, usually particles.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
61.72 for making a determination of solid components of a liquid by separation of the solid from the liquid and subsequent measuring.
863.23 for sampling, per se, combined with using a filter to separate constituents of a sample.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, appropriate subclass for a filter, per se.

Subclass: 152.26 [Patents]

With sealing detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.24. Subject matter including means between a sample induction means and the formation wall which prevents the contamination of formation samples with borehole fluids and wherein significance is attributed to the contamination prevention means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
166, Wells, subclass 100 for a lateral probe or port sealed against a well wall.
277, Joint Packing, appropriate subclass for seals, per se.

Subclass: 152.27 [Patents]

Pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.23. Subject matter wherein the determination of the characteristic of the borehole is made by measuring pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
37 for performing a test by use of fluid pressure.
152.22 for determination of fluid flow during drilling by measuring pressure.
152.51 for a determination of a physical condition of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring pressure.
700 for fluid pressure measuring, per se.
760 for stress or strain measuring or testing by stress or strain.
862 for force measuring, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 112 for a pressure responsive mechanical alarm, per se, providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined fluid flow, and subclass 266 for a pressure responsive mechanical indicator which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to the presence or the absence of fluid flow, in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging.
166, Wells, subclass 64, 66, and 113 for detail of a well combined with determination of fluid flow by measuring or detecting pressure in a borehole wherein more well detail than is necessary to perfect the testing is recited.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, 40 for a process or means of determining fluid flow by measuring or detecting pressure combined with more than a nominal recitation of an earth boring process or apparatus.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 611 for an electrical indicator or an electrical alarm which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined fluid flow via monitoring pressure in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging, and subclass 626 for an electrical indicator or alarm, per se, which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to the detection of a predetermined pressure in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, 420 for the application of an electrical computer or data processing to the determination of fluid flow in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring pressure when significant electrical computer or data processing detail combined with a nominally recited sensor are claimed.

Subclass: 152.28 [Patents]

Downhole:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.23. Subject matter wherein the apparatus for the determination of a
characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is located within the borehole while the measurement is being made.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.02 for a downhole formation logging instrument.
152.18 for a downhole fluid flow instrument or a downhole fluid analysis instrument not combined with sampling means.
152.46 for making a nonfluid flow downhole measurement in a borehole while drilling.
152.55 for making a downhole fluid test, per se, in a borehole.

Subclass: 152.29 [Patents]

Rate of fluid flow:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.18. Subject matter wherein the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring a speed of flow, a volume rate of flow, or a mass rate of flow of a fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.07 and 54.13, for determining viscosity by measuring the rate of fluid flow.
61.64 for measuring settling or filtering ability of a constituent of a liquid mixture by measuring the rate of fluid flow.
61.73 for making a determination of solid components of a liquid by measuring the rate of fluid flow.
152.21 for measuring the rate of flow of a fluid in a borehole while drilling.
170.07 and 170.11+, for fluid flow direction determination not in a borehole or in a drilling study.
861 for measuring a rate of fluid flow measuring, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 112 for a mechanical alarm producing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined rate of fluid flow in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging and combined with no measuring means, and subclasses 264+ for a mechanical indicator structure, per se, of the presence or the absence of fluid flow in a borehole, a
casing, or a drill rigging.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 48 for measurement of or indication of rate of flow of drilling fluid combined with more than a mere boring step or details of a boring apparatus.
340, Communications: Electrical, 608 for an electrical indicator or alarm providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined rate of fluid flow in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging and not providing a quantitative measurement.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 422 for application of an electrical computer or data processing to a determination of a rate of fluid flow in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging when significant electrical computer or data processing detail and no more than a nominal transducer detail are recited, and subclass 510 for application of an electrical computer or data processing to a determination of rate of fluid flow in a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging, per se, when significant electrical computer or data processing detail and nominally recited sensor are claimed.

Subclass: 152.31 [Patents]

Plural diverse measuring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.29. Subject matter combined with an apparatus or a process for making a test in addition to a test for the rate of fluid flow.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
198 for fluid rate of flow measuring, per se, combined with other measuring not used in a well bore or drilling study.

Subclass: 152.32 [Patents]

Vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.29. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring the effect of the rate of fluid flow on vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.15 for determining a formation logging by plural types of tests including measuring radiation and vibration.
152.16 for determining a formation logging by plural types of tests including measuring vibration.
152.47 for making a downhole measurement of a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring vibration during drilling.
152.57 for a cementing or casing test within a borehole using vibration.
152.58 for determining a physical condition of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by making a measurement of vibration by an instrument located within the borehole.
570 for measuring and testing, per se, by use of vibration.
861.18 for measuring a volume or rate of fluid flow, per se, by measuring vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 25 for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth and detected by electric signal handling means passing through a well bore and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the earth, subclasses 81+ for the communication of information or intelligence traveling in a well bore in the form of acoustic waves traveling in a medium in the well bore different from the surrounding earth and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the earth, and subclasses 86+ for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth detected by electric signal handling means passing through a well bore and providing information pertaining to a characteristic of a well bore or a location of discontinuities within the earth for electroacoustic borehole testing and wherein the intelligence pertains to the walls of the borehole and is obtained from a device which travels through the passageway and emits acoustic waves into a medium contained within the borehole (e.g., water, air, etc.) which are reflected from the walls back to the device and are detected.

Subclass: 152.33 [Patents]

Thermal:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.29. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring an effect of the rate of flow fluid upon temperature.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
170.12 for thermal measurement of fluid flow direction or of fluid flow velocity.
202.5 for thermal sensing of a fluid flow in a proportional flow meter.
204.11 for a thermal measurement of fluid flow, per se.
861.95 for fluid flow determination by measuring transit time of a thermal tracer or tag.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for measuring and testing the thermal effect, per se, of a fluid, particularly 29 for heat flow measurement and subclasses 43+ for heat coefficient measuring.

Subclass: 152.34 [Patents]

Rotary:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.29. Subject matter which includes an element rotatable about an axis due to the flow of the fluid and the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring the rate of rotation of the rotary element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.33 for a device wherein the rotation rate of an element rotated by a flow of a fluid is used to measure swirl rate of a fluid flow.
861.77 for a meter for measuring a rate of fluid flow including an element rotated by a flow of a fluid and having an electrical circuit and wherein specific details of the circuit are included.
861.79 for measuring rate of fluid flow, per se, by use of an element rotated by a flow of a fluid whose rate is being measured.

Subclass: 152.35 [Patents]

Magnetic:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.34. Subject matter wherein motion of the rotary element is detected by sensing magnetic properties or wherein the apparatus includes
means having magnetic properties.

Subclass: 152.36 [Patents]

Packer or deflector detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.29. Subject matter including either (a) a means for constraining a stream of the fluid flow to or from a certain stratum and wherein significance is attributed to the constraining means or (b) means for constraining the fluid to flow within a certain flow path within the borehole and wherein significance is attributed to the constraining means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
166, Wells, 118, 142+, and 179 for a packer for fluid handling in a well.

Subclass: 152.37 [Patents]

Steady state fluid flow interruption:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.18. Subject matter wherein the fluid usually flows at a constant rate and the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by interrupting the constant rate of flow of the fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, 40 for flow restrictors, per se.
166, Wells, subclass 91.1 for flow restrictors in an aboveground apparatus for a well and subclass 373 for a process of operating a valve, closure, or changeable restrictor in a well.

Subclass: 152.38 [Patents]

Drawdown or shutin test:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.37. Subject matter wherein a determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by decreasing a liquid level or completely stopping the flow of the fluid as by the closing of a valve.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, 40 for flow restrictors, per se.
166, Wells, subclass 92.1 for well caps or heads, subclasses 95.1 and 97.1 for valves in the well head, and subclasses 316+ and the notes thereunder for valves or restrictors, per se, for a well or well apparatus.
251, Valves and Valve Actuation, appropriate subclass for a valve, per se.

Subclass: 152.39 [Patents]

Fluid injection into formation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.18. Subject matter wherein the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by forcing the fluid into the formation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
166, Wells, appropriate subclass for fluid injection into a formation of a well and especially 252.1 for well testing by the injection of fluids into the earth in order to produce other fluids.
405, Hydraulic and Earth Engineering, 263 for injection of chemicals into the earth.

Subclass: 152.41 [Patents]

Determining permeability or saturation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.39. Subject matter wherein the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring either (a) a quality of either a bulk formation of a borehole or of selected constituents of a formation of a borehole to be penetrated by a liquid or a gas passing through pores or openings therein or (b) the maximum impregnation by gas, water, or oil of a bulk formation of a borehole or of selected constituents of a formation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
38 for measuring permeability by use of fluid pressure.
73 for measuring the moisture content or absorption characteristic of a material.
152.05 for determination of a formation logging by measuring permeability.
152.06 for determination of a characteristic of a borehole by formation logging involving measuring permeability and oil, gas, or water saturation.
152.08 for determination of a formation logging by measuring oil, gas, or water saturation.

Subclass: 152.42 [Patents]

Determining relative proportion of fluid constituent:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.18. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring the amount of a constituent of a fluid within the borehole or a ratio of one constituent of a fluid to another constituent of the fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.09 for measuring the gas content of drilling mud.
61.43 for liquid analysis for a liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
863.21 for the separation of constituents of a liquid sample not in a well.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, appropriate subclass for the separation of liquid constituents of a mixture.

Subclass: 152.43 [Patents]

During drilling:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.01. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made during the formation of or the enlargement of an elongated hole in the earth in situ by dislocating a solid material of the earth.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
7 for wear testing, per se.
104 for surface testing, per se.
152.03 for formation logging during a drilling operation.
152.19 for a determination of fluid flow during drilling.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 39 for bit wear signal generating, subclasses 40+ for a process or an apparatus for boring into the earth combined with a measuring or an indicating feature wherein more than a mere step of boring is claimed.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 254 for an apparatus or a method for making a geological test using radiant energy wherein drilling is involved.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 324 for a purely electrical measurement of a borehole fluid, subclass 356 for measuring an electrical property in a borehole while drilling, subclass 369 for well logging while drilling wherein an electrical property of an earth formation is measured, and subclass 694 for measuring resistance or conductance in order to determine water content.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for an apparatus or a method for testing drilling mud by measuring visible light.

Subclass: 152.44 [Patents]

Drill depth rate:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.43. Subject matter wherein the drill rigging includes a drill and the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by either (a) measuring the rate at which the drill cuts through the formation, or (b) periodically measuring the depth of the drill which is utilized to compute the rate at which the drill cuts through the formation.
(1) Note. The identity of the formation can be readily ascertained from the relative ease with which the drill penetrates the formation.
(2) Note. The measurement of the drill depth rate is usually recorded by automatic means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.03 for formation logging while drilling.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, 700 for distance measuring. Note particularly indented subclasses 713+ for sounding-type measuring devices.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 39 for measuring bit wear and subclass 50 for indicating testing or measuring a condition of a formation in the earth's surface while drilling when more than a mere step in boring is recited or drill structure is recited.
346, Recorders, appropriate subclasses for a recorder for recording the operation of machines and in particular 33 for a recorder combined with external recorder operating means including a well logging device and subclasses 112+ for a graph-type recorder.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, 89 for time interval measuring, per se.

Subclass: 152.45 [Patents]

Electronic processing or electronic recording:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.44. Subject matter including either a device which works by the emission, the behavior, or the effect of electrons and wherein the device either (a) operates on data pertaining to the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging, or (b) makes a permanent record of the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.53 for an apparatus for making a determination of a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring pressure combined with means for recording the determination being made.
152.62 for an apparatus for making a determination of a characteristic of a pump especially adapted for use of a borehole or a drill rigging and including a device for making a record of the determination of the characteristic of the pump.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
346, Recorders, appropriate subclass for a recorder for recording the operation of machines and particularly 33 for a recorder combined with external recorder operating means including a well logging means and subclasses 112+ for a graph-type recorder.
360, Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage or Retrieval, appropriate subclass for magnetic storage and retrieval of arbitrarily variable information which is retained in a storage medium by variation of a physical characteristic thereof and wherein relative movement between a storage
element and a source of information, a transducer, or a receiver is required.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 422 for an application of electrical computers and data processing to well logging wherein detail of the computer or the data processing system combined with only nominally recited sensor are recited.
365, Static Information Storage and Retrieval, appropriate subclass for a recording apparatus not requiring relative movement between a storage element and a source of information, a transducer, or a receiver.
369, Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval, appropriate subclass for a process of or an apparatus for the storage and retrieval of arbitrarily variable information which is retained in a storage medium by variation of a physical characteristic thereof and wherein relative movement between a storage element and a source of information, a transducer, or a receiver is required.

Subclass: 152.46 [Patents]

Downhole measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.43. Subject matter wherein the apparatus for the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is located within the borehole while the measurement is being made.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.28 for downhole fluid flow measuring combined with sampling.
152.54 for downhole measuring in a borehole while no drilling is taking place.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 45 for a downhole measuring when more than a nominal recitation of a drilling process or structure is recited.

Subclass: 152.47 [Patents]

Vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.46. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill
rigging is made by measuring vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
570 for measuring and testing, per se, by use of vibration.
152.15 for determining a formation logging by plural tests including measurements of radiation and vibration.
152.16 for determining a formation logging by plural tests including a measurement of vibration.
152.32 for determining a rate of fluid flow within a borehole by measuring the effect of the rate of fluid flow on vibration.
152.57 for a vibration test of cement or a casing within a borehole.
152.58 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring vibration by a device located inside a borehole.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
181, Acoustics, 119 for a seismic wave generation means coupled to a fluid.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 25 for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth and detected by electric signal handling means passing through a well bore and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the earth, subclasses 81+ for the communication of information or intelligence in the well bore in the form of acoustic waves traveling in a medium in the well bore different from the surrounding earth and providing information pertaining to a characteristic of the well bore or a location of discontinuities within the earth, and subclasses 86+ for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth and detected by electric signal handling means (a) passing through a well bore and (b) providing information pertaining to a characteristic of a borehole or a location of discontinuities within the earth for electroacoustic borehole testing and wherein the intelligence pertains to the walls of the borehole and is obtained from a device which travels through the passageway and emits acoustic waves into a medium contained within the borehole (e.g., water, air, etc.) which are reflected from the walls back to the device and are detected.

Subclass: 152.48 [Patents]

Force:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.46. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring an agency or an influence that if applied to a free body results chiefly in acceleration of the body and sometimes in elastic deformation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.49 for a measurement of force to determine a physical condition of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging while drilling.
152.59 for the downhole measurement of force to determine a physical condition of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging.
760 for stress or strain measuring or testing by stress or strain.
862 for force measuring, per se.

Subclass: 152.49 [Patents]

Force:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.43. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring an agency or an influence that if applied to a free body results chiefly in acceleration of the body and sometimes in elastic deformation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.48 for a downhole measurement of force to determine a physical characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging during drilling.
152.59 for the downhole measurement of force to determine a physical characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging.
760 for stress or strain measuring or testing by stress or strain.
862 for force measuring, per se.

Subclass: 152.51 [Patents]

Pressure measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.01. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
37 for performing a test by use of fluid pressure.
152.22 for determination of fluid flow during drilling by measuring pressure.
152.27 for a determination of fluid flow by measuring pressure combined with sampling.
152.55 for a downhole fluid test.
700 for fluid pressure measuring, per se.
760 for stress or strain measuring or testing by stress or strain.
862 for force measuring, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 112 for a pressure responsive mechanical alarm, per se, providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined fluid flow, and subclass 266 for a pressure responsive mechanical indicator which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to the presence or the absence of fluid flow.
166, Wells, subclass 64, 66, and 113 for detail of a well combined with determining fluid flow by measuring or detecting pressure wherein more structure than is necessary to perfect the test is recited.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, 40 for a process or means of determining fluid flow by measuring or detecting pressure combined with more than a nominal recitation of an earth boring process or apparatus.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 611 for an electrical indicator or an electrical alarm which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined fluid flow via monitoring pressure and subclass 626 for an electrical indicator or alarm, per se, which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to the detection of a predetermined pressure.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, 420 for the application of an electrical computer or data processing to the determination of fluid flow in a borehole by measuring pressure wherein significant electrical computer or data processing detail combined with only nominally
recited sensor structure are claimed.

Subclass: 152.52 [Patents]

Plural diverse measurements:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.51. Subject matter including a process or an apparatus for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a property other than a pressure.

Subclass: 152.53 [Patents]

With recorder:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.51. Subject matter combined with a means for keeping a permanent record of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.45 for an apparatus for making a determination of a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging combined with an electronic recording means for making a permanent record of the determination.
152.62 for an apparatus for making a determination of a characteristic of a pump especially adapted for use in a borehole or a drill rigging and including means for making a record of the determination of the characteristic of the pump.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
346, Recorders, appropriate subclasses for a recorder for recording the operation of machines, particularly 33 for a recorder combined with external recorder operating means including well logging and subclasses 112+ for graph-type recorders.
360, Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage or Retrieval, for magnetic storage and retrieval of arbitrarily variable information which is retained in a storage medium by variation of a physical characteristic thereof and wherein relative movement between a storage element and a source of information, a transducer, or a receiver is required.
365, Static Information Storage and Retrieval, for a recording apparatus not requiring relative movement between a storage element and a source of information, a transducer, or a receiver.
369, Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval, appropriate subclass for a process of or an apparatus for the storage and retrieval of arbitrarily variable information which is retained in a storage medium by variation of a physical characteristic thereof and wherein relative movement between a storage element and a source of information, a transducer, or a receiver is required.

Subclass: 152.54 [Patents]

Downhole test:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.01. Subject matter wherein the apparatus for determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is located within the borehole while the measurement is being made.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.28 for sampling and downhole fluid flow measuring in a borehole while not drilling.
152.46 for downhole measuring (a) involving no fluid flow measuring and (b) taking place while drilling is being done.

Subclass: 152.55 [Patents]

Fluid test:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.54. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring a property of a liquid, a gas, or a suspension of a solid in a liquid or a gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
19.01 for measuring the gas content of a liquid or a solid, per se.
28.01 for measuring the solid content of a gas, per se.
73 for measuring the moisture content of a material, per se.
152.28 for sampling and downhole fluid flow measuring in a borehole while drilling is not taking place.
290 for measuring liquid level, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 204 for testing magnetic fluid material, subclasses 425+ for measuring electrolytic properties of a fluid, and subclasses 600+ for measuring a property of a fluid material by measuring an impedance or an impedance- related quantity.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 68.1 for fluid analysis involving a chemical reaction.
436, Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing, 25 for chemical testing of fluids within a borehole, especially subclasses 29+ for petroleum oils or carbonaceous minerals and subclass 30 for testing drilling mud.

Subclass: 152.56 [Patents]

Free point or stuck point:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.54. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring or detecting the point or points at which a drill pipe, casing, or tubing is stuck in a borehole traversing an earth formation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, appropriate subclass for a determination of positions in a well bore, per se, and subclass 302 and 304+ for well bore configuration determining, per se.
166, Wells, subclass 255.1 for a comprehensive process wherein a determination of a position of unintentional motionlessness of a drill pipe, casing, or tubing within a borehole wherein more well detail than is necessary for perfecting the test is claimed.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 854.2 for well bore telemetry wherein a location of a stuck tool is recorded.

Subclass: 152.57 [Patents]

Casing or cementing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.54. Subject matter including (a) a pipe which lines all of or a portion of a wall of the borehole or (b) a cementing of a lining in the borehole and wherein the determination of the characteristic of the borehole is made by measuring a property of the lining or the cementing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.15 for a formation logging apparatus or process for determining a characteristic of the borehole by measuring the effect of cement within a borehole on vibration combined with measuring radioactivity.
152.16 for well logging including plural types of tests including making a determination of a characteristic of a casing by measuring an effect of the casing on vibration and not combined with radioactivity measuring.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
166, Wells, subclass 253.1 for a comprehensive process relating to wells which includes indicating the location, the presence, or the absence of cement wherein more well detail is recited than that which is necessary to perfect the test.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 257 for a well testing apparatus and method utilizing measurement of radioactivity combined with detection of a casing collar.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 854.5 for well bore telemetry wherein either downhole equipment or a transmission link is described to electrically conduct or process information signals which are transmitted through a casing of a borehole to a location above the borehole.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 35 for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling in the earth which are detected by means which travels through a borehole means generating an electric signal which represents the communicated information or intelligence and wherein the information or intelligence pertains to the borehole itself or to a lining of the borehole.

Subclass: 152.58 [Patents]

Using vibration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.54. Subject matter wherein the determination of the characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring the effect of the borehole casing or the drill rigging on vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.15 for determining a formation logging by plural tests including measurements of radioactivity and vibration.
152.16 for determining a formation logging by plural tests
including a measurement of vibration and no measurement of radioactivity.
152.32 for determining a rate of fluid flow within a borehole by measuring the effect of the rate of fluid flow on vibration.
152.47 for making a downhole measurement of a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring vibration during drilling.
152.57 for a downhole vibration test of cement or a casing within a borehole.
570 for measuring and testing, per se, by use of vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
181, Acoustics, for acoustic exploration within a borehole.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 25 for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth and detected by electric signal handling means passing through a well bore and providing information pertaining to a characteristic or a location of discontinuities within the earth, subclasses 81+ for the communication of information or intelligence in a well bore in the form of acoustic waves traveling in a medium in the well bore different from the surrounding earth and providing information pertaining to a characteristic of the well bore or a location of discontinuities within the earth, and subclasses 86+ for the communication of information or intelligence in the form of acoustic waves traveling through earth and detected by electric signal handling means (a) passing through a well bore and (b) providing information pertaining to a characteristic of a borehole or a location of discontinuities within the earth for electroacoustic borehole testing and wherein the intelligence pertains to the walls of the borehole and is obtained from a device which travels through the passageway and emits acoustic waves into a medium contained within the borehole (e.g., water, air, etc.) which are reflected from the walls back to the device and are detected.

Subclass: 152.59 [Patents]

By measurement of response due to force:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.54. Subject matter wherein the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or the drill rigging is made by measuring a response due to an agency or an influence that if applied to a free body results chiefly in acceleration of the body and sometimes in elastic
deformation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.48 for a measurement of force to determine a physical condition of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by use of an apparatus located within a borehole and during the time that drilling is taking place.
152.49 for a measurement of force to determine a physical condition of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging while drilling.
862 for a force measuring apparatus, per se.

Subclass: 152.61 [Patents]

Pump test:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.01. Subject matter comprising an apparatus or a method for determining a physical characteristic of a pump used (a) for circulating a fluid in a borehole or (b) for circulating a fluid in a drilling operation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
168 for a process or an apparatus for making a determination of a characteristic of a pump.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
166, Wells, subclass 54.1 for means separately pumping from plural sources within a well, subclasses 62, 68+, and 105+ for an eduction pump within a well, and subclass 101 for a pump for a well wherein the pump exerts an outward pressure.
417, Pumps, appropriate subclass for a pump inserted in a well, per se.

Subclass: 152.62 [Patents]

With recorder:
This subclass is indented under subclass 152.61. Subject matter combined with a means for keeping a permanent record of the determination of the physical characteristic of the borehole, the casing, or a drill rigging.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.45 for an apparatus for testing a borehole or drilling combined with means for making an electronic recording of a
drill depth rate during drilling.
152.53 for an apparatus for testing a borehole or drilling by measuring pressure combined with means for making a record of the test.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
346, Recorders, appropriate subclasses, for a recorder for recording the operation of machines, particularly 33 for recorders combined with external recorder operating means including a well logging apparatus and subclasses 112+ for graph-type recorders.
360, Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage or Retrieval, for magnetic storage and retrieval of arbitrarily variable information which is retained in a storage medium by variation of a physical characteristic thereof and wherein relative movement between a storage element and a source of information, a transducer, or a receiver is required.
365, Static Information Storage and Retrieval, for a recording apparatus not requiring relative movement between a storage element and a source of information, a transducer, or a receiver.
369, Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval, appropriate subclass for a process of or an apparatus for the storage and retrieval of arbitrarily variable information which is retained in a storage medium by variation of a physical characteristic thereof and wherein relative movement between a storage element and a source of information, a transducer, or a receiver is required.

Subclass: 156 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter directed to the verification of statistical record data, either perforations or markings, against a master record or keyboard setting.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
37 for determination of the presence of perforations in sheet or other material without regard to location by using fluid under pressure (positive or negative).
157 for similar verification of sprocket apertures in picture films and record strips.
159 for sensing perforations in sheet material without regard to location therein.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
234, Selective Cutting (e.g., Punching), subclass 34 for a selective punching machine provided with verification means.
235, Registers, subclass 431, for calculators that compare two or more sets of data carried upon record cards, etc., and subclasses 439+ for mechanisms for sensing or analyzing data on a record, and see the search notes to such subclasses.

Subclass: 157 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for verifying the sprocket apertures of picture films and record strips.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
156 for verifying statistical card records and see the notes thereto.

Subclass: 158 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for the testing of hoisting cables and ropes, as for testing centers, twist counting, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
760 particularly subclasses 828+ for stress and strain tests.

Subclass: 159 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for testing or inspecting sheet material, woven fabric materials, and fibers.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
7 for "wear" tests.
37 for tests using fluid under pressure (positive or negative) as in determining porosity.
73 for moisture content or absorption characteristics tests.
150 for fade of dyes and other coating materials caused by fabrics, sheet material, etc.
788 for stress and strain test including tear flexing, bending, folding, bursting or rupture tests.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
26, Textiles: Cloth Finishing, subclass 70 for cloth inspecting.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing,238.1 for the inspection of cloth for flaws.

Subclass: 160 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 159. Subject matter for testing or inspecting of filaments or strands, for defects, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
828 for tensile testing of a strand.
849 for testing by bending, flexing, or folding.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
28, Textiles: Manufacturing, 226, for detecting knots or slubs in threads.

Subclass: 161 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter involving special adoption to the testing of coil and leaf springs.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
808 for fatigue tests.
818 for compression tests.
849 for flexure tests.

Subclass: 162 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter directed to the testing of toothed gears of all sorts for noise, strength, wear, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, subclass 179.5 for gauges for determining the form of spur gearing, hobs or spur gear cutters.

Subclass: 163 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter directed to the testing of coins.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
177, Weighing Scales, subclass 51 for a device for testing the size and weight of a coin.
194, Check-Actuated Control Mechanisms, 302 for fraud preventing devices of the type associated with coin controlled apparatus which involve coin testing features, e.g., by testing for size, material or weight.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for testing electrical properties of articles including coins.
453, Coin Handling, 3, for coin assorters that separate coins according to size.

Subclass: 164 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter directed to the testing of miners' lamps.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
36 for testing illuminating fluids.

Subclass: 167 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for testing of ordnance and projectiles.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
11.04 for testing gun recoil apparatus.
35.14 for study of explosives and explosive pressures.
78 for hardness tests.
760 for stress and strain tests.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
273, Amusement Devices: Games, subclass 404 for bullet traps combined with targets; and subclass 410, for bullet traps used with targets.

Subclass: 168 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for testing hydraulic equipment, blowers and pumps.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
37 for testing by fluid pressure.
112 and 116+, for power plant or unit efficiency and motor or engine testing.
147 for propeller study.

Subclass: 169 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for determining the physical characteristics of dough, bread and flour.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
23, Chemistry: Physical Processes, subclass 20 for determination of pressures evolved in fermentation of dough.
426, Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and
Products, 231 for process of food treating combined with testing or measuring.

Subclass: 170.01 [Patents]

FLUID FLOW DIRECTION (E.G., WIND SOCK, WEATHER VANE, ETC.):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for determining the direction of flow of fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
170.16 for meteorological measuring not combined with direction determining.
170.29 for oceanos:graphic measuring not combined with direction determining.
861 for the measurement of a rate of fluid flow, per se; especially, subclass 861.85 for an anemometer, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
40, Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting, 412, 422, 439+, and 477+ for a device of that class operated by fluid.
116, Signals and Indicators, 273 for mechanical indicators of the presence or absence of fluid flow, as through a pipe, and subclasses 173+ for flags.
446, Amusement Devices: Toys, 199 for a fluid operated changing or moving figure or figure part.

Subclass: 170.02 [Patents]

Relative to aircraft or watercraft:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.01. Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for determining the direction of flow of fluid relative to an aircraft or watercraft.

Subclass: 170.03 [Patents]

Sailboat (e.g., sailing aid):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.02. Subject matter wherein the watercraft is a sailboat.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
40, Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting, 412, 422, 439+, and 477 for fluid operated display devices.
116, Signals and Indicators, 273 for mechanical indicator of the presence or absence of fluid flow, as through a pipe, and subclasses 173+ for flags.

Subclass: 170.04 [Patents]

Using a drifter or tracer (e.g., smoke):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.01. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by detecting a body or a substance introduced into and carried by the fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.05 861.07, for using a tracer or a tag for measuring the volume or rate of flow of a fluid, per se.

Subclass: 170.05 [Patents]

Using a fluid actuated alignment device (e.g., wind sock, weather vane, etc.):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.01. Subject matter comprising a means responsive to the fluid flow which aligns itself in the direction of flow of the fluid.

Subclass: 170.06 [Patents]

With illumination means or an electro-optical indicator (e.g., beacon or signal lamp):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.05. Subject matter combined with (a) means for illuminating the alignment device or (b) means responsive to electricity for indicating the fluid flow direction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
362, Illumination, for an illumination device, per se.

Subclass: 170.07 [Patents]

With velocity determination:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.05. Subject
matter combined with means for determining the rate of flow of the fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
170.11 for fluid flow direction determination combined with velocity determination.
861 for fluid flow determination, per se; especially, subclass 861.85 for an anemometer for measuring wind velocity.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
446, Amusement Devices: Toys, 53 and 119+ for a changing or moving figure or figure part used as a toy.

Subclass: 170.08 [Patents]

Electric sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.07. Subject matter including means whose electron flow or electron storage characteristic changes in response to the determination being made.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
170.09 for fluid flow direction determination means not combined with velocity measuring but having an electric sensor which is responsive to fluid flow direction.
866.5 for a probe or probe mounting, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate sub-classes for a light responsive sensor, per se.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311 for a piezoelectric sensor, per se.
338, Electrical Resistors, 2 for a strain gauge resistor, per se, and subclasses 13+ for a condition responsive resistor, per se.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280 for a capacitor-type sensor, per se.

Subclass: 170.09 [Patents]

Electric sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.05. Subject matter including means whose electron flow or electron storage characteristic changes in response to the determination being made.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
170.08 for a fluid flow device using a fluid actuated alignment means combined with velocity measuring and having an electric sensor.
866.5 for a probe or probe mounting, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate sub-classes for a light responsive sensor, per se.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311 for a piezoelectric sensor, per se.
338, Electrical Resistors, 2 for a strain gauge resistor, per se, and subclasses 13+ for a condition responsive resistor, per se.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280 for a capacitor-type sensor, per se.

Subclass: 170.11 [Patents]

With velocity determination:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.01. Subject matter including a process or an apparatus for determining the rate of flow of the fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
170.07 for fluid flow direction determination using fluid actuated alignment combined with velocity determination means.
861 for fluid flow determination, per se; especially, subclass 861.85 for an anemometer for measuring wind velocity.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
446, Amusement Devices: Toys, 53, 119+ for a changing or moving figure or figure part which is a toy.

Subclass: 170.12 [Patents]

Thermal:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.11. Subject matter wherein the determination of the velocity or the direction of fluid flow is made by measuring or sensing a thermal effect caused by the flow of the fluid.
(1) Note. Such measurement often includes determination of the cooling effect upon a heated element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
118.2 for measuring intake air flow in an internal combustion engine.
198 for fluid flow measuring combined with diverse subject matter.
202.5 for thermal sensing of flow including an auxiliary testing of a flow path.
204.11 for thermal sensing of flow rate.
861.95 for measuring by use of a thermal tracer or tag.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for measuring and testing of a thermal effect, per se; particularly, 29 for heat flow measurement and subclasses 43+ for heat flow coefficient measuring.

Subclass: 170.13 [Patents]

Acoustic:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.11. Subject matter wherein the determination of the velocity or the direction of fluid flow is made by measuring or sensing the effect of the fluid flow on a traveling compressional wave having a frequency within either the sonic or ultrasonic frequency range.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
645 for measuring acoustic parameters, per se.
861.18 for determining rate of flow, per se, by measuring vibration or acoustic energy.

Subclass: 170.14 [Patents]

Fluid pressure differential:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.11. Subject matter wherein the determination of the velocity or the direction of fluid flow is made by measuring or sensing a difference in fluid pressure resulting from the velocity of the fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
700 for fluid pressure measuring, per se.
861.42 for determining a rate of flow, per se, by measuring differential pressure.

Subclass: 170.15 [Patents]

Thrust or drag force:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.11. Subject matter wherein the determination of the velocity or the direction of fluid flow is made by measuring or sensing the magnitude of a force or a component thereof imparted by the fluid to an object placed in the flow path of the fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862 for force measuring, per se.

Subclass: 170.16 [Patents]

METEOROLOGY:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for determining an atmospheric phenomenon or a weather condition.
(1) Note. This subclass generally contains subject matter drawn to the measurement of plural meteorological conditions. However, the measurement of a single meteorological condition, not provided for elsewhere, is also found here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
28.01 for measuring solids in the atmosphere other than micrometeorites.
29.02 for a hygrometer, per se.
31.02 for testing for impurities of the air.
170.01 for a meteorological apparatus or process combined with wind direction determining.
384 for a barometer.
861.79 for an anemometer, per se.
863 for a sampler, per se, which may obtain a sample of the atmosphere.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, subclass 69 for a mechanical alarm or indicator, per se, providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined rain condition and subclasses 264+ for a mechanical indicator providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to the presence or absence of fluid flow.
244, Aeronautics, subclass 134 for the prevention of ice on aircraft structure.
340, Communications: Electrical, 580 for an electrical indicator which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to the attainment of a predetermined icing condition.
342, Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation), subclass 26 for weather radar, per se.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 420 for an electrical computer data processing system applied to the weather.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for atmospheric temperature measuring, per se, subclass 109 for temperature combined with another atmospheric condition (e.g., discomfort index, windchill factor) and subclass 143 for significant temperature measuring combined with nonmeteorological pressure measuring.

Subclass: 170.17 [Patents]

Precipitation (e.g., rain gauge):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.16. Subject matter wherein the atmospheric phenomenon or weather condition to be determined is condensation, formed from a vapor in the atmosphere, which falls through the atmosphere.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
863 for a sampler, per se, which may obtain a sample of the atmosphere.

Subclass: 170.18 [Patents]

With recorder detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.17. Subject matter combined with means for making a permanent record of the precipitation, wherein significance is attributed to the record making means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
346, Recorders, appropriate subclasses for a recorder, per se.

Subclass: 170.19 [Patents]

With heater or vaporizer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.17. Subject matter combined with a device for elevating the temperature of the condensation or for causing the condensation to vaporize.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
219, Electric Heating, appropriate subclasses for an electric heater, per se.
392, Electric Resistance Heating Devices, appropriate subclasses for a heater employing an electric resistor.
432, Heating, for nonelectric heater, per se.

Subclass: 170.21 [Patents]

Sensing accumulated amount (e.g., rain gauge):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.17. Subject matter wherein the total amount of precipitation falling over a given period of time is determined.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
149 for volumetric content measuring, per se.
290 for a liquid level or depth gauge, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
340, Communications: Electrical, 601 for an electrical indicator which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to the attainment of a predetermined meteorological
condition.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 420 for an electrical computer or data processing system applied to the weather.

Subclass: 170.22 [Patents]

Using a float:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.21. Subject matter wherein the total amount of precipitation is indicated by a device which floats on or in the surface of collected precipitation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
305 for a float-type liquid level gauge.

Subclass: 170.23 [Patents]

Weight actuated (e.g., tipping bucket):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.21. Subject matter wherein the total amount of precipitation is determined in response to the weight of the collected precipitation.

Subclass: 170.24 [Patents]

Electric disturbance (e.g., lightning):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.16. Subject matter wherein the atmospheric phenomenon or weather condition is due to the flow of electrons.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 72 for measuring electrical potential due to lightning (e.g., a voltmeter in combination with a lightning rod).
340, Communications: Electrical, 601 for an electrical indicator which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to the attainment of a predetermined meteorological condition, including lightning.
342, Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation), subclass 26 for weather radar, per se.

Subclass: 170.25 [Patents]

Micrometeorite:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.16. Subject matter wherein a characteristic of a small solid body originating in outer space is determined.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
28.01 for measuring other solid content of air not originating in outer space.
31.02 for measuring impurity of the atmosphere.
865.5 for particle size measuring, per se.
863.21 for sampling, per se, involving separation of constituents.

Subclass: 170.26 [Patents]

Icing condition (e.g., accretion):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.16. Subject matter wherein the atmospheric phenomenon or weather condition pertains to the formation of ice on a surface when it is exposed to the atmosphere.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
244, Aeronautics, subclass 134 for the prevention of ice on aircraft structure.
340, Communications: Electrical, 580 and 962 for an electrical indicator which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to the attainment of a predetermined icing condition.

Subclass: 170.27 [Patents]

Naturally occurring radiation (e.g., solar radiation):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.16. Subject matter wherein the atmospheric phenomenon or weather condition is naturally occurring radiant energy.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 72 for measuring electrical potential due to lightning (e.g., a voltmeter in
combination with a lightning rod).
340, Communications: Electrical, 601 for an electrical indicator which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to the attainment of a predetermined meteorological condition.
342, Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation), subclass 26 for weather radar, per se.

Subclass: 170.28 [Patents]

Using unmanned, self-controlled airborne instrumentation carrier (e.g., radiosonde):
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.16. Subject matter wherein the determination is made by an apparatus having no human in it or controlling it during the time in which the determination is being made, and which is transported by air or is supported wholly by aerodynamic and aerostatic forces.

Subclass: 170.29 [Patents]

OCEANOLOGY (E.G., OCEANS, RIVERS, OR LAKES):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for determining a physical parameter or phenomenon associated with a naturally occurring body of water.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
53.01 for the analysis or testing of a liquid, per se.
170.01 for oceanology combined with fluid flow direction determining.
861 for measuring the rate of fluid flow without direction measurement; especially, subclass 861.85 for anemometers, per se.
863 for a sampler, per se, which may obtain a sample from a body of water.
866.5 for a probe or probe mounting, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 5 for marine platform drilling, per se.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 425 for testing of electrolyte properties of a liquid, per se.
340, Communications: Electrical, 500 for an electrical indicator which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to the attainment of a predetermined condition, particularly subclass 606 for a flow responsive electrical indicator and subclass 618 for a liquid level responsive electrical indicator, and subclasses 850+ for an underwater electrical communication system.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, appropriate subclass for an underwater communication employing acoustic waves.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 136 for underwater temperature measuring and subclass 143 for combined temperature and nonmeteorological pressure measuring.
441, Buoys, Rafts, and Aquatic Devices, for a buoy, per se.
700, Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications, subclass 281 for control of fluid level or volume, and subclasses 282-285 for fluid control.

Subclass: 170.31 [Patents]

Surface wave:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.29. Subject matter wherein the physical parameter or phenomenon is a moving ridge or swell on the surface of the naturally occurring body of water.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
148 for a model basin or testing tank, per se.
290 for liquid level measuring, per se.
861 for fluid flow rate measuring with direction determination.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 67 for mechanical alarms providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined oceanological condition; particularly, subclass 107 for a signalling device being placed upon a buoy wherein the signal is produced by a wave or current.
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 4 for a liquid actuated resistor, per se, and subclasses 35+ for a liquid responsive resistor, per se.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclass 284 for a liquid level responsive capacitor, per se, and subclass 285 for a fluid flow responsive capacitor, per se.

Subclass: 170.32 [Patents]

Bottom sediment or soil:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.29. Subject matter wherein the physical parameter or phenomenon is either (a) matter that settles to the bottom of the naturally occurring body of water or (b) soil at the bottom of the naturally occurring body of water.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
61.71 for the testing of sediment other than in a naturally occurring body of water.
151 for borehole testing, per se.
863 for a sampler, per se; particularly, subclasses 864.65+ for a sampler which collects a sample of bottom sediment or soil underneath a body of water.

Subclass: 170.33 [Patents]

Towed probe:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.29. Subject matter wherein a measuring device is pulled through a body of water by a moving craft.
(1) Note. Usually a probe is connected to the moving craft by means of a cable or a rope.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
53.01 for probes for use in liquid analysis, per se.
866.5 for measuring probes, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 311 for a piezo-electric device, per se, responsive to liquid flow or liquid level.
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 4 for a pressure responsive resistor strain gauge, per se, and subclasses 38+ for other pressure responsive resistors, per se.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, subclass 284 for a liquid level responsive capacitor, per se, and subclass 285 for a liquid flow responsive capacitor, per se.

Subclass: 170.34 [Patents]

Unattached, self-contained probe with buoyancy controlled level of descent:
This subclass is indented under subclass 170.29. Subject matter wherein the depth of travel of an independent probe is regulated by buoyancy.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
866.5 for a measuring probe or a probe mounting, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 5 for marine platform drilling, per se.
441, Buoys, Rafts, and Aquatic Devices, subclass 33 for a buoy having means to release a sensor.

Subclass: 172 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter directed to the measurement of the load distribution of an animate body or member thereof.

Subclass: 178 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Instruments peculiarly adapted to use in conducting a craft on or through a fluid medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
147 for devices for determining the forces on objects such as aerofoils caused by relative motion with respect to fluids in wind tunnels.
227 for straight-line-light-ray instruments useful in conducting a craft on or through a fluid medium.
300 for direction indicating instruments responsive to
gyroscopic forces or to terrestrial gravitation or magnetism and useful in conducting a craft on through a fluid medium.
466 and 467, for plotting devices.
490 for a device measuring distance by integrating a speed response and time.
503 for a device indicating velocity with respect to the earth by integrating time and acceleration.
504.02 for an instrument operated by the combined action of a gyroscope and a speed or acceleration sensor.
504.03 and 514.01+, for means measuring change of orientation by acceleration responsive means.
514.01 for an accelerometer.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, subclass 715 and 720 for line and lead type sounding devices.
116, Signals and Indicators, subclass 113 for shoal water alarms, and subclass 27 for nonelectrical submarine signaling devices.
235, Registers, subclass 61 and appropriate indented subclass, particularly subclass subclasses 401 and 402 for bombing calculators incorporating navigation systems.
244, Aeronautics, 76 for aircraft control apparatus employing measuring devices.
340, Communications: Electrical, and 29 for other nautical signaling systems.
346, Recorders, appropriate subclass.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 247 for fiducial instruments involving significant optics or a deflection of the line of sight by reflection or refraction principles.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 87, for acoustic echo navigation systems; and subclasses 118+, for other acoustic navigation systems.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, for chronometers.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 6 for position determination by thermal measurement.
396, Photography, particularly 7 for aerial cameras.
434, Education and Demonstration, subclass 111, 186, and 239+
for devices for teaching or training in the use of navigating instruments or for such devices when combined with devices for training in the operation of aircraft.
701, Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location, subclass 200 for calculations for use in navigation.

Subclass: 179 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 178. Instruments responsive to atmospheric pressure variations for determining rate of ascent or descent of a craft. The change in pressure may be manifested by flow of fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
384 for altimeters of barometric pressure type.

Subclass: 180 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 178. Instruments responsive to relative movement of the craft and the fluid in which it is supported to indicate leeway, angle of incidence or side-slip.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, 328 for attitude indicators which are controlled or stabilized by a gyroscope.

Subclass: 181 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 178. Apparatus responsive to relative motion of a fluid medium and a craft for use in determining the speed of the craft with respect to the fluid medium on which it is supported or in which it is immersed. The speed may be integrated with respect to time in order to obtain the distance traveled.
(1) Note. This subclass includes analogous devices for measuring the relative speed of land vehicles with respect to the air.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861 for mere flow meters which might be carried on a craft.

Subclass: 182 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 181. Logs wherein the relative velocity of the craft and the fluid in which it is navigated produces a pressure differential in a device such as a Venturi, flow nozzle, orifice plate, Pitot or like device, which pressure differential is a function of said relative velocity.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.42 for pressure differential flow meters of general application.

Subclass: 183 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 182. Logs wherein the pressure differential is integrated with respect to time to determine the total relative distance traveled.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.43 for pressure differential flow meters of general application having integrating means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
235, Registers, particularly 61 for integrating means, per se.

Subclass: 184 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 181. Logs comprising a drag device which is immersed in the fluid medium and is towed from the craft. The speed is usually measured by determining the force exerted on the towing line or by the extent of rotation of a rotary device on the drag.

Subclass: 185 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 184. Logs of the type wherein the drag carries a rotary member which is rotated by the action of the fluid medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.79 for turbine type meters of general application.

Subclass: 186 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 181. Logs wherein the speed is determined by measuring the movement of a pivoted or sliding flap or vane placed in and moved by the fluid medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
184 for drag type logs.
861.74 for vane type flow meters of general application.

Subclass: 187 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 181. Logs wherein a turbine or rotary motor member is rotated by the fluid medium and the number of rotations per unit of time is a measure of the speed of the craft.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
185 for rotary drag type logs.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 323.21 for a piezoelectric element forming a resonant structure used to measure a physical parameter or condition.

Subclass: 195 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Meter systems employing two or more meters. These systems are usually for measuring and comparing two or more flows or for selectively
metering small or large flows in meters of different capacity.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
48, Gas: Heating and Illuminating, 180 for the mixing of plural gases, one a fuel with means to meter each gas.
137, Fluid Handling, 98 for self-proportioning flow systems.

Subclass: 196 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 195. Systems wherein two or more flows are constantly compared and their ratio indicated, or where comparison is made of the flow of the same stream at two or more points.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
357 for flow comparing devices peculiarly adapted to measure temperature by change in flow characteristics of a fluid.

Subclass: 197 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 195. Systems wherein at least two meters are provided, one sensitive meter for small flows and one meter of large capacity for large flows through the same duct or ducts. There is provided some means to divert the flow to the proper meter under various flow conditions.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, 512, 608+ and 636+ for diverting valves, per se.

Subclass: 198 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Volume or rate of flow meters combined with structures other than meters and not otherwise classifiable.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.31 for the use of a fluid flowmeter combined with other types of measuring in determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging.
181 for ships' logs comprising volume or rate of flow meters.
215 for Weir meters combined with feed water heater structures.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, particularly 98, 459+, 486+, 494+, and 460 for fluid handling apparatus which includes volume or rate of flow meters.
235, Registers, subclass 61 for meters combined with speedometer means so as to make miles per gallon computations.
251, Valves and Valve Actuation, appropriate subclasses for valves, per se.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 39, for heat quantity measuring, devices comprising volume meters.

Subclass: 199 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 198. Meters having combined therewith means for regulating the pressure of the fluid to the inlet or the pressure drop across the meter; or means for indicating or limiting the demand (rate of flow, maximum or minimum) from the meter.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
197 for regulators combined with compound meter structure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, 494 particularly subclasses 505+ for pressure regulators, per se, not structurally combined with meters.

Subclass: 200 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 198. Meters combined with liquid and gas separating means whereby gases entrained in a liquid to be metered may be separated
therefrom before the liquid enters the meter.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
273 for gas meter casings having provision for collecting drip.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
96, Gas Separation: Apparatus, 155 for degasifying means for a liquid.
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, appropriate subclasses for liquid separators, per se.

Subclass: 201 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 198. Meters combined with housing boxes or means for connecting the meter into a pipe line or meter box. Structure of the meter or meter box, other than a mere conventional statement, must be included.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, subclass 315.06 for means to replace a combustible gas or water meter or subclasses 343-382.5 for other fluid handling apparatus casing, support, protector, or static constructional installation.
220, Receptacles, 3.2 for receptacles having provision for extending strands, rods, pipes, etc., through the receptacle wall or for coupling them to the wall.
248, Supports, subclass 317 for meter hanger supports, per se.
285, Pipe Joints or Couplings, subclass 30 for meter connections not limited as above indicated.

Subclass: 202 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Devices for separating from a main flow a definite proportion thereof and metering such separated portion as a measure of the volume or rate of the main flow.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
254 for rotary piston and cylinder meters with a compensating by-pass.
152.29 for a flowmeter for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, subclass xxxxxx

Subclass: 202.5 [Patents]

Thermal sensing of flow:
This subclass is indented under subclass 202. Subject matter in which the rate of flow of a fluid is determined in a separated flow path by a sensed thermal effect caused by such flow.
(1) Note. Such measurement often includes determination of the cooling effect upon a heated element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.33 for a flowmeter for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a rate of fluid flow responsive to a thermal property of a fluid.
204.11 for thermal fluid flow measuring, absent a separate flow path.

Subclass: 203 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 202. Meters wherein the means for proportionally separating the flow to be measured from the main flow comprises a proportioning valve or valves.

Subclass: 204.11 [Patents]

Thermal type:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter in which the rate of flow of a fluid is determined by a sensed thermal effect caused by such flow.
(1) Note. Such measurement often includes determination of the cooling effect upon a heated element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
118.2 for measurement intake air flow in an internal combustion engine.
152.33 for a flowmeter for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a rate of fluid flow responsive to a thermal property of a fluid.
198 for fluid flow measuring combined with diverse subject matter.
202.5 for thermal sensing of flow including an auxiliary testing flow path.
861.95 for flow measuring by use of a thermal tracer or tag.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for measuring and testing of a thermal effect, per se; particularly 29 for heat flow measurement, and subclasses 43+ for heat flow coefficient measurement.

Subclass: 204.12 [Patents]

With conduit extending between heat sinks:
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.11. Subject matter which measures the flow rate of a fluid flowing in a conduit extending between two bodies of fixed temperature.
(1) Note. The conduit is itself often a conductive portion of either a heating or measuring circuit.

Subclass: 204.13 [Patents]

With auxiliary fluid contacting or in heat exchange relation with flow path (e.g., thermodilution):
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.11. Subject matter in which an additional fluid is introduced into the flow path of, or heat exchange relation with, the fluid being measured, to assist in the measurement.
(1) Note. Included herein is measuring flow of a reference fluid the parameters of which are known and comparison with measurements of the mixture with the fluid being observed.
(2) Note. Neither use of a fluid type thermal sensor, nor a
probe cooling fluid, is of itself, basis for classification in this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
62, Refrigeration, subclass 49 for measuring flow mass of a liquified gas.
128, Surgery, 691 for a thermodilution blood flow measuring device.

Subclass: 204.14 [Patents]

Including digital or pulse measuring circuitry:
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.11. Subject matter which includes measuring circuitry which processes a portion of a measuring signal in the form of abrupt variations of an electrical signal level.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
341, Coded Data Generation or Conversion, 155 for an analog to digital encoder.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 170 for a thermometer having digital signal processing.

Subclass: 204.15 [Patents]

Including detail of feedback or rebalancing circuitry:
Subject matter under 204.11 describing a particular feature of the measuring circuit in which a portion of the circuit output is either (a) fed back to its input, or (b) used to control a circuit or circuit adjusting element which balances a bridge measuring circuit.

Subclass: 204.16 [Patents]

By control of a separate heating or cooling element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.15. Subject matter in which a portion of the measuring circuit output is used to control a temperature modifying element distinct from a thermal sensor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
219, Electrical Heating, 327 for a temperature responsive electrical heater.

Subclass: 204.17 [Patents]

With distinct heating circuitry for a self-heated sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.11. Subject matter having circuitry distinct from measuring circuitry to pass heating current through a thermal sensor.

Subclass: 204.18 [Patents]

Including response characteristic or condition compensation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.11. Subject matter in which the measurement is modified so as to suppress the effect of a condition other than flow, or to produce a desired output characteristic.
(1) Note. Circuit arrangements for output linearization are included in this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.01 for flowmeter temperature or density compensation by a distinct output signal

Subclass: 204.19 [Patents]

For temperature:
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.18. Subject matter in which the effect of ambient temperature is suppressed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
204.15 for temperature compensating bridge circuitry having a feedback or rebalancing feature.
861.01 for flowmeter temperature compensation by a distinct output signal.

Subclass: 204.21 [Patents]

With fluid flow deflector or restrictor (e.g., baffle, constriction):
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.11. Subject matter having an element for modifying the direction, or the
cross-section area, of a portion of the fluid flow.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
202.5 for a restrictor combined with a testing bypass or shunt.
861.52 for nonthermal flow measuring with a restrictor in the flow path.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, 40 for a restrictor in a conduit.

Subclass: 204.22 [Patents]

With sensor housing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.11. Subject matter including an enclosure which surrounds the sensor.
(1) Note. A conduit for the flowing fluid being measured is not, of itself, a housing for this subclass.

Subclass: 204.23 [Patents]

Having particular electrical heating, cooling, or thermal sensing element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.11. Subject matter having a designated electrical thermal modifying or responsive element.
(1) Note. The structure of a sensing element, not designated as part of a measuring system, is classified with such elements.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for thermal measuring system not used for flow measurement.

Subclass: 204.24 [Patents]

Thermoelectric junction:
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.23. Subject matter wherein the temperature sensing or modifying element is a current generating device having a junction of two conductors of different composition.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
136, Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric, 200 for structure of a thermoelectric element.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 179 for a thermoelectric thermometer.

Subclass: 204.25 [Patents]

Resistive element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.23. Subject matter wherein the sensor or heater is an electrical resistance element.

Subclass: 204.26 [Patents]

With substrate carrier (e.g., thin film):
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.25. Subject matter in which the resistive element is formed as a thin layer which is mounted upon a side of a solid element.

Subclass: 204.27 [Patents]

Wire type (e.g., hot wire):
This subclass is indented under subclass 204.25. Subject matter wherein a thin wire forms both a resistive temperature sensor and a resistance heater.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
204.17 for detailed circuitry for passing a heating current through a sensor.

Subclass: 215 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Meters having means for metering by determining the effect upon a flow in an open channel of a constriction, such as a weir. More than a mere graduated water gate must be included. The term "open channel" is intended to include any flow channel wherein the surface of the liquid above and below the constriction is subjected to the same pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
251, Valves and Valve Actuation, appropriate subclasses for valves and their actuating means for closed conduits.
405, Hydraulic and Earth Engineering, 87 for weirs and water gates, per se, with or without adjusting means or graduations and including no meter structure, and subclasses 92+ for water gate structures with regulating means to cause a definite volume of water to pass through an open channel while the head varies.

Subclass: 216 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 215. Meters wherein the constriction comprises a submerged orifice or discharge nozzle.
(1) Note. For volume or rate of flow meters, Tank type, see Search This Class, Subclass, below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861 for volume or rate of flow meters, Tank type; meters under subclass 861 wherein the volume of fluent material is measured by the continuous filling and discharging of one or more tanks, buckets or hoppers. The filling and discharging is directly or indirectly controlled by the fluent material being metered.
861.61 for pressure differential type orifice or flow nozzle.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, 386 for tanks provided with automatic control of filling and discharging in response to the liquid level therein wherein structure is claimed that is capable of general fluid feeding and not limited to use as a meter.
177, Weighing Scales, 18 for a weigher of that class which also registers the number of fill and discharge cycles.

Subclass: 217 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Tank type meters wherein the fluent material to be metered is deposited in a rotatable tank or in buckets carried by a drum or wheel
which rotates from filling to discharging position in response to gravity or to a power drive when a definite volume has been placed in said tank or bucket.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
177, Weighing Scales, 83 for a rotary tank responsive to weight.

Subclass: 218 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 217. Meters wherein power means is provided to rotate the tank or drum from filling to discharging position, such power means being caused to operate directly or indirectly by the metered fluid or fluent material when the tank is filled.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
177, Weighing Scales, subclass 84 for a weigher having power driven rotary tank responsive to weight in the tank.

Subclass: 219 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Tank meters wherein the volume is measured in more than one chamber.

Subclass: 220 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 219. Meters wherein the inlet and discharge valves of the measuring chambers are actuated by pressure of the fluid to be metered when a definite static head of the fluid is accumulated in the respective measuring chambers.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
249 271, for other fluid actuated valve combinations.

Subclass: 221 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 219. Meters wherein the inlet and discharge valves of the measuring chambers are controlled by a float or floats. This subclass includes tank meters wherein the valves are operated by power means controlled by a float or floats.

Subclass: 222 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 219. Meters wherein the discharge from each measuring chamber is controlled by one or more siphons.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, 123 for siphons, per se.

Subclass: 223 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Tank meters having only one measuring chamber.

Subclass: 224 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 223. Tank meters wherein the inlet and outlet valves of the measuring chamber are controlled by a float or floats. Tank meters having valves actuated by power means controlled by a float or floats are included.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
221 for float operated valves for plural measuring chamber type.

Subclass: 225 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 224. Meters wherein the valves of the measuring chamber are actuated by a force which is stored up and suddenly released through movement of a float or floats.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
251 and 270, for trip gear in other combinations.

Subclass: 226 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 223. Meters wherein the discharge from the measuring chamber is controlled by a siphon.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
222 for siphons with plural measuring chambers.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, 123 for siphons, per se.

Subclass: 227 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Meters not classifiable in any of the above subclasses wherein is provided a means responsive to area of cross section of the fluid flow to be metered, a means responsive to the velocity of said flow and a means for integrating both of said variables to obtain volume.

Subclass: 232 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Meters wherein the fluid is measured in a continuously operable expansible chamber device. The energy of the fluid is usually employed to expand the measuring chamber or chambers, such expansion being also utilized to drive suitable registering means for totalizing the number of expansions.
(1) Note. In defining expansible chamber meters, the term "cylinder" is used to define an external member in the meter organization which surrounds an internal or piston member which constitutes a relatively moving wall for the expansible chamber, the other wall being formed in whole or in part by the cylinder and the cylinder including the abutment against which the fluid to be metered acts. In meters having two or more internal members, both moved by the fluid to be metered and each external to the other and serving as mutual
abutments, the internal members are each considered to be pistons, but where one internal member is movable inside of the other, the inner is considered to be a piston and the outer a moving cylinder. Where the metered fluid acts on a cylinder or piston to rotate one relative to the other, the cylinder abutment is termed an "abutment" and the piston abutment is termed a "vane".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, and see the reference to Class 73 in section III of the class definition of Class 91 for a statement of the line.
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, appropriate subclasses, for an expansible chamber device. For the line between Class 73 and Class 92, see References to Other Classes of the class definition of Class 92, under SEARCH CLASS 73.
220, Receptacles, 377, 602 and 662+ for a receptacle having a transparent sidewall or sidewall portion.
418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, for rotary expansible chamber devices, per se.

Subclass: 233 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 232. Devices wherein means is provided for manually or automatically varying the ratio of transmission of motion from the expansible chamber means to the indicating or registering means. Such variation is usually for the purpose of correcting the indicated volume for temperature and pressure variations or to change the indication from one system of units to another, such as from U.S. gallons to Imperial gallons, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
227 for area-velocity integrating type.
861.81 for turbine type with regulating adjustment.

Subclass: 234 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 232. Meters wherein the fluid to be metered is measured in an expansible chamber which is sealed off by a liquid continuously or at some part of the measuring cycle. These subclasses are not limited to
gas meters and include devices for metering liquids of less density than the liquid employed as a seal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
48, Gas: Heating and Illuminating, 176 and 181+ for gas holders and feeders of similar structure.

Subclass: 235 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 234. Meters wherein a series of measuring chambers are carried by a drum mounted to rotate in a sealing liquid. During continuous rotation of said drum, definite volumes of the fluid to be metered are successively trapped in said compartments by the sealing liquid and then released thereby to an exhaust passage.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
217 for the rotary tank or bucket types.

Subclass: 236 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 234. Meters wherein the bell or chambered drum is mounted in a sealing liquid for oscillation about a pivot. The bell or drum in oscillating forms an expansible chamber or chambers with said sealing liquid wherein successive charges of fluid to be metered are measured.

Subclass: 237 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 234. Meters wherein the bell is mounted to rectilinearly reciprocate into and out of the sealing liquid to form therewith an expansible measuring chamber for the fluid to be metered.

Subclass: 238 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 234. Meters wherein a multi-chambered bell is so mounted in the sealing liquid
that, when moved, its axis describes continuously the surface of a cone. The compartments of the bell form with the sealing liquid a plurality of expansible measuring chambers for the fluid to be metered.

Subclass: 239 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 232. Meters employing one or more relatively rectilinearly reciprocating pistons and cylinders, said piston and cylinder structures cooperating to define one or more expansible measuring chambers.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, appropriate subclasses for an expansible chamber device of the cylinder and piston type.

Subclass: 240 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 239. Meters wherein both cylinder and piston reciprocate rectilinearly, the motion of one being transverse to the motion of the other.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, subclass 173.

Subclass: 241 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 239. Meters wherein the cylinder is supported for rocking movement, which movement is caused to operate the valves controlling reciprocation of the piston.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, subclass 176 and 210+.
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, 118 for an expansible chamber device having an oscillating cylinder.

Subclass: 242 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 239. Meters wherein all events of the metering cycle of the expansible measuring chamber are controlled without the use of a valve distinct from the piston or the piston-rod and the cylinder.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, 232.

Subclass: 243 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 239. Meters having at least two cylinders, each provided with a piston and a valve or valves for distributing the fluid to be metered to cause the pistons to reciprocate, the valve or valves for one cylinder being moved wholly or partially in consequence of movement of the piston in the other cylinder.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
264 for duplex, multiple diaphragm type.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, 191.

Subclass: 244 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 239. Meters wherein parallel cylinders are provided, each having a piston operating upon a common wobble plate or cam which controls the distributing valve or valves.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, 499, for parallel cylinder type motors.

Subclass: 245 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 239. Meters wherein parallel cylinders are provided, each having a piston driving
a common shaft extending transversely of the cylinders. The shaft in rotating operates the distributing valves for all the cylinders and usually actuates the register mechanism.

Subclass: 246 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 245. Meters wherein the transverse shaft actuates a single valve, usually rotary, which controls the induction and eduction to all cylinders.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
265 for rotary valve multiple diaphragm meters.

Subclass: 247 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 239. Meters having two or more cylinders with their axes radially arranged. Either the cylinders and/or the pistons may be movable.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, 491 for radial cylinder type motors.
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, subclass 148 for an expansible chamber device having a plurality of radially arranged cylinders.

Subclass: 248 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 239. Meters wherein the piston or piston-rod carries a relatively movable valve for controlling at least one of the admission or exhaust and serves as a seat for the valve or has formed therein some of the distributing passages.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, 222.
417, Pumps, 523 and 545+ for expansible chamber type pumps having a valved piston.

Subclass: 249 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 239. Meters wherein the distributing valve or valves are actuated by pressure of the fluid being metered, although they may be started by the piston in its movement through contact or by means of a pilot valve operated by the piston or rod.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
220 and 271, for other fluid actuated valve combinations.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, 281.

Subclass: 250 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 239. Meters having a distributing valve mechanism actuated by the piston, piston rod, or a part rigidly attached thereto. This subclass includes piston meters wherein the distributing valves are actuated electrically or by other power means under control of the piston in its movement.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, 218.

Subclass: 251 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 250. Meters wherein the distributing valves are actuated by a force which is stored up and suddenly released through movement of the piston or piston rod.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
225 270, for other combinations with valve trip gear.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclass 97 and 100 for snap actions, per se.
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, subclass 338.
251, Valves and Valve Actuation, subclass 75 for valve actuation with snap action.

Subclass: 252 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 232. Piston meters in which the piston and cylinder relatively oscillate about a fixed center to expand the measuring chamber.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, 339.
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, 120 for an expansible chamber devices having an oscillating piston.
417, Pumps, 481 for an expansible chamber type pump having an oscillating pumping member.

Subclass: 253 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 232. Piston Meters wherein the cylinder and piston relatively rotate about a fixed or movable axis to expand the metering chamber.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, for rotary expansible chamber devices, per se.

Subclass: 254 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 253. Meters wherein a bypass, usually having a variable restriction, is placed across the metering chamber to compensate for losses caused by leakage, viscosity changes, etc.

Subclass: 255 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 253. Meters in
which the piston rotates relatively to its axis while the axis moves in an orbit. This subclass also includes meters wherein a point on the piston constantly faces the same direction while the axis rotates.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, 54 for rotary expansible chamber devices in which the working.

Subclass: 256 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 255. Meters having a plurality of stationary abutments for cooperation with the piston.

Subclass: 257 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 255. Meters having a single stationary abutment for cooperation with the piston.

Subclass: 258 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 257. Meters wherein the axis of the piston during the orbital movement describes a conical surface. This subclass includes meters commonly termed "disk type".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, 49 for rotary expansible chamber devices having a mutating working member.

Subclass: 259 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 253. Rotary piston meters wherein the piston is provided with one or more vanes which slidably project from the piston to engage the cylinder wall.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, 259 for rotary expansible chamber devices having positively actuated vanes and subclass 270 for similar devices having movable vanes.

Subclass: 260 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 253. Rotary piston meters wherein the piston is provided with one or more hinged vanes which are extended to engage the cylinder wall and may be collapsed against the piston in passing the cylinder abutment.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, 259 for rotary expansible chamber devices having positively actuated vanes and subclass 270 for similar devices having movable vanes.

Subclass: 261 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 253. Rotary piston meters, having at least two pistons mounted in a common cylinder and having interengaging portions so that each may act as an abutment for the other.
(1) Note. This subclass includes meters of the "Roots blower" or lobed impeller type.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, 166 for rotary expansible chamber devices of the moving cylinder type having intermeshing peripheral surfaces; subclasses 172+, for such devices of the moving cylinder type having interengaging peripheral surfaces and subclasses 191+, for such devices having interengaging rotating members.

Subclass: 262 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 232. Meters wherein the expansible measuring chamber is defined in whole or in part by a diaphragm, bellows or similar type of collapsible wall which moves to provide the expansion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
272 for elements such as casings, diaphragm mountings and diaphragms.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, 34 for a bellows type expansible chamber device; subclasses 89+ for a collapsible chamber wall type expansible chamber device.
417, Pumps, 472, 474+, 478, 479, 480 for expansible chamber type pumps having a collapsible wall.
418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, subclass 45 for rotary expansible chamber devices having a collapsible wall.

Subclass: 263 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 262. Diaphragm or collapsible wall meters employing more than one diaphragm to define the expansible measuring chambers.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, 48 for an expansible chamber device having a plurality of diaphragms.

Subclass: 264 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 263. Meters wherein the movable diaphragms define a plurality of measuring chambers for each of which a distributing valve or valves are provided. The distributing valves for one measuring chamber are moved wholly or partly in consequence of movement of the diaphragm in the other measuring chamber.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
243 for duplex reciprocating piston or cylinder type.

Subclass: 265 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 263. Meters wherein
a rotary valve or valves are provided to control the induction and eduction to all of the chambers defined by the diaphragms. The term "rotary" is intended to include valves which have orbital movement wherein one point on the valve continuously faces in the same direction.

Subclass: 266 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 265. Meters wherein the rotary valve receives its motion from the diaphragms through the medium of cranks.

Subclass: 267 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 266. Meters wherein the motion is transmitted to the cranks from flag-wires or flag-rods operated by the diaphragms.

Subclass: 268 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 263. Meters wherein the induction and/or eduction to the measuring chambers are controlled by slide valves of the oscillating or reciprocating type.

Subclass: 269 [Patents]

Diaphragm meters wherein the measuring chamber or chambers are defined by a single diaphragm or bellows.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, 96 for a diaphragm type expansible chamber device.

Subclass: 270 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 269. Meters wherein the valves controlling the induction and eduction of the
measuring chambers are actuated by a force which is built up and then suddenly released by the movement of the diaphragm.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
225 and 251, for other combinations with valve trip gear.

Subclass: 271 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 269. Meters wherein the valves controlling the induction and eduction of the measuring chambers are actuated by pressure of the metered fluid when a definite pressure builds up behind the diaphragm at the end of its stroke.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
220 and 249, for other fluid operated valve combinations.

Subclass: 272 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Meter subcombinations or elements of the type meter provided for in ... and not above provided for. Register connections including reduction gearing and packings are included here when claimed with meter structure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, for reduction gearing, per se.
137, Fluid Handling, subclass 315.06 for means to replace a combustible gas or water meter.
235, Registers, for registers, per se.
346, Recorders.
475, Planetary Gear Transmission Systems or Components, for planetary gearing, per se.

Subclass: 273 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 272. Elements for
improvements in the casing structure housing the metering mechanism and not limited to any particular type of meter.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
201 for meter boxes.
431 for instrument casings of general application.

Subclass: 274 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 273. Meter casing structures limited to use with diaphragm meters.

Subclass: 275 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 272. Elements comprising devices which cooperate with the meter to prevent reversing or running backward of the registering mechanism. This subclass includes devices to protect the meter against breakage caused by reversing as well as to prevent fraud.

Subclass: 276 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 275. Elements wherein check valves are combined with meter structure to prevent reversing or running backward of the registering mechanism by preventing reverse flow through the meter.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, 511 for check valves, per se.

Subclass: 277 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 272. Elements wherein provision is made to prevent freezing of the meter; or for expansion or yielding or for the fracture of some particular part to prevent injury to other portions of the meter in the event of freezing of the metered fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
201 for anti-freeze constructions of meter boxes of enclosing the meter.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, subclasses 26-35 for other types of frost constructions capable of general application and not tied up with meter structure.
220, Receptacles, 89.1 and 265+ for frangible closures and attachments of general application in metallic receptacles.
285, Pipe Joints or Couplings, subclass 1, for fracturable or yieldable flanged joints between two parts of a meter casing wherein said parts are no more in effect than two pipe members.

Subclass: 278 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 272. Elements comprising a devices for mounting a diaphragm in a meter, usually so as to facilitate removal, repair and/or soldering.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, 98 for a diaphragm mounting for a diaphragm type expansible chamber device.

Subclass: 279 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 272. Elements comprising diaphragm or bellows structure, per se, limited to use in meters.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, 96, for a diaphragm type expansible chamber device.

Subclass: 280 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 279. Devices having
means for oiling the meter diaphragms to preserve and render them impermeable to avoid inaccuracies caused by porosity of the diaphragm walls.

Subclass: 281 [Patents]

Tangent adjustment:
This subclass is indented under subclass 272. Elements comprising adjustments, per se, of the tangent arms and/or posts of diaphragm meters.

Subclass: 290 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Gauges for determining the level or depth of bodies of liquid and not otherwise classifiable. The gauges may be properly calibrated for use with certain containers so as to indicate volume as a function of liquid level. The volume indicated in such instances may be the quantity of liquid remaining in the container or the quantity removed therefrom. Devices for gauging the draft of ships are here included.
(1) Note. Devices for determining depths, by sonic or electrical wave means are found in Classes 324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclasses 323+; Class 181, Acoustics, subclass 124 and Class 367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, subclasses 87+.
(2) Note. For nonquantitative liquid level alarms or indicators, see Class 116, Signals and Indicators, subclasses 109+ and subclasses 227+ where nonelectrical and Class 340, Communications: electrical subclasses 618+ where electrical.
(3) Note. Although the patents classified in this and indented subclasses are principally for devices for determining the depth or level of bodies of liquid, devices which are similar in construction or operation to such devices have been classified herein even though disclosed solely for determining the level of dry fluent materials.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
15, Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning, subclass 257.073, for a supply container for loading the tool of an applicator, which container is provided with means for contacting the applicator for indicating or limiting the extent of penetration of the tool into the supply and including means which is adjustable to correspond to the drop in level of the supply.
33, Geometrical Instruments, 713 for sounding devices for determining the depth of bodies of fluent material or for measuring the distance from a datum to the surface of fluent material wherein only a measurement of distance is involved.
116, Signals and Indicators, see Note 2.
137, Fluid Handling, 386, for fluid handling apparatus including means for controlling flow in response to or to maintain liquid level.
164, Metal Founding, subclass 151.3 for a metal casting apparatus including a melt level sensor.
181, Acoustics, see Note 1.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, see (1) Note above.
340, Communications: Electrical, see (1) Note and (2) Note above.

Subclass: 291 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Combinations of liquid level gauges and other measuring instruments.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
33 for float gauges combined with hydrometers.
198 for flow meters combined with liquid level gauges.

Subclass: 292 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 291. Liquid level or depth gauges combined with temperature measuring means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 142, for a thermometer combined with another measuring instrument.

Subclass: 293 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Liquid level
or depth gauges provided with means for illuminating the gauge or its indicating portion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
325 for liquid level gauges equipped with guards or casings but including no source of illumination.
327 for liquid level gauge glasses equipped with reflectors or magnifiers but including no source of illumination.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
362, Illumination, particularly 23, for illuminating means, per se, or combined with a gauge dial of general application.

Subclass: 294 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Combinations of liquid level gauges with funnels or hose nozzles wherein no more of such funnel or nozzle is included than is necessary to provide for the gauge.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
141, Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means, 331, for funnels, per se, and, subclasses 95+, for indicators combined with filling means responsive to level or pressure in the receiver.

Subclass: 295 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Gauges wherein the liquid level or depth is determined by temperature responsive means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
164, Metal Founding, 151.4 and 450.3 for a metal casting apparatus having a thermal sensor which may be used for sensing melt level.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 100 for temperature measurement, per se.

Subclass: 296 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Gauges wherein the liquid level or depth is determined by weighing a column representative of the depth of liquid in the reservoir.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
309 for those operating by buoyant effort exerted on a float.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
177, Weighing Scales, appropriate subclasses for a weighing device, per se.

Subclass: 297 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Gauges wherein one or a plurality of test cocks are placed in communication with a reservoir or water column at various levels so that the liquid level may be determined by the issuance or nonissuance of liquid from the various levels. This subclass also includes the structure of the water column.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 227 for single test indicators.
251, Valves and Valve Actuation, appropriate subclasses for valve structure, per se.

Subclass: 298 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Gauges having a tube so mounted in the reservoir that one end is movable with respect to the liquid level and the other end is connected to the exterior of the reservoir. Determination of liquid level is accomplished by adjustment of the tube to a position wherein "flow" or "no-flow" conditions through the exterior connection are produced by slight movement in either direction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
210, Liquid Purification or Separation, 513 for similar structure employed for decanting.

Subclass: 299 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Gauges wherein variations in depth are determined by measuring variations in static head at some point normally below the surface of the liquid. These devices usually comprise a pressure gauge with connections to said point below the surface of the liquid in the reservoir.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
32 for gauges of this type combined with means for indicating the specific gravity of the liquid.
323 for mere sight glasses.
700 for pressure gauges, per se.

Subclass: 300 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 299. Gauges wherein the gauge mechanism as a whole or the pressure responsive portion thereof is peculiarly adapted to be lowered as a unit to the bottom of the liquid to take a reading of hydrostatic pressure as a function of depth. An indicator at the surface may be suitably connected to the pressure responsive device.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, subclass 715 and 720 for devices for sounding by the use of a line and weight.

Subclass: 301 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 299. Gauges having at least one indicator electrically controlled by means responsive to the hydrostatic pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
340, Communications: Electrical, 870.01 for electric telemetering systems.

Subclass: 302 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 299. Gauges wherein means is provided for compressing or replenishing the fluid in the system between the reservoir and the pressure gauge, or means is provided for displacing or withdrawing fluid from the measuring system. The displacing or replenishing means may be, for example, an adjustable plug, a pump, a means to entrain air by sloshing of liquid in the tank, a vacuum feed tank in an internal combustion engine fuel feeding system, or other source of pressure or suction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
439 for similar devices for determining specific gravity.

Subclass: 303 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 302. Gauges wherein the displacement or replenishing means produces a pressure less than atmospheric or the action of a vacuum type fuel feeding tank is employed. The suction may be employed to produce a pressure differential proportional to the head of liquid in the reservoir, or may cause directly or indirectly the entrainment of air to replenish the system.

Subclass: 304 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Gauges having electrode means exposed to the liquid whereby said liquid may complete the circuit between said electrodes as it rises. There may be a plurality of pairs of electrodes at different elevations or a linear resistance spaced from a conductor and bridged by the fluid to change the resistance by increments upon change of liquid level.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
301 for immersible electrode gauges employed in connection with pressure responsive liquid level gauges.
313 for other combinations with electric signals.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 425 for
electrolytic testing and subclasses 600+ for the measuring of impedance.
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 38 for a liquid resistance element or contact operated by a change in fluid or gas pressure. See the reference to Class 338 under (3) Note, C, above.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 620, for a nonquantitative liquid level alarm having an electrode probe.

Subclass: 305 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Liquid gauges wherein the liquid level or depth is indicated directly or indirectly by at least one float or buoyant body. The float may be fastened to a support insertable into the liquid or may be substantially permanently mounted in a container.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
15, Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning, subclass 257.073 for a float atop a column of fluent coating material, which float is intended for contact with an applicator to indicate the desired extent of immersion of the tool of the applicator in the supply as the level of the supply drops.
43, Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying, 43.1 for floats used on fishing lines functioning to control and support the line.
137, Fluid Handling, 386 particularly subclasses 397, 398+ and 409+ for float controlled valves.
164, Metal Founding, subclass 156.1 and 450.1 for a metal casting apparatus having an electrical or float level sensor.

Subclass: 306 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Float gauges claimed significantly in combination with other devices. Where more of an art device is claimed than is necessary to provide for the liquid level or depth measurement, the patents are placed with such art machine and cross-referenced here. Since most gauges are situated in a container, the inclusion of any type of container, or closure therefor,
broadly is not sufficient to place the patent here, and classification is made in the following subclasses according to the float gauge structure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
291 293, and 294, for combinations of float gauges with other measuring devices, with illuminating means, or with a funnel of hose nozzle.

Subclass: 307 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 306. Combinations of float gauges with signal or alarm means. The signal means is usually for the purpose of indicating extremes of high or low level.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, subclass 110, 111, 113, and 228+ for float-operated mechanical liquid level signaling means, per se.
122, Liquid Heaters and Vaporizers, subclass 504.2 for boiler safety devices with alarms or indicators.
137, Fluid Handling, subclass 558, for fluid handling apparatus including a liquid level responsive signal or indicator.

Subclass: 308 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 307. Combinations wherein the signal is electrically operated.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, subclass 84 for float operated switches, per se.
340, Communications: Electrical, 618 for nonquantitative alarms responsive to liquid level.

Subclass: 309 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Gauges wherein the level or depth is determined by measuring the buoyant effort exerted by the liquid upon a buoyant body.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
177, Weighing Scales, subclass 207 for a weigher operated by the displacement of liquid.

Subclass: 310 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Gauges having registering means to totalized the upward and/or downward movements of the float so as to obtain a total of the liquid added to and/or removed from a reservoir.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
217 through 226, for tank type meters wherein floats are employed to operate a register to obtain a total of the number of times the tank is filled.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
235, Registers, for registering means, per se.

Subclass: 311 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Gauges having more than one float. These floats may operate on the same liquid, on liquids in different reservoirs or on liquids of different specific gravity in the same reservoir. One or several indicating means may be provided to indicate the level or levels of the liquid or liquids or their differences in level.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861 for multiple float gauges employed to measure differences in head on flow meters; see the volume or rate of flow meters in this class, principally subclasses 861.42-861.69 and 227.

Subclass: 312 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Gauges having means for making a permanent record of the float movements.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
346, Recorders.

Subclass: 313 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Gauges having an indicator which is operated by the float through the medium of electrical means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
301 and 308, for other liquid level or depth gauges with electrical signals or indicators.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, subclass 84 for float operated switches, per se.
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 33 for a resistor having a float actuator responsive to a change in the level of a liquid.
340, Communications: Electrical, 870.01, for electric telemetric systems, per se.

Subclass: 314 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Gauges having means operable to sense or feel the position of the float as distinguished from indicating means which are operatively connected with the float for continuous control thereby. The sensing means is usually manually operable.

Subclass: 315 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Gauges wherein means is provided to lock the float against motion. Locking is usually maintained to prevent motion of the float during surging of the liquid, or to fix the float until a reading is completed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
314 for float gauges wherein the float is locked during sensing of the float position.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
43, Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying, 44.87 for floats used on fishing lines functioning to control and support the line and having means to permit selective free sliding or affixing of the float on the line.

Subclass: 316 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Gauges wherein the movement of the float in response to changes in liquid level is transmitted to the indicator through the medium of a hydraulic or pneumatic transmission means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
299 for hydrostatic pressure type gauges.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
60, Power Plants, 325 for fluid transmission means, per se.

Subclass: 317 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Gauges wherein the float is mounted upon an arm which is in turn pivoted.

Subclass: 318 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 317. Gauges wherein the motion of the float is transmitted to the indicator through a flexible cable or Bowden wire transmission.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
321 for flexible cables in another combination.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, 500.5 for flexible transmissions, per se.

Subclass: 319 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Gauges wherein the float reciprocates vertically or substantially vertically in following the liquid level.

Subclass: 320 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 319. Gauges wherein the motion of the indicator is derived from a reciprocally guided float coacting with a spiral or similar cam surface.

Subclass: 321 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 319. Gauges wherein the motion of the float is transmitted to the indicator through a flexible cable or Bowden wire transmission.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
318 for flexible cables in another combination.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, 500.5 for flexible transmissions, per se.

Subclass: 322 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 319. Gauges wherein the motion of the float is indicated by a stem attached to and bodily movable with said float and projecting usually upwardly or downwardly therefrom.

Subclass: 322.5 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 305. Device comprising the structure of the sensing means with or without its mounting or operating connection.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
43, Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying, 43.1 for fishing float, per se.
441, Buoys, Rafts, and Aquatic Devices, 1 for marine buoys and floats.

Subclass: 323 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 290. Gauges whereby the liquid level may be directly viewed. The gauges may comprise either a transparent plate fastened over an opening in the reservoir wall or a tube transparent at least in part and so communicating with the reservoir that the liquid in the reservoir and tube may assume a common level. The term "glass", as employed in these definition, is intended to include any transparent material.
(1) Note. Similar devices employed for determining the level of dry fluent materials are here included.
(2) Note. For structures similar to sight glasses, such as tubular ullage rods or sampling tubes, insertable into a liquid to determine depth or to take a sample, but not permanently attached to the reservoir, see Class 33, Geometrical Instruments, subclasses 717+ and this class (73) subclasses 864+.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
299 for hydrostatic pressure type gauges.
747 for U-tube pressure gauges.
864 see (2) Note.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, see Note 2.
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, for glass tube structure, per se, not limited to use as a gauge glass.
184, Lubrication, 96 for similar structures employed with sight feed lubricators.
220, Receptacles, subclass 82, and see the notes thereto, for structures wherein a transparent panel is mounted in a wall.
359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements, 894 for transparent closures, in general.

Subclass: 324 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 323. Glasses having a cleaning apparatus or implement incorporated therewith for cleaning the sight glass, sight tube or its connecting passages.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
15, Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning, 104.03 for tube cleaning implements, per se.

Subclass: 325 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 323. Sight glasses provided with a guard or casing for protecting the glass or for catching the flying glass particles when the glass bursts.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
293 wherein are classified guards or casings having illuminating means incorporated therewith.
330 and 334, for the transparent closure plate type of gauge glasses which are usually provided with clamping means which project outward from the glass and in a sense form a guard.

Subclass: 326 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 325. Sight glasses with guards wherein the gauge glass is of the type commonly employed in boiler installations and comprises a tubular conduit, transparent at least in part, connected at one end to the space above the liquid in the reservoir and at the other end to the reservoir below the normal liquid level so that the pressures on the liquid in the reservoir and gauge glass may be equalized.

Subclass: 327 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 323. Sight glasses having means for reflecting or magnifying the liquid in the glass. The reflection or magnification may be accomplished by prismatic formations integral with the glass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
293 for reflectors or magnifiers incorporated with illuminating means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements, 642 for lenses, per se, and subclasses 838+ for mirrors, per se.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 191 for a reflecting or magnifying element combined with an indicating tube type thermometer, and subclass 193 for an indicating tube type thermometer in which the tube has a cross section causing it to act as an optical element.

Subclass: 328 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 323. Glasses of the type commonly employed in boiler installations and comprising a tubular conduit, transparent at least in part, connected at one end to the space above the liquid in the reservoir and at the other end to the reservoir below the normal liquid level so that the pressures on the liquid in the reservoir and gauge may be equalized.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
293 and 326, for boiler type glasses equipped with guards or casings.
297 for boiler glasses combined with water columns.
299 for sight glass structure, in hydrostatic pressure gauges.
747 for U-tube pressure gauges.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
285, Pipe Joints or Couplings, principally 238, for packed
boiler glass joints, per se.

Subclass: 329 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 328. Gauges comprising a plurality of transparent portions connected either seriatim for use in determining levels at different ranges, or in multiple so that they may be selectively employed to indicate over the same range.

Subclass: 330 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 328. Boiler gauges wherein the transparent portion is in the form of at least one closure mounted over an aperture in the tubular conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
334 for similar closures mounted directly upon the reservoir wall.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
220, Receptacles, 377, 602 and 662+ see the notes thereto, for structures wherein a transparent panel is mounted in a wall.

Subclass: 331 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 330. Gauges wherein the transparent closure means is in the form of one or more disks commonly called "bull's eyes".

Subclass: 332 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 328. Boiler type glasses wherein improvements are claimed in the manner in which the glasses are provided with valves. The valves are usually manipulable so that the transparent portion may be cleaned by blowing off steam therethrough or whereby the transparent portion may be isolated from the reservoir to
permit replacement of the transparent section.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, subclass 559 for sight glasses combined with valves or other fluid handling apparatus.
251, Valves and Valve Actuation, appropriate subclasses for hand manipulable valves, per se.

Subclass: 333 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 332. Boiler type glasses having provision for automatically closing the valves to isolate the transparent section when breakage occurs.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, subclass 329.1 and 329.2+ for automatic gauge valves, per se, and subclasses 455+ for valves which are responsive to change in line condition.

Subclass: 334 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 323. Glasses mounted directly over an opening in the wall of a container or reservoir.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
330 for similar transparent closure plates mounted over apertures in tubes.
427 for graduated measuring vessels.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
220, Receptacles, 377, 602 and 662+ see the notes thereto, for structures wherein a transparent panel is mounted in a wall.

Subclass: 335.01 [Patents]

With optical element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 29.02. Subject matter including a device which changes its optical property
in response to radiant energy.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.13 for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
866.5 for a sensor means, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, appropriate subclasses for a photocell detector, per se, 564 for circuits for evaluating a liquid by means of measuring invisible light which has been modified as a result of the irradiation of the liquid thereby and subclasses 573+ for an optical or pre-optical system having a liquid in the path thereof wherein the modification of or the emission of radiant energy resulting from the irradiation of the liquid is tested.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 438 for an apparatus or a process for determining the moisture content of a gas by measuring visible light transmission or absorption and involving no other manipulation other than that necessary for an optical test for Class 356.
359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Element, appropriate subclass, for an detector, per se.

Subclass: 335.02 [Patents]

With electric circuitry or electric circuit component detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 29.02. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to an electric circuit arrangement or to an electric circuit component having a parameter which is varied due to the effect of the humidity thereon.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclasses for a device wherein the atmosphere or gas changes in electrical conductance in response to humidity and such property is taken as a measure of humidity. Where no electrical property of the material under test is measured but an additional element is exposed to the material to have its electrical properties affected by a physical property of the material and an electrical property of the additional element is measured, the art is in Class 73, Measuring and
Testing.
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 35 for electrical resistors whose resistance value is responsive to humidity or change in humidity.

Subclass: 335.03 [Patents]

Impedance:
This subclass is indented under subclass 335.02. Subject matter wherein the parameter is the impedance of the circuit or the circuit component.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 600 for an apparatus or process for determining the moisture content of a material by measuring impedance, admittance or a related quantity of the material and particularly subclasses 664 and 689 for determining the moisture content of a material by measuring the resistance or the conductivity of a material in order to measure its moisture content.

Subclass: 335.04 [Patents]

Capacitance:
This subclass is indented under subclass 335.03. Subject matter wherein the parameter is the capacitance of the circuit or of the component.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 664 and 689 for determining the water content of a material by measuring the capacitance of the material.

Subclass: 335.05 [Patents]

Resistance or conductivity:
This subclass is indented under subclass 335.03. Subject matter wherein the parameter is either resistance or conductivity.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 691 for an apparatus for determining the moisture content of a material by measuring the resistance or the conductivity of the
material.
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 35 for an electrical resistor whose resistance value is responsive to humidity or change in humidity.

Subclass: 335.06 [Patents]

Wet and dry responsive elements:
This subclass is indented under subclass 29.02. Subject matter wherein determination is made by measuring the difference in the temperature of aell detectors, per se, reduced by evaporation of a liquid and the temperature of a dry member.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 28 for a dew point measuring, per se, subclass 109 for a temperature measurement involving a composite climate-temperature related measurement and subclasses 142+ for a combination of a hygrometer and temperature measuring device.

Subclass: 335.07 [Patents]

With direct readout or calculator detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 335.06. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to either means for providing at an immediate glance a single observation of the difference in the temperature of the wet responsive element and the dry responsive element or to means manipulated in such a manner as to provide at an immediate glance a single observation of the difference in the temperature of the wet responsive element and the temperature of the dry responsive element.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
235, Registers, appropriate subclass for a register, per se, for detecting the relative humidity from a psychrometer reading or for a register combined with conventional nominally recited elements of hygrometer.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 509 and 550+ for an electrical computer or a data processing system, per se, for a hygrometer or in combination with a conventional hygrometric element recited in name only.
377, Electrical Pulse Counter, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems, 9 for a pulse counter, per
se, for a hygrometer or the combination of a conventional hygrometric element recited in name only.

Subclass: 335.08 [Patents]

Wet bulb detail:
This subclass is indented under subclass 335.06. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the member whose temperature is reduced by evaporation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 28 for a dew point hygrometer with a wet responsive member detail.

Subclass: 335.09 [Patents]

Relative air motion creating means (e.g., sling psychrometer):
This subclass is indented under subclass 335.08. Subject matter including means which causes air or another type gas to pass over the wet responsive member.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
454, Ventilation, appropriate subclass for ventilation means, per se.

Subclass: 335.11 [Patents]

Expanding-sorption element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 29.02. Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a humidity responsive means which expands in response to absorbing moisture.

Subclass: 335.12 [Patents]

Coiled or twisted:
This subclass is indented under subclass 335.11. Subject matter wherein the humidity responsive means comprises a hygroscopic material attached to a circular or spiral shaped member which winds or unwinds due to changed in dimensions in the hygroscopic material in response to absorption of humidity.

Subclass: 335.13 [Patents]

Arcuate or elongated:
This subclass is indented under subclass 335.11. Subject matter wherein the humidity responsive means comprises a member which changes in shape from a straight form to either a spiral lying in a substantially single plane or to a convex or a concave form upon absorption of humidity.

Subclass: 335.14 [Patents]

Tensioned:
This subclass is indented under subclass 335.11. Subject matter including means for stretching tightly the humidity responsive means.

Subclass: 379.01 [Patents]

MUSCULAR FORCE (E.G., STRENGTH TESTING, EXERCISING OR TRAINING EFFORT, ETC.):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for determining a force exerted by a living being.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
760 for stress or strain measuring, or measuring by using stress or strain.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, appropriate subclass for a mechanical alarm which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined force; especially, subclass 212 for a similar indicator which is responsive to the presence or absence of stress.
128, Surgery, 774 for measuring a force exerted by a living being in order to determine a health condition of the living being.
340, Communications: Electrical, 573.1 for an electrical indicator which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to the attainment of a predetermined condition of a human being or an animal and subclass 665 for an electrical indicator which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to the attainment of a predetermined mechanical
force.
473, Games Using Tangible Projectile, 131 for a golf practice device having force-measuring means and subclasses 422+ for a practice or training device for a playing field or court game (e.g., baseball, football, tennis, etc.) which may include a force-measuring means.
482, Exercise Devices, 92 for means upon which muscular strength may be exerted, but not provided with indicators movable in proportion to the force exerted, and subclasses 114+ for a user manipulated force resisting mechanism or element.
601, Surgery: Kinesitherapy, 23 for exercising appliances.

Subclass: 379.02 [Patents]

Jaw or hand (e.g., gripping, pinching, or biting):
This subclass is indented under subclass 379.01. Subject matter wherein the force is exerted by either a muscle controlling a jaw or by a muscle controlling a hand of the living being.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
128, Surgery, 774 for a device for measuring a force exerted by a jaw or a hand for diagnosing a condition of the body.
433, Dentistry, 68 for means for recording or indicating jaw movement or position.
601, Surgery: Kinesitherapy, subclass 40 for an exercising appliance for a hand or a finger.

Subclass: 379.03 [Patents]

Using a resilient force-resister:
This subclass is indented under subclass 379.02. Subject matter wherein the exerted force is applied to a movable component and an elastically deformable member is used to restrict or retard movement thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862.621 for measuring force by measuring elastic deformation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
482, Exercise Devices, 92 for a user manipulated
force-resisting mechanism or element.

Subclass: 379.04 [Patents]

Impact:
This subclass is indented under subclass 379.01. Subject matter wherein the force being determined is a sudden blow exerted by the living being.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
12.01 for testing by impact, per se.
862.381 for force measuring, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, subclass 203 for a device which indicates that an impact has occurred.

Subclass: 379.05 [Patents]

Using a resilient force-resister:
This subclass is indented under subclass 379.04. Subject matter wherein the exerted force is applied to a movable component and an elastically deformable member is used to restrict or retard movement thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862.621 for measuring force by measuring elastic deformation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
482, Exercise Devices, 92 for an exercising device which includes a user manipulated force-resisting mechanism or element.

Subclass: 379.06 [Patents]

Including a rotary element with a braking means (e.g., friction brake):
This subclass is indented under subclass 379.01. Subject matter wherein the exerted force drives a rotatable member and a brake is used to resist rotation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
188, Brakes, appropriate subclass for a brake, per se.

Subclass: 379.07 [Patents]

Pedal driven (e.g., cycle ergometer):
This subclass is indented under subclass 379.06. Subject matter wherein the rotatable member is driven by a pedal to which the exerted force is applied.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
482, Exercise Devices, 57 for a bicycle-type exercising device.

Subclass: 379.08 [Patents]

Using a resilient force-resister:
This subclass is indented under subclass 379.01. Subject matter wherein the exerted force is applied to a movable component and an elastically deformable member is used to restrict or retard movement thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862.621 for measuring force by measuring elastic deformation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
482, Exercise Devices, 92 for an exercising device which includes a user manipulated force-resisting mechanism or element.

Subclass: 379.09 [Patents]

Using hydraulic or pneumatic force-resister:
This subclass is indented under subclass 379.01. Subject matter wherein the exerted force is applied to a movable component and a fluid is used to restrict or retard movement thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
862.581 for a force measuring device utilizing fluid pressure.

Subclass: 382 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for determining the force of gravity by direct measurement or by comparison or by determining acceleration caused by gravity.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
434, Education and Demonstration 300, for apparatus for demonstrating gravitational force but wherein no measurement is taken.

Subclass: 383 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 382. Subject matter in the form of torsion balances wherein masses mounted upon a beam transit a force to a wire supporting the beam to produce a torque in said wire proportional to the gravitational force. These are frequently called Eotvos type balances.

Subclass: 384 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Barometers, i.e., devices for determining atmospheric pressure whether calibrated in units of barometric pressure or altitude.
(1) Note. Altimeters (other than the barometric type) are classified in other classes in accordance with the means employed to make the distance measurement, see the notes below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
700 for other pressure gauges, and see the notes thereto.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments.
181, Acoustics, subclass 124, for mechanical sound echo altimeters.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 99 for sound echo altimeters.

Subclass: 385 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 384. Barometers in which a mercury column is displaced by changes in atmospheric pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
747 for U-tube, liquid column pressure gauges.

Subclass: 386 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 384. Barometers in which the pressure responsive element is in the form of an exhausted container having a wall or portion thereof movable with pressure changes.

Subclass: 387 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 386. Barometers having means for adjusting the setting of the indicator.
(1) Note. These are frequently used on aircraft as altimeters, the zero point being set for the actual pressure existing at a landing field, without regard to altitude of the air field.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
740 for Bourbon type fluid pressure gauges having setting features.

Subclass: 426 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Devices for receiving bulk material for the purpose of measurement of volume (e.g., measuring cups, measuring spoons, and similar devices). The indication of the quantity of material may consist only in the measure being full or only a single mark or level indication may be provided.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
30, Cutlery, subclass 128, 141, 147, 149, 150, and 324 for spoons.
222, Dispensing, and see the notes thereto for means for discharging measured quantities from a supply and for measuring vessels provided with claimed features which have the disclosed function of performing a dispensing operation.
294, Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements, subclass 55 for scoops.
422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing, 99 for laboratory apparatus.
An alternative electronic search of U.S. patents based upon a modification of the European Patent Office Classification (ECLA) System for certain subject matter in this subclass may also be found in Class 422 Cross-Reference Art Collections 908 - 948. (There are no definitions associated with these Cross-Reference Art Collections. The most available disclosure as to the types of documents contained herein is given in any notes associated with the titles.)
425, Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus, 238 for shaping apparatus comprising a dough divider including a shaping chamber and subclasses 276+ for an ice cream scoop type of measuring and shaping means.

Subclass: 427 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 426. Measuring vessels provided with two or more calibrations or other means to indicate the quantity of material in the measure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
215, Bottles and Jars, 365 for those having indicating means.
222, Dispensing, 154 for those having means for permitting inspection of the amount of material within the dispenser, many having graduations.

Subclass: 428 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 427. Measuring vessels in which the indicating means is readily removable from the container in which the material to be measured is received.

Subclass: 429 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 426. Measuring vessels in which the vessel is provided with movable bottom or other means to alter the size of the vessel to adapt it when filled to measure material in units of volume depending upon the amount of adjustment.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
220, Receptacles, 4.01 for sectional receptacles whose capacity may be adjusted.

Subclass: 430 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter directed to the dampening of vibrations within the mechanisms of instruments to effect a steady indication.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
514.12 for fluid or fluent material dampening of inertial element in an acceleration measuring apparatus.
514.14 for vibration dampening in an inertial-type acceleration measuring apparatus.
739 for Bourdon tube fluid pressure gauges with dampening means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
188, Brakes, 297 for a dashpot or shock absorber of general utility.

Subclass: 431 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Casing structures for instruments.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
201 for meter boxes.
273 for volume or rate of flow meter casings.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
248, Supports, 27.1 support instruments in panels.
368, Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices, 276 for clock and watch cases.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 208 for housings or supports, per se, which are peculiarly adapted for thermal measuring or testing instruments.

Subclass: 432.1 [Patents]

MISCELLANEOUS:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter not provided for elsewhere.

Subclass: 433 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 32. Devices including a weighing feature.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
177, Weighing Scales, appropriate subclasses, for weighing structure of general utility.

Subclass: 434 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 433. Devices with means to continuously supply or circulate fluid under test.

Subclass: 435 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 433. Devices having plural supports for the specimen whereby different
determinations are independently or successively made.

Subclass: 436 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 435. Devices in which the specimen holders are suspended vertically from a common support.

Subclass: 437 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 433. Devices involving the immersion of a solid in a liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
435 for plural supports one of which provides for submersion of a solid in a liquid.

Subclass: 438 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 32. Devices operating on the principle of measurement of the hydrostatic pressure of a fixed head of test material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
299 for similar art where the density is constant and the hydrostatic pressure is an index of liquid level.

Subclass: 439 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 438. Devices having a submerged tube from which escape gas bubbles, the resistance to which is a measure of the specific gravity of the submerging liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
302 for similar devices for measuring liquid level.

Subclass: 440 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 32. Devices involving a plurality of floats of different densities for seriatim response.

Subclass: 441 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 32. Devices including a chamber of barrel, usually transparent, containing a free float, and hand manipulable means to draw the test fluid into the chamber.

Subclass: 442 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 441. Devices including a thermometer subjected to the fluid under test for use in correcting the float reading.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 156 for a float supported thermometer, in general.

Subclass: 443 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 442. Devices including calculator mechanism or chart means for computing corrected reading, for predicting freezing temperature of the test liquid or amount of antifreeze required to protect to a certain temperature.

Subclass: 444 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 32. Devices comprising a vertically reciprocable float, with or without guides, the movement of which is uninhibited by spring, weight beam, indicator actuation or other load.
(1) Note. In apparatus of this subclass the float usually has a co-axial indicator stem or reference indicium which is read relative to the surface of the liquid or other base point or the position of the float as a whole may be visually observed.

Subclass: 445 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 444. Devices wherein provision is made for the continuous supply or circulation of test fluid to the float unit.

Subclass: 446 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 444. Devices having means to draw test fluid into a chamber containing the float.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
441 for portable syringe type devices.

Subclass: 447 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 444. Devices having liquid level responsive means to indicate liquid level or to adjust the hydrometer reading in accordance with varying liquid level.

Subclass: 448 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 444. Devices comprising a float unit, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
305 for a float for measurement of liquid level.
322.5 for float structure, per se.

Subclass: 449 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 448. Devices including thermometer or thermal compensation element carried by the float.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
442 for syringe type apparatus with thermometers.

Subclass: 450 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 448. Devices wherein the float includes means for attaching, carrying or receiving the specimen under test.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
177, Weighing Scales, subclass 207, for a weigher employing the lifting effect of a liquid on a displacing body.

Subclass: 451 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 32. Devices wherein a float operates or controls an indicator apart from the float itself.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
305 for a float responsive to liquid level operating a separate indicator.

Subclass: 452 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 451. Devices with means to continuously supply or circulate fluid under test to the float.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
434 and 445, for similar supply means on other types of
specific gravity testers.

Subclass: 453 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 451. Devices having electrical means associated with the float for indicating the specific gravity.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 33, for electrical resistors with a float actuator.

Subclass: 454 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 451. Devices wherein the float is pivotally mounted.

Subclass: 455 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 66. Subject matter relating to propellers, impellers, and fluid couplings.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
147 for a study of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic properties of propellers and impellers.

Subclass: 456 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 455. Subject matter in which the object under study consists of a single propeller blade.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
65.01 for analogous art pertaining to the determination of the center of gravity and turning moments of bodies.

Subclass: 457 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 66. Subject matter in which study of the rotor unbalance is made without removing the device from its normally operative position.

Subclass: 458 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 457. Subject matter wherein the rotor unbalance is determined by imposing known counterbalance effects thereon, neutralizing said rotor unbalance.

Subclass: 459 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 66. Subject matter combining successively static balancing (poising) and dynamic (spinning) operations.

Subclass: 460 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 66. Subject matter for determination of rotor unbalance by spinning the same and studying its vibratory effects.

Subclass: 461 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 460. Subject matter wherein the object is rotated to locate end points on the rotor where the axis of rotation and the axis of gyration of the rotor coincide.

Subclass: 462 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 460. Subject matter
comprising electrical sensing and indicating means.

Subclass: 463 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 462. Subject matter including a wattmeter.

Subclass: 464 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 462. Subject matter including a rotatable switch or commutator means energized by vibration pick-up means.

Subclass: 465 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 462. Subject matter comprising a cathode ray oscilloscope.

Subclass: 466 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 462. Subject matter wherein there is included stroboscopic illuminating means.

Subclass: 467 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 466. Subject matter comprising a stroboscope for illuminating said indicator.

Subclass: 468 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 460. Subject matter wherein rotor unbalance is determined by application of known counterbalancing forces sufficient to neutralize the innate
unbalance of the rotor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
458 for similar unbalance determinations concerning rotors in situ.

Subclass: 469 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 468. Subject matter including a test counterbalance weight of known value adjustable radially of its axis of rotation.

Subclass: 470 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 468. Subject matter where a weight of known value is adjustable circumferentially of the rotor under test.

Subclass: 471 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 460. Subject matter comprising special vibratable features of the support in which the rotor is held while under test.

Subclass: 472 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 471. Subject matter wherein the mount supports the rotor with both ends of the rotor free to wabble under unbalance.

Subclass: 473 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 472. Subject matter wherein means is provided for mounting the test rotor on a horizontal axis.

Subclass: 474 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 471. Subject matter wherein there is means for mounting the rotor with one end of the rotor free to gyrate under unbalance, thus permitting the free end of the rotor to tilt universally. The axis of rotation is usually vertical.

Subclass: 475 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 471. Subject matter wherein means is provided for mounting the test rotor on a horizontal axis, while usually permitting vibration in a single plane.

Subclass: 476 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 475. Devices which vibrate horizontally about a vertical fulcrum.

Subclass: 477 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 476. Subject matter wherein provision is made for mounting the test rotor to vibrate substantially in a single plane, with both ends of the rotor free to partake of vibration.

Subclass: 478 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 477. Subject matter including selective end locks for restriction of vibration of either end of the rotor as desired.

Subclass: 479 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 475. Subject matter wherein provision is made for permitting vibration thereof vertically about a horizontal fulcrum.

Subclass: 480 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 66. Subject matter wherein the rotor is mounted with its spin axis horizontal and any gravitational moment resulting from an unbalanced distribution of mass causes the rotor to turn about its normal rotational or spin axis.

Subclass: 481 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 480. Subject matter wherein the rotor mounting means are of the nature of ways, tracks or parallel knife edges.

Subclass: 482 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 66. Subject matter wherein the rotor is mounted with its spin axis vertical and any gravitational moment resulting from an unbalanced distribution of mass causes the rotor to tilt about an axis transverse to its rotational or spin axis.
(1) Note. Usually the rotor is supported by horizontally spaced mounts, as knife edges, which restricts the direction of tilt to a single plane.

Subclass: 483 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 482. Subject matter wherein the rotor is so freely supported that the gravitational moment selects the axis about which the rotor tilts.

Subclass: 484 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 483. Subject matter including tapered or conical rotor centering means.

Subclass: 485 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 483. Subject matter including expansible or contractible rotor centering means.

Subclass: 486 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 483. Subject matter wherein the test rotor is pendently supported by a flexible element, gimbals or equivalent suspension means.

Subclass: 487 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 66. Tools and adjuncts used in the determination of rotor unbalance and not elsewhere classifiable.

Subclass: 488 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for detecting or determining either (a) a time rate of change of position of a body (speed or velocity) or (b) a change in the time rate of change of speed or velocity of a body (acceleration).
(1) Note. A process or an apparatus for determining or measuring direction of motion not elsewhere classified is found here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.37 for proving or calibrating a device which determines speed, velocity, or acceleration.
121 for vehicle brake testing.
167 for testing of a projectile.
178 for a navigational instrument.
652 for apparatus for sensing vibrations by an inertial element.
861 for means measuring rate of flow of a fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, subclass 231 and 232, for straight-line-light ray sighting instruments involving speed; subclasses 300+, for direction sensing and indicating instruments which may involve speed, particularly subclasses 318+ wherein a gyroscope is utilized for controlling or stabilizing purposes; and subclasses 391+ for pendulums which may respond to and be calibrated in terms of acceleration.
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclass 3 for a speed controlled trip.
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, subclass 435 and see the search there noted for expansible chamber motors involving speed control.
116, Signals and Indicators, subclass 37 for an indicator of vehicle speed and direction; subclass 57 for a vehicle speed limit indicator; subclass 74 for a speed limit alarm; and subclasses 200+ for a speed limit indicator.
123, Internal-Combustion Engines, 319 for a speed regulator particularly associated with an internal combustion engine, and subclasses 364+ and 441 for a governor controlled charge forming device.
137, Fluid Handling, 38 for flow control by response to inertia of the system; and subclasses 47+ for a speed responsive valve.
164, Metal Founding, subclass 151.1 and 154.3 for an apparatus to cast metal in combination with a speed sensor.
180, Motor Vehicles, 170 for a motor vehicle having means which is responsive to its speed for regulating the vehicle's rate of travel.
188, Brakes, 180 for a speed responsive brake.
192, Clutches and Power-Stop Control, subclass .02 for automatic control of a motor and clutch by speed, and subclass 103 for a speed responsive clutch.
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, 61.45 for an
inertia or tilt switch and subclass 80 for a centrifugal switch.
246, Railway Switches and Signals, subclass 182 for a railway speed control system.
254, Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling force, subclass 267 for a speed control particularly associated with a drum of a cable hoist.
303, Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake Systems, 121 for speed responsive means particularly associated with a fluid-pressure brake system.
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, 66 for running speed control of plural electric motors; subclasses 90+ for acceleration control of plural motors; subclasses 255+ for diverse motor controls including speed control; and subclasses 461+ for speed control and/or starting or stopping.
322, Electricity: Single Generator Systems, 29 for electric generator speed control means.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 160 for electrical speed measuring.
340, Communications: Electrical, 670 for an electrical signal or alarm responsive to speed.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 27 for velocity or velocity and height measuring devices, and subclass 29 for devices with a optical element or reticule which respond to the relative velocity of a remote object.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 236 for an electrical speed responsive system.
388, Electricity: Motor Control Systems, 800 and 825+ for single motor running-speed control systems with, and without feedback, respectively.
417, Pumps, subclass 293 for a speed responsive device particularly associated with a pump.
418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, 40 for speed controlled rotary expansible chamber devices.
700, Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications, subclass 304 for speed control.

Subclass: 489 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus wherein the interaction of two measured variables is recorded.

Subclass: 490 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus including means for registering distance traveled.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
235, Registers, subclass 95 for an odometer, per se.

Subclass: 491 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus including means whereby indicia of the speed responsive device hold a reading.

Subclass: 492 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 491. Apparatus wherein the reading retained is that of maximum acceleration.

Subclass: 493 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus in which a speed responsive device is installed in, or has means mounting it on, an element of a disparate function device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
128 and 129, for means for attaching a brake testing device to a vehicle.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, subclass 435 and see the search there noted for expansible chamber motors with speed governors.
123, Internal-Combustion Engines, 319 for a speed regulator installed on an internal combustion engine.
180, Motor Vehicles, 170 as explained in the reference thereto appearing in subclass 488 above.
187, Elevator, Industrial Lift Truck, or Stationary Lift for Vehicle, 373 for a speed controlled brake installed on an elevator.
248, Supports, 27.1 for instrument mounting means of more general application.
388, Electricity: Motor Control Systems, art collections 923+ for specific speed responsive feedback devices used with electric motors.
416, Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers), 44 for control means responsive to the rotation speed of an impeller.
464, Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts, particularly 52 for a flexible torque transmitting shaft and housing with means to couple said shaft and housing to an auxiliary housing.

Subclass: 494 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 493. Apparatus including a rotary element that is a functional part of both a speed responsive device and a disparate function device the speed of which is sensed.

Subclass: 495 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus including indicators for different motion conditions, e.g., rate and direction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 37 for speed controlled, vehicle motion and direction indicators.

Subclass: 496 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus having means to minimize unsteadiness of the indicia which results from inertia, friction, elasticity, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
514.12 for fluid or fluent material dampening of an inertial element in an acceleration measuring apparatus.
514.14 for vibration dampening in an inertial-type acceleration measuring apparatus.
739 for vibration control means for pressure gauge indicia and subclass 430 for miscellaneous instrument dampening means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 125 for means steadying the reading means of an electrical measuring and testing instrument.

Subclass: 497 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Speed sensitive device which includes means to compensate for temperature change.

Subclass: 498 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus including means by which an indicating element can be set or adjusted.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
740 for a dial or frame zeroizing adjustment for a pressure gauge.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 198 for adjustment of a mechanical temperature indicator.

Subclass: 499 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus including means for illuminating an indicator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
362, Illumination, 23 for a dial illumination.

Subclass: 500 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus wherein a liquid surface actuates a speed condition reading means or itself indicates the speed value.

Subclass: 501 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 500. Apparatus wherein the indicating surface is that of a confined rotatable body of liquid.

Subclass: 502 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus wherein pressure proportional to speed is communicated to a measuring device through a pipe external of the device.

Subclass: 503 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus wherein speed valve is determined by means combining time and acceleration.

Subclass: 503.3 [Patents]

Gyroscope:
This subclass is indented under subclass 503. Subject matter
wherein the means for determining speed by integrating time and acceleration comprises a wheel or a disc mounted to spin rapidly about an axis of spin and also free to rotate about one or both of two axes perpendicular to each other and to the axis of spin so that a rotation of one of the two mutually perpendicular axes results from the application of torque to the other when the wheel is spinning.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.02 for an angular velocity or acceleration measuring means using a gyroscopic effect.
504.18, for speed and acceleration measuring means combined with a gyroscope.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, 5 for a gyroscope, per se, and especially subclass 5.43 for plural gyroscopes, per se, subclasses 5.37+ for a gyroscope control, and subclass 5.6 for a gyroscope, per se, having a pick off.

Subclass: 504.01 [Patents]

Angular rate using wave or beam motion (e.g., Sagnac type):
This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Subject matter including means producing a wave or a beam and wherein the wave or beam is propagated about an axis of rotation and the determination of the time rate of change in position of the body is made by measuring a parameter (e.g., phase) of the wave or beam.
(1) Note. The waves of this subclass includes acoustic, electron, entropy, ionic, electromagnetic waves, or microwaves.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
514.28 for measuring acceleration of a body by modifying a change in a characteristic of a surface acoustical wave in accordance with a change in a property of an inertial mass due to acceleration of the body.
570 for measuring or testing by vibration, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclass 459 for a ring laser gyroscope.

Subclass: 504.02 [Patents]

Angular rate using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect:
This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Subject matter wherein the determination of the time rate of change in position of the body is made by (1) rotating or (2) linearly moving an inertial element with respect to the body and measuring reaction forces on the element produced by rotation of the body about an axis of rotation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
503.3 for a gyroscope for determining speed by integrating time and acceleration.
504.17 for measuring angular rate by use of a fluid vortex rate sensor.
504.18 for a speed, velocity, or acceleration measuring means combined with gyroscopic means.
514.39 for magnetic angular rate measuring apparatus not using a gyroscopic effect and wherein the magnetic means does not produce an electric signal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, 316, for gyromagnetic compass and subclasses 318+ for gyroscopically controlled or stabilized geometrical instrument.
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, 5 for a gyroscope, per se.
244, Aeronautics, subclass 79, for gyroscope actuated aircraft control, subclass 165 for a gyroscopic attitude control for a spacecraft.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 231.12 for photocell apparatus comprising a gyroscopic light valve.
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, 648 for a gyroscope used in platform stabilization.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 671 for an electrical indicating system providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined angular velocity and including a gyroscope and wherein no quantitative indication of measurement is provided.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclass 459 for a ring laser gyroscope.

Subclass: 504.03 [Patents]

Multisensor for both angular rate and linear acceleration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.02. Subject matter wherein the inertial element also has an intrinsic or relational property which changes in response to acceleration of the body along a straight line and which can be used to measure the acceleration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
491 for a mechanical speed or acceleration measuring apparatus or method including means retaining a reading of maximum acceleration.
510 for a separate motion sensor in a mechanical speed measuring apparatus.
514.01 for an apparatus using an inertial element for determining acceleration, per se.
652 for an apparatus sensing vibrations by use of an inertial element.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 28 for a mechanical indicator means, per se, which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to acceleration and has no quantitative measuring means.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 329 for an inertia operated mechanical energy coupling means for a piezoelectric element or device.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 162 for electrical speed measuring means including an electrical accelerometer which senses acceleration by means other than an inertial element.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 669 for an electrical indicator which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined acceleration and wherein no indication of a quantitative measurement is provided.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, appropriate subclass for the determination of acceleration by measuring visible light.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280 for an acceleration responsive capacitor.

Subclass: 504.04 [Patents]

Vibratory mass:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.03. Subject matter wherein the inertial member is caused to rapidly reciprocate or oscillate about an axis of motion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.12 for measuring the angular velocity, per se, of a body by means of measuring gyroscopic or Coriolis effects on a vibratory inertial mass.
514.15 for measuring acceleration by use of a vibratory inertial member.
514.21 for measuring acceleration by utilizing a pendulum-type inertia element combined with rebalance means.
514.29, for measuring acceleration by use of a vibrating sensor.
514.36 for measuring acceleration by means of a pendulum-type inertia element having no rebalance means.
570 for measuring or testing by vibration, per se.

Subclass: 504.05 [Patents]

Fluid or fluent inertial mass (e.g., electrons, ions, plasma):
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.02. Subject matter wherein the inertial member comprises a liquid or a gaseous body or a plurality of particles exhibiting fluent characteristics.
(1) Note. Included here as a plurality of particles are electrons, ions, plasma, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
514.03 for a fluid or fluent inertial mass having a property which changes in response to an angular acceleration of a body and which can be used to measure acceleration.
514.05 for a fluid or fluent inertial member whose property changes in response to acceleration of a body and which property change can be used to measure acceleration.

Subclass: 504.06 [Patents]

Fluid jet:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.05. Subject
matter wherein the fluid inertial mass comprises a high velocity liquid or gaseous stream emitted through a narrow opening (e. g. nozzle).

Subclass: 504.07 [Patents]

Rotary:
Subject matter under 504.05 wherein the fluid inertial mass is caused to spin about an axis.

Subclass: 504.08 [Patents]

Rotary gyroscope:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.02. Subject matter wherein the inertial member is caused to spin about an axis so as to comprise the spinning element of a gyroscope.

Subclass: 504.09 [Patents]

Gimbal support:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.08. Subject matter comprising a ring element which supports the inertial member and permits the spin axis to precess about an axis perpendicular to the spin axis in response to angular rotation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
248, Supports, for a support, per se.

Subclass: 504.11 [Patents]

Flexible rotor or flexibly mounted rotor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.08. Subject matter wherein the inertial member comprises a rotor which either (a) bends within its elastic limit or (b) is supported by structure which bends within its elastic limit.

Subclass: 504.12 [Patents]

Vibratory mass:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.02. Subject
matter wherein the inertial member is caused to rapidly reciprocate or oscillate about an axis of motion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.04 for a multisensor using a vibratory inertial mass for determination of both angular rate and linear acceleration by use of a gyroscopic or Coriolis effect.
514.15 for measuring acceleration by use of a vibratory inertial element.
514.21 for measuring acceleration by use of a pendulum-type inertia element wherein rebalance is recited.
514.29 for measuring acceleration by use of a vibratory sensor and utilizing an inertial mass.
514.36 for measuring acceleration by use of a pendulum-type inertia element wherein no rebalance is recited.
570 for testing by vibration, per se.

Subclass: 504.13 [Patents]

Hollow circular-shaped inertial element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.12. Subject matter wherein the inertial member comprises an object having an annular-cross section.

Subclass: 504.14 [Patents]

Elongated element with spaced supports:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.12. Subject matter wherein the inertial member comprises an extended member supported at at least two points along its extent by means for bearing weight.

Subclass: 504.15 [Patents]

Cantilever:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.12. Subject matter wherein the inertial member comprises an elongated member having two ends and wherein only one of the ends is fixed.

Subclass: 504.16 [Patents]

Tuning fork:
This subclass is indented under subclass 504.15. Subject matter wherein the inertial member comprises a pair of cantilevered members which are connected to each other so as to form a tuning-fork-shaped structure.

Subclass: 504.17 [Patents]

Angular rate using a fluid vortex rate sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Subject matter wherein the determination of the rate of change of position of the body about an axis is made by measuring vortical motion of a liquid or gaseous mass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.22 for determining a volume or rate of flow of a fluid or fluent material by measuring vibration produced by an interaction of the material with a vortex shredder.

Subclass: 504.18 [Patents]

With rotary gyroscope:
This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Subject matter including speed, velocity, or acceleration measuring combined with a wheel or a disc mounted to spin rapidly about an axis and also free to rotate about one or both of two axes perpendicular to each other and to the axis of spin.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
503.3 for determining speed or velocity by utilizing a gyroscope integrating time and acceleration.
504.02 for measuring angular rate by use of a gyroscope.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, 316 for a gyromagnetic compass, subclasses 318+ for a gyroscopically controlled or stabilized geometric instrument for indicating a direction of force traversing natural media, and subclass 329 for a gyroscope mounted lever indicator.
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, 5 for a gyroscope, per se, and especially subclass 5.43 for plural gyroscopes, subclasses 5.37+ for a gyroscope control, and subclass 5.6 for a gyroscope with a pick off.
244, Aeronautics, subclass 79, for gyroscopically actuated aircraft control, subclass 165 for a gyroscopic attitude control for a spacecraft.
250, Radiant Energy, subclass 231.12 for photocell apparatus comprising a gyroscopic light valve and subclass 233 for photocell circuit having a rotary light chopper-type light valve.
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, 648 for a gyroscope used in platform stabilization.

Subclass: 506 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus including means for producing a speed measurement from successive impulses from the speed source.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
649 for vibration sensing apparatus.

Subclass: 507 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus for comparing the speed of one device with that of another.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.37 for means proving or calibrating a speed, velocity, or acceleration.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, 68 for the relative speed control of plural electric motors.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 161 for an electrical device for measuring speed by comparison to a reference.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 242 for the synchronization of shafts by electrical means.
388, Electricity: Motor Control Systems, 800 for single motor running-speed control systems with feedback.
416, Fluid Reacting Surfaces (i.e., Impellers), subclass 35
for electrical control means comparing and reducing error related to a preset datum.

Subclass: 508 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus including means whereby the movement normally imparted by the speed responsive element is modified by a means responsive to the failure of the drive for the speed responsive element.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, subclass 52 for a speed controlled valve responsive to governor drive failure.

Subclass: 509 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus including a sensing device effected by a condition additional to speed or rate of change of speed.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, 26 for a prime mover controlled speed and another condition and subclasses 51+ for a valve controlled by speed and another condition.

Subclass: 510 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus having more than one speed condition sensor or means responding to more than one speed condition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.03 for a multisensor for determination of angular rate using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect combined with a determination of linear acceleration.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
137, Fluid Handling, subclass 27 for a prime mover and subclass 50 for a valve responsive to both speed change and excess speed.

Subclass: 511 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 510. Apparatus that responds to both speed and rate of change of speed.

Subclass: 512 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 511. Apparatus wherein the response of a speed sensor of the centrifugal weight type is modified by the action of a distinct inertial mass.

Subclass: 513 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus providing for manual operation in certain speed ranges or substitution of manual for speed responsive operation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
540 for centrifugal governors with adjusting means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
123, Internal-Combustion Engines, subclass 319, per se, for an internal-combustion engine with selective manual or automatic speed control.
137, Fluid Handling, subclass 18 for a prime mover with selective manual or automatic control and subclass 49 for a valve with selective manual or automatic speed control.

Subclass: 514.01 [Patents]

Acceleration determination utilizing inertial element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Subject matter comprising an inertial member having an intrinsic or relational property which changes in response to a rate of change of speed of a body and which can be used to measure acceleration.
(1) Note. An inertial sensor responsive to a rate of change
in speed and not elsewhere classified is located here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
491 for a speed, velocity, or acceleration measuring apparatus or method including means retaining a reading of maximum acceleration.
503.3 for determining velocity or speed by utilizing a gyroscope for integrating acceleration and time.
504.03 for using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect on an inertial element to determine both angular rate and linear acceleration.
652 for an apparatus sensing vibrations by use of an inertial member.
866.2 for a process or an apparatus for measuring a time rate of change in a sensed condition not provided for elsewhere.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, 28 for a mechanical indicator, per se, which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to acceleration and includes no quantitative measuring means.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 329 for an inertia operated mechanical energy coupling means for a piezoelectric element or device.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 162 for electrical speed measuring means including an electrical accelerometer which senses acceleration by means other than an inertial elements.
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 669 for an electrical indicator or alarm providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined acceleration which provides no indication of a quantitative measurement is provided.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing for an apparatus or a process for determining acceleration by measuring visible light.
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280 for an acceleration responsive capacitor.

Subclass: 514.02 [Patents]

Angular acceleration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.01. Subject matter wherein the relational or intrinsic property of the inertial element changes in response to time rate of change of direction, speed, or velocity of the body about an axis of rotation.

Subclass: 514.03 [Patents]

Fluid or fluent inertial mass (e.g., electrons, ions, plasma):
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.02. Subject matter wherein the inertial member comprises a liquid or a gaseous body or a plurality of particles exhibiting fluent characteristics.
(1) Note. Included here as a plurality of particles are electrons, ions, plasma, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.05 for the determination of angular rate of speed of a body by measuring a gyroscopic or Coriolis effect on a fluid or fluent inertial mass.
514.05 for utilizing an inertial element to determine linear acceleration including a fluid or fluent material and in particular subclass 514.09 for a fluid or fluent inertial mass whose property changes in response to linear acceleration of a body and can be used to measure acceleration.

Subclass: 514.04 [Patents]

Inertial flywheel:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.02. Subject matter wherein the inertial member whose property changes in response to acceleration comprises a wheel or disk rotatively mounted on a drive member and which is capable of angular displacement with respect to the drive member in order to measure angular acceleration of the drive member.

Subclass: 514.05 [Patents]

Fluid or fluent material:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.01. Subject matter including a liquid or a gaseous mass or a plurality of particles exhibiting fluent characteristics.

Subclass: 514.06 [Patents]

Fluid or fluent material support of an inertial element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.05. Subject matter wherein the fluid or fluent material bears the weight of the inertial member.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
384, Bearings, subclass 12 and 100+ for fluid bearings, per se.

Subclass: 514.07 [Patents]

Gas:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.06. Subject matter wherein the fluid or fluent support comprises a substance having a very low density and viscosity, a rather low expansion and contraction with changes in pressure and temperature, the ability to diffuse rapidly, and the spontaneous tendency to become distributed uniformly throughout a container.

Subclass: 514.08 [Patents]

Magnetic fluid:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.06. Subject matter wherein the fluid support comprises a liquid suspension of magnetic particles.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 90.5 for a magnetic bearing, per se.

Subclass: 514.09 [Patents]

Fluid or fluent inertial mass:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.05. Subject matter wherein the inertial member comprises the liquid or the gaseous mass or the plurality of particles exhibiting fluent characteristics.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.05 for the determination of angular rate of speed of a body by measuring a gyroscopic or Coriolis effect of the angular rate of speed on a fluid or fluent inertial mass.
514.03 for an inertial member whose property changes in response to an angular acceleration of a body and can be used to measure acceleration.

Subclass: 514.11 [Patents]

Detection by fluid pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.05. Subject matter comprising sensing pressure of a fluid whose pressure varies in response to the change in the property of the inertial member.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
37 for other measuring means using pressurized fluid.
700 for a fluid pressure gage, per se.

Subclass: 514.12 [Patents]

Fluid or fluent material dampening of an inertial element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.05. Subject matter wherein the fluid or fluent material tends to diminish the movement of the inertial member.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
430 for miscellaneous instrument dampening means.
496 for vibration control or antistick means for a reading structure of a speed or an acceleration measuring means.
514.14 for an acceleration determining device including a specific type of non-fluid type dampening means.
522 for fluid-type dampening in a nonelectrical or a nonmagnetic speed measuring device not combined with acceleration measuring.
526 for other speed measuring apparatus comprising a dampening means.
739 for dampening a mechanism in a pressure gage.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclass 574, for rotor
vibration dampening means of a more general application.
181, Acoustics, appropriate subclass, for dampening of acoustic waves, per se.
188, Brakes, subclass 322.5 for a fluid damper, per se, and subclasses 371+, 378+, and 381+ for a vibration damper, per se.
248, Supports, 562 for a vibration dampening support.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 125 for dampening means for a display of an apparatus for measuring and testing electricity.

Subclass: 514.13 [Patents]

Gas:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.12. Subject matter wherein the fluid dampener comprises a substance having a very low density and viscosity, a rather low expansion and contraction with changes in pressure and temperature, the ability to diffuse rapidly, and the spontaneous tendency to become distributed uniformly throughout a container.

Subclass: 514.14 [Patents]

Specific type of dampener (e.g., eddy current dampener):
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.01. Subject matter of ... comprising specified means for diminishing the movement of the inertial member.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
430 for miscellaneous instrument dampening means.
496 for vibration control or antistick means for a reading structure of a speed or an acceleration measuring means.
514.12 for an acceleration determining device including fluid or fluent material dampening of an inertial member.
522 for fluid-type dampening in a nonelectrical or a nonmagnetic speed measuring device.
526 for other speed measuring apparatus comprising a dampening means.
739 for dampening a mechanism in a pressure gage.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclass 574 for rotor vibration dampening means of a more general application.
181, Acoustics, appropriate subclasses, for dampening of acoustic waves, per se.
188, Brakes, 378 for vibration damper, per se.
248, Supports, 562 for a vibration dampening support.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 125 for dampening means for a display of an apparatus for measuring and testing electricity.

Subclass: 514.15 [Patents]

Spinning or vibrating accelerometer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.01. Subject comprising either (a) means for rotating the inertial member about a motion axis or (b) means for moving the inertial member in a periodic manner along or about a motion axis.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.04 for a multisensor for determination of angular rate using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect combined with a determination of linear acceleration and including a vibratory mass.
504.12 for measuring the angular velocity, per se, of a body by means of measuring the gyroscopic or Coriolis effects on
a vibratory inertial mass.
514.21 for measuring acceleration by means of a pendulum type inertia element wherein rebalance is recited.
514.29 for measuring acceleration by use of a vibrating sensor.
514.36 for measuring acceleration by means of a pendulum-type inertia element wherein no rebalance is recited.
570 for testing by vibration, per se.

Subclass: 514.16 [Patents]

Specific type of electric sensor or specific type of magnetic sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.01. Subject matter comprising a specified sensing means whose electric or magnetic characteristic changes in response to the change in the property of the inertial member due to the acceleration of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
514.39 for (a) magnetic speed measuring, per se, wherein the magnetic means does not produce an electric signal or (b) mechanical speed measuring means combined with ancillary magnetic or electric means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
257, Active Solid-State Devices (e. g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes), 414 for an acceleration responsive device having a significant semiconductor potential barrier.
438, Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process, 50 for methods of making an acceleration responsive semiconductor device.

Subclass: 514.17 [Patents]

Rebalance:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.16. Subject matter wherein (a) the electric or magnetic sensing means produces an output signal in response to displacement of the inertial member and (b) the output signal is used to restore the inertial member to a null position.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, 648 for the combination of a positional servo system using an inertial measuring system for error detection and, in particular subclass 651, for a positional servo system using an acceleration measuring instrument for error detection.

Subclass: 514.18 [Patents]

Electrostatic restoring means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.17. Subject matter wherein the electrical output signal generates an electrostatic force which returns the inertial member to the null position.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 225 for an electrostatic device, per se.

Subclass: 514.19 [Patents]

Radiant energy sensor (e.g., optical, charged, or radioactive particle):
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.17. Subject matter wherein the output signal of the sensing means changes in response to detecting (a) light, (b) charged particles, or (c) an alpha, beta, or gamma particles due to the change in a property of the inertial member caused by an acceleration of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
653 for an inertial-type vibration sensing means having a light beam indicator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 227.14 for a condition responsive light guide, subclasses 231.1+ for a light valve actuated by an external dynamic physical quantity, and subclasses 336.1+ and 493.1+ for radioactive particle sensing, per se.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 335 for measuring visible light to detect particle size and subclasses 337+ for measuring and testing by particle light scattering.
378, X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices, appropriate subclass for an analysis by measuring an X-ray or gamma ray, per se.

Subclass: 514.21 [Patents]

Pendulum or beam:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.17. Subject matter wherein the inertial member either (A) comprises or (B) is supported by: either (a) an object suspended from a fixed support so that it is free to swing back and forth or (b) an elongated flexible member.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.04 for a multisensor for determination of angular rate using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect combined with a determination of linear acceleration and including a vibratory inertial body.
504.12 for measuring angular velocity using gyroscopic or
Coriolis effect on a vibratory inertial body.
514.15 for acceleration measuring by means of a vibratory inertial mass.
514.29 for measuring acceleration by means of a vibrating sensor.
514.36 for acceleration measuring by means of a pendulum-type inertia element wherein no rebalance is recited.
570 for a vibrator, per se, used in testing.

Subclass: 514.22 [Patents]

Including a bearing support:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.21. Subject matter comprising a bearing and wherein the pendulum is mounted for pendulous motion by means of the bearing.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
384, Bearings, subclass 12 and 100+ for fluid bearings, per se.

Subclass: 514.23 [Patents]

Including a flexure support:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.21. Subject matter comprising a pliable element which supports the pendulum for pendulous motion.

Subclass: 514.24 [Patents]

Including an elastic support for an inertial element (e.g., spring):
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.17. Subject matter comprising an element which is capable of bearing weight and which tends to return to an initial state or form after deformation and wherein the inertial member is supported by the element for bearing weight.

Subclass: 514.25 [Patents]

Charged particle or radioactive particle sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.16. Subject matter wherein the characteristic of the sensing means changes in response to detecting (a) a charged particle or (b) alpha, beta, or gamma rays.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 306 for using charged particles for inspecting a solid or liquid and subclasses 336.1+ and subclasses 493.1+ for radioactive particle sensing, per se.
378, X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices, appropriate subclass for analysis by measuring characteristics of X-rays or gamma rays.

Subclass: 514.26 [Patents]

Optical sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.16. Subject matter wherein the characteristic of the sensing means changes in response to a light beam being modified in accordance with the change in the property of the inertial member due to the acceleration of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
653 for an inertial-type vibration sensing means having a light beam indicator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 227.14 for a condition responsive light guide and subclasses 231.1+ for a light valve actuated by an external dynamic physical quantity.

Subclass: 514.27 [Patents]

Frequency or phase shift:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.26. Subject matter wherein the modification of the light beam comprises a frequency or phase shift.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
657 for an inertial-type vibration sensing means modifying a light by a shift in frequency or phase to provide an indication or a measurement.

Subclass: 514.28 [Patents]

Surface acoustical wave:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.16. Subject matter wherein a change in a characteristic of an acoustical wave propagating along a surface is modified in accordance with the change in the property of the inertial member due the acceleration of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.01 for measuring angular rate by use of a surface wave.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 313 for a surface acoustical wave device, per se.

Subclass: 514.29 [Patents]

Having a vibrating element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.16. Subject matter wherein the sensing means includes an element whose frequency of vibration is modified in response to the change in the property of the inertial member due to acceleration of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.04 for a multisensor for determination of angular rate using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect combined with a determination of linear acceleration and including a vibratory inertial member.
504.12 for measuring angular velocity using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect on a vibratory inertial body.
514.15 for acceleration measuring by means of a vibratory inertial mass.
514.21 for acceleration measuring by means of a pendulum-type inertia element wherein rebalance is specified.
514.36 for acceleration measuring by means of a pendulum-type inertia element wherein no rebalance is recited.
662 for a vibrator, per se, used in testing.

Subclass: 514.31 [Patents]

Inductive or magnetic sensor (e.g., Hall effect sensor):
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.16. Subject matter wherein the sensing means comprises: (a) a magnetic body which produces an electromotive force in a circuit or a circuit element wherein the electromotive force is varied by the change in the property of the inertial member due to an acceleration of the body or (b) a body whose magnetic characteristic changes in response to the change in the property of the inertial member due to the acceleration of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
335, Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets, appropriate subclass for a magnet or an electromagnet, per se.
336, Inductor Devices, subclass 30 for an inductor device having an acceleration responsive inductance adjusting means.

Subclass: 514.32 [Patents]

Capacitive sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.16. Subject matter wherein the sensing means comprises spaced electrodes whose capacitance varies by the change in the property of the inertial member due to an acceleration of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems And Devices, 280 for an acceleration responsive capacitor.

Subclass: 514.33 [Patents]

Resistive sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.16. Apparatus wherein the sensing means comprises an element whose electrical resistance is varied by the change in the property of the inertial member due to an acceleration of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, 2 for a strain-gage-type resistor and subclasses 43+ for a gravity or inertia responsive resistor.

Subclass: 514.34 [Patents]

Piezoelectric sensor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.16. Subject matter wherein the sensing means comprises a pressure sensitive material which generates an electrical signal which is varied by the change in the property of the inertial member due to an acceleration of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311 for a piezoelectric element or device, per se and especially subclass 329 for an inertial responsive piezoelectric device.

Subclass: 514.35 [Patents]

Electric:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.01. Subject matter comprising means generating an electrical signal which is varied by the change in the property of the inertial member due to an acceleration of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
514.39 for a magnetic speed measuring wherein the magnetic means does not produce an electric signal or mechanical speed measuring apparatus including ancillary magnetic means or ancillary electric means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring And Testing, 160 for electrical speed measuring including an electrical accelerometer other than one sensing acceleration by means of an inertial element.

Subclass: 514.36 [Patents]

Pendulum or beam:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.01. Apparatus wherein the inertial member either (A) comprises or (B) is supported by: either (a) an object suspended from a fixed support so that it is free to swing back and forth or (b) an elongated flexible element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.04 for a multisensor for determination of angular rate using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect combined with a determination of linear acceleration and including a vibratory inertial member.
504.12 for angular velocity measuring, per se, by means of a gyroscopic or Coriolis effect on a vibratory inertial mass.
514.15 for measuring acceleration by means of a vibrating inertial mass.
514.21 for measuring acceleration by means of a pendulum-type inertia sensor wherein rebalance is recited.
514.29 for measuring acceleration by use of a vibrating sensor.
570 for testing by vibration, per se.

Subclass: 514.37 [Patents]

Including a pivot support:
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.36. Apparatus comprising a support which bears the weight of the pendulum and permits it to swing.

Subclass: 514.38 [Patents]

Including an elastic support for an inertial element (e.g., spring):
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.01. Subject matter comprising an element which is capable of bearing weight and which tends to return to an initial state or form after deformation and wherein the inertial member is supported by means of the element for bearing weight.

Subclass: 514.39 [Patents]

Magnetic speed measuring or mechanical speed measuring with ancillary magnetic means or with ancillary electrical means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 488. A process or an apparatus comprising: (a) a magnetic means used for detecting the rate of change in position of the body or (b) a mechanical speed measuring means responsive to the rate of change in position of the body combined with magnetic means or electrical means, wherein the magnetic means or the electrical means is subordinate to the mechanical speed measuring means.
(1) Note. The apparatus herein does not include magnetic means for producing an electrical signal representative of speed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
504.01 for measuring angular rate by using wave motion.
504.02 for measuring angular rate by gyroscopic or Coriolis effect.
504.17 for measuring angular rate by means of a fluid vortex rate sensor.
514.16 for an acceleration measuring apparatus which senses acceleration by means of an inertial element and which has a specific type of electric or magnetic sensor and, in particular, subclass 514.31 for an acceleration measuring apparatus which senses acceleration by means of an inertial element that has a magnetic sensor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 160 for an electrical measuring speed device including an electrical accelerometer other than one which senses acceleration by means of an inertial element, in particular, subclasses 173+ for purely electric speed measuring using a magnetic sensor and subclass 207.25 for magnetically measuring rotary displacement.
340, Communications: Electrical, 671 for an electrical indicating system providing a humanly perceptible electrical signal in response to a predetermined angular velocity wherein no indication of quantitative measurement is provided.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 27 for determining speed by measuring a characteristic of visible light.

Subclass: 519.01 [Patents]

Eddy current drag means (e. g., drag cup):
This subclass is indented under subclass 514.39. Subject matter wherein the magnetic means comprises a permanent magnet and a drag element and wherein (a) a magnetic coupling exists between the permanent magnet and the drag element and (b) due to the magnetic coupling, movement of the permanent magnet causes motion of the drag element.

Subclass: 520.01 [Patents]

With a flux adjusting means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 519.01. Subject matter combined with means for varying the magnetic coupling between the drag element and the permanent magnet.

Subclass: 521 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus in which a fluid is used.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
60, Power Plants, 325 for a device in which a hydraulic actuator is supplied by fluid directly by the operation of a pump or its equivalent.
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, subclass 435 and see the search there noted for expansible chamber motors having speed responsive control.
123, Internal-Combustion Engines, 378 for a speed controller of the pneumatic type for an internal-combustion engine.
137, Fluid Handling, subclass 34 and 36 for a prime mover speed controller using fluid pressure; and subclass 58 for a valve controlled by a speed actuated servo-motor.

Subclass: 522 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 521. Apparatus wherein fluid serves to suppress vibration or dampen movement.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
514.12 for fluid or fluent material dampening of an inertial element in an inertial-type acceleration measuring apparatus.
514.14 for vibration dampening in an inertial-type acceleration measuring apparatus.

Subclass: 523 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 521. Apparatus including a fluid container comprising one or more walls which are movable with respect to others to vary the volume of the container.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
502 for devices in which the expansible chamber is part of an externally connected gauge.

Subclass: 524 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 521. Apparatus wherein an output member is moved against bias by the impact or drag of a fluid.

Subclass: 525 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 521. Apparatus wherein response is to the force required to drive a speeding element through fluid.

Subclass: 526 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus having means to dampen the mechanism or protect it from shock.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
496 for dampening means acting directly upon the reading structure.
514.12 for fluid or fluent material dampening of an inertial element in an acceleration measuring apparatus.
514.14 for vibration dampening in an inertial-type acceleration measuring apparatus.
522 for dampening means using fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclass 574, for rotor
vibration dampening means of more general application.

Subclass: 527 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus including means for transmitting a speed signal to the speed measuring device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
493 for structurally installed speed responsive devices.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclass 12 for speedometer drive means, per se.

Subclass: 528 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 527. Apparatus including means for selecting one of several available ratios between the speed of the source and of the responsive device.

Subclass: 529 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 527. Apparatus including means for frictionally engaging a speed source.

Subclass: 530 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus with immediately associated means for transmitting motion from the sensing means such as two or more relatively moving links or gearing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
493 for a structurally installed speed responsive device.

Subclass: 531 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 530. Apparatus including means by which the transmitting means can be adjusted.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
498 for adjustment means for indicator reading structure.

Subclass: 532 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 530. Apparatus wherein the mechanism includes gearing.

Subclass: 533 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 532. Apparatus in which the gearing includes a rectilinear rack.

Subclass: 534 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 530. Apparatus wherein the mechanism includes a surface and follower.

Subclass: 535 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 488. Apparatus wherein the speed responsive means comprises a rotating or revolving weight or weights, the position assumed by such weight or weights due to centrifugal force varying as a function of the speed at which they are rotated or revolved.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
123, Internal-Combustion Engines, 364, for a speed regulator of the centrifugal type particularly associated with an internal-combustion engine.
137, Fluid Handling, 33 for prime mover motive fluid control by a centrifugal governor and subclasses 53+ for valve control by a centrifugal governor.
180, Motor Vehicles, 172 for a motor vehicle having means which is responsive to its speed for regulating the vehicle's rate of travel, and wherein the means includes a device which is responsive to centrifugal force.
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers, subclass 80 for a centrifugally actuated switch.
318, Electricity: Motive Power Systems, subclass 462 for automatic starting or stopping of an electric motor by a centrifugal device.
322, Electricity: Single Generator Systems, subclass 30 for a centrifugal governor particularly associated with an electrical generator driving means.
388, Electricity: Motor Control Systems, art collections 924+ for centrifugal speed responsive feedback devices used with electric motors.
416, Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers), subclass 50, 51 and 52+ for a centrifugal weight governor operative responsive to impeller rotation.

Subclass: 536 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 535. Apparatus wherein the effective pivot arm length of a governor weight pivotally mounted on a rotating support has different values at different speeds.

Subclass: 537 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 535. Apparatus with means by which different biasing action is obtained at different speeds.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, subclass 366 for a speed responsive device controlling an expansible chamber motor that varies the bias of the device.

Subclass: 538 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 537. Apparatus with a snap action effect.

Subclass: 539 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 535. Apparatus wherein means is provided with which the centrifugal weight or its supporting structure comes into contact to arrest the radial motion of the weight, the means being in the nature of an abutment or stop.

Subclass: 540 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 535. Apparatus having elements provided for adjusting or varying the response of the device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
513 for a speed responsive device combined with a manual speed control arrangement.
528 for adjustment means for the drive of the speed sensor.
531 for adjustment means for the output mechanism of the speed sensor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
123, Internal-Combustion Engines, subclass 319, per se, for a speed controlled internal-combustion engine with manual control or adjustment structure.

Subclass: 541 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 540. Apparatus wherein there are two adjusting means having different functions or means that effects more than one type of adjustment of the device.

Subclass: 542 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 540. Apparatus wherein the adjustment is of the effect of a biasing weight.

Subclass: 543 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 540. Apparatus comprising a lever or gear device.

Subclass: 544 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 540. Apparatus wherein an adjusting means and a bias spring are both concentric to the axis of rotation of the centrifugal device.

Subclass: 545 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 540. Apparatus wherein a screw means adjusts the loading of a spring connected between two weights on opposite sides of the axis of rotation.

Subclass: 546 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 535. Apparatus wherein a leaf spring supports or biases the centrifugal weight.

Subclass: 547 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 535. Apparatus
wherein the revolving weight acts at the junction of two pivotally joined bars.

Subclass: 548 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 535. Apparatus wherein the centrifugal mass is radially displaced for operation of an external device by contact.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclass 3 for a speed controlled trip.

Subclass: 549 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 535. Apparatus comprising rigidly connected body portions statically balanced about the axis of rotation, but inclined thereto, so that the extremities revolve in different planes, which approach each other under the action of centrifugal force.

Subclass: 550 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 535. Apparatus relating to a pivoted weight-lever assembly so arranged that radial movement of the weight causes axial output movement.

Subclass: 551 [Patents]

This subclass is indented under subclass 535. Apparatus including a surface and follower as a part of the centrifugal speed sensing device.

Subclass: 570 [Patents]

VIBRATION:
This subclass is indented under the class definition.
Subject matter for (1) testing an article or mechanism by subjecting it to vibratory forces for determining qualities, characteristics or conditions thereof, or (2) sensing, study or analysis of vibrations otherwise generated in or existing in the article or mechanism.
(1) Note. The "article or mechanism" will be hereinafter referred to as a "body" or "test body".

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.43 for proving or calibrating a chronometer or watch unbalance.
1.82 for proving or calibrating an apparatus by use of vibration or by measuring vibration.
11.08 and 11.09, for testing an automobile shock absorber by oscillation.
12.01 for delivering a test impact to a body under study, although the result is to be listened to.
12.12 for impact testing using oscillation.
35.01 for determining engine knock or detonation by measuring abnormal vibration.
66 for determining the unbalance of rotors by the vibratory thrusts effects thereof.
152.15 for determining the characteristic of a borehole by logging the results of measuring the effect of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging on vibration combined with radioactivity measuring.
152.16 for determining the characteristic of a borehole by logging the results of measuring the effect of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging on vibration.
152.32 for a flowmeter for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging by measuring vibration.
152.47 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging by measuring vibration while an instrument is within a borehole while a drilling operation is taking place.
152.58 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging by measuring vibration while an instrument is within a borehole.
861 for employment of vibration transmission in measuring fluid flow.

Subclass: 570.5 [Patents]

Acoustic levitation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 570. Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for supporting an object in a fluid by means of acoustic waves.
(1) Note. The acoustic levitation process or apparatus found here includes measuring detail.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
181, Acoustics, subclass .5 for acoustic levitation devices, per se, with no measuring detail.
406, Conveyors: Fluid Current, appropriate subclass, for using fluid current to move solids from one position to another.

Subclass: 571 [Patents]

Test chamber:
This subclass is indented under subclass 570. Subject matter which provides specialized housing in which a test body is located for the application thereto of vibratory forces for making desired determinations, or for the sensing, study, or analysis of vibrations otherwise generated in, or existing in, the test body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
586 for determination of sonic wave characteristics in an enclosed room or space.

Subclass: 572 [Patents]

Loose object detection:
This subclass is indented under subclass 570. Subject matter wherein means are provided for detecting loose particles or parts.

Subclass: 573 [Patents]

Hardness or compliance:
This subclass is indented under subclass 570. Subject matter wherein the test body is subjected to means, e.g., a
resonating probe or by indirect oscillations, for deriving a measure of hardness or flexibility thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
257, Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes), subclass 414 for such devices used as chemical sensors, pressure sensors, etc.

Subclass: 574 [Patents]

Mechanical impedance:
This subclass is indented under subclass 570. Subject matter for determining the mechanical impedance of the body to vibration, as by the damping action of the body, the ratio of energy input to amplitude, etc.
(1) Note. This subclass may include a device used in making the determination which has one or more rotatable, unbalanced masses for creating vibration in the device and thus in the body to be tested.

Subclass: 575 [Patents]

Of an elastomer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 574. Subject matter wherein the test body is made of an elastic material such as rubber.

Subclass: 576 [Patents]

Device having an electromagnetic drive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 574. Subject matter wherein the body or body supporting unit is vibrated by direct application of electromagnetic action thereto.

Subclass: 577 [Patents]

Fatigue study:
This subclass is indented under subclass 570. Subject matter wherein the body is subjected to prolonged or repeated vibration while sensing, measuring, or recording its change of condition, as by change in its temperature, amplitude, or resonance, energy input required to maintain vibration or timing or registering duration to failure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
808 for repeated stressing (e.g., flexing) of bodies to determine fatigue characteristics thereof.

Subclass: 578 [Patents]

Electromagnetic drive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 577. Subject matter wherein the body or body supporting unit is vibrated by direct application of electromagnetic action thereto.

Subclass: 579 [Patents]

Resonance, frequency, or amplitude study:
This subclass is indented under subclass 570. Subject matter wherein the body is caused to vibrate at its natural mechanical resonance and measurement of frequency and/or amplitude at resonance is made; a study of amplitude response over a frequency range is made; nodal points, wave lengths, and standing wave characteristics are measured under predetermined vibration conditions.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
658 for electrical indicating means for sonic sensing apparatus.

Subclass: 580 [Patents]

Including weight determination:
This subclass is indented under subclass 579. Subject matter wherein a device is utilized for determining the mass or the weight of a body or of a unit length of a body.

Subclass: 581 [Patents]

Including axial force determination:
This subclass is indented under subclass 579. Subject matter wherein a device is utilized for measuring the axial force exerted on a body, e.g., a bolt, wire.

Subclass: 582 [Patents]

Including structural bond evaluation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 579. Subject matter wherein means are provided for testing for structural defects in a bond, e.g., separation of rubber tire laminations, metallic or nonmetallic type welds.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
588 for other structural bond evaluation.

Subclass: 583 [Patents]

Of aircraft or related structural element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 579. Subject matter wherein means are provided for detecting and analyzing vibrations in aircraft structural members, e.g., wing flutter, propeller.

Subclass: 584 [Patents]

By mechanical waves:
This subclass is indented under subclass 570. Subject matter wherein (1) the vibratory forces applied or (2) the vibrations sensed are in the form of mechanical, sonic-type waves and the frequency of the waves and the frequency of the waves is either in the sonic or ultrasonic frequency range.
(1) Note. The waves involve uniform motion of a part of a larger body, rather than motion of the whole body, in the form of particles of the body during travel of the waves in the body.
(2) Note. The sonic waves include longitudinal or compressional, shear, Raleigh waves, etc.
(3) Note. For the purposes of this section, the body being tested may include a fluid body such as air or water.
(4) Note. This subclass and subclasses indented hereunder provide for measuring and testing, employing mechanical, sonic-type waves except as specifically provided for elsewhere. See the search notes below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.43 for proving or calibrating a chronometer or watch unbalance.
1.82 for proving or calibrating an apparatus by use of vibration or by measuring vibration.
12.01 for delivering a test impact to a body under study although the result is to be listened to.
19 for determining the gas content of materials.
24 for gas analysis by sonic means.
32 for determining specific gravity or density by sonic means.
35.09 for determining engine knock or detonation by measuring abnormal vibration.
40.5 for detecting leakage by listening devices.
61.41 for determining the content or effect of the constituent of a liquid mixture, as concentration of particles in the liquid, by sonic means.
170.29 for meteorology and oceanology.
290 for liquid level determination by sonic means.
339 for measurement of temperature by sonic means.
432 for measurement of particle size by sonic means.
645 for measuring an acoustic parameter.
659 for sensing apparatus with electrically controlled indicator for spectrum analysis.
861 for measurement of fluid flow rate by sonic means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
128, Surgery, subclass 647 and 660+ for medical diagnostic methods and apparatus utilizing ultrasonic mechanical wave energy.
181, Acoustics, 101 for geophysical or subsurface exploration involving mechanically transmitting or receiving sound waves, subclass 123 for mechanical sound echo systems in general and subclass 125 for mechanical sound location means.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, subclass 87, subclasses 7+ for producing images of the body subclasses 118+, for electrical systems using compressional waves to determine distance or direction and subclasses 14+, for electrical systems using compressional waves to investigate geologic or subsurface structure.

Subclass: 585 [Patents]

Including ear or hearing testing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter wherein the sonic waves are used to measure the auditory response of a person.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
128, Surgery, subclass 746 for methods and apparatus for diagnosing a condition of the ear.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 117 for temperature.

Subclass: 586 [Patents]

Reverberation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter wherein sonic characteristics of the sonic waves in an enclosed room or space are determined.
(1) Note. Included herein are means for producing a sonic wave in a room and measuring the sonic decay characteristics of the room.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
571 for special test chambers.

Subclass: 587 [Patents]

Acoustic emission:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter for sensing mechanical sonic-type waves emitted by flaws and other anomalies which generally occur in the test body in the early stages of the flaw or other anomaly.
(1) Note. An acoustic emission is a generally inaudible noise caused by minute changes in a material or object due to stresses imposed thereon. Thus, when a material undergoes a permanent deformation, it will generate a sound which may be monitored by ultrasensitive means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
801 for similar subject matter in combination with means for applying stress to the test object to induce strain and accompanying acoustic emission.

Subclass: 588 [Patents]

Structural bond evaluation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter wherein mechanical waves are utilized for testing for structural defects in a bond, e.g., separation of rubber tire laminations, metallic or nonmetallic-type welds.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
582 for other structural bond evaluation.

Subclass: 589 [Patents]

Acoustical impedance:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter for determining the acoustical impedance of the body to vibration, as by the ratio of sound pressure to the volume velocity, the ratio of sound pressure to particle velocity, etc.

Subclass: 590 [Patents]

In detection of a liquid reaction, a chemical reaction, or a nuclear reaction:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter wherein a determination is made of the quality, characteristic, or condition of a reaction which involves chemicals, nuclear materials, or other types of reactions, e.g., liquid cavitation in a boiler, detonation in an engine cylinder, etc., which are imminent or presently occurring.
(1) Note. The reaction, whether desired or undesired, will manifest itself in the form of sonic vibrations from which the determination is made.
(2) Note. The reaction may be or may not be taking place in an appropriate chamber or container.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
592 for detection of fluid, fluid leak, or pipe flaw.

Subclass: 591 [Patents]

Listening or sound tube:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter wherein a device for detecting the mechanical waves utilized a tube through which one may listen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
649 for sensing or detecting apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
181, Acoustics, subclass 131 for stethoscopes, per se.

Subclass: 592 [Patents]

Fluid, fluid leak, or pipe flaw detection:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter wherein determination is made of the location of a fluid leak in a fluid container, e.g., a flaw in a water pipe, or of the location of a fluid, e.g., underground water.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
40.5 for acoustic detectors for locating fluid leakage, the fluid being pressurized
590 for detection of liquid, chemical or nuclear reactions.

Subclass: 593 [Patents]

Bearing, gear, or related moving mechanism:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter wherein the test body is a bearing, a bearing assembly, a gear, a gear assembly, or other parts related to a machine which includes moving parts.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
660 for sensing or recording apparatus of rotating machinery and devices.

Subclass: 594 [Patents]

Soil or building structure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter wherein means are provided for determining the soundness of soil or building or support structure.

Subclass: 595 [Patents]

Frangible:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter wherein means are provided for the detecting of flaws, such as cracks, in articles which may be subject to easy breakage.

Subclass: 596 [Patents]

Beamed:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter wherein (1) the sonic waves are in the form of beamed or directed waves or (2) the beamed waves sensed emanate from within or reflect from the surface of the body.
(1) Note. While the production of a beamed wave is not limited to the ultrasonic range, frequencies are generally in the ultrasonic range above 25 kHz as in the detection of typically sized discontinuities or flaws. The beam pattern is a function of the ratio of wavelength employed to the distance across the face of the transducer.
(2) Note. Where some means is provided for confining the wave, as a duct, the wave is considered to be a directed wave for the purposes of this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
128, Surgery, 660.01 for devices employing beamed, mechanical waves having means particularly adapted for usage on a living body to aid in the diagnosis of diseased or abnormal conditions of the body.
181, Acoustics, 101 for geophysical or subsurface exploration involving mechanically transmitting or receiving sound waves, subclass 123 for mechanical sound echo systems in general, and subclass 125 for mechanical sound location means.
348, Television, subclass 163 for only receiving sonic or ultrasonic energy and producing an image of a scene or object that is representative of the image that would be produced by visible light.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, subclass 87, subclasses 7+ for producing images of the body, subclasses 118+ for electrical systems using compressional waves to determine distance or direction, and, subclasses 7 and 15.5 for electrical systems using compressional waves to investigate geological or subsurface
structure.

Subclass: 597 [Patents]

Velocity or propagation time measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 596. Subject matter wherein velocity or propagation or transit time of sonic waves in the test body is measured to determine a physical characteristic such as density, Young's modulus, shear modulus, stress, microstructure, etc.

Subclass: 598 [Patents]

For flaw or discontinuity detection:
This subclass is indented under subclass 597. Subject matter wherein the velocity or propagation time indicates the presence of a flaw or discontinuity.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass may be distinguished from subclass 597 only on the basis of function, i.e., determination of the presence of a flaw or discontinuity.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
596 for flaw or discontinuity location or thickness measurement by pulse echo timing, imaging, etc., except this subclass and subclass 600.

Subclass: 599 [Patents]

Attenuation measurement:
This subclass is indented under subclass 596. Subject matter for measuring the attenuation of energy transmitted through the test body or the energy reflected from the surface of the body.
(1) Note. The measurement indicates microstructure, paper pulp composition, surface reflection characteristics, etc.

Subclass: 600 [Patents]

For flaw or discontinuity detection:
This subclass is indented under subclass 599. Subject matter wherein the attenuation indicates the presence of a flaw or
discontinuity.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass may be distinguished from subclass 599 only on the basis of function, i.e., determination of the presence of a flaw or discontinuity.
(2) Note. Flaw or discontinuity location by pulse echo, imaging, flaw size, etc., is in appropriate subclasses indented under subclass 596 other than this subclass and subclass 598.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
596 for flaw or discontinuity location by pulse echo, imaging, flaw size, etc., except this subclass and subclass 598.

Subclass: 601 [Patents]

Having plural, diverse forms of radiant energy:
This subclass is indented under subclass 596. Subject matter wherein plural forms of radiation, as ultrasonic, magnetic, X-ray, etc., are employed to test the body.

Subclass: 602 [Patents]

With signal analyzing or mathematical processing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 596. Subject matter wherein electrical or electronic means are provided for spectrum analysis or to mathematically process electrical signals corresponding to the sonic waves, to determine flaw size, shape, orientation, to improve resolution, etc.
(1) Note. This subclass is not intended to include subject matter under subclass 596 wherein simple mathematical operations are performed, such as combining of signals, comparing signals, doubling signals, forming a ratio, etc. This subclass includes oscilloscope frequency versus amplitude display, Fourier transformation of the signal for spectrum analysis, mathematical convolution involving the Laplace transformation of the signal for signal compression, filtering for spectrum analysis, etc.
(2) Note. This subclass will include only mathematical processing or calculating if combined with significant measuring or testing of the type provided in subclasses 596+. Nominal measuring or testing combined with significant data processing or calculating computers is in Class 364.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 506, for measuring or testing, subclass 507, for flaw or defect, subclass 508, for stress, strain, or vibration, subclass 550 for measuring, testing, or monitoring.

Subclass: 603 [Patents]

Acoustic holography:
This subclass is indented under subclass 596. Subject matter wherein the test or measurement involves acoustic holography employing sonic (i.e., acoustic) waves from the test body in formation of the hologram.
(1) Note. Included herein are imaging of an interior portion of the body as a flaw or discontinuity, determining surface defects or surface quality, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements, 1 for producing images of bodies by optical holography and subclass 901 for a cross reference art collection relating to acoustic holography.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 7, for producing images of underwater and underground bodies, respectively, by acoustic holography.

Subclass: 604 [Patents]

Having means substituted for reference signal:
This subclass is indented under subclass 603. Subject matter wherein the hologram is formed without an electronic or acoustic reference signal as by temporal reference, optical heterodyne, or optical homodyne techniques.

Subclass: 605 [Patents]

Liquid or deformable surface holography:
This subclass is indented under subclass 603. Subject matter wherein the hologram is formed on a liquid or deformable surface.

Subclass: 606 [Patents]

Imaging of discontinuity with stationary sonic transmitter:
This subclass is indented under subclass 596. Subject matter wherein a test body or area portion thereof is subjected to a beam of waves from a nonscanned transmitter for producing an image of a discontinuity within the body covered by the beam.
(1) Note. This subclass includes such imaging wherein the receiver is a liquid-containing cell having particles oriented by the action of the sonic waves, a sonic deformable liquid surface, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 7 for similar electrical sound echo systems for producing external images of the body as opposed to imaging internal structure, as a discontinuity, of the body.

Subclass: 607 [Patents]

By scan of a sonic receiver:
This subclass is indented under subclass 606. Subject matter wherein the beam from the test body is scanned by a sonic receiver, and the receiver is typically a transducer mosaic, the elements thereof being sequentially connected to image display means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
626 wherein plural receivers or elements of a receiver are sequentially operated to respond to a scanned transmitted beam.

Subclass: 608 [Patents]

By Bragg diffraction:
This subclass is indented under subclass 606. Subject matter wherein the image is obtained by Bragg diffraction.

Subclass: 609 [Patents]

Measuring or testing system having threshold, gating, delay, or blocking means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 596. Subject matter having a threshold circuit, a gating circuit, delay means or
blocking means to eliminate undesired signals form measuring or indicating means.
(1) Note. A delay means may be part of the gating means or a mechanical delay line between a sonic transmitter or receiver and a test body.
(2) Note. The blocking means includes an acoustic curtain between adjacent sonic transmitter and receiver means or a masking means to block off portions of an indication on a cathode-ray tube.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
618 for plural gates for effecting scanning.

Subclass: 610 [Patents]

Electronic gating:
This subclass is indented under subclass 609. Subject matter wherein electronic gating means controls the received signal portion which is to be indicated.

Subclass: 611 [Patents]

Adjustably responsive to information signal:
This subclass is indented under subclass 610. Subject matter wherein the gating means is adjusted or controlled in accordance with an electrical information signal, as a signal corresponding to an echo signal from the test body, a signal corresponding to movement of the sonic transmitter or receiver, etc.

Subclass: 612 [Patents]

Plural gating:
This subclass is indented under subclass 610. Subject matter wherein a plurality of gating means are provided for selecting signals from different depths of the test body or for selecting signals from a selected depth for a plurality of receivers.

Subclass: 613 [Patents]

Of noise:
This subclass is indented under subclass 610. Subject matter wherein noise signals, which are generally random signals extraneous to the testing signals, are eliminated.

Subclass: 614 [Patents]

Of signals to pass only echoes from within test body:
This subclass is indented under subclass 610. Subject matter wherein only echoes from within the test body are passed to indicating or measuring circuitry.

Subclass: 615 [Patents]

Of signals to pass only echoes from front surface or flaw and from rear surface of test body:
This subclass is indented under subclass 610. Subject matter wherein only echoes from the front surface or flaw and from the rear surface of the test body are passed to indicating or measuring circuitry.

Subclass: 616 [Patents]

Of signals to pass only echoes from rear surface of test body:
This subclass is indented under subclass 610. Subject matter wherein only echo signals from the rear surface of the test body are passed to indicating or measuring circuitry.

Subclass: 617 [Patents]

Having mechanical delay or mechanical blocking:
This subclass is indented under subclass 609. Subject matter wherein the undesired signals or indication thereof are eliminated or blocked by mechanical means, as a solid delay line or masking means on a cathode-ray tube.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
644 for transducer-to-object coupling means which may serve as a mechanical delay line.

Subclass: 618 [Patents]

Measuring or testing system having scanning means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 596. Subject matter wherein a sonic wave transmitter means is scanned relative to the test body, and the receiver is a separate and stationary transducer or the receiver is scanned relative to the test body and is the same as or a separate transducer from, the transmitting transducer and measuring or indicating circuitry is provided with or without the final display or indicating means.
(1) Note. The scanning may be effected by switched plural transmitters or receivers.
(2) Note. Scanning of the sonic receiver over an areal portion of the test body covered by the transmitted beam of a nonscanned sonic transmitter is in this class, subclass 607.
(3) Note. The scanning must be more than nominal, be particularly adapted for scanning purposes or be a requirement for operation of the device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
633 for sonic wave transmitter or receiver means, per se, having means for effecting or providing for scanning of the transmitter or receiver relative to the test body.

Subclass: 619 [Patents]

Programmed scan:
This subclass is indented under subclass 618. Subject matter wherein the scanning is automatically controlled in accordance with a previously recorded program.

Subclass: 620 [Patents]

By reflected wave:
This subclass is indented under subclass 618. Subject matter wherein the wave transmitted to the test body is reflected from a surface within the test body and is received.

Subclass: 621 [Patents]

Having compound scan:
This subclass is indented under subclass 620. Subject matter wherein the scan comprises a compound or combined motion of transmitting and receiving transducer means comprising a
movement of the transducer in transducer supporting means and a movement of the transducer support, at least one of the movements being angular and wherein display means is coordinated with the combined movements of the transducer.

Subclass: 622 [Patents]

Of tubing, vessel, or cylindrical object:
This subclass is indented under subclass 620. Subject matter wherein the scan is of a tubing, vessel, or cylindrical object.

Subclass: 623 [Patents]

Scan from within object:
This subclass is indented under subclass 622. Subject matter wherein the scanning is within a pipe or cylindrical vessel.

Subclass: 624 [Patents]

Having separate sonic transmitter and receiver:
This subclass is indented under subclass 620. Subject matter wherein separate transducers are used for transmitting and receiving.

Subclass: 625 [Patents]

Having plural sonic type transmitter or receiver transducers:
This subclass is indented under subclass 620. Subject matter wherein more than one transmitter or receiver transducer is provided and wherein an additional transducer may serve function other than providing echoes from a discontinuity, such as a wave coupling test signal.

Subclass: 626 [Patents]

Switched:
This subclass is indented under subclass 625. Subject matter wherein the plural transmitter or receivers are switched for sequential operation.
(1) Note. The scanning may be due to the switching or the scanning may be performed by relative movement of the transducers and test body and the transducers are switched to perform respective different functions.
(2) Note. A transducer wherein discrete portions are rendered sequentially operative is deemed to constitute plural, switched transducers for purposes of this definition.

Subclass: 627 [Patents]

By reflected wave:
This subclass is indented under subclass 596. Subject matter wherein the wave energy is reflected from a reflecting surface of the test body and received, and the measurement of the reflected wave determines the location of flaws, thickness, etc.
(1) Note. Detection of the presence or absence of a flaw by measurement of the time of propagation or the attenuation of the waves in the body is in this class, subclasses 598 and 600, respectively.

Subclass: 628 [Patents]

Having plural sonic type transmitters or receivers transducers:
This subclass is indented under subclass 627. Subject matter wherein more than one transmitter or receiver is provided.
(1) Note. The additional transducer may function other than to obtain information from the test body, as to improve coupling by eliminating bubbles.

Subclass: 629 [Patents]

Having unitary sonic type transmitter-receiver transducer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 627. Subject matter wherein a single transducer transmits the sonic wave and receives the reflected echo.

Subclass: 630 [Patents]

Establishing resonance in a test body:
This subclass is indented under subclass 629. Subject matter wherein resonance frequency of the test body is measured.

Subclass: 631 [Patents]

Having automatic gain control:
This subclass is indented under subclass 629. Subject matter wherein automatic gain control of the received signal is provided.

Subclass: 632 [Patents]

Sonic wave transmitter or receiver transducer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 596. Subject matter directed to transducer means, particularly adapted for inducing sonic waves into a test body or for receiving sonic waves from the body for test purposes.
(1) Note. The coupling means may serve as a delay means.
(2) Note. A measuring combination under subclass 596 including coupling means producing a mechanical delay is in subclass 617.
(3) Note. A measuring combination under subclass 596 including scanning is in subclasses 618+.
(4) Note. A method of inducing waves in a body or receiving waves from a body is in this class, subclasses 632+, but a method of testing under subclass 596 is classified in the appropriate subclass preceding subclasses 632+.
(5) Note. This subclass and subclasses indented hereunder include such noted transducer means with means for energizing the transducer, scanning the transducer, positioning the transducer, producing signals corresponding to transducer scan position, focusing or shaping the waves, and coupling the waves to the body.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 334 for piezoelectric devices.

Subclass: 633 [Patents]

Having transducer scanning means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 632. Subject matter
wherein means is provided for effecting scanning or relative movement between transducer and test body or has some means for facilitating such scanning.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
618 for the combination of a measuring or testing system with scanning means.
644 for coupling means which may facilitate scanning.

Subclass: 634 [Patents]

Automatic transducer positioning:
This subclass is indented under subclass 633. Subject matter wherein the transducer is automatically positioned as to distance from, or angle to, with respect to the test body generally under control of an electrical or mechanical probe which senses the position of the test body to produce a signal to operate transducer positioning means.
(1) Note. The probe may sense the presence of the test body at a testing station and the transducer is then brought into contact with the test body.

Subclass: 635 [Patents]

Rolling contact:
This subclass is indented under subclass 633. Subject matter wherein the relative movement involves rolling contact by wheel means between the transducer or transducer support and the test body.

Subclass: 636 [Patents]

On railroad rails:
This subclass is indented under subclass 635. Subject matter wherein the transducer is moved along a railroad rail.

Subclass: 637 [Patents]

Around cylindrical object:
This subclass is indented under subclass 635. Subject matter wherein relative movement of the transducer around a cylindrical test body is provided.
(1) Note. Scanning around a cylindrical test body but without rolling contact is also in this class, subclass 640.

Subclass: 638 [Patents]

Along cylindrical object:
This subclass is indented under subclass 635. Subject matter wherein relative movement of the transducer lengthwise of a cylindrical body is provided.

Subclass: 639 [Patents]

Transducer forms wheel or is within a wheel:
This subclass is indented under subclass 635. Subject matter wherein the transducer is shaped in the form of a wheel or is mounted within a wheel but does not rotate with the wheel.

Subclass: 640 [Patents]

Scanning curved surface in direction of curvature:
This subclass is indented under subclass 633. Subject matter wherein the transducer scans over a curved surface in the direction of the curvature.
(1) Note. Scanning around a cylindrical object employing roller means engaging the test body is in this class, subclass 637.

Subclass: 641 [Patents]

Plural sonic transmitters or receivers:
This subclass is indented under subclass 633. Subject matter wherein plural sonic transmitters or receivers are scanned relative to the test body.
(1) Note. A transducer wherein discrete portions are rendered sequentially operative is deemed to constitute plural transducers for the purposes of this definition.

Subclass: 642 [Patents]

Having wave shaping means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 632. Subject matter wherein means for modifying the shape of the beam is provided, as a sonic wave lens or curved reflector.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
181, Acoustics, 175 for acoustic transducers combined with a sound modifier.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 335 for acoustic wave type generator or receiver with lens or reflector.
367, Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices, 140 for acoustic transducers combined with a lens or reflector respectively.

Subclass: 643 [Patents]

Nonvibrating transducer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 632. Subject matter wherein the transducer means does not mechanically vibrate but induces or receives mechanical vibrations, as by arc discharge, laser beam, electromagnetic means, etc.

Subclass: 644 [Patents]

Having significant coupling means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 632. Subject matter having significant means between the transducer and test body of coupling the sonic waves to or from the test body, as a circulated liquid couplant, wear shoe, heat resistive shoe, delay block, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
617 for delay or blocking means in a measuring or testing combination.

Subclass: 645 [Patents]

Acoustic parameter:
This subclass is indented under subclass 584. Subject matter for determining sonic characteristics of the sonic waves in a medium.
(1) Note. Included herein are means for determining a
frequency characteristic.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
589 for determining acoustical impedance.

Subclass: 646 [Patents]

Amplitude, power, or intensity:
This subclass is indented under subclass 645. Subject matter wherein the characteristics include power, amplitude, intensity, energy, loudness or radiation pressure.

Subclass: 647 [Patents]

Current generating or modifying:
This subclass is indented under subclass 646. Subject matter including electrical means which gives or uses an electrical signal which varies as a function of at least one of the acoustical characteristics.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
649 for subject matter comprising means for indicating or recording mechanical vibrations or analysis thereof.

Subclass: 648 [Patents]

Frequency sensitive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 647. Subject matter wherein the current generating or modifying means produces a variable frequency signal as a function of the power, amplitude, etc., of the sonic waves.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
645 for determining the frequency of sonic waves not included in this subclass 648.

Subclass: 649 [Patents]

Sensing apparatus:
This subclass is indented under subclass 570. Subject matter comprising means for rendering perceptible, indicating, or recording such vibrations or analysis thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
591 for sound tubes.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
181, Acoustics, subclass 131 for stethoscopes.
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 334 for piezoelectric devices.

Subclass: 650 [Patents]

Torsional:
This subclass is indented under subclass 649. Subject matter relating to the sensing or measurement of torsional vibrations of a rotating member.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
134 for other apparatus for measuring torque by absorption.
136 for other apparatus for measuring torque during transmission.
660 for other apparatus for sensing or measuring vibrations of rotating parts.

Subclass: 651 [Patents]

Vibratable reed:
This subclass is indented under subclass 649. Subject matter including one or more vibratable reeds as the sensing elements.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
84, Music, subclass 454 for reeds used in tuning musical instruments.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 76.49 for a tuned mechanical resonator (e.g., reed piezocrystal).

Subclass: 652 [Patents]

With inertia element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 649. Subject matter
in which the sensing apparatus includes a heavy mass which will remain relatively stationary.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
514.01 for an acceleration responsive device.
651 for a mass located on a vibratable reed.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
346, Recorders, subclass 7 for recording accelerometers.

Subclass: 653 [Patents]

With light beam indicator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 652. Subject matter wherein there is an indicator in the form of a light beam movable over a scale on the interferometer principle, usually over photofilm.

Subclass: 654 [Patents]

With electrically controlled indicator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 652. Subject matter including an electrically controlled indicator.

Subclass: 655 [Patents]

With light beam indicator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 649. Subject matter wherein a light beam is employed which is modified in accordance with the vibrations in order to obtain an indication or measurement.
(1) Note. Measurement of a modification in the direction or intensity of the light beam is included in this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
653 for similar structure in combination with inertia type sensing apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 445 for optical measuring and testing involving interferometry.

Subclass: 656 [Patents]

By optical holography:
This subclass is indented under subclass 655. Subject matter wherein indication or measurement involves the formation of an optical hologram.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, subclass 457 for optical measuring and testing involving interferometry.
359, Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements, 1 for formation of an optical hologram.

Subclass: 657 [Patents]

By frequency or phase shift:
This subclass is indented under subclass 655. Subject matter wherein the modification of the light is in the form of a frequency or phase shift which is indicated or measured.

Subclass: 658 [Patents]

With electrically controlled indicator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 649. Subject matter wherein the means for indicating is electrical.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
654 for similar structure in combination with inertia type sensing apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
340, Communications: Electrical, subclass 683 for machine vibration responsive alarms.

Subclass: 659 [Patents]

Spectrum analysis:
This subclass is indented under subclass 658. subject matter relating to the analysis of vibrations by measuring the amplitudes of the frequency components of the vibrations.
(1) Note. An example of a complete analysis would be the sensing and measuring of airplane vibrations over a wide range of engine speeds.

Subclass: 660 [Patents]

Rotating machinery or device:
This subclass is indented under subclass 658. Subject matter relating to the sensing or measurement of the vibrations of a rotating member.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
134 for other apparatus for measuring torque by absorption.
136 for other apparatus for measuring torque during transmission.
593 for measuring vibrations by mechanical waves of a bearing and other rotating parts.
650 for apparatus for measuring torsional vibrations of a rotating member.

Subclass: 661 [Patents]

Having a probe:
This subclass is indented under subclass 658. Subject matter wherein the sensing apparatus includes a probe which would require physical contact with the object being sensed.

Subclass: 662 [Patents]

Vibrator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 570. Subject matter particularly adapted for producing and applying vibratory forces for test purposes.

Subclass: 663 [Patents]

Table, platform, or other support:
This subclass is indented under subclass 662. Subject matter wherein the vibrator includes a table, platform, or other support of the body under test.

Subclass: 664 [Patents]

Circuitry:
This subclass is indented under subclass 663. Subject matter wherein various electrical circuits are designed for use with the table or platform for adjustments or equalization of, for example, noise frequencies which may occur in at least one of plurality of vibrational dimensions.

Subclass: 665 [Patents]

Having fluid bearing or fluid pressure actuated:
This subclass is indented under subclass 663. Subject matter wherein the table or platform utilizes a fluid, e.g., an oil film, between the table (or platform) and its support for reducing bearing friction, and/or the table or platform is vibrated by a fluid pressure means.

Subclass: 666 [Patents]

Having spring support:
This subclass is indented under subclass 663. Subject matter wherein the table or platform is supported by one or more springs for aiding the vibrating thereof.
(1) Note. The spring may be an elastic material as well as a metal material.

Subclass: 667 [Patents]

Eccentrically vibrated:
This subclass is indented under subclass 663. Subject matter wherein the table or platform is vibrated by an imbalanced rotating mass or by a cam mechanism.

Subclass: 668 [Patents]

Electromagnetically vibrated:
This subclass is indented under subclass 663. Subject matter wherein the table or platform is vibrated by electromagnetic means.

Subclass: 669 [Patents]

Vehicle shaker:
This subclass is indented under subclass 662. Subject matter for shaking of automotive vehicle for the purpose of testing or detection of squeaks.

Subclass: 670 [Patents]

Treadmill:
This subclass is indented under subclass 669. Subject matter wherein at least one wheel of a vehicle furnishes rotating power directly to at least one rotatable vehicle support, e.g., a pulley, wheel, or belt, the support having means for vibrating itself, and thus the vehicle, or the rotatable vehicle support, is self-powered and thus vibrates the vehicle accordingly.
(1) Note. Sometimes all of the vehicle wheels may be in contact with rotating belts, and at other times the vehicle wheels may be in contact with the vibrator support wheels.

Subclass: 671 [Patents]

Having a fluid jet:
This subclass is indented under subclass 662. Subject matter wherein the vibrator is vibrated by a fluid jetted unevenly or pulsed, e.g., into the vanes of a rotor, to cause an imbalanced condition therein and thus vibration.

Subclass: 672 [Patents]

Having a rotatable imbalanced mass:
This subclass is indented under subclass 662. Subject matter wherein the vibrator is vibrated by an imbalanced rotating mass.

Subclass: 700 [Patents]

FLUID PRESSURE GAUGE:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for the direct measurement of fluid
pressures.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
37 for testing apparatus and processes in which fluids under pressure (positive or negative) are utilized to perform the test, and with which a fluid pressure gauge may be used.
78 for devices for measuring hardness as an index of fluid pressure (e.g., tonometers, subclass 80, and tire hardness gauges, subclass 81).
115 for obtaining pressure derivatives within an engine cylinder.
152.22 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging during drilling by measuring a fluid flow or analyzing a fluid, either (a) by detecting or (b) combined with measuring pressure.
152.27 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by sampling of a borehole formation and measuring a fluid flow or analyzing a fluid, either (a) by detecting pressure or (b) combined with measuring pressure.
152.51 for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a fluid flow or analyzing a fluid either (a) by detecting or (b) combined with measuring pressure.
299 for hydrostatic pressure type of liquid level or depth gauge.
384 for barometers.
861.42 for pressure differential measuring devices for determining volume or rate of flow.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
128, Surgery, 672 for blood pressure measuring devices.
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, 26 for such devices combined with pressure compensators.
164, Metal Founding, subclass 154.8 and 155.3 for a metal casting apparatus having pressure sensing means.
200, Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers 81 for fluid pressure-operated switches.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 201 for an expanding fluid type thermometer.

Subclass: 701 [Patents]

Null balance type:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter wherein the signal response of a pressure transducer to the pressure being measured is minimized or nullified by a counteracting force or signal, the magnitude of which is determined as an indication of the pressure.

Subclass: 702 [Patents]

Vibration type:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter wherein an element or body communicating with the pressure being measured is subjected to vibratory forces and determinations of frequency and/or amplitude characteristics are taken as a measure of pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
570 for testing an article by means of vibratory forces, e.g., measurements of frequency and/or amplitude at resonance in subclass 67.2.

Subclass: 703 [Patents]

Ultrasonic:
This subclass is indented under subclass 702. Subject matter wherein the element or body is subjected to a directed beam of mechanical wave energy which is sensed upon emanation from within or reflection from the surface of the element or body and transduced into perceptible indications of pressure.

Subclass: 704 [Patents]

Vibrating strip or wire:
This subclass is indented under subclass 702. Subject matter wherein the element or body is in the form of a thin elongated piece of material.

Subclass: 705 [Patents]

Photoelectric:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter
wherein the response of a transducer device due to applied pressure being measured is determined by a photodetector and light source which generate a signal indicative of such pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 200 for photocells circuits and apparatus.
338, Electrical Resistors, 15 for photoconductive devices (e.g., light sensitive).

Subclass: 706 [Patents]

With protective separator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter that embody a material separator in a conduit connectable with the fluid pressure source to be measured to prevent foreign matter and corrosive material from reaching the measuring mechanism.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
96, Gas Separation: Apparatus, for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means).

Subclass: 707 [Patents]

With fluid pulsation dampener:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter having means to suppress pulsations of the fluid under pressure to be gauged.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, 40, for flow restrictors, per se.

Subclass: 708 [Patents]

With pressure and/or temperature compensation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter comprising means to countervail for the degree of hotness or coldness or ambient-type pressure changes.

Subclass: 709 [Patents]

With excess or maximum registering:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter which embody a mechanical-type device for recording the highest or lowest pressure to which the device is subjected.

Subclass: 710 [Patents]

With steam trap:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter which comprises means for holding liquid as converted into a vapor to prevent line vapors from reaching certain parts of the pressure measuring device.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
96, Gas Separation: Apparatus, for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means).

Subclass: 711 [Patents]

With variable drive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter which comprises a mechanism whereby the sensitivity of indication is changeable over two or more ranges of indication, e.g., mechanism by means of which the indicator has greater motion per unit of pressure change over one range of pressure than over a second range.

Subclass: 712 [Patents]

With recorder:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter with means to make a permanent chronological entry of the fluid pressure measured.

Subclass: 713 [Patents]

With float:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter wherein communicating liquid columns are subjected to pressure and the difference in levels of the columns is indicated with the aid of one or more devices that stays on
the surface of the liquid.

Subclass: 714 [Patents]

Combined:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter in combination significantly with other devices wherein only so much of such other device is included as to provide for the pressure measurement.
(1) Note. Where other devices are claimed further than as indicated above and the pressure measuring instrument is merely incidental to the combination, the patents are placed with such devices and cross-referenced here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
146.2 for a pressure measuring instrument mounted on a vehicle wheel or tire stem.

Subclass: 715 [Patents]

Diaphragm:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter comprising a flexible wall or plate as the pressure responsive element.
(1) Note. This subclass includes devices in which fluid transmission means are provided to transmit changes in pressure from the pressure sensitive element to the indicator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, 90 for a flexible wall type expansible chamber device.

Subclass: 716 [Patents]

Multiple and/or differential:
This subclass is indented under subclass 715. Subject matter having multiple unit flexible wall or plate devices subjected to single or plural pressures and single flexible wall or plate devices responsive to plural pressures.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
763 for multiple unit and/or differential Bourdon type.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 112 for differential temperature measurement.

Subclass: 717 [Patents]

With electrical readout:
This subclass is indented under subclass 716. Subject matter wherein the multiple unit devices and single devices generate or modify an electric current and the value of such current is indicative of the pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
336.5 for current generating hygrometers or hygrostats.
723 for other devices with electrical readouts.
733 745 and 749, for Bourdon, piston or U-tube pressure gauges with electrical readout.
753 for electric pressure gauges.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311, for piezoelectric devices, especially subclass 338.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 188, for a thermometer with a mechanical sensor and an electrical indicator.

Subclass: 718 [Patents]

Capacitive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 717. Subject matter wherein the devices effect a variation in capacitance to modify the electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
724 for other devices involving capacitance.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280, for capacitors automatically responsive or nonresponsive to condition.

Subclass: 719 [Patents]

Resistive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 717. Subject matter wherein the device effect a variation in resistance to modify the electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
734 746 and 750, for diaphragm, Bourdon, piston or U-type pressure gauges with resistors.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, 36 for fluid or gas pressure actuated.

Subclass: 720 [Patents]

Strain gauge:
This subclass is indented under subclass 719. Subject matter wherein the stress and/or strain in one or more elements varies the resistance.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
726 for diaphragm-type pressure gauges with strain gauges.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 4 for strain gauge type fluid or gas pressure actuated.

Subclass: 721 [Patents]

Piezoresistive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 720. Subject matter wherein the element is made of a semiconductor material whose resistance to the flow of electrical current is varied by the application of pressure thereto.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
727 for diaphragm-type gauges involving semiconductors.
754 for electrical-type pressure gauges involving semiconductor devices.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 4 for strain gauge type fluid or gas pressure actuated.

Subclass: 722 [Patents]

Electromagnetic:
This subclass is indented under subclass 717. Subject matter wherein the deflection of the flexible walls or plates effect a variation in inductance to modify the electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
728 and 735, for diaphragm or Bourdon tube-type pressure gauges with inductor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
336, Inductor Devices, subclass 30 for inductor devices with condition responsive inductance adjusting means (e.g., by electromagnet).

Subclass: 723 [Patents]

With electrical readout:
This subclass is indented under subclass 715. Subject matter wherein the pressure being measured deflects the flexible wall or plate to generate or modify an electric current and the value of such current is indicative of the pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
336.5 for current generating hygrometers or hygrostats.
717 733, 745, and 749, for multiple and/or differential diaphragm, Bourdon, piston or U-tube with electrical readout.
753 electric pressure gauge.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311 for piezoelectric devices, especially subclass 338.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 188 for a thermometer with a mechanical sensor and an electrical indicator.

Subclass: 724 [Patents]

Capacitive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 723. Subject matter wherein the deflection of the flexible wall or plate effects a variation in capacitance to modify the electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
718 multiple and/or differential diaphragm pressure gauge involving capacitive reactance.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280 for capacitors automatically responsive or nonresponsive to condition.

Subclass: 725 [Patents]

Resistive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 723. Subject matter wherein the deflection of the flexible wall or plate effects a variation in resistance to modify the electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
734 746 and 750, for Bourdon, piston or U-tube type pressure gauges involving resistance.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, 36 for fluid or gas pressure actuated.

Subclass: 726 [Patents]

Strain gauge:
This subclass is indented under subclass 725. Subject matter wherein the stress and/or strain in an element varies the resistance.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 4 for strain gauge type fluid or gas pressure actuated.

Subclass: 727 [Patents]

Piezoresistive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 726. Subject matter wherein the element is made of a semiconductor material whose resistance to the flow of electrical current is varied by the application of pressure thereto.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
754 for electrical pressure gauges involving semiconductor devices.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, subclass 4 for strain gauge type fluid or gas pressure actuated.

Subclass: 728 [Patents]

Electromagnetic:
This subclass is indented under subclass 723. Subject matter wherein the deflection of the flexible wall or plate effects a variation in inductance to modify the electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
735 for Bourdon tube-type pressure gauges with inductor elements.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
336, Inductor Devices, with condition responsive inductance adjusting means (e.g., by electromagnet).

Subclass: 729.1 [Patents]

Bellows:
This subclass is indented under subclass 715. Subject matter wherein the flexible wall or plate comprises a receptacle or container having a corrugated wall made up of plural diaphragms with edges sealed together.

Subclass: 729.2 [Patents]

Capsule:
This subclass is indented under subclass 715. Subject matter
wherein the flexible wall or plate comprises a disc-shaped receptacle or container made up of plural diaphragms with edges sealed together.

Subclass: 730 [Patents]

Expansible conduit:
This subclass is indented under subclass 715. Subject matter wherein the pressure being measured deflects a flexible portion of a fluid-carrying pipe or tube section and a detection of the degree of deflection is taken as an indication of pressure.

Subclass: 731 [Patents]

Sack:
This subclass is indented under subclass 715. Subject matter wherein the pressure responsive element is in the form of a flexible container.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, 91 for a flexible sack-type expansible chamber device.

Subclass: 732 [Patents]

Bourdon:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter wherein the pressure sensitive element comprises a thin-walled hollow member of elastic material bent into a curved configuration or twisted wherein an increase or decrease of pressure inside the element tends to straighten it.

Subclass: 733 [Patents]

With electrical readout:
This subclass is indented under subclass 732. Subject matter wherein the tubular pressure responsive element is deflected by the pressure to be measured to generate or modify an electric current and the value of such current is indicative of the pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
117 and 723, for diaphragm gauges with electrical readout.
335.02 for current generating hygrometers or hygrostats.
717 745 and 749, for Bourdon, piston or U-tube gauges with electrical readout.
753 for electric pressure gauges.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311, for piezoelectric devices, especially subclass 338.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 188 for a thermometer with a mechanical sensor and an electrical indicator.

Subclass: 734 [Patents]

Resistive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 733. Subject matter wherein the deflection of the tubular pressure responsive element effects a variation in electrical resistance to modify the electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
719 725, 746, and 750, for diaphragm, piston or U-tube type pressure gauges with resistors.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, 36, for fluid or gas pressure actuated.

Subclass: 735 [Patents]

Electromagnetic:
This subclass is indented under subclass 733. Subject matter wherein the deflection of the tubular pressure responsive element effects a variation in inductance to modify the electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
722 and 728, for diaphragm devices involving inductor devices.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
336, Inductor Devices, subclass 30 for inductor devices with condition responsive inductance adjusting means (e.g., by electromagnet).

Subclass: 736 [Patents]

Multiple and/or differential:
This subclass is indented under subclass 732. Subject matter having multiple unit devices subjected to single or plural pressures, and single devices responsive to plural pressures.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
716 for multiple unit and/or differential diaphragm type.

Subclass: 737 [Patents]

Intermediately supported:
This subclass is indented under subclass 732. Subject matter wherein the Bourdon tube is secured between its ends, usually at its approximate center for equal distribution of pressure, with each end of the tube being an active end.

Subclass: 738 [Patents]

Safety pressure release casing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 732. Subject matter wherein the Bourdon tube has a casing enclosure which has a pressure release in the event the tube breaks.

Subclass: 739 [Patents]

With mechanism dampening:
This subclass is indented under subclass 732. Subject matter wherein excessive and/or undesirable movements of the Bourdon tube and/or mechanical indicating system thereof are reduced by a means which oppose such movements.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
430 for miscellaneous instrument dampening means.
514.12 for fluid or fluent material dampening of an inertial
element in an acceleration measuring apparatus.
514.14 for vibration dampening in an inertial-type acceleration measuring apparatus.

Subclass: 740 [Patents]

With zeroizing adjustment:
This subclass is indented under subclass 732. Subject matter having an adjustable feature whereby calibration can be effected to the extent that the pointer or indicator mechanism is caused to register with a datum on a scale.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
387 for barometers having a similar feature.

Subclass: 741 [Patents]

Bourdon tube and mounting:
This subclass is indented under subclass 732. Subject matter wherein a unique characteristic of the Bourdon tube structure or connection and support of the Bourdon tube for communication with a pressure source is featured.

Subclass: 742 [Patents]

Helical Bourdon tube:
This subclass is indented under subclass 741. Subject matter wherein the tubular pressure responsive element is in the form of a helix.

Subclass: 743 [Patents]

Spiral Bourdon tube:
This subclass is indented under subclass 741. Subject matter wherein the tubular pressure responsive element is in the form of a spiral.

Subclass: 744 [Patents]

Piston:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter wherein the pressure being measured displaces a movable wall.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
92, Expansible Chamber Devices, for a piston and cylinder-type expansible chamber device and particularly 172 for piston, per se.

Subclass: 745 [Patents]

With electrical readout:
This subclass is indented under subclass 744. Subject matter wherein the pressure being measured displaces a movable wall to generate or modify an electric current and the value of such current is indicative of the pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
335.02 for current generating hygrometers or hygrostats.
717 723, 733, and 749, for other pressure gauges with electrical readout.
749 for U-tube pressure gauges with electrical readout.
753 for electric pressure gauges.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311, for piezoelectric devices, especially subclass 338.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 188, for a thermometer with a mechanical sensor and an electrical indicator.

Subclass: 746 [Patents]

Resistive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 745. Subject matter wherein the displacement of the movable wall effects a variation in resistance to modify the electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
719 725, 734, and 750, for diaphragm, Bourdon or U-tube type pressure gauges with resistors.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, 36, for fluid or gas pressure actuated electrical resistors.

Subclass: 747 [Patents]

U-tube liquid column:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter comprising a column of liquid wherein the liquid is subjected to a pressure to be measured and the difference in the levels of the columns or the height of a column from a datum is read directly as an index of the pressure.

Subclass: 748 [Patents]

Sphygmomanometer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 747. Subject matter for use in blood pressure measuring devices.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
128, Surgery, 672, for blood pressure measuring apparatus involving more than the pressure gauge, per se.

Subclass: 749 [Patents]

With electrical readout:
This subclass is indented under subclass 747. Subject matter wherein the displacement of the liquid within the U-shaped tube generates or modifies an electric current, and the value of such current is indicative of the pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
335.02 for current generating hygrometers or hygrostats.
717 723, 733, and 745, for gauges with electrical readout.
753 for electric pressure gauges.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, 311, for piezoelectric devices, especially subclass 338.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, subclass 188, for a thermometer with a mechanical sensor and an electrical indicator.

Subclass: 750 [Patents]

Resistive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 749. Subject matter wherein the displacement of the liquid effects a variation in resistance to modify the electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
719 725, 734, and 746, for other gauges involving resistance.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
338, Electrical Resistors, 36 for fluid or gas pressure actuated.

Subclass: 751 [Patents]

Balance:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter wherein a container or containers containing communicating liquid columns is displaced when the liquid columns are subjected to the pressures to be measured.

Subclass: 752 [Patents]

McLeod type:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter comprising means for measuring the degree of vacuum wherein a definite volume of the medium subjected to vacuum conditions is compressed by a predetermined head and the amount of such compression is a measure of the degree of vacuum.

Subclass: 753 [Patents]

Electrical:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter wherein an electric current is generated or modified by direct application of the pressure to be measured to an electric circuit element and the value of such current is indicative of the pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
335.02 for current generating hygrometers or hygrostats.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 163 for thermometers having electrical or magnetic sensors.

Subclass: 754 [Patents]

Semiconductor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 753. Subject matter wherein the electric circuit element is a semiconductor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
257, Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes), 414, especially subclasses 415+ for sensors of physical deformation.
438, Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process, 50 for methods of making semiconductor electrical devices which are sensors of physical deformation.

Subclass: 755 [Patents]

Pirani type:
This subclass is indented under subclass 753. Subject matter comprising a thermal conductivity of the medium (the pressure of which is to be measured) is measured as an index of such pressure.

Subclass: 756 [Patents]

Mounting and connection:
This subclass is indented under subclass 700. Subject matter wherein means are featured to either mount the gauge on or connect the gauge to the means containing the fluid whose pressure is to be measured.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
285, Pipe Joints or Couplings, 158 for a pipe or rod-to-pipe-to-plate coupling means, and, subclasses 189+ for a pipe-to-plate joint, per se.

Subclass: 760 [Patents]

SPECIMEN STRESS OR STRAIN, OR TESTING BY STRESS OR STRAIN APPLICATION:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for (a) the measurement or study of stress (load) or strain (deformation) of a specimen of material or structure, or (b) the testing of a specimen of material or structure by application of a stress or strain thereto.
(1) Note. Where a stress or strain determination is made as a part (i.e., subcombination) of a larger measuring or testing organization (e.g., vane type fluid flow measurement, accelerometer) classification will be with the larger testing organization.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.48 for a downhole apparatus for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging by measuring force during drilling.
152.49 for a nondownhole-type apparatus for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging by measuring force during drilling.
152.59 for a downhole-type apparatus for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a response due to force while drilling is not taking place.
862 for dynamometers where strain in a part of the measuring apparatus itself is utilized as an index of power applied thereto or transmitted thereby.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
33, Geometrical Instruments, 787 for extensometers physical contact with the specimen.
411, Expanded, Threaded, Driven, Headed, Tool-Deformed, or Locked-Threaded Fastener, 8 for fastener devices having means functioning to facilitate measuring or to denote the attainment of a desired stress or strain in a fastener device in situ.

Subclass: 761 [Patents]

Threaded fastener stress:
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter wherein the specimen is a fastener for holding together two solid elements or has a complementary fitting engaged by the threads (e.g., nut and bolt).
(1) Note. Mere naming of a test specimen as a fastener (e.g., bolt) is not, of itself, sufficient for classification herein.

Subclass: 762 [Patents]

Indicating coating or sheet providing direct visual indication (e.g., cracking, color change):
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter wherein an indicating element or coating on the specimen undergoes a directly visually perceptible change in response to specimen stress or strain.
(1) Note. Such testing or measurement using optical elements (e.g., lenses) or photo-responsive devices are not classifiable herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
799 for testing of a crack in the specimen, rather than in an indicating element.
800 for testing using optical or photoresponsive elements with specimen loading.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
116, Signals and Indicators, subclass 212 for indicators responsive to a given level of stress.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 32 for stress testing using optical or photoresponsive elements absent specimen loading.

Subclass: 763 [Patents]

Specified electrical sensor or system:
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter wherein the stress or strain is sensed by an electrical transducer and (a) either succeeding circuitry or (b) specific transducer structure and identifiable load applying structure.
(1) Note. Mere nominal recitation of a "strain gage" with other mechanical structure is not classified herein but rather in the appropriate subclass indented under 760.
(2) Note. Recitation of specific transducer structure absent identifiable load applying structure is classifiable in the appropriate electrical transducer class.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
781 for a specified load transmission device from the specimen to a nominal or an unspecified electrical sensor.
855 for a support, holder or housing for an unspecified electrical sensor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
331, Oscillators, subclass 65 for an oscillator system responsive to a mechanical input.

Subclass: 764 [Patents]

Having level attainment counter:
This subclass is indented under subclass 763. Subject matter including means to determine the number of times one or more predetermined levels of stress or strain are reached or exceeded.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
769 for other counters controlled by stress or strain responsive elements.
787 for time-related (e.g., time integral) stress or strain parameters, in general.

Subclass: 765 [Patents]

Compensation (e.g., linearization):
This subclass is indented under subclass 763. Subject matter including means to provide a constant relationship between stress and strain or to eliminate measurement errors due to changes in the test environment.
(1) Note. Linearizing circuits are included herein as nonlinearity compensating circuits.

Subclass: 766 [Patents]

Temperature:
This subclass is indented under subclass 765. Subject matter wherein the compensating means operates to eliminate thermally caused measurement errors.

Subclass: 767 [Patents]

Plural sensors at single location (e.g., diverse orientation, plural level):
This subclass is indented under subclass 763. Subject matter having a plurality of strain gages at substantially a single location on the specimen to provide a different response to distinct strain levels or types (e.g., bending, compression).
(1) Note. The term "substantially" is intended to include sensors spaced from each other at distances small compared to the specimen dimensions.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
771 for a system having selector switch means for sensors at different locations.
781 for a load or strain transmitting element for an electrical sensor which is differently responsive to different load or strain orientations.

Subclass: 768 [Patents]

Sensor embedded in specimen:
This subclass is indented under subclass 763. Subject matter wherein the sensor is completely surrounded or enclosed by the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
781 for other mechanical load or strain transmitting structure for an electrical sensor.

Subclass: 769 [Patents]

Coupling circuit for specific additional purpose (e.g., noise suppression) or having specified structure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 763. Subject matter having circuitry (a) for a purpose additional to, or perfecting, the transmission of the signal between the sensor and indicator or (b) in which the details of such circuitry are particularly described.
(1) Note. Mere naming of the circuit connection (e.g., conductor, bridge) is not, of itself, sufficient for classification herein.

Subclass: 770 [Patents]

Peak indicating system:
This subclass is indented under subclass 769. Subject matter wherein the circuitry operates to provide an indication of maximum or minimum value measured during a specific time interval.

Subclass: 771 [Patents]

Having selector switching means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 769. Subject matter wherein the coupling circuit includes plural, alternative circuit components and switching means selective as to which of these elements are connected into the circuit.
(1) Note. This subclass include plural sensor devices at distinctly different locations.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
767 for systems having plural sensors at a single location.

Subclass: 772 [Patents]

Plural sensed signal system:
This subclass is indented under subclass 769. Subject matter wherein more than one signal is sensed and in which means responsive to the plural signals are simultaneously operable.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
771 for devices alternatively responsive to plural signals.
789 for devices simultaneously responsive to stress and strain signals, in general.
794 for plural stress-strain testing, in general.

Subclass: 773 [Patents]

Specified signal transmitting link:
This subclass is indented under subclass 769. Subject matter
wherein the details of structure or circuitry for transmitting the sensed signal between relatively movable parts, or over a distance which is large compared to the sensor dimensions is described.
(1) Note. Examples of such structure are slip rings and details of cable connections.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
340, Communications: Electrical, 177 for details of electrical signal transmission means, in general.

Subclass: 774 [Patents]

Specified sensor structure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 763. Subject matter wherein the stress or strain sensor structure is particularly described.
(1) Note. Mere nominal recitation of a transducer or transducer type is insufficient for classification herein. Particular structural features of the sensor must be recited.
(2) Note. Stress or strain sensors without either circuitry or mechanical means for coupling stress or strain related forces are not classified herein, but are classified in the appropriate electrical element class (e.g., resistor).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 311 for piezoelectric elements, per se.
338, Electrical Resistors, 2 for resistive strain gage elements, per se.

Subclass: 775 [Patents]

Bonded to specimen:
This subclass is indented under subclass 774. Subject matter wherein an entire surface of the sensor is firmly adhered to a specimen surface so as to form an interface between the sensor and surface.

Subclass: 776 [Patents]

Sensor comprises coating:
This subclass is indented under subclass 775. Subject matter wherein the sensor consists of a coating formed on the specimen.

Subclass: 777 [Patents]

Semiconductor:
This subclass is indented under subclass 774. Subject matter wherein the sensor is composed of material having conductivity intermediate that of conductors and insulators.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
257, Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes), 414, especially subclasses 417+ for stress/strain sensors.
438, Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process, 50 for methods of making semiconductor electrical devices which are sensors of physical deformation.

Subclass: 778 [Patents]

Vibratory element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 774. Subject matter wherein the frequency of vibration of a sensing element stressed by the specimen provides the desired indication.

Subclass: 779 [Patents]

Magnetic or inductive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 774. Subject matter wherein deformation or stress in the specimen is mechanically coupled to a sensor which causes a variation in the strength of magnetic flux intercepted thereby or a change in reluctance of a magnetic circuit including the sensor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 209 for stress measurement by a magnetic field in which a specimen directly interacts with the magnetic field.

Subclass: 780 [Patents]

Capacitive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 774. Subject matter wherein the specimen deformation varies the spacing between or a dimension of the plates forming a capacitor or varies a characteristic of the dielectric thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
361, Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices, 280 for condition responsive capacitors, per se.

Subclass: 781 [Patents]

Specified load or strain transmission device from specimen to electrical detector:
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter wherein the specimen is coupled to an electrical sensor by means transmitting the stress or strain from the specimen to the sensor. The coupling means often differs in response to different orientations of specimen stress or strain.

Subclass: 782 [Patents]

Strain multiplier:
This subclass is indented under subclass 781. Subject matter wherein the coupling means imparts a strain to the electrical sensor which is a multiple of the specimen strain.

Subclass: 783 [Patents]

Deformation or change in stress after fracture, cutting, or boring:
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter wherein the change in stress or strain after separation of or removal of material from the specimen is determined as a measure of stress, strain or an associated parameter (e.g., elastic modulus).

Subclass: 784 [Patents]

Earth stresses:
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter wherein the specimen is a subterranean volume of earth.

Subclass: 785 [Patents]

Prestressed specimen:
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter wherein the specimen being tested is subjected to a preexisting stress as a result of the structure or manufacture thereof.

Subclass: 786 [Patents]

In static structures (e.g., buildings, bridges):
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter wherein the specimen is a structure, permanently affixed to the earth or an element thereof.
(1) Note. Foundations and pilings are considered elements of such a structure.

Subclass: 787 [Patents]

Stress or strain history of a specimen without application of a load:
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter wherein a time related parameter of the stress or strain of a specimen is sensed and in which no load is applied to the specimen.
(1) Note. Examples of such time related parameters include time integrals, fatigue and maximum values over an interval.
(2) Note. Graphical representations as a function of time are classified herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
808 for fatigue testing by repetitive loading of a specimen.

Subclass: 788 [Patents]

By loading of specimen (e.g., strength of material test):
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter wherein the test is effected by intentionally applying a load to the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
72, Metal Deforming, appropriate subclasses for metal deformation of general utility.
374, Thermal Measuring and Testing, 46 for thermal testing combined with loading of a specimen.

Subclass: 789 [Patents]

Stress-strain relationship determination:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein a determination of a function of or functional relationship between, the load upon and deformation of a specimen is obtained.
(1) Note. A device separately measuring the load and deformation of a specimen without a functional relationship between, said measurement is not included herein.

Subclass: 790 [Patents]

Compression:
This subclass is indented under subclass 789. Subject matter wherein the load is applied to the specimen in such manner as to tend to shorten the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
818 for compressional testing in general.

Subclass: 791 [Patents]

Graphical output:
This subclass is indented under subclass 789. Subject matter wherein the output is presented in the form of a multidimensional graph.
(1) Note. A device providing a s:graphical output of a single parameter as a function of time is not classified herein, but in the appropriate parameter subclass.

Subclass: 792 [Patents]

Moving chart:
This subclass is indented under subclass 791. Subject matter where s:graphical output medium is itself moved in response to variation of one of the measured parameters.

Subclass: 793 [Patents]

Drum:
This subclass is indented under subclass 792. Subject matter where the graph is drawn on a medium formed in a cylindrical shape which is rotated about its axis.

Subclass: 794 [Patents]

Plural diverse stress-strain tests or composite loads:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter combining at least two different types of stress-strain tests (e.g., tensile, bending, compressive, torsion, shear, etc.).
(1) Note. Composite loads in a single test are classified herein.
(2) Note. Plural tests or loads of the same type are classified by the particular test.

Subclass: 795 [Patents]

Strain:
This subclass is indented under subclass 794. Subject matter where the deformation of a specimen is measured.

Subclass: 796 [Patents]

Tension-compression:
This subclass is indented under subclass 794. Subject matter where the load applied may be either a push or pull.

Subclass: 797 [Patents]

Alternating:
This subclass is indented under subclass 796. Subject matter where the specimen is cyclically subjected to alternate push-pull stresses of tension and compression.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
808 for repetitively applied load testing, in general.

Subclass: 798 [Patents]

Hydraulic or pneumatic actuation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 796. Subject matter where the load is applied by means of a fluid operated device or system.

Subclass: 799 [Patents]

Specimen cracking or crack propagation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein the loading causes formation of a narrow line splitting at least the surface of the specimen and where the splitting or progress thereof is ascertained.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
762 for subject matter in which an indicating coating or sheet is cracked by specimen stress.
835 for tear testing of a specimen.

Subclass: 800 [Patents]

Optical:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein the stress or strain indication includes strain responsive visual or photoresponsive means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
762 for a specimen sheet or coating providing a direct visual indication of stress or strain of a specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 32, for optical strain analysis absent loading of the specimen.

Subclass: 801 [Patents]

Acoustic emission:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter for detection of sonic-type waves emitted by the specimen as a result of the load induced strain.
(1) Note. An acoustic emission is generally an inaudible noise caused by minute changes in a material or object due to stresses imposed thereon. Thus, when a material undergoes a permanent deformation, it will generate a sound which may be monitored by ultrasensitive means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
587 for acoustic emission detection not accompanied by specimen loading.

Subclass: 802 [Patents]

Aircraft structure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein the specimen forms a part of an aircraft body.

Subclass: 803 [Patents]

Concrete:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein the specimen is formed of concrete.

Subclass: 804 [Patents]

Model of structure to determine structure properties:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein the specimen comprises a model of a structure which is tested in order to ascertain properties of the structure.

Subclass: 805 [Patents]

Varied in response to specimen condition other than failure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein the load applied to the specimen is controlled by a device responsive to a condition of the specimen other than failure.
(1) Note. Devices which cease loading upon specimen failure
are classified in the appropriate testing to failure subclass below. However, a device responsive to either failure or another condition is classified herein and cross-referenced to the appropriate testing to failure subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
810 for periodic load testing to failure.
821 for compressional load testing to failure.
834 for tensile testing to failure.
838 for rupture or burst test of sheet material by transverse loading.
845 for shear testing to failure.
848 for torsion testing to failure.
851 for bending, flexing or folding to failure.

Subclass: 806 [Patents]

Varied according to predetermined pattern:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein the load is automatically varied as a function of time upon operation of the loading device.
(1) Note. Included herein are devices characterized as varying the rate of change of the loading.
(2) Note. Included herein are devices sequentially testing plural specimens.

Subclass: 807 [Patents]

Applied directly by fluid pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 806. Subject matter wherein the load is applied to the specimen by direct contact with a fluid under pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
37 for testing by fluid pressure in general.

Subclass: 808 [Patents]

Repetitive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 806. Subject matter wherein the variation in loading is repeated during a single operation of the device.
(1) Note. Included hereunder are devices causing a repetitive load upon a traveling specimen by inducing differing loads thereon at particular locations passed by the specimen.

Subclass: 809 [Patents]

Plural specimen:
This subclass is indented under subclass 808. Subject matter in which a plurality of specimens are simultaneously tested.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
806 for a device which is repetitively actuated to load sequentially load distinct specimens.

Subclass: 810 [Patents]

To failure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 808. Subject matter in which the application of stress is repeated until the specimen is permanently deformed, damaged or ruptured.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
799 for detecting cracking of specimen undergoing such testing.

Subclass: 811 [Patents]

Electric control circuit or particular loading device:
This subclass is indented under subclass 808. Subject matter having particular circuitry to control a specimen loading device or a particularly described electrical loading device.
(1) Note. An electric motor recited by name only is not a particularly described electric loading device for purposes of this classification.

Subclass: 812 [Patents]

Flexing, bending, or folding:
This subclass is indented under subclass 808. Subject matter wherein the specimen has a long axis and the repetitive load tends to deform the long axis.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
849 for testing by bending, flexing or folding, in general.

Subclass: 813 [Patents]

Compressive:
This subclass is indented under subclass 808. Subject matter where the repetitive load tends to shorten the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
818 for static compressional testing.

Subclass: 814 [Patents]

Torsional:
This subclass is indented under subclass 808. Subject matter when the repetitive load tends to twist the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
847 for torsion testing in general.

Subclass: 815 [Patents]

Shear:
This subclass is indented under subclass 808. Subject matter where the repetitive load is either at right angles to the long axis of the specimen, or oppositely directed along parallel axes of the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
841 for shear testing in general.

Subclass: 816 [Patents]

Hydraulic or pneumatic actuation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 806. Subject matter wherein the load is applied to the specimen by a fluid actuated device.

Subclass: 817 [Patents]

Motor driven actuating screw:
This subclass is indented under subclass 806. Subject matter wherein the load is applied to the specimen by a device driven by a motor-screw combination.

Subclass: 818 [Patents]

Compressional:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein the load is applied so as to squeeze the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
790 for a test of a relationship between a compressive load and its resultant deformation.
813 for repetitive application of a compressive load.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
100, Presses, appropriate subclasses for presses of general utility.

Subclass: 819 [Patents]

Plural specimen or multiaxial loading:
This subclass is indented under subclass 818. Subject matter wherein the compressive load is applied to plural specimens or along plural axes of a specimen.

Subclass: 820 [Patents]

Fluid displacement provides indication:
This subclass is indented under subclass 818. Subject matter wherein the parameter to be indicated controls the position of a fluid volume which position is calibrated so as to provide the desired parameter indication.

Subclass: 821 [Patents]

To fracture, crushing, or yield point:
This subclass is indented under subclass 818. Subject matter wherein the specimen compressively loaded until it is permanently ruptured, damaged, or deformed.

Subclass: 822 [Patents]

Plastic flow or creep:
This subclass is indented under subclass 818. Subject matter wherein the specimen is capable of flow under the compressive load and in which such flow is determined.
(1) Note. Determination of viscosity of plastic materials by a compressive test is included herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
54.01 for determination of viscosity of liquids.

Subclass: 823 [Patents]

Residual deformation (e.g., consolidation):
This subclass is indented under subclass 818. Subject matter wherein the amount of deformation remaining after release of the compressive load is measured.

Subclass: 824 [Patents]

By rotating squeezing element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 818. Subject matter wherein the compressive load is applied by a rotating element, the periphery of which overlaps that of the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
209, Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids, subclass 599, for item sorting means controlled by susceptibility of the item to deformation.

Subclass: 825 [Patents]

With hydraulic or pneumatic actuation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 818. Subject matter wherein the compressive load is applied by a fluid operated device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
816 for a similar device in which the compressive load is varied in accordance with a predetermined pattern.

Subclass: 826 [Patents]

Tensile:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter in which the applied load is a pull tending to stretch the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
796 for devices having both tensile and compressive loading.
806 for tensile loading according to a predetermined pattern, particularly 808+ for repetitively effected tensile loading.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
72, Metal Deforming, subclass 302 for metal stretching, in general.

Subclass: 827 [Patents]

Bond test:
This subclass is indented under subclass 826. Subject matter where the specimen includes an interface where two materials are joined together.

Subclass: 828 [Patents]

Strand or chain test:
This subclass is indented under subclass 826. Subject matter where the specimen configuration is essentially one dimensional (e.g., chains, threads, yarns, etc.).

Subclass: 829 [Patents]

By roller:
This subclass is indented under subclass 828. Subject matter where there is a roller, drum, or pulley over which the specimen passes.
(1) Note. Supply and take up reels are not included as "rollers" in this subclass.

Subclass: 830 [Patents]

To failure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 828. Subject matter where the specimen is stretched until it is permanently deformed, damaged, or ruptured.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
834 for tensile failure testing in general.

Subclass: 831 [Patents]

Having specified clamp:
This subclass is indented under subclass 826. Subject matter having a particularly described device for gripping or holding a specimen subjected to tension.
(1) Note. Mere recitation of a clamp by name only is insufficient for classification herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
828 for specified gripping or holding devices particularly adapted for strand or chain testing.
856 for such clamping devices, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
24, Buckles, Buttons, Clasps, etc., 455 for clamps of a more general utility.

Subclass: 832 [Patents]

Interior to specimen:
This subclass is indented under subclass 831. Subject matter wherein the clamp is totally within the specimen.

Subclass: 833 [Patents]

Jaws:
This subclass is indented under subclass 831. Subject matter where the clamp includes two or more movable opposing parts that open and close for holding the specimen between them.

Subclass: 834 [Patents]

To failure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 826. Subject matter where the specimen is stressed until it is permanently deformed, damaged, or ruptured.

Subclass: 835 [Patents]

Tear:
This subclass is indented under subclass 834. Subject matter where tension is applied to a specimen to cause separation of parts of the specimen along a predetermined path of separation.
(1) Note. The predetermined path is generally composed of scoring or perforations in the specimen.

Subclass: 836 [Patents]

Pendulum dynamometer:
This subclass is indented under subclass 826. Subject matter which includes a weighted lever arm, the angular position of which indicates the load applied to the specimen.

Subclass: 837 [Patents]

Hydraulic or pneumatic actuation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 826. Subject matter in which a fluid actuated device applies the load to the specimen.

Subclass: 838 [Patents]

Rupture or burst strength of sheet material by transverse loading:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein one axis of the specimen is very small compared to the other two and the specimen is stressed substantially along said axis until it fails or ruptures.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
807 for a similar device in which fluid pressure is applied directly to the material according to a predetermined time variation.

Subclass: 839 [Patents]

Including cutting or piercing element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 838. Subject matter wherein the transverse loading is applied by an element which penetrates the specimen.

Subclass: 840 [Patents]

Hydraulic or pneumatic actuation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 838. Subject matter wherein the loading is effected by a fluid operated device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
807 for devices in which fluid is applied directly to the specimen with a predetermined pressure variation.

Subclass: 841 [Patents]

Shear:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter wherein the loading is applied to a section of the specimen such that the loading or the deformation has a component tangential to the section.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
815 for such loading effected repetitively during the testing operation.

Subclass: 842 [Patents]

Bond:
This subclass is indented under subclass 841. Subject matter wherein the specimen includes an interface where two materials are joined together.

Subclass: 843 [Patents]

By rotary element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 841. Subject matter wherein the loading is applied by an element rotating about an axis therethrough.
(1) Note. The load applying element is generally located within the outer bounds of the specimen.

Subclass: 844 [Patents]

Impact (e.g., pendulum):
This subclass is indented under subclass 841. Subject matter wherein the shear load is applied to the specimen by sudden contact of a force applying element.
(1) Note. The sudden contact may include movement of the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
12.01 for impact testing in general.

Subclass: 845 [Patents]

To fracture or failure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 841. Subject matter wherein the load is applied to the specimen until it is permanently ruptured, damaged, or deformed.

Subclass: 846 [Patents]

Opposing work holders including specimen:
This subclass is indented under subclass 841. Subject matter in which the load is applied to the specimen by plates on opposite sides of the specimen applying loads thereto in different directions.

Subclass: 847 [Patents]

Torsion:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter where the specimen has an axis and the loading produces an angular deformation about said axis.
(1) Note. Rotation of a plate or other force applying element on or within the specimen is considered a shear, rather than a torsional load.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
814 for such loading effected repetitively during the testing operation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
72, Metal Deforming, subclass 299, for metal twisting of general utility.

Subclass: 848 [Patents]

To failure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 847. Subject matter where the torsional load is applied until a permanent change of characteristic of the specimen occurs.

Subclass: 849 [Patents]

Bending, flexing, or folding:
This subclass is indented under subclass 788. Subject matter where the specimen has at least one axis and the difference in angular orientation of the ends of the axis is varied by the applied load.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
812 for such subject matter where the angular variation is repetitively effected.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
72, Metal Deforming, 127, for metal bending by deflection of successive portions of moving workpiece; and subclasses 380+, for metal bending by relatively movable offset tool faces, both of general utility.

Subclass: 850 [Patents]

Weld testing:
This subclass is indented under subclass 849. Subject matter wherein the specimen includes two portions joined by a fusion bond.

Subclass: 851 [Patents]

To failure or fracture:
This subclass is indented under subclass 849. Subject matter wherein the specimen is loaded until a permanent change of characteristic or a fracture of the specimen occurs.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
810 for periodic stressing of a specimen to failure.
812 for periodic bending or flexing of a specimen.

Subclass: 852 [Patents]

Loading means intermediate stationary end holders or supports:
This subclass is indented under subclass 849. Subject matter wherein the opposite ends of the specimen are mechanically supported and the load is applied to the specimen between the supported ends.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
388, Electricity: Motor Control Systems, appropriate subclasses for motor control systems responsive to torque.

Subclass: 853 [Patents]

Having opposite ends of specimen clamped:
This subclass is indented under subclass 849. Subject matter where each end of the specimen is rigidly fastened to a support during the test.
(1) Note. Either support may be angularly movable.

Subclass: 854 [Patents]

By angular displacement of opposite ends of specimen:
This subclass is indented under subclass 849. Subject matter where the stressing is effected by movement of one or both ends of the specimen along the arc of a circle.

Subclass: 855 [Patents]

Support, holder, or housing for unspecified type electrical sensing element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 760. Subject matter for a device which at least partially surrounds an electrical strain gage which is only nominally described.
(1) Note. The device is generally for support or protection.
(2) Note. Such devices with a particular electrical sensor are classified with the sensor.

Subclass: 856 [Patents]

Specimen clamp, holder, or support:
Apparatus for or method of holding a specimen to be subjected to a test of the type classified in subclasses 760+.
(1) Note. These holding devices or methods are subcombinations of the subject matter of subclasses 760+ and are peculiar to such testing.
(2) Note. Single or plural gripping devices are classified herein, even if broadly correlated for testing; however, inclusion of additional structure for application or transmission of a test load will be classified in the appropriate subclass above.
(3) Note. Gripping Means, in general, without structure peculiar to stress or strain testing, is classified in the appropriate class therefor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
24, Buckles, Buttons, Clasps, etc., 455 for clamps of a more general utility.

Subclass: 857 [Patents]

With hydraulic or pneumatic actuation of grip:
This subclass is indented under subclass 856. Subject matter wherein the specimen support is operated by a fluid pressure system.

Subclass: 858 [Patents]

Winding drum or roller type:
This subclass is indented under subclass 856. Subject matter wherein a portion of the specimen is wound about an element of the gripping apparatus.

Subclass: 859 [Patents]

With wedging or camming elements contacting specimen:
This subclass is indented under subclass 856. Subject matter wherein the specimen gripping elements have either a wedge shape surface or are pivotable about an axis to allow the gripping elements to conform to the specimen surface to center the specimen.
(1) Note. The wedge shaped surface of such elements is not necessarily the specimen contacting surface.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
269, Work Holders, subclass 217 for work holders of general utility having wedging or camming jaws.

Subclass: 860 [Patents]

Opposed pair:
This subclass is indented under subclass 856. Subject matter including a pair of gripping devices at opposite ends of a specimen.

Subclass: 861 [Patents]

VOLUME OR RATE OF FLOW:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Devices for determining the volume of flow, speed, volume rate of flow or mass rate of flow of fluent material.
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass, fluent materials include liquids, gases, fluent solids, and fluent mixtures.
(2) Note. Patents claiming only such motive part of volume meters as are capable of general use as a fluid motor are classified in Classes 91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type and 415, Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps. See the reference to Class 73 in section III of the Class Definition of Class 91 for a further statement of this line.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
1.16 for calibration of flow meters.
155 for determining fluid flow in bore holes.
170.07 and 170.11, for determining fluid flow-rate and direction.
181 for determining the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
488 for mechanical speed, velocity, or acceleration measuring of nonfluent material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
48, Gas: Heating and Illuminating, 180 for metering and mixing two gases where one is a fuel.
91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, see (3) Note above.
116, Signals and Indicators, for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon occurrence of fluid flow.
128, Surgery, 630 for flow-measuring means with structure particularly adapted for placement on or in a living body.
137, Fluid Handling, 98 for a self-proportioning flow system; and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
164, Metal Founding, subclass 154.3 and 155.5 for a metal casting apparatus which may include a volumetric flow rate sensor.
175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclass 48, for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid.
222, Dispensing, particularly 14, 59+ and 71+ for volume or rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or used in dispensing combinations.
235, Registers, subclass 92 for particle counting with display means.
250, Radiant Energy, particularly subclass 258, 259+, 302+, 356.1, and 432+ for miscellaneous radiant energy responsive devices.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 306, for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340, Communications: Electrical, 606 for electric means for giving a nonquantitative indication or signal in response to the condition, such as flow, of a fluid.
356, Optics: Measuring and Testing, 27 for flow-measuring means employing lasers.
415, Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps, see (2) Note above.
418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, for rotary expansible chamber devices, per se.
700, Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications, subclass 281 for control of fluid level or volume, subclasses 282-285 for flow control.

Subclass: 861.01 [Patents]

With indirect temperature or density compensation:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter with means for combining the output from a flow transducer with the output from one or more transducer means responsive to a fluid parameter to effect temperature correction of the output from the flow transducer or to convert volumetric flow rate into mass flow rate.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.04 for combining the output from a flow transducer with the output from one or more fluid condition responsive transducer means to determine the flow rate of a selected fluid component.

Subclass: 861.02 [Patents]

Electrical:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.01. Subject matter wherein the transducer outputs are combined electrically.

Subclass: 861.03 [Patents]

Digital:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.02. Subject matter wherein the output of each transducer is an electrical signal or is converted to an electrical signal before being combined, and wherein at least one of the signals being combined contains a characteristic which is recurrent (e.g., a pulse or waveform) over a period of time, and the information in the signal is contained in the number of recurrences of the characteristic during the period of time.

Subclass: 861.04 [Patents]

Of selected fluid mixture component:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter for detecting one or more selected components of a multiphase (i.e., gas, liquid, or solid) fluid or fluid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.01 for similar structure to effect compensation or correction of the output of a volumetric flow transducer or to convert volumetric flow rate into mass flow rate.

Subclass: 861.05 [Patents]

By measuring transit time of tracer or tag:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter responsive to the time elapsed for a detectable property of the fluid or a detectable body or substance introduced into the fluid to travel a fixed distance.
(1) Note. For the purposes of this subclass, a body or substance that divides the fluid into segments is a tracer if it does not impede the fluid flow.

Subclass: 861.06 [Patents]

With autocorrelation or cross-correlation detection:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.05. Subject matter wherein it is determined if a signal (i.e., f[subscrpt]1[end subscrpt](t)) is noise by correlating it with either another signal (i.e., the solution to
cross-correlation in Figure 1) or with itself (i.e., the solution to autocorrelation in Figure 2), where f[subscrpt]1[end subscrpt](t) and f[subscrpt]2[end subscrpt](t) are functions of time, t, and t is a period of delay: [figure][caption]Figure 1 [figure][caption]Figure 2

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 76.12 for analysis of complex waves.
708, Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating, 5, 422+ and 813+, for correlators, per se.

Subclass: 861.07 [Patents]

By measuring tracer concentration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter wherein (a) a tracer substance is introduced into the fluid at a fixed rate and a downstream detector means is responsive to the tracer concentration or (b) a fixed concentration of tracer substance is introduced into the fluid and a downstream detector means is responsive to the rate of introduction of the tracer.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 302 and 356.1 for radiation tracer methods and flow metering of invisible radiation.

Subclass: 861.08 [Patents]

By measuring electrical or magnetic properties:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter directly responsive to an electrical or magnetic property of the fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, subclass 306 for measuring electrical or magnetic property, per se, and for measuring flow rate by nuclear induction.

Subclass: 861.09 [Patents]

Ionization type:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.08. Subject matter wherein ions are produced in the fluid and the flow
rate is determined by (a) the ion production rate, or (b) the rate of ion collection by ion collector means (e.g., electrodes).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.05 for detection of the transit time of an ionized tracer or tag.
861.07 for detection of the concentration of an ionized substance or solution injected into the fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
250, Radiant Energy, 306, for inspection of solids or liquids by charged particles.
324, Electricity: Measuring and Testing, 460, for the measurement of gas pressures by means of ionization gages.

Subclass: 861.11 [Patents]

Electromagnetic induction (e.g., Faraday type):
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.08. Subject matter wherein the fluid traverses an applied magnetic field, and potential gradients, indicative of flow rate, are produced in the fluid by magnetic induction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 11 for dynamo-electric machinery in which the fluid may be conductive to electricity.
335, Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnetics, 209 for magnet structure, per se.
417, Pumps, subclass 50 in which a pumped fluid is electrically conductive.

Subclass: 861.12 [Patents]

With detecting electrodes:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.11. Subject matter wherein electrodes are placed in contact with the fluid or are capacitively coupled therewith to detect a potential gradient produced in the fluid along a path through the fluid extending transverse to both the magnetic field and a component of the flow direction.

Subclass: 861.13 [Patents]

Including permanent magnet or D.C. field:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.12. Subject matter wherein the applied magnetic field is produced by a permanent magnet or by an electromagnet supplied with a constant and continuous field current.

Subclass: 861.14 [Patents]

For dielectric fluids:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.12. Subject matter for fluids which do not conduct direct electric current (e.g., petroleum products).

Subclass: 861.15 [Patents]

Plural pairs of detecting electrodes:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.12. Subject matter having means for detecting plural potential gradients along plural paths through the fluid.

Subclass: 861.16 [Patents]

Including electrically interconnected or synchronized input and output circuit:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.12. Subject matter wherein the applied magnetic field is produced by an electromagnet and the detected potential gradient is applied to an electrical output circuit which also receives a signal responsive to or synchronized with the applied magnetic field or the power supply to the electromagnet.
(1) Note. Usually, the signal is used to compensate for fluctuations in the power supply or to control means for rejecting spurious signals.

Subclass: 861.17 [Patents]

Selective or periodic sampling:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.16. Subject matter with switching or gating means for selective or periodic sampling of the potential gradient detected by
electrodes (e.g., for sampling when the magnetic flux is in a steady state).

Subclass: 861.18 [Patents]

By measuring vibrations or acoustic energy:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter responsive to (a) traveling compressional waves (e.g., acoustic waves) existing in the fluid or applied thereto, (b) mechanical oscillations or fluid vortices produced by the interaction of the fluid with passive structure (e.g., an obstacle) or (c) vibrations applied to the fluid by dynamic means vibrating in a plane parallel with the direction of flow.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.32 for a flowmeter for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging by measuring vibration.
861.34 for detection of the precessional motion of swirling fluid.
861.355 for applied vibrations which impart angular or lateral momentum to the fluid.

Subclass: 861.19 [Patents]

Produced by fluidic oscillator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.18. Subject matter wherein the fluid is accelerated to form a fluid jet and including means to oscillate the jet (e.g., by negative feedback forces exerted thereon through control ports).

Subclass: 861.21 [Patents]

Caused by fluid interaction with obstacle:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.18. Subject matter wherein a body in the flow path either vibrates due to the dynamic effects of the fluid or imparts vibrations to the fluid.

Subclass: 861.22 [Patents]

Vortex shedders:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.18. Subject matter wherein an obstacle (e.g., bluff body) in the flow path generates Karman vortex streets.

Subclass: 861.23 [Patents]

Acoustic:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.22. Subject matter wherein an acoustic wave is transmitted through the fluid by transducer means.

Subclass: 861.24 [Patents]

Movable sensor responsive to vortices:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.22. Subject matter wherein the vortices cause an element to vibrate proportional to the vortex frequency.
(1) Note. The element may be the vortex generator itself, a segment thereof, or separate element.

Subclass: 861.25 [Patents]

Reflection or scattering of acoustic waves:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.18. Subject matter wherein the rate of flow is determined by acoustic waves transmitted to and reflected or scattered by the fluid.

Subclass: 861.26 [Patents]

Deflection of acoustic waves:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.18. Subject matter responsive to the downstream deflection of acoustic waves transmitted through the fluid transverse to a component of the direction of flow.

Subclass: 861.27 [Patents]

Transit time of acoustic waves:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.18. Subject
matter responsive to the transit time of acoustic waves transmitted through the fluid along a path extending between upstream and downstream locations.
(1) Note. Usually, a comparison of upstream and downstream transit times is effected.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
339 and 597, for measuring transit time of acoustic waves to determine other properties of a fluid (e.g., density, temperature, etc.).

Subclass: 861.28 [Patents]

Transmitted along single path:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.27. Subject matter wherein the acoustic waves are transmitted upstream and downstream along the same path.

Subclass: 861.29 [Patents]

In both directions simultaneously:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.28. Subject matter wherein the acoustic waves are simultaneously transmitted upstream and downstream along the same path.

Subclass: 861.31 [Patents]

Transmitted along parallel paths:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.27. Subject matter wherein the acoustic waves are transmitted along plural upstream-downstream paths which are substantially parallel.

Subclass: 861.32 [Patents]

By measuring swirl rate imparted by static means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter responsive to the angular velocity imparted to the fluid by fixed vanes, tangential inlet to a chamber, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.01 for other devices which combine the output from a
flow transducer with the output from one or more transducer means.
861.351 for devices which are responsive to a dynamic characteristic of the fluid.

Subclass: 861.33 [Patents]

With turbine in a swirl chamber:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.32. Subject matter wherein a swirl chamber is included and the rate of swirl is measured by a turbine located in the swirl chamber.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.34 for a flowmeter for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a well casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a rotation rate of an element about a rotation axis.

Subclass: 861.34 [Patents]

Precess type:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.32. Subject matter wherein the swirling motion of the fluid is transformed into precessional movement and the precessional movement is detected.
(1) Note. Usually, an expansion or constriction of the flow path is employed to transform the swirling motion to precessional movement.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.22 for detection of Karman vortices.

Subclass: 861.351 [Patents]

Mass flow by imparting angular or transverse momentum to the fluid:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter wherein a fluid is accelerated in a direction other than the normal direction of flow and a response related to the acceleration is determined to provide a direct measurement of mass flow.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.01 through 861.03, for a mass flow measurement in which
the volume of flow is combined with another measurement to provide a measurement of mass flow.
861.32 for a device responsive to the angular velocity imparted to a fluid

Subclass: 861.352 [Patents]

Rotated resiliently coupled elements:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.351. Subject matter wherein impellers or an impeller and drum are rotated at the same angular velocity by the fluid or drive means and connected by a biasing means, and the angular displacement between the members is a measure of mass flow.

Subclass: 861.353 [Patents]

Reaction turbine or vane:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.351. Subject matter wherein the angular momentum of the fluid is absorbed by (a) a turbine restrained against free rotation (normally spring biased) or (b) a fixed member.

Subclass: 861.354 [Patents]

Coriolis or gyroscopic:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.351. Subject matter wherein (a) a conduit or impeller is rotated or oscillated to impose a transverse velocity gradient on the fluid or (b) a conduit is formed as a loop to provide an effective spin axis, the loop is rotated or oscillated about a drive axis and a gyroscopic couple is produced.

Subclass: 861.355 [Patents]

Vibrated conduit:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.354. Subject matter wherein the conduit is subjected to oscillations.

Subclass: 861.356 [Patents]

Signal processing or analysis details:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.355. Subject matter including specific means or steps for evaluating the output for determination of mass flow or drive control.

Subclass: 861.357 [Patents]

Drive and sensor element located on straight conduit portion:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.355. Subject matter wherein the vibration means and sensing element are located on a straight section of the conduit.

Subclass: 861.39 [Patents]

Using an applied fluid jet:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter having means responsive to the interaction of the fluid with a high velocity stream issued from a nozzle.

Subclass: 861.41 [Patents]

By counting drops, bubbles, or particles:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter wherein the fluid consists of or is converted into discrete drops, bubbles or particles which are detected and counted.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
337, Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches, subclass 10, for particle counting where no significant measuring or testing structure is claimed.
364, Electrical Computers and Data Processing Systems, subclass 555, for particle count, distribution and size.

Subclass: 861.42 [Patents]

Using differential pressure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter wherein the velocity of the fluid to be metered creates a pressure differential or kinetic head across (a) a flow restriction such as a Venturi, flow nozzle or orifice plate, or (b) a Pitot or like device, which differential or head is substantially proportional to a function of the velocity of the fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
215 for Weir-type meters.
716 for differential pressure gauges including diaphragms and capable of general use.
747 for U-type manometers capable of general use.
861.01 wherein the output from the flow meter is combined with that of another transducer for temperature compensation or the measure of mass flow.
861.39 wherein the pressure differential is created by the interaction of the fluid with a high velocity stream from a nozzle.
861.71 wherein the restriction is varied by an object in its flow path.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, 40, for flow restrictors, per se.

Subclass: 861.43 [Patents]

With time integration:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.42. Subject matter wherein means is provided for integrating the pressure differential or kinetic head with respect to time, so that a measure of the total flow over a period may be obtained.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
183 for differential pressure-type meters having integrating means and forming ships' log navigating devices.

Subclass: 861.44 [Patents]

By electrical means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.43. Subject matter wherein the integration is performed electrically.

Subclass: 861.45 [Patents]

By mechanical means:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.43. Subject matter wherein the integration is performed mechanically.

Subclass: 861.46 [Patents]

Including pressure applied to liquid column or reservoir:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.45. Subject matter wherein a liquid column or reservoir is subjected to the pressure to be measured and the subsequent change in level is sensed and utilized as an input to the integration means.

Subclass: 861.47 [Patents]

Pressure applied to movable member (e.g., a diaphragm):
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.42. Subject matter wherein a moveable member, such as a diaphragm, bellows, or piston, is subjected to the pressure to be measured.

Subclass: 861.48 [Patents]

With linearization (e.g., square root extraction):
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.47. Subject matter wherein structure is included to produce an output which is linearly related to fluid velocity.

Subclass: 861.49 [Patents]

Pressure applied to liquid column or reservoir:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.42. Subject matter wherein a liquid column or reservoir is subjected to the pressure to be measured and the resultant change in level is a measure of the flow rate.

Subclass: 861.51 [Patents]

With linearization:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.49. Subject matter wherein structure is included to produce an output which is linearly related to fluid velocity.

Subclass: 861.52 [Patents]

With restriction:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.42. Subject matter wherein the differential pressure is created by a restriction located in the flow path.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.47 wherein a pressure is applied to a movable member.
861.49 wherein a pressure is applied to a liquid column or reservoir.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:
138, Pipes and Tubular Conduits, 40, for flow restrictors, per se.

Subclass: 861.53 [Patents]

Automatically variable restriction:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.52. Subject matter wherein the effective area of the restriction is automatically varied by the differential pressure created.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.71 wherein a restriction is varied by the thrust forces on an object and the object is biased by gravity or a spring.

Subclass: 861.54 [Patents]

Slotted piston or cylinder:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.53. Subject matter wherein the effective area of the restriction is varied by relative movement of an apertured or slotted piston or cylinder.

Subclass: 861.55 [Patents]

Cone and ball or disk:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.53. Subject matter wherein the effective area of the restriction is
varied by relative movement of a ball, disk or like member (e.g., float) with respect to a cone or tapered cylinder.

Subclass: 861.56 [Patents]

With structure of coupling to indicator:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.55. Subject matter including details of the elements transmitting the relative motion to an indicator.

Subclass: 861.57 [Patents]

With structure of float, float tube, or float guide:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.55. Subject matter wherein a float is displaced and details of either the float, float tube, or a float guide are included.

Subclass: 861.58 [Patents]

Orifice and tapered plug:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.53. Subject matter wherein the effective area of the restriction is varied by relative movement of a tapered plug and an orifice member.

Subclass: 861.59 [Patents]

Including recirculation pump:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.52. Subject matter wherein a constant volumetric recirculating pump is used to add or subtract a given volumetric flow of fluid to the flow being measured.

Subclass: 861.61 [Patents]

Orifice or flow nozzle:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.52. Subject matter wherein the means producing the differential pressure is an opening (as a vent, mouth or hole) through which the fluid passes or a tube having a taper or constriction (e.g., nozzle).

Subclass: 861.62 [Patents]

Adjustable:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.61. Subject matter wherein the effective area of the orifice or flow nozzle may be selectively varied.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.53 wherein the effective area is changed automatically in response to fluid pressure.

Subclass: 861.63 [Patents]

Venturi:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.52. Subject matter wherein the means producing the differential pressure has flaring ends connected by a constricted middle.

Subclass: 861.64 [Patents]

Inlet or outlet structure:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.63. Subject matter wherein specific details of the converging inlet or diverging outlet are included.

Subclass: 861.65 [Patents]

Pitot:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.42. Subject matter comprising a device that consists of a tube which is placed in a moving body of fluid and is used to measure a kinetic head.

Subclass: 861.66 [Patents]

Sensing at plural transverse locations:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.65. Subject matter wherein the total pressure or static pressure is sensed at a plurality of locations in a plane transverse to the flow direction.

Subclass: 861.67 [Patents]

Adjustable:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.65. Subject matter wherein the position of the Pitot tube relative to the fluid may be varied.

Subclass: 861.68 [Patents]

With heating element:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.65. Subject matter wherein the Pitot tube is provided with a heater (e.g., for de-icing).

Subclass: 861.69 [Patents]

Centrifugal:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.42. Subject matter wherein the fluid is caused to curve from a normally straight path so as to produce a centrifugal change of pressure which is taken as a measure of the rate of flow of the fluid.

Subclass: 861.71 [Patents]

By measuring thrust or drag forces:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter responsive to the magnitude of forces imparted by the fluid to (a) an object placed in the flow path or (b) a conduit segment.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
861.355 for detection of reaction forces imparted to a conduit segment by dynamic means.

Subclass: 861.72 [Patents]

By changing fluid direction:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.71. Subject matter wherein the object or conduit segment changes the direction of the fluid and the forces imparted by the fluid
are predominantly the reaction forces necessary to change the direction of the flow.

Subclass: 861.73 [Patents]

Impact of particulate material:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.71. Subject matter wherein the fluid is particulate material and the object is an impact plate.

Subclass: 861.74 [Patents]

On a vane:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.71. Subject matter wherein the object is a vane or pivoted flap valve and movement of the vane or flap valve is measured.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
170.05 for vane meters combined with wind vanes.
186 for vane meters combined with ships log.

Subclass: 861.75 [Patents]

With rotation about a fixed axis:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.74. Subject matter wherein the vane is mounted for rotation about a fixed axis and the angular displacement is a measure of the forces imparted.

Subclass: 861.76 [Patents]

Spring biased:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861.75. Subject matter wherein the vane is biased against rotation by a spring.

Subclass: 861.77 [Patents]

Using rotating member with particular electrical output or circuit:
This subclass is indented under subclass 861. Subject matter wherein the fluid to be measured causes an element placed in the fluid path to be rotated and provides an electrical signal which is a measure of rotation of the element and including specific details of either the sensing means or the electrical circuit to process the output of the sensing means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:
152.34 for a flowmeter for determining a characteristic of a borehole,