Searching the Trademark Next Generation ID Manual

The Trademark Next Generation ID Manual (TMNG-IDM) is a web based application that provides users the ability to search USPTO’s ID Manual for acceptable identifications of goods and services and information related thereto.  To submit comments regarding your experience using TMNG-IDM, please contact TMFeedback@uspto.gov with the subject "TMNG-IDM Feedback."

This page provides information about searching using TMNG-IDM.  Direct links to topics are provided below:


Link to TMNG-IDM Website

Users can search the new Trademark ID Manual website by using the following URL address: https://tmidm.uspto.gov/.

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System Requirements and Settings

The TMNG-IDM is best viewed in the Google® Chrome® browser version 42 or higher, but is also accessible in Windows® Internet Explorer® Version 10 and higher.  Display resolution settings above 900px are recommended for optimal viewing of the search window and results table.

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Explanation of Main Page Features

The Main Page of TMNG-IDM features a text box for searching, an Information icon with links to resources and related pages, and an Advanced Search icon.  These Main Page features are addressed in greater detail below.

Search Box: The Search Box (or “text box”) located on the center of the Main Page below the Trademark Next Gen logo is used to enter Search Terms. See How to Conduct a Simple Search and How to Conduct an Advanced Search for additional information about searching the TMNG-IDM.

The Information – “i” – icon: Immediately to the right of the Search Box, the small, blue icon featuring the lower-case letter “i” contains links to the “Searching the ID Manual” and “Guidance for Users” documentation.

Searching the ID Manual: Clicking on the “Searching the ID Manual” link will open this content.

Guidance for Users: Clicking on the “Guidance for Users” link will open the Guidance for Users window which contains information regarding ID Manual features, classification and identification practice, and tips relating to specific goods and services.

Advanced Search – magnifying glass “+” – icon: In the upper left corner of the main page, a square featuring a white magnifying glass with a “+” serves as the access point for the Advanced Search features. Click the icon and the Advanced Search panel opens from the left of the screen. Change the criteria to apply to the search term(s) entered in the search box and results will be narrowed accordingly. Please see the How to Conduct an Advanced Search section below.

Click Here: Clicking on the “click here” link will take users to the ID Manual legacy page.  The ID Manual legacy page is the original version of the ID Manual.  The legacy version of the ID Manual remains operative.

Feedback: Users can send their suggestion(s) to TMFeedback@uspto.gov with the subject "TMNG-IDM Feedback."

Quick Tips - Getting Started with ID Manual: Below the search box are “Quick Tips” for searching, viewing results, and sorting on columns. 

Resources:   The “Resources” section contains the following links:

  • Searching the ID Manual: Clicking on the “Searching the ID Manual” link will open this page.
  • Guidance for Users: Clicking on the “Guidance for Users” link will open the Guidance for Users tab which contains information regarding ID Manual features, classification and identification practice, and tips relating to specific goods and services.
  • Watch our Filing Basis Video: Clicking on the “Watch our Filing Basis Video” link will take the user to the Trademark Information Network (TMIN) Videos page.
  • See the Goods & Services Video: Clicking on the “See the Goods & Services Video” will take the user to the Trademark Information Network (TMIN) Videos page.

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How to Conduct a Simple Search

A simple search can be carried out on the Main Page using the text box in the center of the page.  A simple search is conducted by typing the desired search term(s) into the text box and pressing the “Search” icon – the magnifying glass inside the Search Box. For more details on terms to search, please see Search Terms below.  A simple search will retrieve results for records which include the searched term in either the Description or the Notes fields.  For example, entering the word “cookie” in the text box will retrieve all records which contain the term “cookie” or “cookies” in the Description or Notes.  The searched term will be highlighted in the relevant column of the results table.  The highlighted term may appear in more than one of the columns.  For example, the searched term “cookie” may appear in the Notes column and/or the Description column of the results table. Results will also include variations on search terms retrieved by matching the “stem” of the term, for example the results for the term “cook” will retrieve results for “cooking” and “cooked.”   

Wildcard Searches which use a symbol to replace one or multiple characters in a searched term, Fuzzy Searches to search for terms with similar spelling, and Proximity Searches to find searched terms within a specific distance may all be conducted during a simple or advanced search of the Manual. For more information, please see the relevant sections below.

Boolean Operators may be used while conducting a simple or advanced search. For more information, see Boolean Operators below. If multiple terms are entered into the text box, the system will default to connect multiple terms with an “AND” and retrieve records that contain all of the entered terms. Parentheses may be used to further group search terms. For more information, see Grouping below.

Entry of search terms within quotation marks (e.g., “medical apparatus”) will retrieve results only with the entire string of search terms in the order specified.

Searches of terms which contain diacritical characters, such as accents, can be conducted using the search box on the Main Page.

When a user clicks on the “Search” icon without entering a term in the search box, all of the records in the database will be returned as search results.

To conduct a search by effective date, status, class, NCL Version, or TM5 using the Advanced Search icon, see How to Conduct an Advanced Search below.

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Search Terms

When searching IDM-NG, there are two types of search terms that may be entered: Single Terms and Phrases.

A Single Term is a single word such as “shoes” or “pillows.”

A Phrase is a group of words surrounded by double quotes such as “athletic shoes” or “travel pillows.”

Multiple terms can be combined together with Boolean operators to form a more complex query (see below).

In addition, the automatic “stemming” of search terms will retrieve more results and rank them in relevancy order based on an algorithm of how closely the results aligns with the original search term. Stemming automatically finds most plurals as well as British-American English equivalents programmed into the search engine. Stemming will also add to the number of results retrieved when using Wildcard, Fuzzy or Proximity searches (see below).

“Stemming” is an advanced search technique that reduces the search term to a root form and matches it to other words that contain that same root. The matches are determined by algorithms and a system dictionary that will be fine-tuned during the future development of IDM-NG.

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Wildcard Searches

IDM-NG supports single and multiple character wildcard searches within single terms (not within phrase queries).

To perform a single character wildcard search, use the “?” symbol.

The single character wildcard search looks for terms that match the search criteria with the single character replaced. For example, to search for “gray” or “grey” you can use the search:

Gr?y

To perform a multiple character wildcard search, use the “*” symbol.

Multiple character wildcard searches looks for zero or more characters. For example, to search for “paint,” “painting” or “paintball,” you can use the search:

Paint*

You can also use the multiple character wildcard searches in the middle of a term. For example, to search for “grain” or “green,” you can use the search:

Gr*n

An advanced search using the “Classic” search mode will use the wildcard indicators available for searching in the legacy ID Manual.  See How to Conduct an Advanced Search below and How to Use Truncation to Conduct a Search on the Searching the ID Manual page of the legacy ID Manual.   

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Fuzzy Searches

IDM-NG supports finding words similar in spelling to word based on an algorithm. This searching is referred to as “fuzzy searching” and uses the tilde, “~”, symbol at the end of a Single word Term. For example, to search for a term similar in spelling to “crumb” enter the fuzzy search:

Crumb~

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Proximity Searches

IDM-NG supports finding words that are within a specific distance away. To perform a proximity search, use the tilde, "~", symbol at the end of a Phrase. For example to search for a "computer" and "network" within 10 words of each other in a record use the search:

"computer network"~10

Remember, with automatic “stemming,” the results retrieved will include more variations than the exact terms searched, and generally the most relevant terms will be returned at the top of the results table.

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Grouping

IDM-NG supports using parentheses to group clauses to form sub queries. This can be very useful if you want to control the Boolean logic for a query.

To search for either “football” or “baseball” and “shoes” use the query:

(football OR baseball) AND shoes

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Boolean Operators

Boolean operators allow terms to be combined through logic operators. IDM-NG supports AND, "+", OR, NOT and "-" as Boolean operators.

The AND operator is the default conjunction operator. This means that if there is no Boolean operator between two terms, the AND operator is used. The AND operator links two terms and finds a matching document if both of the terms exist in a record.

AND

The AND operator matches documents where both terms exist anywhere in the text of a single document.

To search for records that contain both “via” and “computer network” use the query:

Via AND "computer network"

or

Via "computer network" [no operator defaults to AND]

“+”

The “+” symbol, or required operator, requires that the term after the “+” symbol exist somewhere in the field of a single record.

To search for records that must contain “network” and may contain “global” use the query:

+network global

NOT/“!”

The NOT operator excludes documents that contain the term after NOT. The symbol “!” can be used in place of the word NOT.

To search for documents that contain "computer network" but not "global computer network" use the query:

"computer network" NOT "global computer network"

or

"computer network" !"global computer network"

Note: The NOT operator cannot be used with just one term.

“-”

The “-” symbol, or prohibit operator, excludes records that contain the term after the “-” symbol.

To search for records that contain “network” and do not contain “computer network” use the query:

network -"computer network"

An advanced search using the “Classic” search mode will retrieve search results using the Boolean Operators available when searching the legacy ID Manual.  For further information, see How to Conduct an Advanced Search below and How to Use Boolean Operators to Conduct a Search on the Searching the ID Manual page of the legacy ID Manual.

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Ranking of Search Results

Search results are listed in the results table according to the relevance of the searched term(s) as determined by an algorithm. For example, the search table for a search of the term shoes will list “Shoes” in Class 25, an “exact match,” first because it is the most relevant description containing only the searched term. A search of two terms, e.g., athletic shoes, will display an exact match first, followed by other results with both terms, if any.

The user has the option to sort the search results according to any of the search table criteria, by clicking on the relevant column at the top of the search table. For example, to list search results by class number, place the cursor over the “Class” column and click with the mouse. A small black arrow will indicate if the results are displayed in ascending or descending order according to the criteria of the listed column. For example, a small black arrow in the Class column indicates whether the classes are listed in ascending or descending order. Click the arrow to change the order between ascending and descending order.

Within a particular class, the results are not listed alphabetically, but are listed according to relevance as determined by the algorithm.

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Explanation of Results Table Features

After pressing the “Search” icon next to the search box, the search results will be displayed in a table containing the following default columns:

  • Term ID
  • Class
  • Description
  • Status
  • Effective Date
  • Type
  • Notes
  • TM5
  • NCL Version
  • … (image of three dots)

Term ID:  The “Term ID” column contains a particular ID number which links to a summary of the complete record for the term, including information about any modifications to the term.   The Term ID number does not need to be included in an application with the USPTO. The Term ID number does not have any legal significance and is unrelated to the Nice Classification system used for classifying goods and services in trademark applications. Additional information about the Term ID is provided below.

Class:  The “Class” column indicates the international class assigned to a particular goods or service.  For more information about the classification of goods and/or services, see TMEP §1401 et. seq.  When a cursor is placed over the class number in the Class column, a popup box will display the Class Heading under the Nice Agreement for that particular class.      

Description:  The “Description” column indicates the acceptable identification of goods or services retrieved from the user’s search of the ID Manual.

Status:  The “Status” column of the ID Manual includes a letter, “A,” “M,” “D,” or “X,” which indicates the status of that particular entry.

Entries with a status of “A,” “M,” or “X” are active entries which are acceptable in the class specified.

The letter “A” is used to indicate that the entry was added to the ID Manual.  “A” entries are acceptable identifications which have not been subsequently modified.

The letter “M” is used to indicate an acceptable entry which has been modified since originally entered into the ID Manual.  “M” entries are generally accompanied by a note which explains the reason for the modification. For example, if a particular good or service was reclassified, the entry for that good or service would include the letter “M” and a note explaining the reason for the reclassification.

The letter “X” indicates an entry that is an example of an acceptable identification of goods or services.  These entries often include more detail than is required for an acceptable identification.  Thus, while the identification may be used by an applicant, the identification is often not beneficial to a wide range of applicants and generally does not provide guidance about general identification principles.   As noted in TMEP §1402.01, identifications which include lengthy descriptions of characteristics of goods and services are generally inappropriate.

The letter “D” indicates an entry that has been deleted from the ID Manual as of the indicated effective date.  These entries are generally accompanied by a note which provides the reason for deleting the entry. “D” entries are generally not acceptable under USPTO ID Policy, but you should read the Notes to verify whether or not a particular entry is acceptable.  

Effective Date:  The “Effective Date” column sets forth the date on which the status (i.e., Added, Modified, Deleted, or Examples) of a particular entry went into effect.

Type:  The “Type” column is used to indicate whether the description refers to “GOODS” or “SERVICES.”  See TMEP §1301.01 for an explanation of what constitutes a service under the Trademark Act.

Notes:  ID Manual notes provide a variety of information about a particular description.  For example, notes may provide information about why a description was modified or deleted.  Certain notes alert users that broader language may be acceptable or that particular information must be included in the identification.  Notes may also describe the function or purpose of the goods or services named in the description. 

TM5:  The “TM5” column will include the letter “T” if an identification has been accepted by the USPTO and international partners to the TM5 Trademark Identifications and Classifications Project (formerly known as “Trilateral”) and will be blank if an identification has not been accepted by all TM5 partners.   For more information about TM5 entries, see TMEP §1402.04.  

NCL Version: The “NCL Version” column indicates the Edition and Version of the Nice Classification (NCL) in effect at the time the entry was added (“A”), modified (“M”), or deleted (“D”). Beginning with the 10th Edition (issued January 1, 2012), annual NCL Versions are issued on January 1 of every year.  The default setting is NCL 10-2016.  The default setting will retrieve entries currently in effect. See How to Conduct an Advanced Search for more information on conducting searches using prior NCL versions or editions.

∙ ∙ ∙: The column with three dots in the header is used by the user to show or hide the other columns.  Information on using this feature is provided in more detail below.

A user can sort the search results in an ascending or descending order by clicking on the column header.  For example, clicking on the column header for the “Class” column will order the results in ascending or descending order according to class number.  Clicking on the column header for the “Description” column will arrange the search results alphabetically based on the description field.

A user can customize the columns displayed on the search result table by clicking on the ∙∙∙ column header. A “Show & Hide Columns” popup will be displayed showing all possible columns that can be displayed or hidden from the search result table. Users can click on the “Select/Hide all” button or check individual checkbox(es) to customize the search results display. Clicking on the “Ok” button will save the user’s changes, while clicking on the “Cancel” button will exit out of the popup without making any changes.

The order of the columns can be changed by right-clicking on the title of the column to be moved and dragging it to the desired location.  A green column will briefly appear in the new location prior to the column being moved.  Upon closing the search session, the column order will return to the default setting.

The number of records displayed on the search result page can be adjusted by using the drop-down menu above the results table. The last option of the drop-down menu is the term “Max.” If “Max” is selected from the drop-down menu, a maximum of five hundred (500) results will be listed per page. In most instances, the “Max” setting will allow for the search results to be displayed on a single page for both reviewing and printing purposes. The default setting is a maximum of one hundred (100) results per page. If the search results continue to an additional page or pages, click on the desired page number or “Next” button at the top or bottom of the search table to access another page. The number of results per page may be changed for a particular search session.

On the search result table, a deleted (“D”) record will have a strike-through line on the description.  Deleted records typically include a note explaining the reason for the deletion.  Deleted descriptions are often unacceptable under current identification and/or classification policy, but the Notes should be consulted for further guidance.  

Clicking on any record’s Term ID will open the “View Record” box. The View Record box contains detailed information of a record.  The General tab of the View Record box displays data regarding the description, class, type, status, start effective date, TM5 status, and any notes.  A record with a change in status, class and/or effective date will display the older version in the “Version History” tab which includes the following information:

  • Term ID
  • Class
  • Description
  • Status
  • Start Effective Date
  • End Effective Date
  • TM5

Users can close the record by clicking the X in the upper right hand corner of the View Record tab.

Version History: The life-cycle of a particular ID record is tracked through the Version History. By migrating records from previous NCL editions and versions, several thousand records feature information on prior classification and description changes. In the future, the Version History will continuously provide information about previous versions of the identification both in the same class and in prior classes. Note: Most entries in the ID Manual will not currently include a Version History. Please consult the Notes for information on descriptions which have been modified or deleted. The Notes generally include an explanation of the nature of the change to any modified or deleted entry.

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Actions Menu

After clicking on the Term ID link for a particular term, the “View Record” box will appear.  In the upper right corner of the View Record box is the Actions Menu. The Actions Menu will allow a user to copy the URL of a particular record or print a record.  For more information on these features, see How to Print or Copy URL of a Single Record

How to Conduct an Advanced Search

A user can narrow down the results displayed by using the “Advanced Search” criteria. The icon for the “Advanced Search” is located in the upper left corner of the Main Page.

Clicking on the Advanced Search icon will open the Advanced Search panel which contains the following additional fields which may be used to refine search results:

  • Search Mode
  • Status
  • Notes Type
  • Class
  • NCL Version
  • TM5
  • Effective Date

After conducting a search, the Advanced Search panel will remain open once the search results are displayed. The panel may be closed by either clicking on “Close Panel” or on the magnifying glass “+” icon.

Search Mode:  Users may select one of the following search modes by using the drop down menu below the words “Search Mode” at the top of the Advanced Search Panel:  

All of the Words: An advanced search conducted using the “All the Words” search mode will return records containing all of the searched terms. For example, a search of the terms business consulting using the “All the Words” search mode will retrieve results which include both the term business and the term consulting (and variations of “consulting“ due to the stemming function of the search system).

Any of the Words: An advanced search conducted using the “Any of the Words” search mode will return records containing at least one of the searched terms. For example, a search of the terms business consulting using the “Any of the Words” search mode will retrieve results which include either the term business or the term consulting (and variations of “consulting “due to the stemming function of the search system) or results including both searched terms.

Exact: The exact mode allows users to search for records that contain the precise searched term. However, it should be noted that the stemming feature still operates in the exact search mode. For an explanation of stemming, please see the Search Terms section above.

Prefix: The prefix search mode returns results where the searched term appears at the beginning of a term in the records. For example, an advanced search using the prefix search mode of semi plastic will retrieve results including “Semi-processed plastics” and “Semi-finished plastic films and sheets to be used in solar or photovoltaic modules,” in Class 17.

Suffix:  The suffix mode allows users to return results where the searched term appears at the end of a term in the records.  For example, an advanced search of ment using the suffix search mode will retrieve results including management or equipment.

Proximity: The proximity mode allows users to search for records that contain searched terms which are located within a certain number of terms of each other. The desired number of terms which could separate the search terms should be entered in the proximity number text box below the Search Mode drop down menu. For example, an advanced search of the terms computer software conducted using the proximity search mode with the number 2 entered into the proximity number text box will return records where the words computer and software appear within two words of each other, such as Computer operating software, in Class 9, or Rental of computer game software, in Class 41.

Classic:  Classic search mode allows users to search using the Boolean operators and truncation methods available in the legacy ID Manual.  For explanations of those features, see the Searching the ID Manual page of the legacy ID Manual.

Status: A user can narrow his or her search by limiting the search results to records with a particular status, A - Added, M - Modified, X - Example, or D - Deleted.  For an explanation of record statuses, see Status above.

By default, the “Status” checkboxes are automatically checked.  To exclude a particular status from the search results, ensure that the box next to that status is unchecked. To include a particular status in the search results, check the box next to the desired status by placing the cursor on the box and clicking with the left side of the mouse.  Multiple boxes may be checked or unchecked. For example, to search for deleted records, the “D – Deleted” checkbox should be checked and the remaining status checkboxes should be unchecked.

Notes Type: The “Notes Type” search feature allows users to retrieve search results where a search term appears only in the Notes by checking the box in front of the term “Notes.” For more information about Notes, see Explanation of Results Table Features above.

Class: To search for records containing a specific term in a particular class, enter the desired search term in the text box and click on the “Class” button. A window containing clickable icons representing all of the searchable classes will appear. To search all goods classes or all services classes, check the checkbox next to “Select All Goods” or “Select All Services.”  To search for records in more than one class, simply select all of the desired classes by clicking the appropriate number.  The search result will display record(s) in the class(es) entered by the user.  

To retrieve all records within a particular class or classes, select the class(es) and press the “Search” button without any search term in the text box.

NCL Version: A user can conduct a search for results by selecting a NCL version or edition from the drop-down menu. The system will return results from all of the previous versions to the selected version date. For example, if a user selects 09-2007 as the NCL version, the system will display records from 07-1997 to 09-2007. The default setting, NCL-10-2016, will retrieve entries currently in effect.

The Manual includes acceptable entries which were added, modified, deleted, or entered as examples under a prior version or edition of the Nice Agreement. For example, “Ice cream sandwiches” was added to the Manual under the 8th Edition of the Nice Agreement. This remains an acceptable identification in Class 30 and currently displays as an active entry in the Manual when searching the current NCL 10-2016 Version. The NCL Version for that entry is listed as “08-2002.” The indication was valid as of the Effective Date and remains valid despite the fact that it was added under a prior edition of the Nice Agreement.

Entries that were previously acceptable in one class may be reclassified over time. The original acceptable class remains valid for all trademark applications filed before the Effective Date of reclassification/transfer. The “Version History” displayed in an individual record will show prior classification under prior editions/versions of the NCL.

To determine the acceptability of identifications and classifications for applications filed under previous versions or editions of the Nice Agreement, the NCL Version may be used as a search parameter. For example, an advanced search of data storage and NCL Version 10-2013 selected from the drop down menu will show that services relating to electronic storage of data were classified in Class 39 under that version of the Nice Agreement. An advanced search of data storage and NCL Version 10-2014 selected from the drop down menu will show that electronic data storage was transferred under NCL 10-2014 to Class 42.

For additional information regarding the classification of goods or services and the Nice Classification, see TMEP §1401 et. seq.

TM5:  The Advanced Search will also allow users to search for entries accepted by the USPTO and international partners to the TM5 Trademark Identifications and Classifications Project (formerly known as “Trilateral”). Check the box next to “TM5” on the Advanced Search screen in order to retrieve results which include only TM5 identifications. For more information about TM5 entries, see TMEP §1402.04.

Effective Date: Effective Date searches for an entry that was added (“A”), deleted (“D”), modified (“M”), or was added as an example (“X”) on a particular date within a specified date range or before or after a specific date. The Effective Date search features a drop down menu with the following operators. If one of the operators is used, a text box will appear below the drop down menu. The desired date should be entered in the text box in month, day, and year format, e.g., 01/01/2015.

Less Than (<): The less than search feature will allow for a search of records with start effective dates prior to the searched date. For example, a search of the term storage using the less than operator with the date of 01/01/2014 will retrieve records containing the term storage with start effective dates before January 1, 2014.

Greater Than (>): The greater than search feature will allow for a search of records with start effective dates after the searched date. For example, a search of the term storage using the greater than operator with the date of 01/01/2014 will retrieve records containing the term storage with start effective dates after January 1, 2014.

Range: The range operator allows for a search of records with start effective dates within a specified range. When this operator is selected, two text boxes will appear below the operator drop down menu. The beginning and ending dates of the range should be entered in these text boxes. For example, a search of database with range selected and the dates of 01/01/2014 and 01/01/2015 will retrieve records containing the term database with start effective dates between January 1, 2014 and January 1, 2015.

Equal (=): An effective date search using the equal sign will return records with a specific start effective date. The particular start effective date that you wish to search should be entered in the text box below the drop down menu.

The “Close Panel” link will close the Advance Search section. Clicking on the “Advanced Search” icon will also close the expanded advanced search box.

The “Reset all settings” link will restore all of the advanced search selections to the default settings.  The reset arrows located on the upper right side of each advanced search criteria section will reset the default settings for the particular search criteria.  

The “Search” button will search the database based on the selected or unselected options and any search criteria entered in the search box.

Wildcard Searches which use a symbol to replace one or multiple characters in a searched term, Fuzzy Searches to search for terms with similar spelling, and Proximity Searches to find searched terms within a specific distance may all be conducted during a simple or advanced search of the Manual. For more information, please see the relevant sections above.

Boolean Operators may be used while conducting a simple or advanced search. For more information, see Boolean Operators. If multiple terms are entered into the text box, the system will default to connect multiple terms with an “AND” and retrieve records that contain all of the entered terms. Parentheses may be used to further group search terms. For more information, see Grouping above

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How to Print Search Results

To print search results, click on the blue printer icon located in the upper right corner of the search results page above the search table.  A printable table will be displayed which includes the Search Term, Date of Search, Nice Version, URL, and the results table.  Click the Print button to print the table.

For information on printing a single record or copying the URL of a single record, see How to Print or Copy URL of a Single Record below.

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How to Print or Copy URL of a Single Record

To print the complete contents of a single record, select the record from the result table by clicking on the Term ID.  A “View Record” pane will open with all relevant data relating to the record, including any Notes and Version History.  To print the ID record, click on the blue “Actions” box in the upper right corner of the View Record pane and select “Print Record.”  Follow your browser’s instructions to print a copy of the record with date stamp and the URL for the record.

To copy the URL for a specific ID record, select “Copy URL” from the blue “Actions” box in the upper right corner of the View Record pane.  The resulting message generates the URL address to copy to the clipboard by pressing Control + “C.”  Press the Escape key or click on the X in the upper right corner of the “Copy Link” popup to exit the message.  The resulting URL address may be pasted into other documents from the clipboard.

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