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We are committed to self-improvement, developing and implementing new measures for understanding, evaluating, and reporting the correctness and clarity of examiners’ work products.

Quality Metrics


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The Office continues to identify new metrics to provide a more thorough understanding of the quality of the Office’s work products and processes. Resulting from stakeholder feedback, in fiscal year 2015, the Office launched the Enhanced Patent Quality Initiative (EPQI) Quality Metrics Program, and in fiscal year 2016 transitioned to a new quality metrics approach.  This new approach includes new metrics assessing the correctness of the Office’s work products, which the Office formulates using data from reviews conducted by the  Office of Patent Quality Assurance (OPQA) using the Master Review Form (MRF).

The Office considers a quality patent to be one that is correctly issued in compliance with all the requirements of Title 35 as well as the relevant case law at the time of issuance.  A statutorily compliant Office action must include all applicable rejections – it must not omit an applicable rejection – and any asserted rejection must be correct in that the decision to reject is based on sufficient evidence to support the conclusion of unpatentability.  Thus, the Office has moved to reporting out statutory compliance for our metrics, where the metrics are based on reviews conducted on every Office action type in every technological discipline. 

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Correctness Measures

Our measures of correctness, in combination with our measures of clarity, define the product indicators of the quality in our work products, which are the Office actions written by examiners that prosecute patent applications.  While how we measure clarity continues to be developed for metrics purposes, correctness is readily measured in our work products today.

We consider a quality patent to be one that is correctly issued in compliance with all the requirements of Title 35 as well as the relevant case law at the time of issuance.  Thus it follows that a statutorily compliant Office action, which are the framework of USPTO’s patent prosecution, includes all applicable rejections and in every asserted rejection, sufficient evidence to support a conclusion of unpatentability is provided.

Our correctness measures provide statutory compliance rates for 35 U.S.C. 101, 35 U.S.C. 112, 35 U.S.C. 102, and 35 U.S.C. 103.  We quantitate these measures using data from reviews on randomly-selected Office actions conducted by the Office of Patent Quality, OPQA, using the Master Review FormMRF.  Office actions of various types (non-final rejections, final rejections, and allowances) are considered from all technologies.

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Process Indicators

The Office’s process indicators assist the Office in tracking the efficiency and consistency of internal processes.  The Office’s current focus is on preventing reopening of prosecution, reducing rework, and ensuring consistency of decision-making.  To do this, the Office is evaluating certain types of transactions in the Patent Application Location and Monitoring (PALM) system to identify trends and examiner behaviors indicative of either best practices or potential quality concerns.

Rather than setting targets for the particular transactions, the Office is conducting a root-cause analysis on the trends and behaviors to either capture identified best practices or correct issues, as appropriate.

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Perception Indicators

The Office has conducted both internal and external stakeholder perception surveys semi-annually since 2006.  The results of these surveys are a vital quality indicator and they are useful for validating our other quality metrics.  For example, the results of the perception surveys assure alignment of the data underlying our metrics and our stakeholders’ perceptions and assure that the quality metrics we report are useful for our stakeholder.

Internal Stakeholder Perception Survey: the internal survey is sent to 750 randomly selected patent examiners on a semi-annual basis.

External Stakeholder Perception Survey: the external survey is sent to 3,000 of our frequent-filing customers on a semi-annual basis. 

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We Want Your Feedback

If you have questions or comments about Quality Metrics at the USPTO, please send an email to  For general inquiries about patent quality, email

Return to Quality Metrics at USPTO.

Learn about USPTO efforts to continuously increase patent quality.

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