Andrew A. Toole

Chief Economist

Dr. Andrew Toole is the Chief Economist at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and a Research Associate at the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW). Dr. Toole joined the USPTO with experience in the private sector, academia, and government. While completing his PhD in economics at Michigan State University, Andrew Toole was a Senior Economist for Laurits R. Christensen Associates where he conducted studies on total factor productivity, cost and price analysis, and competitive strategy. In 1998, Dr. Toole went to Stanford University as a postdoctoral student before becoming a faculty member at Illinois State University and Rutgers University in New Jersey. As an academic researcher, Dr. Toole was asked to advise on science and technology policy issues for institutions such as the U.S. National Academies of Science, U.S. National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2010, he joined the Science Policy Branch of USDA’s Economic Research Service. His research focuses on the economics of innovation, intellectual property, and related science and technology policies. Dr. Toole has published in the Journal of Law and Economics, the Review of Economics and Statistics, Research Policy, Management Science, and many other peer-reviewed journals.


Selected publications

The Dynamic Relationship between Investments in Brand Equity and Firm Profitability: Evidence Using Trademark Registrations (With D. Crass and D. Czarnitzki), Discussion Paper No. 16-004, Mannheim Germany: Centre for European Economic Research, 2016. Available at:

Individual versus Institutional Ownership of University-discovered Inventions (with D. Czarnitzki, T. Doherr, K. Hussinger, and P. Schliessler), Discussion Paper No. 15-007, Mannheim Germany: Centre for European Economic Research, 2015. Available at:

University Research Alliances, Absorptive Capacity, and the Contribution of Startups to Employment Growth (with D. Czarnitzki and C. Rammer), Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 24(5) 532-549, 2015. Available at:

Delay and Secrecy: Does Industry Sponsorship Jeopardize Disclosure of Academic Research? (with D. Czarnitzki and C. Grimpe), Industrial and Corporate Change, 24 251-279, 2015. Available at:

University Spinoffs and the “Performance Premium” (with D. Czarnitzki and C. Rammer), Small Business Economics, 43(2) 309-332, 2014. Available at:

The impact of public basic research on industrial innovation:  Evidence from the pharmaceutical industry, Research Policy, 41(1), 1-12, 2012. Available at:

Patent protection, market uncertainty, and R&D investment (with D. Czarnitzki), Review of Economics and Statistics, 93(1), 147-159. 2011. Available at:

Commercializing Science:  Is there a University “Brain Drain” from Academic Entrepreneurship? (with D. Czarnitzki), Management Science 56(9), 1599-1614, 2010. Available at:

Exploring the relationship between scientist human capital and firm performance:  The case of biomedical academic entrepreneurs in the SBIR program (with D. Czarnitzki), Management Science, 55(1), 101-114, 2009. Available at:

How does initial public financing influence private incentives for follow-on investment in early-stage technologies? (with C. Turvey), Journal of Technology Transfer, 34(1), 43-58, 2009. Available at:

Biomedical academic entrepreneurship through the SBIR program (with D. Czarnitzki), Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 63 (4), 716-738, 2007. Available at:

Does public scientific research complement private investment in research and development in the pharmaceutical industry? Journal of Law & Economics, 50 (1), 81-104, 2007. Available at:

Is public R&D a complement or substitute for private R&D?  A review of the econometric evidence (with D. Hall and P. David), Research Policy, 29 (4-5), 497-529, 2000. Available at: