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Classification 708/all - subclasses >> view this class definition


U. S. PATENT RESOURCES

As general guidance, a complete search of U. S. patents in this art area will include the following:

  1. A classified search of the original classification class and subclass for the subject matter and the other highly relevant art areas in the US patent documents
  2. A text search of the US patent documents; patents, PG PUB, and OCR databases:
    • Broad text search for the general inventive concept(s), not limited by classification
    • Narrow text search for the specific claimed invention
    • Boolean text search employing the relevant inventive terms

The resources listed below are internal USPTO search tools. However, the information that they cover is available either commercially, on the USPTO web site, or in the Public Search Facility on the USPTO Headquarters campus and the Patent and Trademark Depository Libraries.

EAST/WEST
EAST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
WEST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
Full text patent and inventor searching.

EAST or WEST is used for text, class/subclass, and inventor/assignee searching.
BRS Search/USOCR Database
EAST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
WEST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
Full text of U.S. patent grants.

EAST or WEST is used for text, class/subclass, and inventor/assignee searching.
PALM (Patent Application Locating and Monitoring)
USPTO Coverage: - Current, Full Text: - Current
Pending patent applications, recent patents, and abandoned files.

The Patent Application Locating and Monitoring (PALM) system is a large database system that maintains records for each patent application. PALM is designed to provide on-line access to information on all pending applications, as well as most recently patented and abandoned files. Useful for inventor name searches, for finding related and copending applications, and for looking up continuation data.
PGPUBS
EAST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
WEST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
U.S. published applications.

EAST or WEST is used for text, class/subclass, and inventor/assignee searching.
PLUS
Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
USPTO search system for U.S. patents.

PLUS (Patent Linguistics Utility System) is a USPTO search system for US patents that produces a list of the most closely related patents to the application searched. The system provides a list of classes/subclasses where the suggested patents are classified.

FOREIGN PATENT RESOURCES

Searched separately from the U.S. Patent Search. These databases consist of abstract documents. Text searching abstracts requires the use of different search logic e.g. the use of broad Boolean and/or operators instead of narrow proximity operators.

Derwent World Patents Index and the contents of the EPO Abstracts and JPO Abstracts are available commercially.

Derwent World Patents Index, Classification and Text Search
EAST Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of patent documents from more than 40 patent-issuing authorities.

EAST or WEST is used for text, class/subclass, and inventor/assignee searching.
EPO Abstracts, Text and Classification Search
EAST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of patents and published applications from EPO, WO/PCT, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Switzerland. USPC searching is limited to documents added to the database from 1978 to September 30, 1995.

EAST or WEST is used for text, class/subclass, and inventor/assignee searching.
EPO esp@cenet
esp@cenet Coverage: 1920 - present, Full Text: 1920 - present
National patent information from all member states of the EPO as well as bibliographic data from patents worldwide.

Used to retrieve search reports.
JPO Abstracts, Text and Classification Search
EAST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of Japanese published unexamined applications. USPC searching is limited to documents added to the database from 1978 to September 30, 1995.

EAST or WEST is used for text, class/subclass, and inventor/assignee searching.

NON-PATENT LITERATURE RESOURCES

The resources listed are those that USPTO staff have found consistently yield the most relevant search results. Commercial databases available through a single vendor can generally be searched simultaneously, although it is preferable to search full text and bibliographic databases in separate groupings. In addition to the use of subscription databases and public Internet sites, it is recommended that books, manuals, standards and specifications be considered in the search for prior art.

ACM Digital Library
ACM Coverage: Dates - vary, Full Text: Dates - vary
Citations and full text articles from ACM journals, newsletters, and conference proceedings.

Used for searching broad concepts.
IEEE Xplore
IEEE Coverage: 1952 - present, Full Text: 1988 - present
Full text access to technical literature in electrical engineering, computer science, and electronics.

Text search and page images of IEEE transactions, journals, magazines, conference proceedings, and all current IEEE standards. Used for searching broad concepts.
Inspec (The Database for Physics, Electronics and Computing)
Dialog Coverage: 1898 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Dialog DataStar Coverage: 1969 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Questel Orbit Coverage: 1969 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1969 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Inspec (The Database for Physics, Electronics and Computing) corresponds to the three Science Abstracts print publications: Physics Abstracts, Electrical and Electronics Abstracts, and Computer and Control Abstracts.

Bibliographic database covering acoustics, electro-optics, circuits, electromagnetics, computational mathematics, and more. Useful for acoustic, magnetic, and electromagnetic searches (Class/Subclasses 708/679,815,817,832,840).
ABI/INFORM
Dialog Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1991 - present
STN Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1991 - present
Covers worldwide business and management issues.

Full text journal articles covering new product announcements, computers, telecommunications, transportation, healthcare, finance, and management.
ANTE
STN Coverage: 1981 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Abstracts from approximately 350 academic and trade publications from the U.K. and U.S.

Covers information technology, computers and control, electronics, communications engineering, and sound and video recording. Useful for recording, communication device, and audio searches (Class/Subclasses 708/108,109,172).
British Education Index (BEI)
Dialog Coverage: 1950 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database containing journal literature on education and educational technology.

Useful for teaching searches (Class/Subclass 708/162).
Business & IndustryTM (B&I)
Dialog Coverage: 1994 - present, Full Text: 1994 - present
Facts, figures, and key events dealing with public and private companies, industries, markets products for all manufacturing and service industries at an international level.

Full text file covers automotive industry, computers, software, electronics, telecommunications, and transportation.
Business Dateline
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: 1985 - present
Full text of major news and feature stories from regional business publications from throughout the United States and Canada.

Coverage includes the computer industry, new product development, electronics, retailing, telecommunications, transportation and more. Useful for business and communication device searches (Class/Subclasses 708/109,110,134,163).
Business Wire
Dialog Coverage: 1999 - present, Full Text: 1999 - present
Full text of news releases issued by approximately 10,000 corporations, universities, research institutes, hospitals, and other organizations.

Subject areas include computers, new products and more. Useful for business searches (Class/Subclasses 708/110,134,163).
CMP Computer Fulltext
Dialog Coverage: 1988 - present, Full Text: 1988 - present
Full text information about the computer, communications, and electronic industries.

COMPUSCIENCE
STN Coverage: 1972 - 2002, Full Text: - N/A
Complete computer science section from the Zentralblatt fuer Mathematik/ Mathematics Abstracts as well as all material from ACM's (Association for Computing Machinery) Computing Reviews and Guide to Computing Literature.

Bibliographic database covering computer science and technology, with emphasis on software, computer systems organization, image processing, algorithms, computation, and artificial intelligence.
Computer and Information Systems Abstracts
Dialog Coverage: 1968 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Coverage of the world's technical literature on storing, processing, and accessing information.

Abstracts from sources covering the world's literature on artificial intelligence, computer applications, programming, and systems organization, operations research, hardware, and software engineering.
Computer News Fulltext
Dialog Coverage: 1989 - present, Full Text: 1989 - present
Full text articles from Computerworld and Network World.

Covers computer-related technologies and companies within the computer and network industries.
CSA Aerospace & High Technology Database
Dialog Coverage: 1962 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1962 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Provides references, abstracts, and controlled-vocabulary indexing of key scientific and technical documents.

Coverage includes artificial intelligence, circuits and logic, networks, databases, electronics and communications, optical and acoustic technology, semiconductors, telecommunications, and more.
DIALOG Telecommunications Newsletters
Dialog Coverage: 1995 - present, Full Text: 1995 - present
Full text telecommunications newsletters that provide information on companies, products, markets, and technologies.

Covers hardware, storage, integrated circuits, semiconductors, and imaging. Useful for communication device searches (Class/Subclass 708/109).
Dissertation Abstracts Online
Dialog Coverage: 1861 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1861 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Subject, title, and author guide to virtually every American dissertation accepted at an accredited institution.

Dissertations and Theses - Full Text
ProQuest Coverage: 1861 - present, Full Text: Dates - vary
Doctoral dissertations and Master's theses.

EBSCOhost Research Databases
EBSCO Coverage: Dates - vary, Full Text: Dates - vary
Multidisciplinary collection of databases.

Coverage includes computer science topics such as artificial intelligence, electromagnetics, computational engineering, mathematical programming, networks, software, and more.
Education Abstracts
Dialog Coverage: 1983 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database citing significant English-language journal and yearbook articles, covering latest concepts, trends, theories, and methodologies in education.

Includes audiovisual education, computers in education, educational technology. Useful for teaching searches (Class/Subclass 708/162).
Ei Compendex
Dialog Coverage: 1970 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Questel Orbit Coverage: 1970 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1970 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Comprehensive database of engineering literature.

Abstracted information from journals and conference proceedings in engineering and technology, covering acoustics, electromagnetics, electronics, optical devices, mechanical engineering, and more. Useful for magnetic and electromagnetic searches (Class/Subclasses 708/679,817,832,840).
ELCOM (Electronics and Communications Abstracts)
STN Coverage: 1981 - present, Full Text: - N/A


Abstracted literature from sources covering electronic engineering and telecommunications, including circuits, control and systems, components, electromagnetics, and instrumentation. Useful for communication device, integrated circuit, and magnetic/electromagnetic searches (Class/Subclass 708/109,190,817,832,840).
ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)
Dialog Coverage: 1966 - present, Full Text: - N/A
US Department of Education Coverage: - , Full Text: -
Bibliographic database containing education-related documents, technical reports, journal articles, conference papers, dissertations, and state of the art reviews.

Useful for teaching searches (Class/Subclass 708/162).
Gale Group Computer DatabaseTM
Dialog Coverage: 1983 - present, Full Text: 1988 - present
Information about the computer, electronics, and telecommunications industries.

Gale Group New Product Announcements/Plus (NPA/Plus)
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: 1985 - present
Full text press releases from all industries covering announcements related to products, with a focus on new products and services.

Gale Group Newsletter DatabaseTM
Dialog Coverage: 1988 - present, Full Text: 1988 - present
Full text of specialized industry newsletters that provide information on companies, products, markets, and technologies.

Subject areas include computers, electronics, telecommunications, and transportation.
Gale Group PROMT
Dialog Coverage: 1990 - present, Full Text: 1990 - present
STN Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: 1978 - present
International coverage of companies, products, markets, and applied technologies for all industries.

Abstracts and full text records from trade and business journals, newsletters and releases. Useful for business searches (Class/Subclasses 708/110,163).
Gale Group Trade & Industry DatabaseTM
Dialog Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: 1976 - present
Coverage of over 65 major industries, including full text coverage of management, economic, and other professional journals.

General Science Abstracts/Fulltext
Dialog Coverage: 1984 - present, Full Text: 1995 - present
Periodical coverage includes popular science magazines as well as professional journals, and The New York Times Science Times section (published weekly on Tuesday).

IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin
EAST/WEST Coverage: 1958 - 1998, Full Text: -
Defensive disclosure database.

Inside Conferences
Dialog Coverage: 1993 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Contains details of all papers given at every congress, symposium, conference, exposition, workshop, and meeting received at the British Library Document Supply Centre.

IP.com
IP.com Coverage: 1958 - present, Full Text: 1958 - present
Prior art database.

IP.com contains the most complete electronic source of IBM TDBs with coverage from 1958 to the present. Documentation includes all TDB images. IP.com also hosts disclosure document backfiles from Motorola, Siemens, Sony, Xerox, Air Products, and Internet RFCs. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
JICST-EPlus - Japanese Science & Technology
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English citations and abstracts covering the literature published in Japan on all fields of science, technology, and medicine.

Index to Japanese scientific and technical journals, conferences, and reports, with English citations and abstracts.
MATH (MATHematics Abstracts)
STN Coverage: 1972 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database covering worldwide literature in pure and applied mathematics, including computer science, operations research, mathematical programming, systems and control theory.

MathSci
Dialog Coverage: 1910 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Coverage of mathematics, statistics, computer science, algorithms, and operations research.

McGraw-Hill Companies Publications Online
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: 1985 - present
Provides the complete text for many major McGraw-Hill publications.

Full text journal/newsletter articles covering aviation, electronics, computers, finance, and communications.
MECHENG (MECHanical and Transportation ENGineering Abstracts)
STN Coverage: 1966 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database providing information from the worldwide literature in mechanical and transportation engineering and their complementary fields.

Abstracts of serials literature, covering mathematics and computation, vehicle navigation and operation, and more. Useful for electromechanical searches (Class/Subclasses 708/810,830,842,854).
New Scientist
Dialog Coverage: 1994 - present, Full Text: 1994 - present
EBSCO Coverage: 1990 - present, Full Text: 2002 - present
ProQuest Coverage: 1989 - present, Full Text: 2002 - present
Science and technology news.

Full text file provides in-depth coverage on a wide range of topics including computers, engineering, telecommunications and more.
NTIS: National Technical Information Service
Dialog Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
U.S. government-sponsored research, development, and engineering reports.

full text file provides in-depth coverage on a wide range of topics including computers, engineering, telecommunications and more.
PASCAL
Dialog Coverage: 1973 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Questel Orbit Coverage: 1967 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1977 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Multidisplinary, multilingual bibliographic database covering the major international literature in science, technology, and medicine.

Produced by the French National Research Council. Index to scientific and technical literature. Each citation includes the original title and usually French- and English-translated titles and indexing terms. Most abstracts are in French.
Periodical Abstracts PlusText
Dialog Coverage: 1986 - present, Full Text: 1992 - present
Abstracts or full-text journal articles on science, technology, business, finance, and computers.

PR Newswire
Dialog Coverage: 1999 - present, Full Text: 1999 - present
Complete text of news releases prepared by U.S. companies, public relations agencies, trade associations, city, state, federal and municipal government agencies, and other sources covering the entire spectrum of news.

Subject areas include new products, science, transportation and more.
RDISCLOSURE (Research DISCLOSURE)
Kenneth Mason Publications Ltd. Coverage: 1960 - present, Full Text: 1960 - present


Full text defensive disclosure information. Includes documents from over 5,000 companies, including IBM.
San Jose Mercury News
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: 1985 - present
Full text file provides local, national, and international news coverage with particular emphasis on high technology and industry developments in Silicon Valley.

Science
AAAS Coverage: 1995 - present, Full Text: 1995 - present
Dialog Coverage: 1996 - present, Full Text: 1996 - present
EBSCO Coverage: 1984 - present, Full Text: 1997 - present
JSTOR Coverage: 1880 - 1999, Full Text: 1880 - 1999
ProQuest Coverage: 1986 - present, Full Text: 1988 - present
Weekly journal published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Full text journal articles with multidisciplinary coverage of scientific and technical subjects.
SciSearch: A Cited Reference Science Database
Dialog Coverage: 1990 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1974 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Cited reference index.

Cited reference index to the literature of science, technology, and related disciplines.
SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
SPIE Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - N/A
Society for the exchange, collection and dissemination of knowledge in optics, photonics and imaging.

Journals and proceedings on optics and photonics. Useful for optical searches (Class/Subclasses 708/191,816,831).
SPINŽ (Searchable Physics Information Notices)
Dialog Coverage: 1975 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Covers all major areas of physics research and provides indexing and abstracting of the major American, Russian, and Ukrainian physics and astronomy journals.

Bibliographic database covering physics research, including electromagnetic technology, microelectronics, optics, acoustics, and more. Useful for acoustic and optical searches (Class/Subclasses 708/191,815,816,831).
TecInfoSource (formerly SoftBase: Reviews, Companies, and Products)
Dialog Coverage: 1994 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Covers emerging technologies, established technology products and their track record in the marketplace across multiple industries.

Bibliographic file covers review records, product records, and company records includes hardware, software, graphics, e-commerce, accounting, computer technology, networks, and telecommunications.
TEME - Technology and Management
Dialog Coverage: 1989 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1990 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Worldwide engineering literature.

Bibliographic file with German and international publications relating to technology and management.
Wilson Applied Science & Technology Abstracts
Dialog Coverage: 1983 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Science and technology journal abstracts.

Wilson Business AbstractsTM Fulltext
Dialog Coverage: 1983 - present, Full Text: 1994 - present
Abstracts or full-text newspaper/journal articles covering electronics, construction, finance, computers, communications, and transportation.

Useful for business searches (Class/Subclasses 708/110,134,163).

INTERNET SEARCH TOOLS

An Internet search should be considered when a search of the resources listed above fails to locate relevant prior art. A preliminary Internet search may be performed to obtain an overview of the technology, and to identify additional search terms and related product information.

Google TM
Google Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - N/A
Internet search engine.

Used for author searches and to locate references.


Public Comments on the Search Templates

Public comments on the search templates are invited. Comments should address the points enumerated in the Criteria for Evaluating Recommended Search Resources. Comments can be submitted via the Search Template Project e-mail link on each template page or by mail addressed to:

Mail Stop Patents Search Template Comments
Commissioner for Patents
P.O. Box 1450
Alexandria, VA 22313-1450
Electronic submission is preferred. The Office will respond to comments in writing.

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