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Search Templates Class 549/456.000 - 563.000    

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Classification 549/456.000 - 563.000 >> view this class definition


U. S. PATENT RESOURCES

As general guidance, a complete search of U. S. patents in this art area will include the following:

  1. A classified search of the original classification class and subclass for the subject matter and the other highly relevant art areas in the US patent documents
  2. A text search of the US patent documents; patents, PG PUB, and OCR databases:
    • Broad text search for the general inventive concept(s), not limited by classification
    • Narrow text search for the specific claimed invention
    • Boolean text search employing the relevant inventive terms

The resources listed below are internal USPTO search tools. However, the information that they cover is available either commercially, on the USPTO web site, or in the Public Search Facility on the USPTO Headquarters campus and the Patent and Trademark Depository Libraries.

EAST/WEST
EAST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
WEST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
Full text patent and inventor searching.

EAST or WEST is used for full text and inventor searching. Queries may include classification parameters when combined with other terms to be searched on the technical content of the application. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
BRS Search/USOCR Database
EAST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
WEST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
Full text of U.S. patent grants.

EAST or WEST is used for text and inventor searching. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
PALM (Patent Application Locating and Monitoring)
USPTO Coverage: - Current, Full Text: - Current
Pending patent applications, recent patents, and abandoned files.

The Patent Application Locating and Monitoring (PALM) system is a large database system that maintains records for each patent application. PALM is designed to provide on-line access to information on all pending applications, as well as most recently patented and abandoned files. Useful for searching related applications by inventor name.
PGPUBS
EAST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
WEST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
U.S. published applications.

EAST or WEST is used for full text, inventor, double patent, and interference searching. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.

FOREIGN PATENT RESOURCES

Searched separately from the U.S. Patent Search. These databases consist of abstract documents. Text searching abstracts requires the use of different search logic e.g. the use of broad Boolean and/or operators instead of narrow proximity operators.

Derwent World Patents Index and the contents of the EPO Abstracts and JPO Abstracts are available commercially.

Derwent World Patents Index, Classification and Text Search
EAST Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of patent documents from more than 40 patent-issuing authorities.

EAST or WEST is used for text and assignee/inventor searching, and to obtain EP and WO documents. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
EPO Abstracts, Text and Classification Search
EAST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of patents and published applications from EPO, WO/PCT, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Switzerland. USPC searching is limited to documents added to the database from 1978 to September 30, 1995.

EAST or WEST is used for text and assignee/inventor searching. This resource may provide relevant information.
EPO esp@cenet
esp@cenet Coverage: 1920 - present, Full Text: 1920 - present
National patent information from all member states of the EPO as well as bibliographic data from patents worldwide.

Used for foreign document retrieval and to obtain international search reports. This resource may provide relevant information.
FPAS3
Coverage: 1980 - present, Full Text: -
USPTO foreign patent document retrieval system.

JPO Abstracts, Text and Classification Search
EAST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of Japanese published unexamined applications. USPC searching is limited to documents added to the database from 1978 to September 30, 1995.

EAST or WEST is used for text and assignee/inventor searching. This resource provides relevant information.
JPO Industrial Property Digital Library
NCIPI Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: 1976 - present
Japanese patent information.

Used as a source for machine translations of Japanese patent documents. This resource may provide relevant information.

NON-PATENT LITERATURE RESOURCES

The resources listed are those that USPTO staff have found consistently yield the most relevant search results. Commercial databases available through a single vendor can generally be searched simultaneously, although it is preferable to search full text and bibliographic databases in separate groupings. In addition to the use of subscription databases and public Internet sites, it is recommended that books, manuals, standards and specifications be considered in the search for prior art.

CA SEARCH: Chemical Abstracts
Dialog Coverage: 1967 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Questel Orbit Coverage: 1967 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1907 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Database of the worldwide literature of chemistry and its applications. Abstracts available via STN.

Useful in text, inventor, and registry number searching and a broad range of areas including chemical engineering, electrochemistry, biochemistry, and applied, macromolecular, organic, physical, inorganic, environmental and analytical chemistry. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
CAOLD (Pre-1967 Chemical Abstracts File)
STN Coverage: 1907 - 1966, Full Text: - N/A
Chemical Abstracts (CA) references from 1907 through 1966.

Searchable by Registry number, CA reference numbers, authors, patent assignees and title keywords. Structure diagrams are available. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
CAplus
STN Coverage: 1907 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Chemistry bibliographic database.

Covers the same material as file CA but contains early access to bibliographic information and patent family information for the documents in the process of being indexed. Useful in text, inventor, and registry number searching and in a broad range of areas including chemical engineering, electrochemistry, biochemistry, and applied, macromolecular, organic, physical, inorganic, environmental and analytical chemistry. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
CASREACT (R) (Chemical Abstracts Reaction Search Service)
STN Coverage: 1840 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Chemical reaction database.

Chemical reaction database with reaction information derived from journal and patent documents. Used to obtain reaction information consisting of structure diagrams for reactants and products, CAS Registry NumbersŪ (RNs) for all reactants, products, reagents, solvents, and catalysts, yields for many products, and textual reaction information. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information on reactions and processes.
Dissertation Abstracts Online
Dialog Coverage: 1861 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1861 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Subject, title, and author guide to virtually every American dissertation accepted at an accredited institution.

Used for inventor searching, and to identify prior art and enablement issues. This resource provides relevant information.
Dissertations and Theses - Full Text
ProQuest Coverage: 1861 - present, Full Text: Dates - vary
Doctoral dissertations and Master's theses.

Used for inventor searching, and to identify prior art and enablement issues. This resource provides relevant information.
EMBASE
Dialog Coverage: 1993 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1974 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Index of the world's literature on human medicine and related disciplines.

Biomedical and pharmaceutical literature. This resource provides relevant utility information.
MEDLINE (Medical Literature, Analysis, and Retrieval System Online)
Dialog Coverage: 1951 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1950 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database containing references to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine.

Contains information on every area of medicine. Corresponds to Index Medicus. Used for text and inventor searching, review articles, and utility issues. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
REGISTRY
STN Coverage: - Current, Full Text: - Current
Substance database containing records for substances identified by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry System.

Chemical structure and dictionary database that contains unique substance records. Protein and nucleic acid sequences may be retrieved using codes for the amino acids and nucleotides. Useful for searching registry numbers, chemical compounds/structures, and chemical names and synonyms. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
SciSearch: A Cited Reference Science Database
Dialog Coverage: 1974 - 1989, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1974 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Cited reference index.

International index to literature covering the broad fields of science, technology and biomedicine. Used for text and inventor searching, enablement issues, citation searching, and review articles. This resource provides relevant background information.
Analytical Abstracts
Dialog Coverage: 1980 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1980 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database that covers worldwide literature on analytical chemistry.

This resource provides relevant information on physical properties.
Beilstein Facts
Dialog Coverage: 1771 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1779 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Structures and properties for about 9 million heterocyclic, acyclic and isocyclic compounds.

This resource frequently provides highly relevant information on new uses for old compounds.
CANCERLIT
Dialog Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic records referencing cancer research publications.

Used for text and inventor searching, and for correlation of utility. This resource may provide relevant information.
Chem Sources Chemical
STN Coverage: Current - year, Full Text: - N/A
Catalog file containing information about commercially available chemicals.

Used to identify compounds. This resource provides relevant information.
CHEMCATS (Chemical Catalogs Online)
STN Coverage: 1995 - present, Full Text: 1995 - present
Chemical catalogs.

Catalog file containing information about commercially available chemicals and their worldwide suppliers. This resource provides relevant information on chemical properties.
CONFSCI (Conference Papers Index)
STN Coverage: 1973 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database that provides access to international research papers and findings presented at scientific and technical conferences and meetings throughout the world.

Index of scientific and technical papers presented at over 1,000 major regional, national, and international meetings each year. Useful in searching latest technology. This resource provides highly relevant information on the state of the art.
CRC Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds
STN Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - 1989


Contains the most frequently used physical and chemical data of organic compounds and is an extensive source of spectral data. Used to identify physical properties and data. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
CROPB
STN Coverage: 1968 - 1984, Full Text: - N/A
Derwent Crop Protection Backfile.

References to the worldwide journal literature on all aspects of pesticides, including their use in crop protection and pest control. This resource provides relevant information on specific compounds and utility.
CROPR
STN Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Derwent Crop Protection Registry File.

Registry database that is a companion to the Derwent Crop Protection File (CROPU). Each record lists the biological activity and chemical substructure characteristics of an individual compound. This resource provides relevant information on specific compounds and utility.
CROPU
STN Coverage: 1985 - 2003, Full Text: - N/A
Derwent Crop Protection File.

References to the worldwide journal literature on all aspects of pesticides, including their use in crop protection and pest control. This resource provides relevant information on specific compounds and utility.
Derwent Journal of Synthetic Methods
STN Coverage: 1975 - 2003, Full Text: - N/A
Structure-searchable chemical reactions database.

Contains reaction information consisting of structure diagrams for reactants and products, DJSM Registry Numbers for all reactants, products, solvents, and catalysts, yields for many products, and textual reaction information. This resource provides highly relevant information on chemical reactions, and is also used for structure searching.
Drug Information Fulltext
Dialog Coverage: Current - year, Full Text: Current - year
Corresponds to two printed publications: The American Hospital Formulary Service and The Handbook on Injectable Drugs.

Evaluative descriptions of investigational and commercially available drugs in use in the United States. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
DRUGB
STN Coverage: 1964 - 1982, Full Text: - N/A
Backfiles to the current Derwent Drug File.

References from the worldwide pharmaceutical literature. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
DRUGU
Dialog Coverage: 1983 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1983 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Covers all aspects of drug synthesis, development, evaluation, manufacture, and use.

References from the worldwide pharmaceutical literature. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
Elsevier BIOBASE
Dialog Coverage: 1994 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1994 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic current awareness database providing comprehensive coverage of the entire spectrum of biological research worldwide.

Coverage of biological research. This resource provides relevant information for enablement issues.
General Science Abstracts/Fulltext
Dialog Coverage: 1984 - present, Full Text: 1995 - present
Articles of at least one column in length from more than 150 English-language periodicals published in the United States and Great Britain.

Used to locate citations or full text science articles on a variety of topics. This resource provides relevant general information.
GMELIN
STN Coverage: 1817 - present, Full Text: - N/A
GMELIN Handbook of Inorganic and Organometallic Chemistry, Main Series and Supplements, and scientific publications from 1975 - 1997.

This resource provides relevant information on compounds and processes.
Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics
STIC online catalog Coverage: - , Full Text: 10th ed. - 2001
Goodman, Louis Sanford and Alfred Goodman Gilman

This book provides information on medical pharmacology.
Hackh's chemical dictionary
STIC online catalog Coverage: - , Full Text: 4th ed. - 1969
Hackh, I. and J. Grant

This chemical dictionary, with American and British usage, contains the words generally used in chemistry, and many of the terms used in the related sciences of physics, astrophysics, mineralogy, pharmacy, agriculture, biology, medicine, engineering, etc., based on recent chemical literature.
Inside Conferences
Dialog Coverage: 1993 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Contains details of all papers given at every congress, symposium, conference, exposition, workshop, and meeting received at the British Library Document Supply Centre.

This resource may provide relevant information on the state of the art.
International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA)
Dialog Coverage: 1970 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Provides information on all phases of the development and use of drugs and on professional pharmaceutical practice.

This resource frequently provides highly relevant information for utility issues relating to pharmacology and health.
JICST-EPlus - Japanese Science & Technology
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English citations and abstracts covering the literature published in Japan on all fields of science, technology, and medicine.

Japanese literature on chemistry and the chemistry industry, engineering, pharmacology, life sciences and medical science. Used for text and assignee/inventor searching. This resource may provide relevant general information.
KOSMET (Cosmetic & Perfume Science & Technology)
STN Coverage: 1968 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database on cosmetics and perfumes.

Bibliographic database containing citations to the worldwide literature on cosmetics and perfumes, with an emphasis on scientific and technical research and studies. This resource may provide relevant information if a compound is used as a cosmetic.
LIFESCI (Life Sciences Collection)
STN Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database from Cambridge Scientific Abstracts.

International scientific research in life sciences, including biochemistry, biotechnology, genetics, and immunology. Used for text and inventor searching, and for review articles. This resource may provide relevant general information or information on the state of the art.
March's advanced organic chemistry : reactions, mechanisms, and structure
STIC online catalog Coverage: - , Full Text: 5th ed. - 2001
Smith, Michael, and Jerry March

MARPAT (CAS Patent Markush)
STN Coverage: 1988 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Markush search service.

Contains the Markush structure records. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
Merck manual
Merck & Co., Inc. Coverage: - , Full Text: Current - edition
STIC online catalog Coverage: - , Full Text: 17th ed. - 1999
Beers, Mark H. and Andrew J. Fletcher

Descriptions of important chemicals, drugs, biologicals, and agricultural and natural products. This resource frequently provides highly relevant information.
NAPRALERT (NAtural PRoducts ALERT)
STN Coverage: 1650 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Contains bibliographic and factual data on natural products.

Covers natural products, including plant, microbial, and animal (including marine) extracts. This resource may provide relevant information on reactions with microbials, or claims with natural products.
NTIS: National Technical Information Service
Dialog Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
U.S. government-sponsored research, development, and engineering reports.

This resource may provide relevant prior art information.
PASCAL
Dialog Coverage: 1973 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Questel Orbit Coverage: 1967 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1977 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Multidisplinary, multilingual bibliographic database covering the major international literature in science, technology, and medicine.

Used for searching assignee/inventor names. This resource provides highly relevant information.
Pesticide Fact File
Dialog Coverage: 1968 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
Online version of The Pesticide Manual.

The records in the database provide detailed scientific data on component chemical and biological active ingredients used in agrochemical formulations worldwide. This resource may provide relevant utility information.
Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Industry News Database (PHIND)
Dialog Coverage: 1980 - present, Full Text: 1980 - present
STN Coverage: 1980 - present, Full Text: 1980 - present
Full text of indexed articles from the full range of PJB newsletters.

Full text of indexed articles from the full range of PJB newsletters dating back to 1980. This resource provides relevant information on state of the art.
Protective groups in organic synthesis
NetLibrary, Inc. Coverage: - , Full Text: Current - edition
STIC online catalog Coverage: - , Full Text: 3rd. Ed - 1999
Greene, Theodora W. and Peter G.M. Wuts

SYNTHLINE (Synthline Drug Synthesis Database)
STN Coverage: 1984 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Chemical information for each end product and the bibliographic references for each scheme are included.

Contains the schemes for syntheses for drugs currently on the market or in development worldwide. This resource provides relevant information on processes, drug discovery, and the state of the art.
TOXCENTER (Toxicology Center)
STN Coverage: 1907 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database that covers effects of drugs and other chemicals.

Covers the pharmacological, biochemical, physiological and toxicological effects of drugs and other chemicals. This resource provides relevant information for enablement issues and prior art.
ToxFile
Dialog Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Covers pharmacological, biochemical, physiological, and toxicological effects of drugs and other chemicals.

This resource provides relevant information for enablement issues and prior art.
Trademark Electronic Search System
USPTO Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - N/A
Contains more than 3 million pending, registered and dead federal trademarks.

This resource provides relevant information for current trademark assignments.
TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: 1985 - present
Chemical substances of any commercial use in the United States since 1979 under the Environmental Protection Act.

Non-bibliographic dictionary listing chemical substances manufactured, imported, or in commercial use in the U.S. This resource provides relevant information.
USP Dictionary of USAN and International Drug Names
Dialog Coverage: 1996 - 1996, Full Text: 1996 - 1996
Drug dictionary.

Dictionary of official, nonproprietary and trade drug names. Since 1961 for U.S. Adopted Names and 1953 for international non-proprietary names. This resource may provide relevant drug and drug name information.
VETB (Derwent Veterinary Drug File backfile)
STN Coverage: 1968 - 1982, Full Text: - N/A
References from the world's journals on developments and applications of veterinary drugs, including hormones, vaccines and growth promotants, etc., for use in farm, domestic, and other animals.

Used for inventor/assignee searching. This resource may provide relevant information on compound utility.
VETU (Derwent Veterinary Drug File)
STN Coverage: 1983 - 2001, Full Text: - N/A
References from the world's journals on developments and applications of veterinary drugs, including hormones, vaccines and growth promotants, etc., for use in farm, domestic and other animals.

Used for inventor/assignee searching. This resource may provide relevant information on compound utility.

INTERNET SEARCH TOOLS

An Internet search should be considered when a search of the resources listed above fails to locate relevant prior art. A preliminary Internet search may be performed to obtain an overview of the technology, and to identify additional search terms and related product information.

Google TM
Google Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - N/A
Internet search engine.

This resource may provide information on products, companies, individuals, and equipment.


Public Comments on the Search Templates

Public comments on the search templates are invited. Comments should address the points enumerated in the Criteria for Evaluating Recommended Search Resources. Comments can be submitted via the Search Template Project e-mail link on each template page or by mail addressed to:

Mail Stop Patents Search Template Comments
Commissioner for Patents
P.O. Box 1450
Alexandria, VA 22313-1450
Electronic submission is preferred. The Office will respond to comments in writing.

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