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Classification 460/all - subclasses >> view this class definition


U. S. PATENT RESOURCES

As general guidance, a complete search of U. S. patents in this art area will include the following:

  1. A classified search of the original classification class and subclass for the subject matter and the other highly relevant art areas in the US patent documents
  2. A text search of the US patent documents; patents, PG PUB, and OCR databases:
    • Broad text search for the general inventive concept(s), not limited by classification
    • Narrow text search for the specific claimed invention
    • Boolean text search employing the relevant inventive terms

The resources listed below are internal USPTO search tools. However, the information that they cover is available either commercially, on the USPTO web site, or in the Public Search Facility on the USPTO Headquarters campus and the Patent and Trademark Depository Libraries.

EAST/WEST
EAST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
WEST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
Full text patent and inventor searching.

Start with a broad text search, followed by a classification search, and then a more precise text search. Forward and backward citation searching is useful for this class.
BRS Search/USOCR Database
EAST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
WEST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
Full text of U.S. patent grants.

Start with a broad text search, followed by a classification search, and then a more precise text search.
PGPUBS
EAST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
WEST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
U.S. published applications.

Start with a broad text search, followed by a classification search, and then a more precise text search.
PLUS
Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
USPTO search system for U.S. patents.

PLUS (Patent Linguistics Utility System) is a USPTO search system that produces a list of the most closely related patents to the application searched. The system provides a list of classes/subclasses where the suggested patents are classified.

FOREIGN PATENT RESOURCES

Searched separately from the U.S. Patent Search. These databases consist of abstract documents. Text searching abstracts requires the use of different search logic e.g. the use of broad Boolean and/or operators instead of narrow proximity operators.

Derwent World Patents Index and the contents of the EPO Abstracts and JPO Abstracts are available commercially.

Derwent World Patents Index, Classification and Text Search
EAST Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of patent documents from more than 40 patent-issuing authorities.

Used for text searching and to find US equivalents as many foreign patents in this art have US equivalents.
EPO Abstracts, Text and Classification Search
EAST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of patents and published applications from EPO, WO/PCT, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Switzerland. USPC searching is limited to documents added to the database from 1978 to September 30, 1995.

Used for text searching.
EPO esp@cenet
esp@cenet Coverage: 1920 - present, Full Text: 1920 - present
National patent information from all member states of the EPO as well as bibliographic data from patents worldwide.

Used to retrieve search reports for large manufacturers.
JPO Abstracts, Text and Classification Search
EAST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of Japanese published unexamined applications. USPC searching is limited to documents added to the database from 1978 to September 30, 1995.

Used for text searching.

NON-PATENT LITERATURE RESOURCES

The resources listed are those that USPTO staff have found consistently yield the most relevant search results. Commercial databases available through a single vendor can generally be searched simultaneously, although it is preferable to search full text and bibliographic databases in separate groupings. In addition to the use of subscription databases and public Internet sites, it is recommended that books, manuals, standards and specifications be considered in the search for prior art.

AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access)
Dialog Coverage: 1970 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1970 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database consisting of records for literature citations of journal articles, monographs, theses, patents, translations, microforms, audiovisuals, software, and technical reports.

AGRIS International
Dialog Coverage: 1975 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Worldwide agricultural literature prepared by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

CAB ABSTRACTS
Dialog Coverage: 1972 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1973 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Covers literature from all areas of agriculture and related sciences.

Dialog Global Reporter
Dialog Coverage: 1997 - present, Full Text: 1997 - present
Global news source.

Covers newspapers, business magazines, and newswires from all regions of the world,
Farm Industry News
EBSCO Coverage: 1999 - present, Full Text: 1999 - present
ProQuest Coverage: 1998 - present, Full Text: 1998 - present
Subjects include agriculture and irrigation, business, industry and manufacturing, and agriculture and farming.

Farm Journal
ProQuest Coverage: 1988 - present, Full Text: 1995 - present
Emphasizes agricultural production, technology and policy.

Gale Group Trade & Industry DatabaseTM
Dialog Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: 1976 - present
Coverage of over 65 major industries, including full text coverage of management, economic, and other professional journals.

Coverage of international company, industry, product and market information with an emphasis on earnings, management techniques and changes, and product evaluations.
JICST-EPlus - Japanese Science & Technology
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English citations and abstracts covering the literature published in Japan on all fields of science, technology, and medicine.

Index to Japanese scientific and technical journals, conferences, and reports, with English citations and abstracts.
NTIS: National Technical Information Service
Dialog Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
U.S. government-sponsored research, development, and engineering reports.


INTERNET SEARCH TOOLS

An Internet search should be considered when a search of the resources listed above fails to locate relevant prior art. A preliminary Internet search may be performed to obtain an overview of the technology, and to identify additional search terms and related product information.

No resources identified
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Public Comments on the Search Templates

Public comments on the search templates are invited. Comments should address the points enumerated in the Criteria for Evaluating Recommended Search Resources. Comments can be submitted via the Search Template Project e-mail link on each template page or by mail addressed to:

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Commissioner for Patents
P.O. Box 1450
Alexandria, VA 22313-1450
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