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Classification 441/all - subclasses >> view this class definition


U. S. PATENT RESOURCES

As general guidance, a complete search of U. S. patents in this art area will include the following:

  1. A classified search of the original classification class and subclass for the subject matter and the other highly relevant art areas in the US patent documents
  2. A text search of the US patent documents; patents, PG PUB, and OCR databases:
    • Broad text search for the general inventive concept(s), not limited by classification
    • Narrow text search for the specific claimed invention
    • Boolean text search employing the relevant inventive terms

The resources listed below are internal USPTO search tools. However, the information that they cover is available either commercially, on the USPTO web site, or in the Public Search Facility on the USPTO Headquarters campus and the Patent and Trademark Depository Libraries.

EAST/WEST
EAST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
WEST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
Full text patent and inventor searching.

Text search is followed by a classification search. Depending on the case, text may be used to modify the classification search. Forward and backward citation searching is useful for this class.
BRS Search/USOCR Database
EAST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
WEST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
Full text of U.S. patent grants.

Text search is followed by a classification search. Depending on the case, text may be used to modify the classification search.
PGPUBS
EAST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
WEST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
U.S. published applications.

Text search is followed by a classification search. Depending on the case, text may be used to modify the classification search.
PLUS
Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
USPTO search system for U.S. patents.

PLUS (Patent Linguistics Utility System) is a USPTO search system that produces a list of the most closely related patents to the application searched. The system provides a list of classes/subclasses where the suggested patents are classified. This system is very useful for this class.

FOREIGN PATENT RESOURCES

Searched separately from the U.S. Patent Search. These databases consist of abstract documents. Text searching abstracts requires the use of different search logic e.g. the use of broad Boolean and/or operators instead of narrow proximity operators.

Derwent World Patents Index and the contents of the EPO Abstracts and JPO Abstracts are available commercially.

Derwent World Patents Index, Classification and Text Search
EAST Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of patent documents from more than 40 patent-issuing authorities.

Used for text searching.
EPO Abstracts, Text and Classification Search
EAST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of patents and published applications from EPO, WO/PCT, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Switzerland. USPC searching is limited to documents added to the database from 1978 to September 30, 1995.

Used for text searching.
JPO Abstracts, Text and Classification Search
EAST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of Japanese published unexamined applications. USPC searching is limited to documents added to the database from 1978 to September 30, 1995.

Used for text searching.

NON-PATENT LITERATURE RESOURCES

The resources listed are those that USPTO staff have found consistently yield the most relevant search results. Commercial databases available through a single vendor can generally be searched simultaneously, although it is preferable to search full text and bibliographic databases in separate groupings. In addition to the use of subscription databases and public Internet sites, it is recommended that books, manuals, standards and specifications be considered in the search for prior art.

ANTE
STN Coverage: 1981 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Abstracts from approximately 350 academic and trade publications from the U.K. and U.S.

Covers engineering, technology, and computer journals.
CSA Technology Research Database (TRD)
Dialog Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Megafile of the technical bibliographic databases provided by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts.

Subjects covered include materials science, engineering, aerospace, and high technology. Includes journal articles, conference papers, technical reports, books and standards.
Dialog Global Reporter
Dialog Coverage: 1997 - present, Full Text: 1997 - present
Global news source.

Covers newspapers, business magazines, and newswires from all regions of the world.
Gale Group New Product Announcements/Plus (NPA/Plus)
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: 1985 - present
Full text press releases from all industries covering announcements related to products, with a focus on new products and services.

Gale Group Trade & Industry DatabaseTM
Dialog Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: 1976 - present
Coverage of over 65 major industries, including full text coverage of management, economic, and other professional journals.

Coverage of international company, industry, product and market information with an emphasis on earnings, management techniques and changes, and product evaluations.
Inspec (The Database for Physics, Electronics and Computing)
Dialog Coverage: 1898 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Dialog DataStar Coverage: 1898 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Questel Orbit Coverage: 1969 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1969 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Inspec (The Database for Physics, Electronics and Computing) corresponds to the three Science Abstracts print publications: Physics Abstracts, Electrical and Electronics Abstracts, and Computer and Control Abstracts.

Abstracts from over 4,100 journals and serials, 750 of which are abstracted cover-to-cover. About 20% of the database is from conference proceedings.
NTIS: National Technical Information Service
Dialog Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
U.S. government-sponsored research, development, and engineering reports.

ProQuest Direct
ProQuest Coverage: Dates - vary, Full Text: 1986 - present
Current periodicals and newspapers, as well as archives of major newspapers.

Includes full text of Boating and Motor Boating.
TEME - Technology and Management
Dialog Coverage: 1989 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1990 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Worldwide engineering literature.

Bibliographic database with German and international publications relating to the areas of innovation, new products and processes etc.
Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS)
Dialog Coverage: 1968 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Provides international coverage of ongoing research projects, published journal articles, state and federal government reports, conference proceedings, research and technical papers, and monographs.

Composite file with records that are either abstracts of published articles and reports, or summaries relevant to the planning, development, operation, and performance of transportation.

INTERNET SEARCH TOOLS

An Internet search should be considered when a search of the resources listed above fails to locate relevant prior art. A preliminary Internet search may be performed to obtain an overview of the technology, and to identify additional search terms and related product information.

No resources identified
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Public Comments on the Search Templates

Public comments on the search templates are invited. Comments should address the points enumerated in the Criteria for Evaluating Recommended Search Resources. Comments can be submitted via the Search Template Project e-mail link on each template page or by mail addressed to:

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P.O. Box 1450
Alexandria, VA 22313-1450
Electronic submission is preferred. The Office will respond to comments in writing.

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