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Search Templates Class 424/275.100 - 276.100    

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Classification 424/275.100 - 276.100 >> view this class definition


U. S. PATENT RESOURCES

As general guidance, a complete search of U. S. patents in this art area will include the following:

  1. A classified search of the original classification class and subclass for the subject matter and the other highly relevant art areas in the US patent documents
  2. A text search of the US patent documents; patents, PG PUB, and OCR databases:
    • Broad text search for the general inventive concept(s), not limited by classification
    • Narrow text search for the specific claimed invention
    • Boolean text search employing the relevant inventive terms

The resources listed below are internal USPTO search tools. However, the information that they cover is available either commercially, on the USPTO web site, or in the Public Search Facility on the USPTO Headquarters campus and the Patent and Trademark Depository Libraries.

EAST/WEST
EAST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
WEST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
Full text patent and inventor searching.

WEST is used for full text and inventor searching for prior art US patents. Text searching is essential for biotechnology prior art. EAST is used for image searching.
ABSS (Automated Biotechnology Sequence Search System)
Coverage: - Current, Full Text: - Current
Genetic sequence search system.

USPTO internal genetic sequence search system composed of commercially available databases such as Genbank/EMBL, Geneseq, PIR, and UniProt. In-house databases (pending applications, issued patents, and published applications (PGPubs)) are also available for interference and prior art purposes. Useful for routine sequence searching as well as specialized searches, including alignments, length-limited, oligomer, and score/length.
BRS Search/USOCR Database
EAST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
WEST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
Full text of U.S. patent grants.

WEST is used for full text and inventor searching.
PALM (Patent Application Locating and Monitoring)
USPTO Coverage: - Current, Full Text: - Current
Pending patent applications, recent patents, and abandoned files.

The Patent Application Locating and Monitoring (PALM) system is a large database system that maintains records for each patent application. PALM is designed to provide on-line access to information on all pending applications, as well as most recently patented and abandoned files. Useful for searching related applications by inventor name. Best source available to examiners for inventor (double patenting) searches.
PGPUBS
EAST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
WEST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
U.S. published applications.

EAST or WEST is used for full text and inventor searching. Variations of inventor names should be used to ensure a complete search. PGPUBS is essential for prior art and potential interfering subject matter, as well as preliminary double patenting searching.
USPATFULL
STN Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
U.S. Patents Original Publications.

This database is used when searching by chemical Registry number. Complete Chemical Abstracts indexing for one equivalent US patent may be available, which facilitates cross-file searching with CAplus, REGISTRY, and USPATFULL. Used for searching short sequences, text, inventor, and registry number.

FOREIGN PATENT RESOURCES

Searched separately from the U.S. Patent Search. These databases consist of abstract documents. Text searching abstracts requires the use of different search logic e.g. the use of broad Boolean and/or operators instead of narrow proximity operators.

Derwent World Patents Index and the contents of the EPO Abstracts and JPO Abstracts are available commercially.

Derwent World Patents Index, Classification and Text Search
EAST Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of patent documents from more than 40 patent-issuing authorities.

EAST or WEST is used for text and assignee/inventor searching.
EPO Abstracts, Text and Classification Search
EAST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of patents and published applications from EPO, WO/PCT, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Switzerland. USPC searching is limited to documents added to the database from 1978 to September 30, 1995.

EAST or WEST is used for text and assignee/inventor searching. Variations of inventor names should be used to ensure a complete search.
EPO esp@cenet
esp@cenet Coverage: 1920 - present, Full Text: 1920 - present
National patent information from all member states of the EPO as well as bibliographic data from patents worldwide.

Provides PDF images for the full text of patents from a number of countries. Has text search capabilities in the title and abstract fields as well as retrieval by IPC and ECLA classification numbers. While it can be used for searching, it is primarily used as a foreign document retrieval system.
FPAS3
Coverage: 1980 - present, Full Text: -
USPTO foreign document retrieval system.

JPO Abstracts, Text and Classification Search
EAST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: - N/A
WEST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English abstracts database of Japanese published unexamined applications. USPC searching is limited to documents added to the database from 1978 to September 30, 1995.

EAST or WEST is used for text and assignee/inventor searching. Variations of inventor names should be used to ensure a complete search.
JPO Industrial Property Digital Library
NCIPI Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: 1976 - present
Japanese patent information.

Has text search capabilities in the title and abstract fields as well as retrieval by FI classifications and F-Terms. This resource is used primarily as a source for machine translations of Japanese patent documents from 1993 to present.
WIPO/PCT Patents Fulltext
Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: 1978 - present
STN Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: 1978 - present
Full text Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) published applications.

Covers the full text of Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) published applications issued under the auspices of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

NON-PATENT LITERATURE RESOURCES

The resources listed are those that USPTO staff have found consistently yield the most relevant search results. Commercial databases available through a single vendor can generally be searched simultaneously, although it is preferable to search full text and bibliographic databases in separate groupings. In addition to the use of subscription databases and public Internet sites, it is recommended that books, manuals, standards and specifications be considered in the search for prior art.

BIOSIS Previews
Dialog Coverage: 1969 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1969 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Comprehensive worldwide coverage of research in the biological and biomedical sciences.

Contains information on life sciences, including biological and biomedical areas. Access to nucleotide or protein sequence information. Used for text and inventor searching, registry number searching and searching exact sequence strings, subsequences, and functionally similar sequences using motif and pattern search capabilities. Particularly useful for scientific meeting abstracts which often precede journal publications. Also useful for locating European literature references.
CA SEARCH: Chemical Abstracts
Dialog Coverage: 1967 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Questel Orbit Coverage: 1967 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1907 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Database of the worldwide literature of chemistry and its applications. Abstracts available via STN.

Useful in text, inventor and registry number searching and a broad range of areas including chemical engineering, electrochemistry, biochemistry, and applied, macromolecular, organic, physical, inorganic, environmental and analytical chemistry. Useful for obtaining meeting abstracts.
CAOLD (Pre-1967 Chemical Abstracts File)
STN Coverage: 1907 - 1966, Full Text: - N/A
Chemical Abstracts (CA) references from 1907 through 1966.

Searchable by Registry number, CA reference numbers, authors, patent assignees and title keywords. Structure diagrams are available.
CAplus
STN Coverage: 1907 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Chemistry bibliographic database.

Covers the same material as file CA but contains early access to bibliographic information and patent family information for the documents in the process of being indexed. Useful in text, inventor and registry number searching and a broad range of areas including chemical engineering, electrochemistry, biochemistry, and applied, macromolecular, organic, physical, inorganic, environmental and analytical chemistry.
Dissertation Abstracts Online
Dialog Coverage: 1861 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1861 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Subject, title, and author guide to virtually every American dissertation accepted at an accredited institution.

Contains abstracts of US and selected foreign doctoral works and selected masters theses.
Dissertations and Theses - Full Text
ProQuest Coverage: 1861 - present, Full Text: Dates - vary
Doctoral dissertations and Master's theses.

Dissertations published from 1980 forward include 350-word abstracts written by the author. Master's theses published from 1988 forward include 150-word abstracts. More than 600,000 are available in native or image PDF formats.
EMBASE
Dialog Coverage: 1993 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1974 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Index of the world's literature on human medicine and related disciplines.

Worldwide literature in the pharmacological and biomedical fields. Includes basic biological sciences, human medicine (experimental and clinical), health policy and pharmacoeconomics, and public and environmental health. Useful for text and inventor searching and searching chemical names, CAS registry numbers, drug and device manufacture and trade names. Also useful for locating European literature references.
MEDLINE (Medical Literature, Analysis, and Retrieval System Online)
Dialog Coverage: 1951 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1950 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database containing references to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine.

Contains information on every area of medicine. Corresponds to Index Medicus. Useful for antisense-base technology, gene expression, methods of use in vitro or in vivo and for therapy. Used for text and inventor searching.
REGISTRY
STN Coverage: - Current, Full Text: - Current
Substance database containing records for substances identified by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry System.

Chemical structure and dictionary database that contains unique substance records. Protein and nucleic acid sequences may be retrieved using codes for the amino acids and nucleotides. Useful for searching sequences, registry numbers and chemical compounds/structures.
SciSearch: A Cited Reference Science Database
Dialog Coverage: 1974 - 1989, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1974 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Cited reference index.

Generic database encompassing much of biotechnology.
AGRICOLA (AGRICultural OnLine Access)
Dialog Coverage: 1970 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1970 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database consisting of records for literature citations of journal articles, monographs, theses, patents, translations, microforms, audiovisuals, software, and technical reports.

National Agricultural Library database of books and journal articles covering all aspects of agriculture. Used for text and inventor searching.
AGRIS International
Dialog Coverage: 1975 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Worldwide agricultural literature prepared by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Worldwide (non-US) agricultural literature prepared under the aegis of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. This file corresponds in part to the monthly printed publication, Agrindex. Comprehensive inventory of worldwide agricultural literature which reflects research results, food production, and rural development to help users identify problems involved in all aspects of world food supply.
Biotechnology OneSearch
Dialog Coverage: Dates - vary, Full Text: Dates - vary
Subject category guide to databases.

Multiple databases are searched simultaneously to determine which contain references to the technology or process.
CAB ABSTRACTS
Dialog Coverage: 1972 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1973 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Covers literature from all areas of agriculture and related sciences.

CANCERLIT
Dialog Coverage: 1963 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic records referencing cancer research publications.

Database of biomedical and other aspects of cancer literature. Produced by the National Cancer Institute.
CONFSCI (Conference Papers Index)
STN Coverage: 1973 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database that provides access to international research papers and findings presented at scientific and technical conferences and meetings throughout the world.

This resource may provide relevant information on the latest technology.
Derwent Biotechnology Resource
Dialog Coverage: 1982 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Questel Orbit Coverage: 1982 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1982 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Formerly Derwent Biotechnology Abstracts. Covers journal articles, patents, and conference proceedings describing research in the field of biotechnology.

Covers biotechnology from genetic manipulation through biochemical engineering and fermentation to downstream processing. Used for text and inventor searching. Some patent publications.
DGENE (The Derwent GENESEQ database)
STN Coverage: 1981 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Nucleic acid and protein sequences from the Derwent World Patents Index (WPINDEX/WPIDS/WPIX).

Database of nucleic and protein sequences extracted from the original patent (basic) documents published by 40 patent offices worldwide. Used in all nucleotide sequences longer than ten bases, all protein sequences longer than four amino acids, and probes and primers of any length. The content of this database is included in ABSS, the USPTO internal genetic sequence search system.
DIALINDEX
Dialog Coverage: - Current, Full Text: - Current
Master index to DIALOG databases.

DIALINDEX allows the searcher to determine which databases will yield a high number of results. Recommend that the query be simple since DIALINDEX enables the searcher to run the query through all the databases or a selected group of databases. Search topics can be tested in a group of files of the user's choosing or in one or more database categories provided by DIALOG (OneSearch). Databases that have the most references to the topic are then selected for a more focused search.
Fundamental immunology
STIC online catalog Coverage: - , Full Text: 5th ed. - 2003
Paul, William E.

Immunology reference book.
Gale Group PROMT
Dialog Coverage: 1990 - present, Full Text: 1990 - present
STN Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: 1978 - present
International coverage of companies, products, markets, and applied technologies for all industries.

Used for searching newspaper articles and press releases. Very useful when searching drug company-owned inventions where optimistic pre-filing articles or press releases might provide prior art.
GenBank (R)
STN Coverage: 1982 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Nucleic acid database.

GenBank (registered trademark of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service) is a nucleic acid database produced by the National Institute of Health. GenBank contains sequences and data such as the GenBank Locus Number, sequence description, source organism, sequence length, and references. Contains all sequences in EMBL and DDBJ (DNA DataBank of Japan).
Inside Conferences
Dialog Coverage: 1993 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Contains details of all papers given at every congress, symposium, conference, exposition, workshop, and meeting received at the British Library Document Supply Centre.

This resource may provide relevant information.
JICST-EPlus - Japanese Science & Technology
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English citations and abstracts covering the literature published in Japan on all fields of science, technology, and medicine.

Index to Japanese literature on chemistry and the chemical industry, engineering, pharmacology, life sciences and medical science. Used for text and inventor searching.
Medicine OneSearch
Dialog Coverage: Dates - vary, Full Text: Dates - vary
Subject category guide to databases.

Multiple databases are searched simultaneously to determine which contain references to the technology or process.
Merck manual
Merck & Co., Inc. Coverage: - , Full Text: Current - edition
STIC online catalog Coverage: - , Full Text: 17th ed. - 1999
Beers, Mark H. and Andrew J. Fletcher

Older editions useful.
NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information)
NLM Coverage: 1988 - present, Full Text: 1988 - present
National resource for molecular biology information.

Used for identifying sequence associated accession numbers, sequence alignments, and searching short oligonucleotides.
PubMed
NLM Coverage: 1950 - current, Full Text: - N/A
National Library of Medicine search service.

Used for text and inventor searching. Of particular note is the Related Articles link. Often useful to begin here with an Inventor search and go straight to Related Articles. Best links to online journals. PubMed is very useful for determining state of the art in which the applicant publishes.
Stedman's medical dictionary
STIC online catalog Coverage: - , Full Text: 27th ed. - 2000
xreferplus Coverage: - , Full Text: Current - edition
Stedman, T.

Older editions useful.
STNindex
STN Coverage: - Current, Full Text: - Current
Master index to STN databases.

STNindex allows the searcher to determine which databases will yield a high number of results. Recommend that the query be simple since STNindex runs the query through all the databases or a selected group of databases.

INTERNET SEARCH TOOLS

An Internet search should be considered when a search of the resources listed above fails to locate relevant prior art. A preliminary Internet search may be performed to obtain an overview of the technology, and to identify additional search terms and related product information.

Google TM
Google Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - N/A
Internet search engine.

Internet Archive
Internet Archive Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - N/A
Provides permanent access to historical collections that exist in digital format.

Wayback Machine used to obtain earlier, dated versions of web pages.
Scirus
Elsevier Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - N/A
Science-specific search engine.

Yahoo!
Yahoo! Inc. Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - N/A
Internet search engine.

This resource may provide information on topics, specific companies, individuals, materials, and properties.


Public Comments on the Search Templates

Public comments on the search templates are invited. Comments should address the points enumerated in the Criteria for Evaluating Recommended Search Resources. Comments can be submitted via the Search Template Project e-mail link on each template page or by mail addressed to:

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Alexandria, VA 22313-1450
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