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Patents > Guidance, Tools, and Manuals > Search Templates > Search Templates By Class > Search Templates Class 280 > Subclass 151.000 - 192.000
Search Templates Class 280/151.000 - 192.000    

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Classification 280/151.000 - 192.000 >> view this class definition


U. S. PATENT RESOURCES

As general guidance, a complete search of U. S. patents in this art area will include the following:

  1. A classified search of the original classification class and subclass for the subject matter and the other highly relevant art areas in the US patent documents
  2. A text search of the US patent documents; patents, PG PUB, and OCR databases:
    • Broad text search for the general inventive concept(s), not limited by classification
    • Narrow text search for the specific claimed invention
    • Boolean text search employing the relevant inventive terms

The resources listed below are internal USPTO search tools. However, the information that they cover is available either commercially, on the USPTO web site, or in the Public Search Facility on the USPTO Headquarters campus and the Patent and Trademark Depository Libraries.

EAST/WEST
EAST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
WEST Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
Full text patent and inventor searching.

Classification search is done first. Text search is done second. A combination of text searching and classification searching is most useful when searching this class. Backward and forward citation searching has proven to be useful for this class.
BRS Search/USOCR Database
EAST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
WEST Coverage: 1920 - 1970, Full Text: 1920 - 1970
Full text of U.S. patent grants.

Classification search is done first. Text search is done second.
PGPUBS
EAST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
WEST Coverage: 2001 - present, Full Text: 2001 - present
U.S. published applications.

USPC classification or full text search capabilities. Search simultaneously with US Patent database.
PLUS
Coverage: 1971 - present, Full Text: 1971 - present
USPTO search system for U.S. patents.

PLUS (Patent Linguistics Utility System) is a USPTO search system for US patents that produces a list of the most closely related patents to the application searched. The system provides a list of classes/subclasses where the suggested patents are classified.

FOREIGN PATENT RESOURCES

Searched separately from the U.S. Patent Search. These databases consist of abstract documents. Text searching abstracts requires the use of different search logic e.g. the use of broad Boolean and/or operators instead of narrow proximity operators.

Derwent World Patents Index and the contents of the EPO Abstracts and JPO Abstracts are available commercially.

Derwent World Patents Index, IPC Classified and Text Search
EAST Coverage: 1970 - present, Full Text: 1970 - present
WEST Coverage: 1970 - present, Full Text: 1970 - present
English abstracts database of patent documents from more than 40 patent-issuing authorities.

May be searched simultaneously in a single search query with EPO Abstracts and JPO Abstracts in EAST/WEST. For cases involving safety features (airbags, seatbelts etc.) IPC codes are particularly useful.
EPO Abstracts, Text and Classified Search
EAST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: 1978 - present
WEST Coverage: 1978 - present, Full Text: 1978 - present
English abstracts database of published unexamined applications from EPO, WO/PCT, United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Switzerland.

EPO patent documents in a USPC or an IPC classification are viewed for relevance to the patent application being searched. Includes a classified search in EAST or WEST. May be searched simultaneously in a single search query with JPO Abstracts and World Patents Index in EAST/WEST. For cases involving safety features (airbags, seatbelts etc.) IPC codes are particularly useful.
EPO esp@cenet
esp@cenet Coverage: 1920 - present, Full Text: 1920 - present
National patent information from all member states of the EPO as well as bibliographic data from patents worldwide.

While Esp@cenet can be used for searching, its primary use is as a foreign document retrieval system. Provides PDF images for the full text of patents from a number of countries. Has text search capabilities in the title and abstract fields as well as retrieval by IPC and ECLA classification numbers. Primarily used for document retrieval when a patent number is known.
FPAS3
Coverage: - , Full Text: -
USPTO foreign document retrieval system.

JPO Abstracts, Text and Classified Search
EAST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: 1976 - present
WEST Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: 1976 - present
English abstracts database of published unexamined applications.

JPO patent documents in a USPC or an IPC classification are viewed for relevance to the patent application being searched. Includes a classified search in EAST or WEST. May be searched simultaneously in a single search query with EPO Abstracts and World Patents Index in EAST/WEST. For cases involving safety features (airbags, seatbelts etc.) IPC codes are particularly useful.
JPO Industrial Property Digital Library
NCIPI Coverage: 1976 - present, Full Text: 1976 - present
Japanese patent information.

Has text search capabilities in the title and abstract fields as well as retrieval by FI classifications and F-Terms. This resource is used primarily as a source for machine translations of Japanese patent documents from 1993 to present.

NON-PATENT LITERATURE RESOURCES

The resources listed are those that USPTO staff have found consistently yield the most relevant search results. Commercial databases available through a single vendor can generally be searched simultaneously, although it is preferable to search full text and bibliographic databases in separate groupings. In addition to the use of subscription databases and public Internet sites, it is recommended that books, manuals, standards and specifications be considered in the search for prior art.

1MOBILITY (Global Mobility Bibliographic Database)
STN Coverage: 1906 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database from the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) contains information on worldwide literature of technologies for self-propelled vehicles.

2MOBILITY (Global Mobility Standards Database)
STN Coverage: 1936 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database from the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

Bibliographic database that contains standards and specifications in the area of mobility engineering. Scientific and technical information is available for land, sea, air, and space vehicles.
ALUMINIUM (ALUMINIUM Industry Abstracts (AIA))
STN Coverage: 1968 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Coverage of the world's technical literature on aluminum, ranging from ore processing through applications.

CERAB (Ceramic Abstracts/World Ceramics Abstracts)
STN Coverage: 1975 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Covers the scientific, engineering, and commercial literature on all aspects of ceramics and related materials.

Useful in those cases where a particular material is claimed.
Dialog Global Reporter
Dialog Coverage: 1997 - present, Full Text: 1997 - present
Global news source.

Comprehensive global news source that covers the leading newspapers, business magazines, and newswires from all regions of the world, including emerging markets. This resource may be useful for cases where the invention is likely to be used overseas.
EMA (Engineered Materials Abstracts)
STN Coverage: 1986 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Bibliographic database covering the worldwide literature on the development, processing, and production of ceramic, composite, and polymeric materials.

This resource may be used for cases in which a material is claimed.
Gale Group New Product Announcements/Plus (NPA/Plus)
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: 1985 - present
Full text press releases from all industries covering announcements related to products, with a focus on new products and services.

JICST-EPlus - Japanese Science & Technology
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: - N/A
English citations and abstracts covering the literature published in Japan on all fields of science, technology, and medicine.

Knovel
Knovel Coverage: Dates - vary, Full Text: Dates - vary
Science and engineering books and databases.

Full-text engineering and scientific reference books with interactive tables and graphs. Titles include Mark's Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers. These materials are mainly used as background material or to show that something is commonly known in the art.
McGraw-Hill Companies Publications Online
Dialog Coverage: 1985 - present, Full Text: 1985 - present
Provides the complete text for many major McGraw-Hill publications.

The database covers specific industries, i.e., automotive, electronics, and construction.
NTIS: National Technical Information Service
Dialog Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1964 - present, Full Text: - N/A
U.S. government-sponsored research, development, and engineering reports.

PASCAL
Dialog Coverage: 1973 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Questel Orbit Coverage: 1967 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1977 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Multidisplinary, multilingual bibliographic database covering the major international literature in science, technology, and medicine.

Produced by French National Research Council. Index to scientific and technical literature. Each citation includes the original title and usually French- and English-translated titles and indexing terms. Most abstracts are in French.
RAPRA: Rubber and Plastics
Dialog Coverage: 1972 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Questel Orbit Coverage: 1972 - present, Full Text: - N/A
STN Coverage: 1972 - present, Full Text: - N/A
Covers technical and commercial aspects of rubber, plastics, adhesives and polymeric composites.


INTERNET SEARCH TOOLS

An Internet search should be considered when a search of the resources listed above fails to locate relevant prior art. A preliminary Internet search may be performed to obtain an overview of the technology, and to identify additional search terms and related product information.

Google TM
Google Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - N/A
Internet search engine.

This search engine may provide information on broad topics, specific companies, devices, individuals, materials, products, and properties.
Yahoo!
Yahoo! Inc. Coverage: - N/A, Full Text: - N/A
Internet search engine.

This search engine may provide information on broad topics, specific companies, devices, individuals, materials, products, and properties.


Public Comments on the Search Templates

Public comments on the search templates are invited. Comments should address the points enumerated in the Criteria for Evaluating Recommended Search Resources. Comments can be submitted via the Search Template Project e-mail link on each template page or by mail addressed to:

Mail Stop Patents Search Template Comments
Commissioner for Patents
P.O. Box 1450
Alexandria, VA 22313-1450
Electronic submission is preferred. The Office will respond to comments in writing.

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