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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 402]   CLASS 402,BINDER DEVICE RELEASABLY ENGAGING APERTURE OR NOTCH OF SHEET
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This class is the residual locus for:

(1) A device including a sheet retainer* in the form of means which passes through the thickness dimension of a sheet* or a group of sheets to secure the same in either geometrically congruent relation (see (1) Note below) or in haphazard arrangement and cooperates with structure (e.g., hole, peripheral incised opening, etc.) of the sheet(s) to releasably retain such sheet(s) therein or thereto in such a manner that removal thereof, in the manner intended, from the means may be accomplished without mutilation (e.g., tearing, deforming, etc.) of any portion of either the means or the sheet(s).

(2) such sheet retainer, per se.

(3) a depository* or other perfecting feature intended for attachment to and serving to perfect a sheet retainer* and its proximate function as set forth under (1) above, or

(4) a sheet, per se, notched or apertured to accommodate a sheet retainer of this class.

(1) Note. Such a device having structure limiting its use to, or combined with sheets disposed in a particular arrangement for exhibition (e.g., overlapped, side-by-side arrangement, etc.) is classified elsewhere (see search notes below referencing this note or see the appropriate container class). SCOPE OF THE CLASS Class 402 is intended as the locus for devices and subcombination thereof the proximate function of which is the retention of sheets* by sheet retainer* means which passes through the thickness dimension* of the sheets to releasably retain the sheets. The subject matter for the most part represents what is generally known as the loose-leaf binder "art". STRUCTURE OF THE CLASS The first-line subclasses of the class are based on the mode of operation of the sheet retainer*, where possible, with the remainder of the subclasses based on the structure (generally static) of the device. Provided in this class are cross-reference art collections based on disclosed use or particular characteristics as indicated in the titles and definitions thereof. These collections of disclosures are not exhaustive but are intended as aids to a search based on ultimate function or use, as a supplement to a search of other subclasses in this class, or as an indication of further related fields of search inside or outside this class. GENERAL NOTES This class (402) is restricted to the subject matter defined above in this Class Definition. The definition set forth above should, however, be read in the light of further limitations imposed thereon by the other sections and by any SEARCH CLASS notes in the subclass definitions. Figure 1 appearing in connection with certain defined terms in the Glossary is intended as an aid in comprehension of the limitations of the concepts incorporated in such term in the subclass titles and definitions. The details illustrated in such figure are not to be considered as constituting a structural limitation on the subject matter defined. An asterisk (*) has been applied to certain terms throughout this Class Definition to indicate that such terms have specific limitations in this class as set forth in the definitions of such terms in the Glossary, for which see. Where such asterisk is employed in a subclass definition, it will not be repeated in any subclass indented thereunder.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

A. SPECIFIC RELATION TO CERTAIN COMBINATION CLASSES:

A combination of a specific sheet retainer* of the type provided for in this class (402) with a nominal depository* (e.g., "wall(s)" and "bottom", etc.) will be placed in this class (402), however, the combination of such sheet retainer with a particular depository (e.g., terraced receptacle; rack; compartmented receptacle; cabinet; pocketbook or other receptacle including a compartment which may accommodate a sheet retainer; etc.) will be placed in the appropriate class providing for such depository, for which see References to Other Classes, below, that reference this section.

B. SPECIFIC RELATION TO CERTAIN SUBCOMBINATION CLASSES:

This class provides for a device including means providing the retention of and the nondestructive removal therefrom of a sheet. However, a device generally known as a clamp or fastener for holding a sheet or an assembly of sheets in assembled relation will be placed in that class providing for such subject matter for which see the classes in References to Other Classes, below, referencing this section.

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   appropriate subclasses for (1) a hinge, per se, including two or more hinge leaves with means to attach the leaves to adjoining bodies or (2) a hinge including two or more leaves in combination with nominally recited bodies. (See Lines With Other Classes, "B. Specific Relation To Certain Subcombination Classes" above).
24Buckles, Buttons, Clasps, etc.,   for a device of that class which is of general utility. Note particularly subclasses 703.2+ which provides for a device which may penetrate the thickness dimension of a sheet or assembly of sheets which device is intended to permanently remain therewith. A sheet retention device of the type provided for in this class (402) with additional means to clamp the sheet on the sheet retention means will be placed in this class (402). (See Lines With Other Classes, "B. Specific Relation To Certain Subcombination Classes" above).
40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   appropriate subclass for a device which retains two or more sheets or an assembly of sheets for display purposes, subclasses 377+ and 493+ for rotatable carriers and subclasses 388+ and 530+ for hinged sheets. (See the Class Definition, 4, (1) Note; Also see Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above).
190Trunks and Hand-Carried Luggage,   for a device of that class (190) which may include a sheet retainer. (See Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above).
70Locks,   subclasses 456+ for a key retainer (i.e., key ring) which may have structure similar to a sheet retainer of this class (402). (See Lines With Other Classes, "B. Specific Relation To Certain Subcombination Classes" above).
206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclasses 38+ for a combined pocket or personal use package; subclasses 39+ for a pocket case to hold tickets, cards, stamps, etc.; subclass 232 for a combined package including a record means, subclass 425 for a file for plural cards or sheets; subclasses 449+ for a plate plural cards or sheets; or sheet package; subclass 560 for a tray-type container including a content latch means; and subclass 565 for a tray-type container including an article retainer means. (See Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above).
211Supports: Racks,   note particularly subclasses 7 , 45+, 49.1+, 123+, 125, and 170+ for a support rack which may include a sheet retainer providing either destructive or nondestructive recovery of a sheet. (See Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above).
217Wooden Receptacles,   for a device of that class which may include a sheet retainer. (See Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above).
220Receptacles,   see subclasses 600+ for a receptacle including a partition or movable wall (e.g., follower, etc.). (See Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above).
248Supports,   note particularly subclasses 441.1+ for support means (e.g., easel, etc.) which may incorporate a sheet retainer; subclasses 301, 303, and 304+ for a bracket including a hook which may be used to retain a sheet. (See Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above).
281Books, Strips, and Leaves,   note subclass 19.1 and 29+ for a sheet depository (e.g., book cover) provided with means to secure the subject matter of that class therein. (See Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above).
283Printed Matter,   for an article "the physical structure of which, except strips, books, and leaves, is not a part of the inventions or is deemed to be conventional, bearing indicia which primarily effect intellectual impressions other than the esthetic, and combinations of such strips, books and leaves with other things not classifiable elsewhere". (See Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above)
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclasses 183+ for a device of this class (402) (1) positioned within a receptacle or enclosure, or (2) positioned upon an article support (e.g., drawer, rack, shelf, etc.) of that class (312) and disposed within an enclosure. (See Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above)
462Books, Strips, and Leaves for Manifolding,   subclasses 71+ for a sheet binder device facilitating a manifolding operation. (See Lines With Other Classes, "A. Specific relation to certain combination classes" above).

SECTION IV - GLOSSARY

DEPOSITORY

An article adapted to include a sheet retainer*, of this class, for the retention of apertured sheets* and intended to receive both (1) the nonthickness surface (See Fig. 1) and (2) the thickness surface (See Fig. 1) of the sheet or either (1) or (2) above.

KEEPER

An element or mechanism which cooperates with a sheet retainer to releasably secure a sheet* thereon.

SHEET

A three dimensional body having all opposed surfaces thereof disposed in substantially parallel relation each nonthickness surface (See Figure 1 below) of which has a greater surface area than the area of any one surface of the two remaining pairs of opposed surfaces.

Image 1 for class 402 subclass 0

(1) Note. A composite sheet including means such as an apertured or notched tab or strip attached thereto for cooperation with a sheet retention means is considered the equivalent of a one piece sheet likewise notched or apertured. Note particularly subclass 500 for a device of this class employed to releasably retain such composite sheet.
(2) Note. A sheet-like body (e.g., "divider", "follower", "sheet lifter", etc.) serving as a component of a device (e.g., container, depository, etc.) will not be considered a sheet as defined above. Such body is a component of the device rather than a sheet intended for temporary storage on or within the device.

SHEET RETAINER

an elongated element which passes through the thickness dimension (See Figure 1 of the Glossary) of a sheet* or a group of sheets to secure the same and cooperates with structure (e.g., hole, peripheral incised opening, etc.) of the sheet(s) to releasably retain such sheet(s) and may further cooperate with (1) another elongated element or (2) a keeper*, to so retain such sheet.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 1]    1SHEET RETAINER WITH SEPARATE APERTURE MAKING DEVICE (E.G., PAPER PUNCH, ETC.)
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof including a discrete means for punching an opening through the thickness dimension of a sheet* for the purpose of mounting such sheet on the sheet retainer* means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

7,for a sheet retainer which may serve to impale a sheet and insert a strand through the sheet.
25,for the combination of a means which cooperates with a sheet retainer to force a sheet on the sheet retainer.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   appropriate subclass for a device for cutting (e.g., punching, etc.), an aperture in a sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 2]    2SHEET RETAINER WITH LOCK AND DISCRETE KEY OPERATED RELEASE MEANS
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof including a lock means (e.g., key-operated tumbler locks, etc.), serving to hinder or preclude access to the contents of such device by persons other than those possessing either a key or secret knowledge of how to release such lock means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

24Buckles, Buttons, Clasps, etc.,   subclass 2 for a device specially adapted for the purpose of keeping an album or other book closed.
70Locks,   subclasses 67+ for a portfolio with a lock and subclasses 158+ for a cover with a lock.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 3]    3BINDER WITH VISUAL IDENTIFICATION MEANS
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in combination with a label or label holder.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclasses 642.02+ for a check, label or tag holder.
281Books, Strips, and Leaves,   appropriate subclasses for a book or book cover in combination with a label or label holder.
283Printed Matter,   subclass 64 for a book or book cover bearing indicia.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 4]    4COMBINED
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device which comprises devices or elements in addition to or combined with a sheet retainer* and (1) having functions other than retaining notched or apertured sheets or (2) which serve to perfect the sheet retainer for its intended purpose.
(1) Note. See Lines With Other Classes for a statement of the line between combinations provided for in this class (402), and combinations appropriate to other classes.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 5]    5PIVOTAL LINK TYPE SHEET RETAINER
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof including an elongated sheet retainer* made of a series of pivotally attached elements.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

59Chain, Staple, and Horseshoe Making,   subclasses 78+ for a chain or pivotal link assembly, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 6]    6With means to apply tension thereto
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.  Device including a mechanical movement (e.g., linkage system, spring, screw rod with nut, etc.) which retracts a portion of the length of the sheet retainer to reduce the sheet storage capacity of the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 7]    7SHEET RETAINER ALSO SERVES TO INSERT BINDER STRAND THROUGH SHEET
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof wherein a first sheet retainer includes means for insertion of a pliant elongated element (e.g., cord, etc.), through the thickness dimension of a sheet*, which element may then serve as a sheet retainer* for the sheet upon removal of the sheet from the first sheet retainer.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

25,for a sheet retainer device which includes means to force a sheet upon a sheet retainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 8]    8PLIANT, DEFORMABLE SHEET RETAINER (E.G., CORD, BAND, STRAP, ETC.)
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof which includes a sheet retainer* made up of a flexible, flaccid or readily deformable material and which is either a slender endless element (e.g., rubber band, etc.), or elongated element (e.g., string, split prong fastener, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

7,for a pliant sheet retainer in combination with a sheet retainer including means to insert the pliant retainer through a sheet.
19,for a device including a sheet retainer in the form of a resilient element requiring deflection for sheet removal which retainer springs back into position after deflection.
57,for a device including a coiled spring type sheet retainer where deflection of the retainer is not necessary for sheet removal.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 9]    9With means to apply tension thereto
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Device in combination with a separate mechanism or element (e.g., rubber strip, etc.) disposed between the sheet retainer and some other component of the device to exert a pull upon the sheet retainer.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

6,for a device including a pivotal link type sheet retainer with means to apply tension thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 10]    10Reel type
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Device wherein the pliant sheet retainer is pulled taut by a drum-like element upon which the pliant sheet retainer is mounted.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   appropriate subclass for a device of that class for winding flexible material upon support means such as reels, bobbins or spools for storage purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 11]    11Rack or screw type
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Device wherein the pliant sheet retainer is pulled taut by a element in the form of (1) a series of notches or (2) a continuous helical groove.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

52+,for a device including telescopic sheet retainers which are secured together by means of a rack or screw.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 12]    12Endless
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Device wherein the sheet retainer is in the form of a slender element having no end (e.g., rubber band, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 13]    13Flaccid retainer secured by knotted, intertwined or wedge portion
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Device where the sheet retainer is in the form of a limp elongated element a portion of which is (1) wrapped upon itself or some adjacent body or (2) compressed within a restricted opening in a body to produce a releasable binding of such portion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

14+,for a device including a pliant elongated element of metal a first portion of which serves as a sheet retainer and a second portion continuous with and folded relative to the first portion serving as a keeper* therefore which second portion may be intertwined, interlaced or wedged with some other body to secure the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 14]    14Secured by folded portion thereof
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Devices including an elongated sheet retainer which releasably secures a sheet by means of readily bendable distal portion of such retainer.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

24Buckles, Buttons, Clasps, etc.,   subclasses 703.2+ for a similar device disclosed for plural uses one of which may be the retention of sheets with nondestructive recovery thereof.
281Books, Strips, and Leaves,   subclass 27.3 for a book including some metal element in the leaf securing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 15]    15Cooperating with holder therefor
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Device wherein the distal end portion fits within the confines of a "securing means (e.g., apertured keeper*) to" releasably secure the end portion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

60+,for discrete holder or keeper* structure, per se, or in combination with a rigid sheet retainer*.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 16]    16Pivoted holder
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Device wherein the holder is in the form of a rotatable sheet-like body mounted upon an apertured body through which the folded portion extends.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 17]    17Slidable holder
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Device wherein the holder may be moved along a rectilinear path to secure the folded portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 18]    18With depository attaching means
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Device wherein the sheet retainer is provided with supplementary means, usually projections, to impale or grip a rigid base for support.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 19]    19RESILIENT SHEET RETAINER REQUIRING DEFLECTION FOR SHEET REMOVAL
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof wherein the sheet retainer* is spring-like and temporary physical distortion thereof from its normal sheet retaining state is intended and necessary as a prerequisite to the removal of a sheet* disposed thereon.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

8+,for a device including a flaccid, resilient or readily deformably sheet retainer which requires manipulation for removal of a sheet therefrom.
57,for a device including a coiled spring type sheet retainer where deflection thereof may be incidental to but not a prerequisite to removal of a sheet therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 20]    20Opposed sheet retainers
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.  Device including a pair of elongated sheet retainers contralaterally disposed in either offset or aligned relation such that their distal ends cooperate to secure a sheet in the device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

31+,for a device including opposed sheet retainer prongs where no physical distortion is required for removal of a sheet therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 21]    21Releasably attached to keeper
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.  Device including means to disengageably secure the distal end portion of the sheet retainer, to a contralaterally disposed keeper*.

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45,for a device including a sheet retainer involving arcuate travel and having an opposed keeper cooperating therewith where no physical distortion is required, of the sheet retainer, for removal of a sheet therefrom.
60+,for a sheet retainer generally, with a releasable keeper.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 22]    22One end permanently secured
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.  Device wherein the sheet retainer is fixed or pivotally attached at one end thereof to a body, the end remote from such fixed or pivotally attached end being disengageably held by the keeper.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 23]    23On discrete hinge pin
 This subclass is indented under subclass 22.  Device wherein the pivotally attached end of the sheet retainer is rotatably mounted on a separate and distinct pintle.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

42+,for device including opposed sheet retainer prongs rotatable on discrete hinge pins where no physical distortion is required for removal of a sheet therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 24]    24SHEET RETAINER INCLUDING SHEET GUIDE MEANS
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof including means cooperating with a peripheral edge portion of the sheet* to assist in the manipulation thereof on the sheet retainer*.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 25]    25SHEET RETAINER WITH MEANS TO FORCE SHEET THEREON
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof including means which causes motion of a perforated or unperforated sheet* relative to the sheet retainer* in such a direction that the sheet retainer passes through the thickness dimension of the sheet.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1,for a sheet retention device which includes a separate aperture making device no part of which cooperates with the sheet retainer to make a hole in the sheet.
7,for a device including a sheet retainer which penetrates and inserts a binder strand through a sheet.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   appropriate subclass for a cutting device for forming an aperture in a sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 26]    26SHEET RETAINER TRAVELS ARCUATE PATH
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof wherein the physical structure of the sheet retainer* or a component thereof is such that movement of the retainer or a component thereof in a curvilinear path (e.g., pivotally mounted sheet retainer, etc.) is prerequisite to (1) insertion or removal of the sheet* or (2) manipulation of the sheet thereon.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

14+,for a device including a pliant type sheet retainer wherein arcuate travel of a folded portion is prerequisite to sheet removal.
61+,for an elongated retainer (i.e., rod) which must be rotated about its own axis relative to a fixed keeper in order to release a sheet.
73+,for a depository (i.e., cover), per se, which may be adapted to a device of this subclass.

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40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclasses 388+ and 530+ for hinge mounted items.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 27]    27Coplanar with axis of rotation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 26.  Device wherein the sheet retainer or a component thereof pivots about an axis which axis lies in the same plane as does the major axis of the retainer or components.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 28]    28Preceded by a rectilinear travel
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Device wherein translation of the sheet retainer or a component thereof is prerequisite to the arcuate travel.

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19+,for a similar device wherein a deflection of the sheet retainer or a component thereof is prerequisite to arcuate travel for sheet removal.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 29]    29Travel in plane perpendicular to axis of rotation
 This subclass is indented under subclass 26.  Device wherein the sheet retainer or a component thereof pivots about an axis disposed normal to a plane containing the major axis of the retainer or component.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 30]    30Preceded by rectilinear travel
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Device wherein translation of the sheet retainer or component is prerequisite to the arcuate travel.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 31]    31Opposed sheet retainers (e.g., ring binders, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Device wherein the device includes a pair of sheet retainers contralaterally disposed with their distal ends either in offset or aligned relation, which retainers pass through the thickness dimension of the sheet and cooperate to releasably secure the sheet.

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40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclasses 404 and 536 for retaining means engaging aperture in an item.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 32]    32Spacing of adjacent retainers adjustable
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Device wherein the lateral distance between either opposed offset retainers or two spaced nonopposing retainers is changeable, the purpose of which may be to accommodate various hole patterns in a sheet(s).
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 33]    33Opening between retainers adjustable in predetermined increments
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Device wherein (1) the spacing between the distal ends of the aligned retainers or (2) the amount of overlap or spacing between the distal ends of offset retainers is changeable in predetermined amounts.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 34]    34Stationary retainer with traveling opposed retainer
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Device wherein one of the opposed retainers travels an arcuate path relative to its static second cooperating opposed retainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 35]    35Spring biased
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Device wherein the movable retainer is urged toward or away from its static counterpart by a discrete resilient element.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 36]    36Hinged on spaced axes
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Device wherein the proximate end portion of a sheet retainer is pivotally mounted on an axis separate from the pivotal axis of an opposing sheet retainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 37]    37Toggle-type arrangement
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.  Device wherein the oppositely disposed sheet retainer are acted upon by a toggle joint means to bias the retainers against rotational travel.
(1) Note. The term TOGGLE JOINT as used in the above definition, is defined as two bodies jointed together end-to-end or edge-to-edge in a nonplanar relation (or the equivalent thereof), so that when a force is applied tending to bring the bodies into a coplanar relation, any member abutting or jointed to the distal end thereof will tend to be forced apart.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 38]    38With actuator to open or close retainers
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Device supplemented by a cam or lever element to force the oppositely disposed sheet retainers toward or away from one another.

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41,for a similar device with an actuator to open or close opposed retainers.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 39]    39Including abutting mated components
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Device wherein the proximate end portions of the opposed sheet retainer are mounted upon complementary shaped bodies of a toggle mechanism which bodies are disposed in contact relation and pivot about a mutual axis at the point of contact.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 40]    40Toggle and adjacent retainers of one-piece rod
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Device wherein a first sheet retainer, a second sheet retainer and at least one body component of the toggle joint are made of a continuous, elongated member.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 41]    41With actuator to open or close retainers
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.  Device including separate means operable to force the oppositely disposed sheet retainers toward or away from one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 42]    42Rotatable on discrete hinge pin
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Device wherein the proximate ends of the opposed sheet retainers or the body to which such retainers are mounted are rotatably mounted on a pintle or plural separate and distinct coaxial pintles.

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76,for a depository*, per se, including a back member, made up of two components which may be hinged at their juncture on a discrete hinge pin.
77,for a back member in combination with a face member which back member is made up of two components and may be hinged at their juncture on a discrete hinge pin.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 43]    43Plural pairs of opposed retainers independently operable
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Device including at least two sets of contralaterally aligned or offset sheet retainers with one or both retainers of each set being separately manipulated between and overlapped or abutting closed relation to cooperatively secure at least a portion of a sheet and an open position permitting release of that portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 44]    44Offset retainers
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Device wherein the longitudinal axis of the distal end portions of the opposed sheet retainers are in biaxial relation.

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40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclasses 388+ and 530+ for hinge mounted items.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 45]    45Opposed keeper cooperating therewith
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Device including means to releasably secure the distal end portion of a sheet retainer to a contralaterally disposed keeper*.

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21,for a device including a resilient sheet retainer releasably attached to a contralaterally disposed keeper.
31+,for a device including a first row of retainers disposed either in contralaterally offset or aligned relation to a second row of retainers which rows of retainers jointly serve to releasably secure a sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 46]    46OPPOSED SHEET RETAINERS INVOLVING RELATIVE RECTILINEAR TRAVEL
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof wherein a first sheet retainer cooperates with a contralaterally offset or aligned second sheet retainer to releasably secure the sheet* and wherein the structure or disposition of at least one of the retainers is such that a straight line motion thereof is prerequisite to the insertion, manipulation or removal of the sheet.

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26+,for a device including a sheet retainer requiring both an arcuate motion and a rectilinear motion to insert or remove a sheet therefrom and especially subclass 30 where rectilinear motion of the retainer precedes a curvilinear motion thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 47]    47With or including separable sheet transfer means
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Device including means for engaging an aperture or notch of sheet disposed within the device and adapted to move the sheet to a location remote from the device which means may also constitute a sheet retainer of the device or be a separate entity.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 48]    48Telescopic retainers with means to telescopically drive and/or secure
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Device wherein at least a portion of the first sheet retainer fits and is translatable within the confines of the second sheet retainer which device further includes means to translate or fix the position of the first retainer relative to the second retainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 49]    49Pivoted linkage system
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Device wherein the means to telescopically drive or secure the first retainer relative to the second retainer is in the form of a mechanism including rotatably mounted elongated members which directly or indirectly interconnect the first and second retainers.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 50]    50Remote from retainer
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Device wherein the means to telescopically drive or secure the first sheet retainer relative to the second sheet retainer is disposed on the device in a position spaced from the retainers.

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52+,and 54, for a similar device wherein the means to telescopically drive and/or secure also functions as a sheet retainer or a component thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 51]    51Screw threaded means
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Device wherein the remote means to drive or secure is in the form of (1) a mechanism including a helically grooved elongated element.

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49,for a device wherein the means to telescopically drive or secure the first sheet retainer relative to the second sheet retainer includes a pivotal linkage system in combination with and directly acted upon by a screw threaded means.
53,for a similar device wherein the means to telescopically drive or secure also functions as a sheet retainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 52]    52Notched or grooved means
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Device wherein the means to drive or secure the opposing telescopic first and second sheet retainers includes at least one recess or aperture in a surface of one of the sheet retainers and means associated with the other sheet retainer for engaging said recess or aperture.

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50+,for a device including notched or grooved means to drive or secure the telescoped sheet retainers which means is located remotely from the retainers.
61+,for a device including a keeper* cooperating with a series of notches in a sheet retainer to secure a sheet thereon where motion of the sheet retainer is not intended in the removal of sheet therefrom.
63,for a device including a sheet retainer with a keeper secured thereto by means selectively engaging one or a series of notches in the sheet retainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 53]    53Screw threaded
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Device wherein the recess is in the form of a continuous helical groove.

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51,for a similar device wherein the screw threaded driving or securing means is disposed remote from the retainers.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 54]    54Wedge type securing means
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Device wherein the means to telescopically drive or secure the first sheet retainer relative to the second sheet retainer includes a cam element which element applies force to at least one of the sheet retainers either by direct contact therewith or through an intermediate member.

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52+,for a similar device wherein the cam element or such intermediate member selectively engages at least one of a series of notches in one of the sheet retainers.
64+,for a sheet retainer including a keeper secured thereto by means including a cam element.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 55]    55Travel from aligned to offset position
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Device wherein the first and second sheet retainers are in abutting co-axial relation when associated to jointly secure a sheet and such relation is changeable by means permitting movement of the first retainer to a position wherein the abutting portions of the retainers are in a biaxial spaced relation in order to permit removal of a sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 56]    56Travel from aligned to aligned, spaced position
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Device wherein the first and second sheet retainers are in abutting co-axial relation when associated to jointly secure a sheet and such relation is changeable by means permitting movement of the first retainer to a position wherein the abutting portions of the retainers are then in a co-axial spaced relation to permit removal of a sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 57]    57COILED SPRING TYPE SHEET RETAINER
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof wherein the sheet retainer* is in the form of an elongated body including an elastic strand (e.g., wire, etc.), coiled about the longitudinal axis thereof which axis passes through the thickness dimension* of the sheet*.

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8+,for a device including a flexible, flaccid or deformable sheet retainer.
19+,for a resilient sheet retainer requiring deflection for removal.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 58]    58SEGMENTAL SHEET RETAINER
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof wherein the sheet retainer* is in the form of an elongated composite the length of which is made up of a plurality of assembled components each of which serves as sheet retainers and from which one component may be readily detached to decrease sheet storage capacity of the device or to which a like element may be added to increase sheet storage capacity of the sheet retainer.

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5+,for a sheet retainer comprising a plurality of pivotally attached elements (e.g., links, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 59]    59With keeper
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Device wherein a keeper* engages the sheet retainer to releasably secure the sheet thereon.

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60+,for a nonsegmental sheet retainer equipped with a keeper.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 60]    60SHEET RETAINER WITH RELEASABLE KEEPER (E.G., HOLD DOWN, ETC.)
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof which includes a sheet retainer* and a discrete keeper* selectively disengageable therefrom to secure the sheet on the sheet retainer.

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25,for a device including means to force a sheet upon a sheet retainer which means may also serve as a keeper.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 61]    61Keeper cooperating with retainer of varying cross-section
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Device wherein the keeper releasably engages an exterior surface of the sheet retainer, per se, which retainer has structure which changes along the length thereof either dimensionally or in shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 62]    62Apertured retainer
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Device wherein the variation in cross-section is in the form of an opening which (1) has a continuous periphery (2) extends through the sheet retainer and (3) is disposed at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the sheet retainers.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 63]    63Notched or grooved retainer (e.g., screw threaded, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Device wherein the variation in cross-section is in the form of a series of grooves or a continuous helical groove (i.e., threaded, etc.).

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52+,for a device including telescopic sheet retainers with means including plural notches to telescopically drive or secure such retainers; subclasses 50+, for such device where such means is disposed remote from the retainers.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 64]    64Keeper including wedge type securing means
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Device wherein the keeper includes means to releasably secure it upon the sheet retainer, which means includes a cam element which applies force to the sheet retainer either by direct contact or through an intermediate member.

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54,for a device having telescopic sheet retainers with means to releasably secure one of the retainers relative to the other which means includes a cam element which acts directly or indirectly upon one of the sheet retainers.
59,for a segmental sheet retainer with a keeper.
68+,for a similar device where the keeper includes an aperture or recess to receive the distal end portion of the sheet retainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 65]    65Skew locked
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Device wherein the securing means or a portion thereof lies in a plane which is disposed at an acute angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the sheet retainer to produce a bias gripping action therebetween.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 66]    66Spring wedge element
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Device wherein the securing means consists of a sheet-like resilient body (e.g., leaf spring, etc.).

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65,for a similar device where the skew keeper is not of leaf spring material but is acted upon by a spring disposed remote from the sheet retainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 67]    67With screw threaded wedge driving means
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Device in which the wedge-type securing means for the keeper is actuated by the rotation of a helically grooved member associated therewith.

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51,for screw threaded means which secure or drive telescopic retainers relative to each other.
53,for a sheet retainer which includes a screw threaded securing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 68]    68Keeper including apertured or recessed sheet retainer receiving component
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Device wherein the keeper includes a body having a through opening or a cavity therein which receives the distal end portion of a sheet retainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 69]    69Spring biased
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Device wherein the keeper is urged toward or away from a secured position by a resilient force-transmitting element.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 70]    70SHEET RETAINER WITH BASE OR DEPOSITORY
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device in accordance with part (1) or part (2) thereof including a sheet retainer* and either a support or a depository* therefore.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for a base or depository in combination with a broadly recited sheet retainer.

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73+,for a depository, per se, adapted for use with a sheet retainer.

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24Buckles, Buttons, Clasps, etc.,   for a device including a base and means to clamp a sheet thereagainst.
211Supports: Racks,   appropriate subclasses for a rack including a sheet retainer and especially subclass 57.1 for a device of that class including an impaling means for stacked sheets.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 71]    71With sheet retainer guard
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Device which includes an element adapted to cover and extend over the sheet retainer to prevent accidental engagement therewith or the displacement of sheet* therefrom.
(1) Note. A guard differs from a keeper in that it is spaced from and acts to shield the sheet retainers.

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59,and 60+, for a sheet retainer equipped with a keeper.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 72]    72Collapsible on base
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Device wherein the sheet retainer* is rotated so as to lie in a plane parallel or substantially parallel with the support means.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 73]    73DEPOSITORY (E.G., BINDER COVER, ETC.)
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Article in accordance with part (3) thereof wherein the article includes a member having a portion adapted to receive a sheet retainer*, of this class, or such member is combined by attachment (usually hinged) with one or more additional members, which members serve to at least partially cover, underlie or be disposed along the thickness surface (See Fig. 1 of Glossary) of a sheet* held by a sheet retainer.
(1) Note. A depository* which, per se, is provided for in this subclass claimed in combination with a keeper* will be placed in this or an indented subclass.
(2) Note. See References To Other Classes in the Class Definition above for other classes, not listed below, which provide for a depository including structure (e.g., drawer with guide, etc.), for its attachment to or support upon a sustainer or for cooperation with a receptacle (e.g., cabinet, rack, etc.), in combination with a sheet retainer which sheet retainer, per se, is provided for in this class.
(3) Note. A back member, per se, will be placed in this subclass whereas a member or members which are disposed along a thickness surface (See Fig. 1 of the Class Definition Glossary) and at least a portion of nonthickness surface (See Fig. 1 of the Class Definition Glossary) will be placed in subclasses 74+ (note especially subclass 76).
(4) Note. Search the appropriate subclasses above for a device including a depository in combination with a specific sheet retainer.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   appropriate subclasses, for (1) a hinge, per se, including two or more hinge leaves with means to attach the leaves to adjoining bodies or (2) a hinge including two or more leaves in combination with nominally recited bodies.
281Books, Strips, and Leaves,   subclasses 29+ for a book (see definition of the term "book" in Class 281 Class Definition) including a cover or a book cover, per se, and subclass 19.1 for similar subject matter where the cover necessitates some modification of the body of the book.
283Printed Matter,   subclass 64 for a book cover the physical structure of which is conventional but which bears indicia which primarily effects an intellectual impression other than the esthetic.
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   appropriate subclasses for a cabinet adapted to house a sheet retainer.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   appropriate subclasses for a stock material product in the form of a single or plural layer web or sheet, especially subclasses 98+ for such a product with structure, (e.g., fold at edge or aperture), subclasses 221+ for such a product embodying a structurally defined element or component (e.g., porous or structurally defined fiber) and subclasses 411.1+ for such a product in the form of a nonstructural composite web or sheet characterized solely by the compositions of the layers.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 74]    74Face member with back member
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.  A depository which includes a first sheet-like member (i.e., "face" member), which is to be disposed along a nonthickness surface* of the sheet, in combination with a second sheet-like member (i.e., "back" member) which is to be disposed adjacent a thickness dimension (see Fig. 1 of Glossary) of the sheet.
(1) Note. The face member and back member may constitute a continuous piece of single or plural layer material.
(2) Note. A back member, per se, will be placed in subclass 73 whereas a member or members which are disposed along a thickness surface (see Fig. 1 of Glossary) and at least a portion of a nonthickness surface (see Fig. 1 of Glossary) will be placed in this or an indented subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 75]    75Including means to attach sheet retainer or binder device
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Depository including means to secure a sheet retainer of this class thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 76]    76Back member including hinged portions
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Depository wherein the second member includes two portions thereof interconnected by a pliant or rotatable means which permit rotation of one portion relative to the other.

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29+,and especially subclasses 42+ for a sheet retainer requiring arcuate travel thereof in a plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation for sheet removal in combination with a depository which may have a back member including hinged portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 77]    77Hinged at juncture
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Depository wherein the face and back members are interconnected adjacent marginal portions by a pliant or rotatable means.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 78]    78Face member
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.  A depository having a member which serves to partially cover or underlie only a nonthickness surface of a sheet or group of sheets to be associated therewith.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 79]    79SHEET
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Article in accordance with part (4) thereof.

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40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclass 359 for a folder and subclass 360 for a sheet of that class including an aperture or notch which folder or sheet may be disclosed for use in a device of this class.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   appropriate subclasses, for (1) a single-layer, waterlaid, fibrous product, or (2) a plural-layer product including a layer of fibers applied to a second layer by a process provided for in that class (162); and particularly subclasses 141 through 181.1,which include any nonstructural fiber (or fiber-containing) product (e.g., a particular blend of fibers) regardless of whether waterlaid or not.
281Books, Strips, and Leaves,   subclass 51 for a leaf in some form other than stock material or as elsewhere provided for and subclasses 38+ for a sheet element of a book.
283Printed Matter,   appropriate subclasses for a similar sheet further including indicia which primarily effects an intellectual impression other than the esthetic.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   appropriate subclasses for a stock material product in the form of a single or plural layer web or sheet, and especially subclasses 131+ for such a product including apertures.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 80]    80MISCELLANEOUS
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device not within the definition of any preceding subclass in this class.
  

CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS

[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 500]    500BINDER WITH TAB OR FASTENER FOR SECURING SHEET
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device wherein a composite sheet consisting of a sheet* with a tab, continuous strip or other attachment means secured to one margin of the sheet is claimed or disclosed to be secured to the device by an elongated element of the device cooperating with an aperture or notch in the tab, continuous strip, or other attachment means to releasably secure the sheet by disengagement from the notch or aperture.
(1) Note. The elongated element referred to in the above definition was considered a sheet retainer* in the development of this class and accordingly, a search for a sheet retainer having particular structure is provided for in the appropriate preceding subclasses.

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281Books, Strips, and Leaves,   subclass 23 for a book including continuous strips to attach a signature or leaf holder including means cooperating with the fold of a folded sheet to secure the same thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 501]    501SHEET RETAINER CONTINUOUS WITH PERIPHERY OF SHEET NOTCH
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device wherein the sheet retainer defined under Class Definition, Glossary, also extends continuously from a point outside the confines of the sheet past the edge of the sheet and into an incised periphery (e.g., slit margin, notch) of the sheet.
(1) Note. A device including a sheet retainer which retainer may be disclosed as securing a notched sheet but the structure of which does not meet the definition of this subclass will be placed in an appropriate subclass above.

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19+,for a similar device wherein the sheet retainer is resilient and is to be deflected for sheet removal.
26+,for a similar device wherein the sheet retainer is moved in an arcuate path to accomplish sheet removal.
46+,for a similar device including a like sheet retainer opposed by a second sheet retainer and wherein at least one sheet retainer is moved in a rectilinear path to accomplish sheet removal therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 502]    502CONTAINER WITH SHEET RETAINER
 Device including a sheet retainer* disposed within a box-like receptacle.

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73+,for a binder cover intended for attachment to a sheet retainer*.
  
[List of Patents for class 402 subclass 503]    503BINDER DEVICE, SHEET OR DEPOSITORY INCLUDING MAGNETIC MATERIAL
 Subject matter of this class including material having the property of magnetic attraction.
  

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