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USPC Consolidated Glossary  
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USPC Consolidated Glossary - Alpha Sort

gGREENh PRODUCT - For class 425

Self-sustaining but not permanently set or cured, (e.g., unvulcanized rubber, etc.).

2DEG (Two-Dimensional Electron Gas) - For class 977

State of electrons in quantum well.

A ntisense RNA and DNA - For class 800

An approach for inhibiting functions of endogenous cellular genes which targets the gene"s messenger RNA rather than the gene itself. An RNA or single-stranded DNA molecule that is complementary (antisense) to the mRNA of the target gene is introduced into cells. This antisense molecule can base-pair with the mRNA preventing translation of the mRNA into protein.

A VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP OR MOTOR - For class 060

Includes an expansible chamber and means to vary the volume of fluid admitted to or discharged from the chamber. The means which varies the volume of fluid will be generally either (1) means which physically displaces either the piston or working member or the cylinder or housing of the expansible chamber to vary the effective stroke of the piston or working member, or (2) means which alters the timing of the inlet or exhaust valve with respect to the piston or working member timing to vary the effective stroke of the piston or working member.

ABIETIC ACID - For class 516

C 19H 29COOH. Contains a hydrogenated phenanthrene ring system. See also rosin*.

ABNORMAL PEPTIDE LINK - For class 930

Exists between a nonalpha-amino group of an amino acid and the carboxyl group - in position 1 - of an alpha-amino acid, or between an alpha-amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group - not in position 1 - of another amino acid.

ABOVE GROUND - For class 175

The term gAbove Groundh denotes any point which lies outside of a hole being formed in the earth, this may be either in the open (e.g., on the surface of the earth) or a cellar, tunnel or other hole in the earth from which a hole is being formed.

ABSORB - For class 210

See SORB.

ABSORBING MATERIAL - For class 376

See Neutron Absorbing Material.

ABSORPTION - For class 423

The ability of a substance to retain or concentrate gases, liquids or dissolved substance (absorbate) within its bodies.

ABUTMENT - For class 418

A partition member having relative movement with a cylinder or reaction member of which it is a part and moving incident to the expansion and contraction of the working chamber, the cylinder or reaction member not constituting the working member in this case.

ACCELERATION CONTROL - For class 318

Controlling the change of speed of an electric motor from zero speed to some running speed value and vice versa, or from one running speed value to another running speed value. Mere starting of the motor is not considered to be acceleration control unless the acceleration of the motor is controlled after the starting operation. Acceleration control includes deceleration control. Deceleration control differs from motor braking in that in deceleration control no means are utilized for applying an opposing torque or output force to the driving member of the motor. In deceleration control, for example, the power input to the motor is varied to decelerate the motor. See the definition of braking below. Mere stopping of the motor by opening the supply circuit is not deceleration control in the absence of any means to control the rate of stopping, but is mere stopping. For the distinction between acceleration control and running speed control, see the definition of Running Speed Control.

ACCELERATOR - For class 210

Agent which promotes an action, but does not necessarily cause the action. An example is a catalyst as contrasted with a reactant. In subclasses 696+ and 702+ no distinction is made between an agent which promotes or one which causes and a search for a compound used as a flocculant is the same as if the compound reacted to cause precipitation.

ACCEPTOR IMPURITY - For class 257

An atom or ion different from or foreign to, but present in, a semiconductor material and which has insufficient valence electrons to complete the normal bonding arrangement in the semiconductor crystal structure. An acceptor impurity accepts an electron from an adjacent atom to create a hole. Acceptor impurities are also referred to as p-type impurities. Common acceptor impurities in silicon or germanium are boron, gallium, and indium.

ACCEPTOR IMPURITY - For class 438

An atom or ion different from or foreign to, but present in, a semiconductor material and which has insufficient valence electrons to complete the normal bonding arrangement in the semiconductor crystal structure. An acceptor impurity (also referred to as p-type) accepts an electron from an adjacent atom to create a positive charge carrier (i.e., a hole). A donor impurity (also referred to as n-type) provides an electron to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

ACCEPTOR IMPURITY OR ACCEPTOR - For class 330

A material which when added to a semiconductor material in minute quantities, as an impurity, induces hole conduction, generally causing the semiconductor to be one of gP-type conductivityh.

ACCESS - For class 099

The term gaccessh is intended to include a cutting means which (a) makes an incision (usually at a point adjacent either the stem or tip of the food) for the purpose of allowing the same means and/or another means to separate the core-pit* from the interior of the food; or, (b) impales the food (and, the place of entry of the impaling means frequently is used for the same purpose as the incision in (a), immediately above); or, (c) halves the food (and, once the food is ghalvedh, an easier gaccessh is obtained to separate the core-pit, seeds, inner membranes, etc.)

ACCESS - For class 709

To obtain entry to, or to locate, read into memory, and make ready for, some operation, for example, regarding disks, files, records, and network entry procedures.

ACCESS - For class 718

To obtain entry to, or to locate, read into memory, and make ready for, some operation, for example, regarding disks, files, records, and network entry procedures.

ACCESS - For class 719

To obtain entry to, or to locate, read into memory, and make ready for, some operation, for example, regarding disks, files, records, and network entry procedures.

ACCESS - For class 725

Any means of establishing logical or physical communication with a computer or communications system. Also, any means of obtaining the use of such a system or any actions that result in a flow of information involving such a system.

ACCESS CONTROL - For class 726

The prevention of unauthorized access to resources of a system or information system, including the prevention of their use in an unauthorized manner.

ACCESSORIES - For class 015

Devices not classifiable elsewhere and which perform no cleaning function but which are merely ancillary to machines, implements and attachments classified in this class.

ACID - For class 216

A chemical compound which yields hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which reacts with bases to form salts and water (neutralization).

ACID DYE - For class 008

A dye containing organic acid groups, e.g., sulfonic, sulfamic, phosphoric, carboxylic, etc., or their salts. Acid dyes are commonly sodium salts of organic acids applied in an acid bath and used to dye wool, polyamide and silk. Acid dyes have the ability to be substantive to substrates with basic groups.

ACOUSTO-OPTIC - For class 372

The effect, on the properties of a beam of light, by sound energy, interacting with the light within a volume of matter.

ACT - For class 438

Acoustic charge transport

ACTINIDE- For class 075

A metal of the group Actinium (Ac), Thorium (Th), Protactinium (Pa), Uranium (U), Neptunium (Np), Plutonium (Pu), Americium (Am), Curium (Cm), Berkelium (Bk), Californium (Cf), Einsteinium (Es), Fermium (Fm), Mendelevium (Md), Nobelium (No), and Lawrencium (Lr).

ACTINIDES - For class 257

Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, E, Fm, Mv, No, Lw.

ACTIVATED - For class 502

The state or condition of a material which has been treated or acted upon to enable it to function as intended. In general a change is effected which is discernible often only in the ability to perform such function. For instance, activated charcoal.

ACTIVATED SLUDGE - For class 210

Common term for an aerobic process of treating sewage with micro-organisms in which part of the settled sludge from the treatment is diverted and introduced into the feed of incoming sewage.

ACTIVE - For class 424

Denotes a physiological, pharmacological, or biological affect. AMINE Denotes a compound in which one or more of the valences of a nitrogen atom have been satisfied by a covalently bonded carbon atom.

ACTIVE - For class 504

The expression active as used herein denotes a plant growth regulating effect.

ACTIVE ANTENNA - For class 342

Part of the antenna which is directly coupled to free space and radiates electromagnetic energy into, or collects electromagnetic energy from, free space and is also directly coupled to a transmitter or receiver.

ACTIVE CARBON - For class 502

Sorbent form compressing carbon with either additive or porous structure enhancing sorbability.

ACTIVE ELEMENT - For class 331

A control device for exerting a control on a source of energy proportional to an applied control signal. A conventional triode, having cathode, control grid on anode, connected as a conventional amplifier, is an example of an active network, a control potential applied to the grid causing a flow of anode current, supplied by the anode biasing source, proportional to the magnitude of the control potential.

ACTIVE ELEMENT - For class 343

An element or network whose energy output is modified due to the presence of a source of energy in the element or network (other than the mere signal energy which passes through the network) or an element or network in which the energy output from a source of energy is controlled by the signal input.

ACTIVE MATERIAL - For class 429

The element, chemical compound, or composition which chemically reacts to produce a transfer of electrons through an external circuit.

ACTIVE MEDIA - For class 372

The material, in which most of the atoms can be placed in an excited state (i.e., population inversion state), so that an electromagnetic wave of the proper frequency passing through it can stimulate a cascade of photons.

ACTIVE NETWORK - For class 330

A network containing a source of energy, or a sink of energy (i.e., a device for absorbing or dissipating energy other than that accounted for by the resistance of the components of the networks). Merely dissipating the heat generated by a resistance will not cause the resistance to be an active element. See Amplifying Device.

ACTIVE NETWORK - For class 333

A network containing a source of energy, or a sink of energy (i.e., a device for absorbing or dissipating energy other than that accounted for by the resistance of the components of the networks). Merely dissipating the heat generated by a resistance will not cause the resistance to be an active element.

ACTIVE SOLID-STATE DEVICE - For class 438

An electronic device or component that is primarily made up of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operates by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action. Active solid-state electronic devices include diodes, transistors, thyristors, etc., but exclude pure resistors, capacitors, inductors, or combinations solely thereof. The latter category is characterized as passive.

ACTIVE solid-state ELECTRONIC DEVICE - For class 257

An electronic device or component that is made up primarily of solid materials, usually semiconductors, which operates by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify an input voltage to achieve rectification, amplification, or switching action. Active solid-state electronic devices include diodes, transistors, thyristors, etc., but exclude pure resistors, capacitors, inductors, or combinations solely thereof. The latter class of devices is characterized as passive.

ACTIVE VOLUME - For class 376

See Reactor Core.

ACTIVITY - For class 435

Rate of metabolic or anabolic action, speed or efficiency. Mere suppression of competing strains is not viewed as increasing the activity.

ACTUATION - For class 081

The manipulation of handles relative to each other, so as to move jaws to engage work, within the limits of a predetermined range of jaw movement. (See the definition of gRANGEh hereunder).

ACTUATION - For class 234

The application of operating energy to a mechanism to cause the latter to perform its appointed function.

ACTUATION (ACTUATE, ACTUATING, ETC.) - For class 269

The application of (a) a bias (resilient or gravity), or (b) a mechanical advantage, or (c) the use of a lost motion mechanism to effect the relative movement of jaws. The use of levers, inclined planes, pulleys, gears, cams, fluid systems, etc., even where such means fail to produce force multiplication, or actually provide a force reduction, is considered enough to constitute actuation means rather than adjustment* means.

ACTUATOR - For class 049

(See OPERATOR) The force input means to the closure for imparting movement thereto, e.g., an operator. The term is broader than goperatorh since a handle which does not move relative to the closure is considered an actuator.

ACTUATOR - For class 172

A device comprising both a means for imparting movement to an element and a means for holding the moved element against returning to a position from which it has been moved. Thus, an actuator may comprise a servomotor, a mechanical power take-off from a motor or rolling wheel, a hand operated lever and ratchet or merely a handle and a bracket for holding the element moved by the handle in position. In the case of a mere handle actuator, however, the handle must be intended to be used merely to move an element to an adjusted position where it is held in place by a holding means. If the handle is intended to be used by an attendant so as to hold an element in intermediate positions by continued application of force by the attendant then the handle is not considered an actuator. See subclasses 329+ for devices with such handles. If the handle is disclosed as usable as an actuator to merely move and hold and, alternatively, also as a guiding means to move and hold by force exerted by the attendant then the handle is considered to be both an actuator and an attendant hold means and is classified accordingly in the first appropriate subclass and cross referenced down if necessary. A device comprising merely a means for moving by direct application of draft force is not considered an actuator. For example, an implement hitched to a tractor and provided with a latch and a movable hitch whereby the draft force of the tractor on the movable hitch moves an earth working element with respect to the implement frame and the latch holds the element in different positions is not considered to be provided with an actuator, as the term is used in this class. See subclass 605 for such devices. Also, a device comprising merely a screw bolt or the like is not considered an actuator, being merely a clamping or an adjusting means.

ACYCLIC - For class 204

For the purposes of this class, gacyclich refers to an organic compound which does not contain a heterocyclic, nitrocyclic, or carbocyclic nucleus.

ACYCLIC - For class 260

Denotes a compound which does not contain a ring.

ACYCLIC - For class 514

Denotes a compound devoid of any ring-containing moiety. Thus an acyclic chain may contain any atom as long as it is not a member of a ring.

ACYCLIC - For class 520

Denotes a compound devoid of any ring-containing moiety.

ACYCLIC - For class 532

This term denotes a compound which does not contain a ring.

ACYCLIC ATOM - For class 532

This term denotes an atom which is not a ring member. Figure 1 contains acyclic nitrogen while Figure 2 does not contain acyclic nitrogen

Image for class 532Image for class 532

ACYCLIC BONDING - For class 532

As used in regard to bonding or attachment of specified moieties, this term denotes that the moieties are connected to each other exclusively by atoms and bonds which are not part of a ring. The compounds in Figure 3 show oxygen attached to a hetero ring by acyclic bonding. Note that the sulfur-containing compound also has nitrogen and sulfur attached to the hetero ring by acyclic bonding.

Image for class 532

The compounds in Figure 4 would be excluded from a subclass requiring oxygen attached to a hetero ring by acyclic bonding since a carbocyclic ring is between the oxygen and the hetero ring in each structure.

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ADC - For class 438

Analog-to-digital converter

ADDITION AGENT - For class 164

In founding, any material, including principal alloying constituents, densifiers, fluidizers, graphitizers, grain size controllers, etc., added to the molten metal to produce specific effects in the solid metal.

ADDITION POLYMER FROM UNSATURATED MONOMERS - For class 428

Any multiunit chain which is the product of the reaction of unsaturated bonds in the units. The product may be the result of interaction of molecules of the same compound (as polyethylene) or of different compounds (as acryronitrile-styrene). Vinyl acetate and methyl methacrylate are included within the scope of the term because the monomeric units are linked through the reacted unsaturated bonds and the ester groups are pendant - i.e., the units are not linked through the ester groups. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ADDITIVE - For class 210

An agent added to a liquid being treated to either cause a desired result or to promote a result which would occur more slowly or incompletely without the additive. Catalysts filter aids, chemical agents, seeding agents, buffers are all additives.

ADDITIVE - For class 426

Substance or a mixture of substances used primarily for purposes other than its nutritive value and added to a food in relatively small amounts to (1) impart or improve desirable properties (2) or suppress undesirable properties, and (3) may become a part of the food or be transitory in nature. (Compare ingredient below which in some instance may be an additive).

ADDITIVE COLOR A - For class 430

color (red, green, blue) when added to the other two additive colors produce white.

ADDRESS DATA - For class 345

Data that represent or identify a source or destination. (also see: Data)

ADDRESS DATA - For class 707

Data that represent or identify a source or destination. (Also see Data)

ADDRESS DATA - For class 711

Data that specify a location in a memory.

ADDRESS DATA - For class 714

Data that represent or identify a source or destination.

ADHESIVE BOND - For class 156

The joining of parts (a) by means of a separate glue-like material or (b) by rendering contacting surfaces tacky by means of solvent and/or heat.

ADJUNCT - For class 249

See the Class Definition, section G, above.

ADJUSTABLE - For class 172

An adjective describing the capability of two parts of being selectively held in different positions with respect to one another by some means other than an attendant. A mere clamp which cooperates with a member such that by loosening the clamp the member could be set in any desired position and reclamped (e.g., clamp and spike tooth) is not considered to be an adjusting means. However, any specific structure such as selectively usable apertures, teeth, slots, etc., for the purpose of permitting the selective change of the relative positions of two parts is included under this definition. Despite the above limitation on the meaning of gadjustableh if a claim emphasizes the feature of adjustability it is classifiable in an gadjustableh subclass even if structurally the feature comprises a mere clamp.

ADJUSTABLE INDUCTOR - For class 336

A passive inductor wherein the inductor device includes a movable element which may be adjusted to different positions or adjusted to vary its physical dimensions to change the effective inductance from one value to another. Examples of such movable elements are: a tap changing switch, a distortable coil or core, coil length varying means, a movable core and movable coupled coils. Inductor devices designed to change inductance (1) as a function of the current flowing through the inductor winding, or (2) in accordance with a magnetic bias applied to the core of the device, or (3) as a function of the ambient temperature of the device, and wherein no physical elements of the inductor are moved to effect such change in inductance, are not considered adjustable under the above definition. Such variable inductors will be found in subclasses 155+ of this class for magnetically saturable or high leakage reactance type devices and subclass 179 of this class for devices responsive to changes in ambient temperature.

ADJUSTMENT - For class 081

The changing of structural relationships between members constituting the tool so as to vary the limits of jaw movement from one predetermined range to another. (See the definition of gRANGEh hereunder).

ADJUSTMENT (ADJUST, ADJUSTING, ETC.) - For class 269

The shift of a jaw or jaws into juxtaposition with work without the application of (a) a bias (resilient or gravity), or (b) mechanical advantage effective to press or grip work, or (c) utilizing a glost motion mechanismh. This shift may be (d) no more than a gquick settingh of a jaw of a particular device (e.g., the use of a split nut to initially position a jaw for gripping movement along a lead screw) or (e) a change of the range* limits (e.g., the use of a pawl and rack lock to initially position a jaw for gripping movement by a cam or eccentric). While the shift of (d) and (e) are both considered to be jaw adjustment only (e) represents a true variation of range limits; i.e., the full cam throw will move the jaw one inch (the range whether the pawl and rack setting provides a work accommodating span of three or ten inches).

ADJUSTMENT-LOCK - For class 269

The immobilization, or securing against movement, of structural elements constituting the means for jaw adjustment*. An adjustment-lock may be effected (a) by a shift in relative position of the structural elements being immobilized (as, for example, in subclasses 166-171.5) or (b) by positioning an additional element to effect the desired binding or securing. The immobilization, securing, or binding referred to may be only relative rather than absolute, in the sense that further movement or positioning of the structural elements requires the utilization of actuating* means. The adjustment-lock effected may in fact be limited to a one way latch or binding. For example, in some of the pawl and rack locks of subclasses 212-215, the structural elements, when said pawl and rack are engaged, cannot be further adjusted except in a direction favored by the inclination of both rack teeth and pawl; and similarly, in the simple cant type lock of subclass 166, the structural elements, when relatively askew, resist adjustment in a direction tending to further accentuate the degree of cant but are freely adjustable in the direction tending to reduce the degree of cant.

ADJUVANT - For class 516

A material* which assists the action of another material*, especially an agent*.

ADSORB - For class 210

See SORB.

ADSORPTION - For class 423

The ability of a substance (usually a solid) to retain or concentrate gases, liquids or dissolved substances (adsorbate) upon its surface.

ADVANCE - For class 173

The forward movement of the tool into or along the work. Such movement is in addition to the drive movement (i.e., cyclic forward and backward or lateral motion of the tool). Included under this definition as apparatus functioning under the broad meaning of advance are means for causing, controlling, or selectively preventing the forward movement of the tool into or along the work.

ADVANCE - For class 175

Motion in a direction towards the desired depth or direction of a hole being formed.

AEROBIC - For class 210

Treating liquids, generally sewage, with micro-organisms in the presence of oxygen generally supplied as air or other source of oxygen but sometimes using residual dissolved oxygen. Best known method is gactivated sludgeh. The micro-organisms convert noxious materials to less noxious stuff, e.g., to water, methane, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide.

AEROGEL - For class 516

A dispersion* of a gas in a liquid or solid. A common example is silica-gel which is a light fluffy silica particle having a porous amorphous matrix. Cf. aerosol*.

AEROSOL - For class 516

A colloid system of a discontinuous solid or a liquid phase (dispersand*) in a gas or vapor continuous phase (dispersant*). See smoke* and fog*.

AES - For class 438

Auger electron spectroscopy

AGENT - For class 516

Refers to the effective material*, energy, or means which acts in the given context. A colloid system making or stabilizing agent acts to form or stabilize a colloid system; usually characterized by its tendency to collect at the interface between two immiscible phases and not to be confused with the material which constitutes the continuous or discontinuous phases, particularly noting that gas propellants for aerosols and foams are NOT colloid system making agents. A colloid system breaking, resolving, or inhibiting agent acts to dissipate the interface between two immiscible phases. The term agent also includes subcombinations of an agent composition, such as adjuvants*. (Thus, the term agent may apply to a compound or composition which may not be fully functional for its stated context, or its functionality may be greatly enhanced by another component which is not present.) Note that although a compound can be an agent, this class does not provide for compounds, per se. An agent may be physical or energy.

AGGREGATION - For class 516

See flocculation*.

AGING OR AGEING - For class 148

Also termed precipitation hardening or strengthening. A process whereby the hardness/strength of a metal alloy may be increased by subjecting a supersaturated solid solution to elevated temperature to precipitate out a secondary phase containing the solute. Aging may also be manifested as a spontaneous increase in hardness at room temperature. Aging for a longer time than that corresponding to maximum hardness at the particular temperature is termed overageing. Aging after or during straining is known as strain aging. Maraging steels are a specific group of high nickel (i.e., greater than ten percent Nickel), low carbon martensitic steels which can be fabricated while in a comparatively ductile martensitic condition and later strengthened by aging treatment.

AGITATION - For class 404

Brisk shaking, regular or motion, or to-and-fro movement of material or device to effect any one or several of many different purposes during road building, (e.g., vibration imparted to road aggregate for compaction, agitation of uncured road slab to provide a smooth upper surface or agitation of material to mix constituents). Individual subclass definitions must be checked for possible special limitations imposed upon the use of this term - e.g., subclasses 113 and 133.

AGITATOR - For class 366

A stirrer or a deflector.

ALCOHOL - For class 514

Denotes an organic compound having the general structure C-OH wherein the carbon atom bound to the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group cannot be doubled bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium or triple bonded to nitrogen. The terms as used herein includes phenols.

ALCOHOL - For class 520

Denotes an organic compound having the general structure C-OH wherein the carbon atom bound to the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group cannot be double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen. The terms as used herein include phenols.

ALCOSOL - For class 516

A colloid system of a dispersand* (discontinuous phase), in a liquid alcohol dispersant* (continuous phase). Examples are metal oxides such as silica or rare earth oxides dispersed in lower and higher liquid alcohols. See sol*.

ALDEHYDE - For class 514

Denotes an organic compound having the general structure -C-[C(=O)]n -H or H-[C(=O)]n-H (n is 1 or more and wherein the carbon atom bonded to the-[C(=O)]-n group is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen.

ALDEHYDE - For class 520

Denotes an organic compound having the group -C(=O)H [i.e., -CHO] bonded directly to hydrogen or to an additional carbon,which carbon is not double bonded to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium), or triple bonded to nitrogen.

ALDEHYDE DERIVATIVE - For class 520

Denotes the following: A. Compounds having a X-CH2-OH group where X is other than carbon or hydrogen (e.g., paraformaldehyde, methyol derivatives of urea, etc.); B. Heterocyclic compounds having only carbon and oxygen as alternating ring members (the number of ring carbon atoms must equal the number of ring oxygen atoms). An example is trioxane, which is shown as Figure 1 at the end of the “Aldehyde Derivative” definition; C. Hexamethylene tetramine (i.e., urotropine) or derivatives thereof. Hexamethylene tetramine per se is shown as Figure 2 at the end of the “Aldehyde Derivative” definition. A derivative, for purposes of this definition, requires the basic hexamethylene tetramine ring structure, where substitution has been made for the hydrogens bonded to the ring carbons. Compounds having a -CH2OH bonded to atoms other than C, H, or oxygen are regarded as being two compounds; for instance, a methylol derivative of melamine is regarded as a mixture of melamine and formaldehyde, and methylol urea is regarded as being a mixture of urea and formaldehyde. A structurally unspecified novolak is proper for this area in that it is considered as a mixture of a phenol and an aldehyde. If a novolak of specified structure is claimed as prepared from specific reactants, then classification is proper on the basis of the specific reactants.

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ALDEHYDE OR KETONE CONDENSATION PRODUCT - For class 428

A resin resulting from the reaction of an aldehyde or a ketone and a polyfunctional active hydrogen containing compound, which, with the elimination of water, produces a chain of alkylidene units alternating with the residue of the hydrogen supplying compound. Phenol formaldehyde, urea formaldehyde and polyamino (e.g., melamine) aldehyde or furfural resins are within the scope of the term. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ALDEHYDE-TYPE - For class 520

An aldehyde-type reactant is limited to an aldehyde derivative or methylol derivative.

ALE - For class 438

Atomic layer epitaxy

ALEP - For class 438

Angle-lapping edge profilometry

ALGAECIDE - For class 210

Any material capable of inhibiting or destroying algal growth.

ALICYCLIC - For class 260

Denotes a carbocyclic compound not containing a benzene nucleus. Thus, decahydronaphthalene is alicyclic, but 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene is aromatic.

ALICYCLIC RING OR RING SYSTEM - For class 514

This term denotes a carbocyclic ring which is not a benzene ring or a polycyclo carbocyclic ring system which does not have a benzene ring as one of the cyclos.

ALICYCLIC RING OR RING SYSTEM - For class 532

This term denotes a carbocyclic ring which is not a benzene ring or a polycyclo carbocyclic ring system which does not have a benzene ring as one of the cyclos.

ALKALI METAL- For class 075

A metal of the group Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), and Francium (Fr).

ALKALI METAL- For class 420

A metal of the groups Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium and Francium.

ALKALI METALS - For class 257

Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.

ALKALI METALS - For class 423

The metal elements of the first group of the periodic system, consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs.

ALKALI METALS - For class 588

The metal elements in group I of the periodic system consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs.

ALKALI-FORMING METAL - For class 204

A metal element chosen from the group consisting of the alkali metals (lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), and francium (Fr)), the alkaline earth metals (calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra)), and magnesium (Mg) (included due to its similarity in properties to the alkaline earth metals).

ALKALINE EARTH METAL - For class 501

Alkaline Earth Metal is considered to be generic to calcium, strontium, and barium. In this class (501), magnesium is not considered to be an alkaline earth metal and compositions containing magnesium compounds are generally provided for apart from those of alkaline earth metals.

ALKALINE EARTH METAL- For class 075

A metal of the group Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra).

ALKALINE EARTH METAL- For class 420

A metal of the group Calcium, Strontium, Barium and Radium.

ALKALINE EARTH METALS - For class 423

The metal elements in Group II A of the periodic system, consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba.

ALKALINE EARTH METALS - For class 588

The metal elements in group II of the periodic system consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba.

ALKALINE-EARTH METALS - For class 257

Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.

ALKENYL - For class 532

This term denotes an acyclic carbon chain which contains a carbon-to-carbon double bond and is represented by the formula -CnH2n-1.

ALKENYLENE - For class 532

This term denotes an acyclic carbon chain which contains a carbon-to-carbon double bond and is represented by the formula -(CnH2n-2)-.

ALKYL - For class 532

This term denotes an acyclic carbon or a saturated acyclic carbon chain represented by the formula -CnH2n+1.

ALKYLENE - For class 532

This term denotes an acyclic carbon or a saturated acyclic carbon chain represented by the formula CnH2n-.

ALKYNLENE - For class 532

This term denotes an acyclic carbon chain which contains a carbon-to-carbon triple bond and is represented by the formula -(CnH2n-4).

ALKYNYL - For class 532

This term denotes an acyclic carbon chain which contains a carbon-to-carbon triple bond and is represented by the formula -(CnH2n-3)-.

ALLOY - For class 075

A union, possessing metallic properties of two or more metallic elements or of nonmetallic element (s) and metallic elements(s) which are not pure compounds and which are miscible with each other, which at least to a certain extent when molten forms a more or less homogeneous liquid having a metallic matrix and which does not separate into distinct layers when solid. Such combinations when solidified from a melt may consist of mechanical mixtures, entectics, entectoids, solid solutions, or in part of chemical compounds one or more of which may exist at the same time. Intermetallic compounds are considered alloys for purposes of classification. Note. The term galloyh when used in the various definitions of Class 75 is considered to include a gmetallic compositionh (q.v.) of the type that is found in Class 420.

ALLOY - For class 420

A union, possessing metallic properties of two or more metallic elements, or of nonmetallic element(s) and metallic element(s) which are not pure compounds and which are miscible with each other, at least to a certain extent when molten, to form a more, or less homogeneous liquid having a metallic matrix and which do not separate into distinct layers when solid. Such combinations when solidified from a melt may consist of mechanical mixtures, entectics, entectoids, solid solutions, or in part of chemical compounds one, or more of which may exist at the same time. Intermetallic compounds are considered alloys for purposes of classification.

ALLOY JUNCTION - For class 257

A fused junction produced by combining one or more elemental impurity metals with a semiconductor. Typical alloyed junctions include indium- germanium and aluminum-silicon.

ALLOY JUNCTION - For class 438

A fused junction produced by combining one or more elemental impurity metals with a semiconductor. Typical alloyed junctions include indium-germanium and aluminum-silicon.

ALLOY TRANSISTOR - For class 257

A transistor in which the emitter-base and collector-base junctions are alloy junctions.

ALPHANUMERIC - For class 345

Any symbol found in the ASCII character set.

ALPHANUMERIC - For class 715

Any symbol found in the ASCII character

ALTERNATING CURRENT - For class 363

Alternating current includes pulsating current which is of such a character as to have the characteristics of alternating current (e.g., such as to be applied to the primary of a transformer to produce alternating current in the secondary).

ALTERNATING MOTION - For class 074

The intermittent movement along a path, first in one direction and then in the opposite along such path.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT COMMUTATING MOTOR - For class 318

A motor having a commutator electrically connected to a winding of the motor, the motor being designed to operate on alternating current. Such motors are sometimes referred to as gseries A-C motorsh, guniversal motorsh. See the definition of Repulsion motor above, and the definition of self-commutated impulse or reluctance motors below.

AMALGAMATION - For class 075

The use of a liquid metal to collect, to alloy, or to adhere a desired free metal without melting the desired free metal with heat.

AMD - For class 438

Active matrix display

AMG - For class 438

Alternative-metal, virtual-ground (metallization)

AMINE- - For class 514

Denotes an organic compound having a nitrogen atom single or double bonded to a carbon atom and wherein the carbon atom bonded to the nitrogen atom is devoid of a double bond to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium or triple bonded to nitrogen. In addition, those compounds wherein the same nitrogen atom is bonded to a -C(=X)- group (X is O, S, Se, or Te) and to a carbon atom which is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, are not considered as being amines, e.g., -C-NH-C(X=)- Although amides may be considered chemically as amines, it has been found expedient for this class to exclude compounds containing only amide nitrogen herefrom. Therefore, as used throughout this area, the term amide is not to be confused as being an amine. A compound, however, which contains a nitrogen atom bonded to a non -C(=X)- carbon atom and which contains either a nitrogen atom bonded to a -C(=X)- group or an amide group, is considered as being an amine.

AMINE - For class 520

Denotes an organic compound having a nitrogen atom single or double bonded to a carbon atom and wherein the carbon atom bonded to the nitrogen atom is devoid of a double bond to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium or triple bonded to nitrogen. In addition, those compounds wherein the same nitrogen atom is bonded to a -C(=X)- group (X is O, S, Se, or Te) and to a carbon atom which is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, are not considered as being amines, e.g., -C(=X)NH-CH3, etc. Although amides may be considered chemically as amines, it has been found expedient for these classes to exclude compounds containing only amide nitrogen herefrom. Therefore, as used throughout this area, the term amide is not to be confused as being an amine. A compound, however, which contains a nitrogen atom bonded to a non -C(=X)- carbon atom and which contains either a nitrogen atom bonded to a -C(=X)- group of an amide group, is considered as being an amine. An organic amine salt of a carboxylic acid has been classified as if it were a mixture of an amine and a carboxylic acid. An organic diamine salt of a dicarboxylic acid where the amine salt-forming groups are identical is considered as being a single amine compound, whereas, if the amine groups are different then they are regarded as two amine compounds. Where the amine groups contain two or more nitrogen atoms bonded to the same or different noncarbonyl carbon atom then they are to be regarded as polyamines.

AMINO ACIDS - For class 930

Compounds in which at least one amino group and at least one carboxyl group are bound to the same carbon skeleton and the nitrogen atom of the amino group may form part of a ring.

AMINO NITROGEN - For class 514

Denotes any nitrogen in an organic compound other than a nitrogen in an inorganic ion of an addition salt, a nitro (-NO2) or nitroso (-NO). Component parts of an gadducth will be considered to be attached to each other ionically except if it is clear that the mode of attachment is nonionic.

AMINO NITROGEN - For class 532

Denotes any nitrogen in an organic compound other than a nitrogen in an inorganic ion of an addition salt, a nitro (-NO2) or nitroso (-NO). Component parts of an gadducth will be considered to be attached to each other ionically except if it is clear that the mode of attachment is nonionic.

AMORPHOUS - For class 117

Noncrystalline; having no molecular lattice structure; e.g., glass, liquid.

AMORPHOUS - For class 148

A term signifying a lack of regular crystalline order, much like the absence of long-range crystalline order in glass.

AMPLIFICATION, NEUTRON - For class 376

See Subcritical Reactor.

AMPLIFIER - For class 330

Electric circuit means wherein a variable electrical current or voltage input signal is applied to an electrical amplifying device to control a source of electrical energy applied to the same device and from which is derived an output signal of substantially the same wave form as the input signal and substantially linearly related thereto.

AMPLIFIER - For class 725

A unidirectional device that is capable of delivering an enlargement of the waveform of the electric current, voltage, or power supplied to it.

AMPLIFIER CHANNEL OR CHANNEL - For class 330

A part of an amplifier system in which a single signal path may be traced from a source to a load, and which path includes an amplifier as defined above. Such channel may be a cascade amplifier.

AMPLIFYING DEVICE - For class 330

An electrical transducer of the active type wherein the electrical energy supplied by one system (power supply) is controlled by the electrical energy supplied by another system (signal source) limited to the active transducer device element itself such as a vacuum tube, transistor, controllable gas tube, saturable reactor, variable resistive element, etc.. See Active Elements.

AMPLITUDE LIMITER - For class 330

A means in a circuit to limit the amplitude of the electrical voltage across it or the current in it to a value below or above a fixed predetermined value, particularly the former.

AMPLITUDE RANGE - For class 333

The ratio of the highest amplitude to the lowest amplitude of an undulating wave.

AMPLITUDE RANGE COMPRESSOR - For class 333

A nonlinear device having an input and an output, the amplitude range of the output wave being less than the amplitude range of the input wave.

AMPLITUDE RANGE EXPANDER - For class 333

A nonlinear device having an input and an output, the amplitude range of the output wave being larger than the amplitude range of the input wave.

AMPLITUDE STABILIZATION - For class 331

The correction for, prevention of, or compensation for an undesired change in amplitude of the generated waves of the oscillator from a desired value.

ANAEROBIC - For class 210

Treating liquids, generally sewage by micro-organisms which change noxious stuff to innocuous materials, in the absence of oxygen. Some solids are made into water and gases as methane, carbon monoxide, etc. A septic tank is an example of anaerobic digestion of sewage.

ANALOG - For class 388

Of or pertaining to the general class of devices or circuits in which the output varies as a continuous function of the input (cf., gdigitalh below).

ANALOG CONTROL - For class 388

A control circuit utilizing analog, as opposed to digital, signals.

ANALYTE - For class 435

The compound or composition to be measured.

AND - For class 425

When used in a subclass title indicates plural basic subject matter of this class. And/or has not been used; see gORh.

ANGLE OF ATTACK - For class 416

The acute angle between the chord* of a working member* and the velocity vector of the working fluid* flow relative to the member. See Figure I.

ANGSTROM - For class 210

A unit of length used to measure wavelength of lights and diameters of atoms or molecules. Designated by A and equal to 10-8cm.

ANIMAL CHARCOAL - For class 502

See Bone Black

ANIMAL MEMBRANE - For class 428

Material derived from an animal and found there originally in film or layer form, e.g., bladder,skin or scale. Glue or gelatin in a film form is not included here because neither exists in the animal as a layer or foil. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ANIONIC SUBSTITUENT - For class 510

Denotes that portion of an organic compound which is negatively charged in an aqueous solution at a neutral pH (i.e., pH=7) and is attached to the portion of the molecule of higher molecular weight by covalent bonding. Examples of common anionic substituents include carboxyl, sulfate, or phosphate monoester or sulfonate groups, as well as their salts, including betaines.

ANISEIKONIA - For class 351

The inequality in shape and size between the two ocular images seen in binocular vision.

ANNEAL - For class 065

See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term ganneal.h

ANNEALING - For class 148

A single thermal heat treatment wherein the heating of a metal workpiece to a temperature results in improved formability.

ANODE - For class 330

An electrode which acts as the positive terminal of an electric discharge or which acts as the positive terminal of an electric field to cause a discharge or accelerate the electrons in an electric discharge.

ANODES - For class 313

An electrode which acts as the positive terminal of the discharge or which acts as the positive terminal of an electric field to cause a discharge or accelerate the electrons in a discharge. See the definition of cathode above, and the definition of control electrode below.

ANTENNA - For class 725

That part of a transmitting or receiving system that is designed to radiate or to receive electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves.

ANTENNA ARRAY - For class 343

A plurality of active antennas coupled to a common source or load to produce a directive radiation pattern. Usually the spatial relationship also contributes to the directivity of the antenna.

ANTENNA COMPONENT - For class 343

A portion of the antenna performing a distinct function and limited for use in an antenna, as for example, a reflector, director or active antenna.

ANTENNA COUNTERPOISE - For class 343

Structure of conductive material most closely associated with ground but insulated from or capacitively coupled to the natural ground, and aiding in the function of the natural ground, particularly where variations or limitations of the characteristics of the natural ground interfere with its proper function, and such structure being connected to the terminal of the signal receiver or source opposing the active antenna terminal.

ANTENNA COUPLING NETWORK - For class 343

A passive network (which may be resistive, inductive or capacitive or any combination thereof) for transmitting the signal energy between the active antenna and a source or receiver of such signal energy.

ANTENNA GROUNDING STRUCTURE - For class 343

Ground, or structure most closely associated with or simulating ground which is connected to the terminal of the signal receiver or source opposing the active antenna terminal, (i.e., the signal receiver or source is interposed between the active antenna and this structure), for establishing a reference potential level for operating the active antenna.

ANTENNA INHERENT REACTANCE - For class 343

This includes not only the distributed reactance of the active antenna but also the natural reactance due to its location and surroundings, as for example, the capacity relation inherent in the position of the active antenna relative to ground.

ANTENNA LEAD-IN - For class 343

A conductive means (transmission line, feed line) for conveying the signal energy between the active antenna and the signal source or receiver, and extending directly from the active antenna towards the source or receiver.

ANTENNA SHIELD - For class 343

A conductive or low reluctance structure, such as a wire, plate or grid which is adapted to be placed in the vicinity of an active antenna to reduce, as by dissipation through a resistance or by conduction to ground, undesired electromagnetic radiation, or electric or magnetic fields, which are directed toward the active antenna from an external source or which emanate from the active antenna.

ANTENNA TUNING - For class 343

Adjusting an inductance or capacity combined with the active antenna but distinct and separate therefrom, the inductance or capacity providing a reactance which combines with the inherent reactance of the active antenna to establish a resonance in a circuit including the active antenna, this resonance being at a frequency other than the natural electrical resonant frequency of the active antenna, adjustment of the inductance or capacity changing this resonance; or adjusting the length of an electrically long linear antenna to alter the electrical resonance of the antenna.

ANTIBODY - For class 436

A protein of the globulin in type that is formed in an animal organism in response to the administration of an antigen and that is capable of combining specifically with that antigen. Abbr Ab. See also immunoglobulin.

ANTI-CATHODE - For class 313

Same as gtargeth or anode. Used in reference to X-ray tube anodes.

ANTIFERROMAGNETISM - For class 428

Antiferromagnetism occurs when the exchange interaction between neighboring atoms cancel each other, so the net magnetic moment is zero. Examples of antiferromagnetic materials are (Pt, Ir, Cr , and Pd) Mn alloys, and select transition metal oxides.

ANTIGEN - ANTIBODY COMPLEX - For class 436

The generally insoluble molecular aggregate that is formed by the specific interaction of antigens and antibodies. It is also referred to as the immune complex.

ANTIGEN - For class 436

A substance, frequently a protein that can stimulate an animal organism to produce antibodies and that can combine specifically with the antibodies thus produced; called also complete antigen as distinct from a hapten. Abbr Ag.

ANTILOCK OR ANTISKID - For class 701

A process of controlling a vehicle to enhance the braking performance during deceleration of the vehicle by manipulating the brake pressure.

ANTISPIN - For class 701

A process of controlling a vehicle to enhance the driveability of the vehicle during starting or acceleration of the vehicle by manipulating at least one of (1) brake pressure, (2) engine torque, and (3) transmission torque.

ANVIL - For class 072

An undriven tool which, as disclosed, is designed and intended to react against work with sufficient force to enable an operation of the class type to be effected in some portion of the work. Note. An undriven flat-faced tool is regarded as an gAnvilh, even though work of a specific shape may be deformed into flatness against it.

ANVIL - For class 083

A tool comprising a smooth-faced, imperforate member, the smooth face having the purpose of contacting the work and providing a reaction surface against which a relatively movable tool may abut in its work penetrating movement.

ANVIL - For class 227

A nonactuated (fixed or adjustably positionable) tool having a face portion designed and intended to react against a driven member to restrict the movement of the material of said member in at least one direction during the driving of said member.

APCVD - For class 438

Atmospheric-pressure CVD

APD - For class 438

Avalanche photodiode

APERTURE - For class 396

An aperture is an opening in the camera through which light passes in order to expose a photographic medium.

APERTURE PLATE - For class 352

A portion of the gate which confines the recorded image to a single frame in a motion picture camera gate or confines the projected light beam to a single frame in a motion picture projector.

APERTURE VALUE (Av) - For class 396

Aperture value is a logarithmic number indicative of aperture size.

APPLICAITON PROGRAM - For class 719

A computer program designed to perform a certain type of work, such as an application to manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these elements. An application differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a language (with which computer programs are created).

APPLICATION PROGRAM - For class 709

A computer program designed to perform a certain type of work, such as an application to manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these elements. An application differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a language (with which computer programs are created).

APPLICATION PROGRAM - For class 713

A computer program designed to perform a certain type of work, such as an application to manipulate text, numbers, graphics or a combination of these elements. An application differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a language (with which computer programs are created).

APPLICATION PROGRAM - For class 718

A computer program designed to perform a certain type of work, such as an application to manipulate text, numbers, graphics, or a combination of these elements. An application differs from an operating system (which runs a computer), a utility (which performs maintenance or general-purpose chores), and a language (with which computer programs are created).

APPLICATOR - For class 228

A device by or through which heat, pressure, vibratory energy, flux* and/or filler* may be applied directly to the work*.

APPLICATOR - For class 401

A coating tool or such a tool combined with a manually manipulable holder.

APRON - For class 037

This device is the pivotally mounted front covering for a scoop adapted to pivot to an open position when loading and unloading and to a closed position when holding and transporting material.

APRON - For class 400

A member closely adjacent to the cylindrical platen* of a typewriter that serves to guide a record-medium* into close contact with the platen. It is usually a thin sheet of relatively rigid material having a length dimension approximating the length of the platen and is arcuately shaped to approximately the radius of the platen whereby it conforms to part of the periphery of the platen. It is usually located underneath the platen and closely adjacent thereto so that the record-medium is guided between the apron and the platen to be partially wrapped around the platen. The apron may also serve as a mounting for feed-rollers* that cooperate with the platen to move the record-medium in a line-space* direction.

AQUASOL - For class 516

See hydrosol*.

AQUEOUS - For class 210

A liquid containing water. Generally water is the major part as in blood, brine, milk, etc., but may comprise a substantial but not major portion as in a water-alcohol mixture of various proportions. Usually trace amounts of water are not considered aqueous.

ARBITRARILY VARYING - For class 329

Indicates having a future value which is not predictable from past values. (Arbitrary is the opposite of repetitious).

ARBITRARILY VARYING - For class 332

Indicates having a future value which is not predictable from past values. (Arbitrary is the opposite of repetitious).

ARC - For class 373

A prolonged electrical discharge, or series of prolonged discharges between two electrodes, or between an electrode and a current carrying material.

ARC - For class 438

antireflective coating

ARCHITRAVE - For class 052

The finish around and extending away from a door or window opening.

ARM - For class 901

The appendage emanating from the base* of the robot and running to, but not including the end effector*.

ARMATURE - For class 388

The moving element in an electromechanical device such as the rotating part of a generator or motor, the movable part of a relay, or the spring mounted portion of a bell or buzzer.

AROMATIC - For class 260

Denotes a compound which contains a benzene nucleus whether or not it is condensed with other rings.

AROMATIC - For class 424

Denotes a compound which contains a benzene nucleus whether or not it is condensed with other rings.

ARRANGEMENT - For class 705

Either a device or a method of use of a device for performing the indicated process.

ARRAY - For class 234

A plurality of tools or sensing elements arranged to be driven as a group by a common actuator.

ARRAY - For class 506

Set of compounds maintained in a specified spatial distribution (e.g., in the wells of a 96-well plate, in pins held in a rack, or at the tip of optical fibers arranged in a bunch, etc.).

ARRAY - For class 977

Arrangement of multiple units, usually ordered; array may be organized in linear, flat, or 3-dimensional positioning of the multiple units.

ARTICLE - For class 428

A discrete determinate three dimensional thing substantially in its ultimate use form, as distinguished from stock material (e.g., sheet, etc.) from which such articles may be manufactured. These articles are limited to subclasses 2 through 34.1, part of subclass 542 and subclass 576. (Structural)

ARTIFICIAL ATOM - For class 977

Quantum dot that confines a certain number or electrons producing an electron waveform structure quantum, which is mechanically analogous to an atom; alternatively used to describe hollow spherical fullerene, such as buckyballs filled with a dopant, etc.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) - For class 701

Computer emulation of aspects of human intelligence such as speech recognition, deduction, inference, creative response, the ability to learn from past experience, and the ability to make reasonable inferences from incomplete information. Examples of AI include expert systems, neural networks, and fuzzy logic.

ARTIFICIAL LINES - For class 333

Networks for simulating impedance characteristics of a smooth or loaded electrically long transmission line over a frequency range.

ARYL - For class 520

Denotes a benzene ring or a carboxylic ring system having a benzene ring as part of the system.

ARYL - For class 987

Denotes an independent benzene ring or a benzene ring which is part of a fused or bridged ring system.

ARYL RING OR RING SYSTEM - For class 514

This term denotes a benzene ring or a polycyclo carbocyclic ring system having a benzene ring as one of the cyclos.

ARYL RING OR RING SYSTEM - For class 532

This term denotes a benzene ring or a polycyclo carbocyclic ring system having a benzene ring as one of the cyclos.

ASBESTOS - For class 428

A native magnesium calcium silicate. Asbestos is not considered to be included in the term gmetal compoundh for purposes of this class, but is included in silicon containing, unless specifically stated otherwise in a title or definition. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ASG - For class 438

Arsenosilicate glass

a-Si - For class 438

Amorphous silicon

ASPHALT - For class 208

A brown to black solid bituminous substance either occurring naturally or obtained as a residue from certain petroleums, coal tars, lignite tar, etc.

ASSEMBLED SHOE - For class 012

includes within its scope the upper and sole when they are secured together. In shoe making, the upper including various parts thereof, such as the vamp, toe tip, quarters, linings, etc., are assembled and secured. The thus assembled upper is generally conformed to shoe shape by a lasting operation and attached to a sole. When the upper and sole are attached the product is known as a shoe in the trade. It will be noted that this term includes within its scope, (1) partially completed shoes, (2) shoes having outsoles and heels which are ready for wear, and (3) shoes being worn by their wearers.

ASSEMBLING - For class 029

The physical act of or means for juxtaposing, associating, integrating, joining and/or putting together, with or without securing, of machines, devices, and things (articles).

ASSEMBLY - For class 072

The act or operation of bringing into juxtaposition or contact a plurality of preforms (self-shape-sustaining objects) and/or joining said preforms, i.e., so treating one or more of them as to restrict their relative mobility. Note. The mere ordering, stacking, or piling of workpieces prior to a metal-deforming operation thereupon, or the similar handling of products, is not regarded as gAssemblyh for the purposes of this class.

ASTIGMATISM - For class 351

Defect of vision caused by unequal curvature of the refracting surfaces of the eye.

ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE (AFM) - For class 977

Instrument with a nanosized tip that manipulates or detects based upon a separation dependency force between the tip and the object being manipulated or detected.

ATTACHED DIRECTLY OR BONDED DIRECTLY - For class 514

These terms are used to show that specified moieties are connected by bonds only.

ATTACHED DIRECTLY OR BONDED DIRECTLY - For class 532

These terms are used to show that specified moieties are connected by bonds only.

ATTACHED INDIRECTLY - For class 514

This term denotes that at least one atom, as well as bond, connects specified moieties.

ATTACHED INDIRECTLY - For class 532

This term denotes that at least one atom, as well as bonds, connects specified moieties.

ATTACHMENTS - For class 015

As an exception to the other GLOSSARY definitions, patents which recite that (1) a cleaning or coating means is attached to an object which is cleaned or coated thereby or (2) that any device is attached to a cleaning or coating agency, have been classified as attachments regardless of whether they are machines or not, disregarding the relative superiority of these subclasses in the classification schedule.

ATTENUATOR - For class 330

Devices and networks consisting of one or more elements which exhibit only a positive resistance effect and which reduce the intensity of the energy passing through the device by dissipation, (1) the elements being proportioned to permit a change in their value to control the energy loss while maintaining substantially constant input and/or output impedance of the device, and/or (2) the elements being proportioned to permit the device to be inserted in the circuit to provide an energy loss without introducing any reflections in the circuit, and/or (3) the elements being combined with a long line or long line element, and/or (4) the device or network having an impedance equal to the impedance of a specified long line, and/or (5) the device or network is claimed as being particularly modified for use over a frequency band so that its characteristics are particularly related to frequency.

ATTENUATOR - For class 333

Devices and networks consisting of one or more elements which exhibit only a positive resistance effect and which reduce the intensity of the energy passing through the device by dissipation, (a) the elements being proportioned to permit a change in their value to control the energy loss while maintaining substantially constant input and/or output impedance of the device, and/or (b) the elements being proportioned to permit the device to be inserted in the circuit to provide an energy loss without introducing any reflections in the circuit, and/or (c) the elements being combined with a long line or long line element, and/or (d) the device or network having an impedance equal to the impedance of a specified long line, and/or (e) the device or network is claimed as being particularly modified for use over a frequency band so that its characteristics are particularly related to frequency.

ATTITUDE - For class 701

Orientation of a vehicle with respect to a reference plane. An example in an automobile would be orientation of the vehicle body relative to the road surface whereas in aeronautics it may define the orientation of the aircraft relative to the earth.

AUDIO - For class 725

Pertaining to frequencies corresponding to a normally audible sound wave. Note: These frequencies range roughly from 15 Hz to 20,000 Hz.

AUSTEMPERING - For class 148

A procedure that involves preliminary quenching of austenized metal to a temperature in the lower bainite range, usually in a molten salt bath, holding at this temperature until transformation is complete, and quenching or air cooling to room temperature. If desired, a lower hardness level may be produced by including an additional tempering step.

AUSTENIZING - For class 148

A process of heating to an elevated temperature within the austenitic range.

AUTODOPING - For class 438

The introduction via the vapor phase of impurities from an existing substrate region (and adjacent supports, e.g., susceptors, etc.) into another substrate region, typically during growth of the same.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL - For class 323

Includes means for sensing the existence of, the magnitude or level of, or a deviation of a predetermined condition (e.g., the existence, magnitude of change of temperature, voltage, etc.) combined with means for initiating the operation of a control means to perform a control function on the system upon the occurrence of the predetermined condition.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL - For class 363

Includes means for sensing the existence of, the magnitude of, or a deviation of a predetermined condition, e.g., the existence, magnitude or change of temperature voltage, etc., combined with means for initiating the operation of a controlled means to perform a controlling operation.

AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY STABILIZATION - For class 331

The restoration of the generated frequency of the oscillator to a desired value by sensing the deviation in frequency, in direction and amount, from the desired value and instituting a corrective action proportional to sensed deviation to adjust the frequency determining element of the oscillator in such direction and amount so as to return the oscillator frequency to the desired value.

AUTOMATIC STARTING AND STOPPING - For class 318

Starting, stopping, or the combination of these two operations is treated in this class as a single motor operation. Automatic starting and stopping (i.e., starting or stopping which is initiated in response to a condition) is classified for the most part in subclass 445 or in the subclasses specified in the notes to the definition of those subclasses. If the stopping control involves motor braking, then the patent is classified in the braking control subclasses. If the stopping control involves motor deceleration control, but not motor braking, then the patent is classified in the motor acceleration control subclasses. If the starting control involves motor acceleration control, then the patent is classified in the motor acceleration subclasses. See diverse motor operations for the classification where the system has means for automatic starting or stopping of the motor and also means for performing another control operation. Where the motor is stopped and then started in the reverse direction of motion, the patent is classified in the motor reversing control subclasses. See below, for a definition of Reversing Control. Where the motor armature or primary current is controlled during the starting and/or stopping period other than for acceleration, deceleration, or braking control, see definition of Motor Load Control.

AUTOTHERMIC DISTILLATION - For class 201

A thermolytic distillation operation in which the distilland, either by combustion of a portion of itself or by other chemical change, furnishes at least part of the heat for thermolysis and volatilization of either the inherent or the thermolized volatile matter.

AUXILIARY DISCHARGE ELECTRODE - For class 315

An electrode which is connected in the circuit so that the discharge is initiated between it and one of the principal electrodes, the auxiliary discharge conditioning the discharge space between the principal electrodes so that a discharge between the principal electrodes can be established.

AUXILIARY GRID - For class 330

Any grid, of an electronic tube other than the signal input grid.

AUXILIARY STARTING ELECTRODE - For class 313

An electrode designed for use in a discharge device having at least two principal discharge electrodes and the auxiliary starting electrode. The starting electrode is designed to be connected in the circuit so that the discharge is initiated between it and one of the principal electrodes, the auxiliary discharge conditioning the discharge space so that a discharge between the principal electrodes can be established. An auxiliary starting electrode does not necessarily differ in structure or material from any other electrode. Auxiliary starting electrodes are usually simple electrodes, a wire or rod, and are usually not formed from as heavy or strong material as the principal electrodes. Usually an auxiliary starting electrode is placed close to a principal electrode so that the discharge may be initiated between the auxiliary starting electrode and the main electrode at a smaller voltage than is necessary to initiate the discharge between the principal electrodes. The auxiliary starting electrode may be supplied with current only during the starting period or it may be supplied with current during the operation of the device so that a continuous discharge takes place between it an done of the principal electrodes to assure ionization in the discharge space so that the discharge between the principal electrodes may take place at the proper time. The latter type of auxiliary starting electrodes are also known as gholding electrodesh. Where a plurality of auxiliary starting electrodes are used, they may be spaced at intervals between the principal electrodes so that the discharge may first be established between one principal electrode and the nearer auxiliary starting electrode, then to a more remote auxiliary starting electrode and so on until the discharge is established between the principal electrodes. If a plurality of auxiliary starting electrodes are used, one may be placed close to each of a plurality of principal electrodes. In as much as the determination of whether or not an electrode is an auxiliary starting electrode depends upon the circuit connections to the discharge device, and this class includes only the structure of the discharge device, per se, only in subclasses 170+ (liquid electrode discharge devices) and subclasses 596+ and 601+ (gas or vapor-type discharge devices) is the classification based upon one of the electrodes being an auxiliary starting electrode.

AUXILIARY-OPERATION - For class 234

Any of the functions to be found in a selective cutting machine other than the selection* of tools, (e.g., tool actuation*, feed* of pattern or workpiece, change of code*, shift of control to or from a keyboard or pattern-senser*, starting or stopping of any portion of the machine, etc.).

AUXILIARY-RECORD-PROGRAM - For class 400

A set of instructions used in a programmed-control-system* of a typewriter, which set of instructions may be readily removed from the typewriter so that another set of instructions may be inserted into the typewriter to perform a different or a modified sequence of typing functions.

AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN - For class 257

A sudden change from high dynamic electrical resistance to very low dynamic resistance in a reverse biased semiconductor device, e.g., a reverse biased junction between p-type and n-type semiconductor materials, wherein current carriers are created by electrons or holes which have gained sufficient speed to dislodge valence electrons. Avalanche breakdown can cause structural damage to a semiconductor device.

AVALANCHE BREAKDOWN - For class 438

A sudden change from high dynamic electrical resistance to very low dynamic resistance in a reverse biased semiconductor device (e.g., a reverse biased junction between p-type and n-type semiconductor materials) wherein current carriers are created by electrons or holes which have gained sufficient speed to dislodge valence electrons. Avalanche breakdown can cause structural damage to a semiconductor device.

AXIAL LEAD - For class 257

A wire lead coming from the end of and along the axis of a resistor, capacitor, or other component.

AXIS-OF-BEND - For class 072

That imaginary line used as a center about which the bending of moving work occurs. For convenience in illustrating the application of the term to the deformation of planiform work, three such axes may be considered, all being related to the direction of work movement and to the disposition of a planar nonthickness surface (see Figure III-1). The three axes are defined as follows:

Image for class 072

(A) X-Axis is a line both parallel to the direction of movement of the work and parallel to a nonthickness surface thereof.

(B) Y-Axis is a line both perpendicular to the direction of movement of the work (i.e., length) and perpendicular to a nonthickness surface thereof.

(C) Z-Axis is a line both perpendicular to the direction of movement of the work and parallel to a nonthickness surface thereof.

In the case of strand or rodlike work (i.e., wherein a cross section taken transverse to its length shows substantially equal width and thickness), corresponding or analogous axes are used for convenience.

Figure III-2 shows the product partially bent around a Z-Axis to form a transverse bend or the first convolution of a spiral coil.

Image for class 072

Figure 111-3 shows the product bent around a Z-Axis and additionally deflected along the Z-Axis-of-Bend, to form a helical-coil from rod.

Image for class 072

Figure III-4 shows the operation termed “levelling” wherein each successive work portion is deflected in alternation about a plurality or parallel Z-Axes, whereby each portion travels through an undulating path.

Image for class 072

Figure III-5 shows the side margins of the work bent around the X-Axis to form a trough. Further bending of the side margins obviously form a tube.

Image for class 072

AZEOTROPIC DISTILLATION - For class 203

A separatory distillation of a liquid in which a substance is added to the distilland mixture in order to assist separation of its components by forming with one or more of the components a mixture having a minimum boiling point. (The art has also used the term for a distillation process in which two substances in the starting material are removed by their forming a minimum boiling mixture).

BACK BONDED - For class 257

The bonding of active chips to a substrate using the back of the chip opposite the side containing active solid-state devices.

BACK- For class 412

The back is that portion of a book formed where and when the sections of it are united by sewing, stitching(), or stapling. The term back is sometimes erroneously used to describe the portion of the outer covering member which encloses the back, but the term spine(*) is preferred for this portion of the covering member.

BACKER - For class 052

Means forming an extended surface against which a settable material is cast, e.g., troweled, spread, poured etc., the material when set forming a wear surface or facing.

BACKHOE - For class 037

This is a material handling machine which includes a boom pivoted to a vehicle, a handle or dipstick pivoted to the boom, and bucket or scoop pivoted to the dipstick with the open top of the bucket facing back toward the vehicle.

BACKING- For class 412

The book making operation referring to the step for making the back() of the book(*), wherein the back(*) has been previously sewn and glued, whereby the back edge of the sheets(*), signatures(*), quires(*), etc., which make up the book(*) are splayed outwards from the center of the book(*) and gives the back(*) a convex shape. This adds to the permanence of the back and provides an abutment for the boards in the book(*) covering member. Rounding and backing(*) are considered synonymous for purposes of the terms of this Glossary.

BACTERICIDE - For class 210

Any material capable of inhibiting or destroying bacteria.

BAIT - For class 065

See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term gbait.h

BALANCED CIRCUIT - For class 330

A circuit having its conductors electrically symmetrical with respect to a reference potential plane (e.g., ground). The potential between the two sides and ground are equal and of opposite sign. For example, a horizontal two-wire line may be a balanced line. See Push-Pull Stage.

BALANCED CIRCUIT - For class 333

A circuit having its conductors electrically symmetrical with respect to a reference potential plane (e.g., ground). The potentials between the two sides and ground are equal and of opposite sign. For example, a horizontal two wire line may be a balanced line.

BALL BOND - For class 257

A bond formed by a round, ball-shaped lead on a semiconductor device.

BALLISTIC TRANSPORT DEVICE - For class 257

An active solid-state electronic device in which an active layer is present through which carriers* pass, wherein the active layer is thinner than the mean free path of the carriers* in the material in that layer, so that carriers* can pass through the layer without scattering. Carriers* are typically injected into the ballistic transport layer as ghoth carriers*, having an energy, in the case of electrons, substantially greater than the minimum of the conduction band*, or in the case of holes, substantially lower than the maximum of the valence band. Ballistic electron injectors include heterojunctions, tunnel barriers, and punchthrough (e.g., planar doped or camel) barriers.

BAND - For class 053

A species of cover in which the cover material completely encircles the contents in one direction only, such as girth, leaving the contents fully exposed on two sides or ends, and which is in frictional contact with the contents so as to be retained thereon. See gBINDINGh.

BAND GAP - For class 257

The difference between the energy levels of electrons bound to their nuclei (valence electrons) and the energy levels that allow electrons to migrate freely (conduction electrons). The band gap depends on the particular semiconductor involved.

BAND GAP - For class 438

The difference between the energy levels of electrons bound to their nuclei (valence electrons) and the energy levels that allow electrons to migrate freely (conduction electrons). The band gap depends on the particular semiconductor involved.

BANDWIDTH - For class 370

The width of a communications channel.

BANDWIDTH - For class 725

The range of frequencies within which performance, with respect to some characteristic, falls within specific limits. For example, the specified frequency range over which the amplitude response does not vary more than a defined amount. Bandwidth is commonly defined at the points where the response is 3 dB less than the reference value (0.707 root-mean-square voltage ratio). In broadband networks, the frequency range that a component, circuit, or system passes or uses. Also, the range of frequencies, expressed in hertz, that can pass over a given channel. For example, a television channel typically occupies a bandwidth of 6,000,000 Hz (6 MHz), and cable systems typically occupy 5-300 MHz or higher of the electromagnetic spectrum.

BARK - For class 144

The peripheral natural covering of a tree*.

Bark spectrum - For class 704

The width of one critical band.

BARRIER - For class 049

A construction forming an extended indefinite surface preventing or inhibiting the passage of persons or things, e.g., wall, ceiling, floor, roof or cover.

BARRIER - For class 052

A construction forming an extended indefinite surface preventing or inhibiting the passage of persons or things, e.g., wall, ceiling, floor, roof or cover.

BARRIER - For class 249

A construction forming an extended indefinite surface preventing or inhibiting the passage of persons or things, e.g., wall, ceiling, floor, etc.

BARRIER LAYER DEVICE - For class 029

An electrical component consisting of two conductors placed either in contact with each other or separated by an interface layer to which contacts or terminals have been secured, which component has a nonlinear resistance characteristic, as a result of the electrical action of the interface between the two conductors rather than from the characteristic of the conductors.

BARRIER REGION OR LAYER - For class 257

A region which extends on both sides of a semiconductor junction in which all carriers are swept away from the junction region. The region is depleted of carriers. This is also referred to as a depletion region.

BARRIER REGION OR LAYER - For class 438

A region which extends on both sides of a semiconductor junction in which all carriers are swept away from the junction region. The region is depleted of carriers. This is also referred to as a depletion region. Not to be confused with diffusion barrier layers associated with metallization schemes for active solid state devices.

BARRITT DIODE - For class 257

Barrier injection transit time diode. A bipolar or device in which a type of breakdown known as punchthrough occurs and wherein the punchthrough structure device is operable at microwave frequencies. In bipolar transistors a direct current path is formed from emitter to collector due to the formation of a depletion region throughout the base region and charge carriers from the emitter punch through to the collector. Carriers flowing from the emitter to the collector take a controlled time to pass through the depletion layer, leading to a controlled delay in current after a voltage is applied, and effective negative impedance.

BASE - For class 075

A metal which is present in an amount of over 50% by weight in an alloy.

BASE - For class 117

The surface upon which a coating is formed, except where a surface has been previously coated and a second coating is applied, in which case the initial surface is the base. Contrast with substrate*.

BASE - For class 313

A member attached to the lamp or discharge device so that it may be attached to a supporting socket or supported on a surface. The base usually includes electrical connector means for connecting the lamp or discharge device in a circuit. Where the lamp or discharge device is provided with an envelope, the base is usually attached to the envelope, as by cementing, or the envelope is formed so as to have an integral base portion.

BASE - For class 338

Unless otherwise indicated an element along which the resistance element extends to impart a rigidity or reinforcement to the resistance element not otherwise present.

BASE - For class 420

A metal which is present in an amount of over 50 percent by weight in an alloy, or metallic composition.

BASE - For class 428

That substance or material which has been covered or saturated or permeated, either partially or completely by another material. This term is synonymous with Substrate. (Structural)

BASE - For class 901

The supporting structure for the arm*.

BASE CURRENT - For class 257

The electrical current that flows in the base terminal of a bipolar transistor.

BASE ELECTRODE - For class 330

See the definition of point contact or junction transistor above.

BASE REGION - For class 257

The region between the emitter and collector of a bipolar transistor into which minority carriers are injected by the emitter.

BASIC DYE - For class 008

A basic or cationic dye will dye substrates having acidic properties, e.g., polyacrylonitrile, acid modified polyester, etc. They include diphenylmethane, triphenylmethane, xanthene, naphtroperinone, quinophthalone, quaternary ammonium group, etc., containing dyes.

BASIC INGREDIENT - For class 426

Principal constituent (except added water) of a composition considered to be the fundamental part and by which the composition is (usually) identified. Usually the basic ingredient constitutes the major portion of the composition, e.g., chocolate milk-milk is the basic ingredient. In those instances wherein a plurality of percentages of the ingredients are given that ingredient which constitutes 50 of the total composition (excluding added water) is considered to be the basic ingredient. The 50% may be determined by summing like ingredients, e.g., lactose, whey and butter fat are all lacteal derived.

BASIC RECEIVER - For class 348

A receiver for converting incoming electric signals into television pictures and the associated sound.

BATCH - For class 065

A properly proportioned mixture of raw materials to be delivered to a melting apparatus.

BATCH CHARGER - For class 065

Mechanical means for introducing a batch to a melting apparatus.

BATT - For class 264

A term of art for a web or sheet of material generally formed by random interfelting of mass deposited discrete fibers or from tangled or matted filaments, e.g., cotton batting.

BATTERY - For class 320

A unit source of D.C. voltage consisting of a plurality of voltaic cells electrically connected in series, parallel, or both, to increase available voltage or power from a single cell. "Plural batteries" include a combination or association of two or more structurally dependent, or independent, battery units.

BATTERYCELL - For class 429

Two spaced electrodes provided with means to transfer an ionic current therebetween.

BBCO - For class 438

Barium bismuth copper oxide (a HTSC)

BBD - For class 438

Bucket brigade device

BBL - For class 438

Buried bit-line

BEAD - For class 065

(1) A small piece of glass fused onto an electrical conductor, (2) an enlarged rounded portion on an edge of an article or stock material, (3) small discrete particles of glass.

BEAM LEADS - For class 257

Flat, metallic leads which extend beyond the edges of a chip component like wooden beams extend from a roof overhang. Beam leads are used to interconnect a component to film circuitry.

BEAM TUBE - For class 331

An active element comprising a source of charged particles, means for concentrating the particles into a directed beam, means for exerting a control on the beam (e.g., beam accelerating electrode, control grid, deflecting means, slow wave structure, buncher type resonator, reflector electrode, etc.) and means for deriving output energy from the controlled beam.

BEAT FREQUENCY - For class 331

The resulting difference (or sum) frequency wave, among other waves, produced when two waves of different frequencies are combined in a nonlinear device.

BEATER - For class 460

A rotary device mounted behind or in front of the cylinder on a combine which strikes the grains.

BED - For class 438

Band edge discontinuity

BELOW GROUND - For class 175

gBelow Groundh denotes any point within a hole being formed in the earth from the point at which the earth is pierced by the means forming the hole.

BELT - For class 474

A power transferring member forming an endless loop and constructed of flexible material or of articulated rigid links to permit the member to conform to a radius of curvature of a pulley* drive face and intended, in use, to be driven in an endless path; and, by contact with the pulley drive face, to transmit power to or extract power from the pulley.

BENDING - For class 156

Distortion of a workpiece by bodily moving a portion of it throughout its entire thickness relative to a second portion during which the thickness of the workpiece remains substantially the same and no significant plastic flow occurs.

BENDING - For class 264

Distorting or deforming of a workpiece or self sustaining body by curving or moving a portion thereof through its entire thickness relative to another portion during which the thickness thereof remains substantially the same and no significant plastic flow occurs.

BENZENE NUCLEUS - For class 260

Denotes the presence of a six-membered ring, all of whose members are carbons and containing three conjugated double bonds, thus:

Image for class 260

BENZENE RING - For class 514

This term includes in all cases except where there are explicit limitations to the contrary, substituted benzene rings, including substitution in the form of an additional fused or bridged ring or ring system.

BENZENE RING - For class 532

This term includes, in all cases except where there are explicit limitations to the contrary, substituted benzene rings, including substitution in the form of an additional fused or bridged ring or ring system. Thus, for example, if a subclass reads: gBenzene ring bonded directly to the five-membered hetero ringh, the moiety bonded directly to the hetero ring may be phenyl, chlorophenyl, dinitrophenyl, naphthyl, etc. All that is necessary to satisfy the terminology of the subclass is that a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring be bonded directly to the hetero ring.

BERYL - For class 117

Beryllium aluminum silicate; Be3Al2Si6O18; 3BeO.Al2O3.6SiO2; emerald; aquamarine. Usually green.

BESSEMER CONVERTER - For class 075

A device having passages in its bottom (i.e., tuyeres) through which a gas containing gaseous Oxygen (e.g., air, etc.) is passed upwardly through molten metal or molten metalliferous material (e.g., matte, etc.) to treat the metal or material.

BEVEL GEAR - For class 475

A gear having radial teeth extending in the same general direction as the rotational axis of the gear, but inclined with respect to the rotational axis of the gear.

BH - For class 438

Buried heterostructure

BHF - For class 438

Buffered hydrofluoric acid

BIAS - For class 257

A direct current or voltage applied to an active solid-state device that establishes certain operating characteristics of the device.

BIAS CONTROL - For class 330

Control, as defined above applied to control of bias voltage or current of an amplifying device. This is distinguished from signal feedback in that the bias control voltage or current has a smoothed average value which adds to or subtracts from the bias voltage or current and is unlike the signal feedback voltage which varies instantaneously with the signal at the point from which it is derived. See also, Bias, Bias Voltage or Bias Current.

BIAS, BIAS VOLTAGE, BIAS CURRENT - For class 330

In an amplifying device, usually, a steady D.C.. voltage or current applied between two electrodes usually referred to the input electrodes to form an electric reference means for the control means, which influences the current flow of an electronic tube or semiconductor device or the flux relationships of a magnetic saturable reactor. See also Bias Control and Power Supply.

BIC - For class 438

Breakdown of insulator for conduction

BICFET - For class 438

Bipolar inversion channel FET

BiCMOS - For class 438

Integrated bipolar and CMOS

BICONTINUOUS EMULSION - For class 516

Type of emulsion wherein the aqueous or polar phase and the oily or non-polar phases are characterized as both being continuous. Commonly associated with emulsion polymerization.

BICYCLO RING SYSTEM - For class 514

This term denotes a polycyclo ring system which contains exactly two rings.

BI-DIRECTIONAL - For class 379

Capable of use, particularly in transmitting information in two opposite directions. Additionally, when used to describe an audio transducer, capable of conversion of sound both to and from electrical signal variations.

BI-FET - For class 257

An active solid-state electronic device that contains both bipolar and field effect transistors.

BILATERAL - For class 257

A characteristic of an active solid-state electronic device that permits it to support current flow in opposite directions.

BiMOS - For class 438

Integrated bipolar and MOSFET

BINARY COMPOUND - For class 257

A substance that always contains the same two elements in a fixed atomic ratio.

BINARY COMPOUND - For class 423

A chemical compound consisting of 2 elements only with 2 or more atoms; e.g., NaC1, FeC13, Fe304, etc.

BINARY COMPOUND - For class 438

A substance that always contains the same two elements in a fixed atomic ratio.

BINDING - For class 053

The embracing by means of a filament, strand or wire of either an accumulated bunch of articles, a series of coils, or a single encased package. It differs from banding in that no substantial area of the contents is covered, and the binder is usually tied, knotted, or twisted. Except where applied to a package for this class, (see subclass 138.6), the process of and apparatus for applying a binding is not here classified. See gPackaging and Binding Elsewhere Classifiedh of the Class Definition for binding, per se.

BINDING - For class 100

The disposing of a flexible filament, strand, or band taut and circumferentially closed about material.

BINOCULAR - For class 359

Pertaining to the use of both eyes in the act of viewing.

BINOCULAR COORDINATION - For class 351

Fusion of the sight responses of both eyes, or correct space perception.

BIOCHEMICAL - For class 435

By means of a bacteria, yeast, animal or plant cell, or virus, or the parts thereof.

BIOCHEMICAL METHOD - For class 506

Process involving the use of micro-organisms, enzymes, vectors, or antibodies.

BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE POLYPEPTIDE - For class 520

Denotes polypeptide chains which have been built up primarily from alpha- or beta-amino carboxylic acids and which exhibit biological activity similar to naturally occurring proteins or polypeptides; such activity may be, for example, hormone activity (e.g., insulin, etc.), immuno-activity (e.g., antigen or antibody, etc.), antibiotic activity (e.g., bacitracin or bleomycin, etc.), or antiviral activity (e.g., interferon, etc.). Mere statements that a material demonstrates any of these activities is sufficient to create a presumption that a biologically active polypeptide is present. On the other hand, a material merely disclosed as a polypeptide which has been built-up from amino acids will not be presumed to have biological activity, and will be placed in Class 520 according to the disclosed structure and function as appropriate.

BIOMIMETICS or BIOMIMICRY - For class 977

Nanotechnology designed to mimic biological structure/processes.

BIONANOTECHNOLOGY (NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY) - For class 977

Branch of nanotechnology that uses biological structures, such as proteins, ATPs, DNA, etc., as building blocks of nanoscale devices. Sometimes called gwet-dryh technology, wherein the term gweth pertains to biological components and gdryh refers to engineered, inorganic nanoparticles.

BIPOLAR - For class 257

An active solid-state electronic device in which both positive and negative current carriers are used to support current flow.

BIPOLAR - For class 438

An active solid-state electronic device in which both positive and negative current carriers are used to support current flow.

BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR - For class 257

An active solid-state electronic device with a base electrode and two or more junction electrodes in which both positive and negative current carriers are used to support current flow.

BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR - For class 438

An active solid-state electronic device with a base electrode and two or more junction electrodes in which both positive and negative current carriers are used to support current flow.

BIPROPELLANT - For class 060

A reaction motor propellant consisting of two separate substances (usually liquid) fed into the reaction zone separately. One of the substances is a fuel (e.g., hydrazine); while the other is an oxidizer (e.g., fluorine).

BIRD"S BEAK - For class 438

The lateral encroachment of the localized oxidation region associated with a recessed oxide isolation structure.

BIREFRINGENT - For class 359

Certain crystalline materials have their outer electrons bound more strongly in one direction than another resulting in the material having two refractive indices depending on the direction of the oscillation. Such materials are termed birefringent and, if an unpolarized light ray enters such a material obliquely, it will be refracted into two different linearly polarized rays having directions of polarization which are normal to one another.

BIREFRINGENT - For class 372

The property of dividing a ray of light into two polarized rays (known as the ordinary and extraordinary rays), the directions of polarization of the rays being at right angles to each other.

BITUMINOUS OR TARRY RESIDUE - For class 428

A composition or compound having the characteristics of a tar or pitch no matter what the origin. This term includes all asphalts, bitumens, pitches and tars from coal, mineral oil, cotton seed pitch and the residue from the destructive distillation of wood, and natural oil distillations. Carbohydrate 1) polyhydroxy mono-aldehydes and polyhydroxy mono-ketones, generally having the formula Cn(H2O)m and substances which are hydrolized to these. The term includes cellulose, starch dextran, dextrin, sugar, and lignin. (Nonstructural or Composition) Note. Wheat paste, which contains gluten, is considered polyamide.

BJT - For class 438

Bipolar junction transistor

BKBO - For class 438

Barium potassium bismuth oxide (a HTSC)

BLADE - For class 415

A working member on the runner which contacts the working fluid. This member may variously be called a bucket, vane, pocket or float in the art literature.

BLADE - For class 416

A working member* which has a thickness dimension substantially less than its width or length, the thickness being generally uniform from edge to edge.

BLADE ANGLE - For class 416

The acute angle between the chord* of any section of a rotating working member* and its plane of rotation. As the blade angle usually varies from the hub to the tip, the U.S. custom is to designate blade angle numerically as that angle occurring at 75% of the radial distance from the hub to the tip. See Figures I and II.

BLANK - For class 072

A discrete piece of material which is intended to be subjected to an operation of the class type.

BLANK - For class 428

See definition of intermediate-article*. (Structural)

BLANK HOLDER - For class 072

A mechanism, incorporated in a metal-deforming device, intended to grip a blank prior to and during deformation thereof. (Often arranged to permit a desired amount of slippage of said blank in response to the application of deforming force thereto, thereby modifying the effect of the metal-deforming tools). See gClamph.

BLANKET MATERIAL - For class 376

A layer of fertile material placed external to core of the fission reactor. See Fertile Material.

BLANKING INTERVAL - For class 725

In television systems, the range of a composite picture signal containing either vertical or horizontal synchronizing information. This range is separate from the range containing picture information.

BLAST FURNACE - For class 075

A type of shaft furnace specifically designed to reduce metal compounds (e.g., ore, etc.) to elemental metal using a combustible solid reductant (e.g., coke, etc.). The furnace is designed to operate continuously for a long period of time, with solid reductant, metal compound, and any other desired solid additive (e.g., flux, etc.) being continuously or periodically added at the top of the furnace and the resulting molten metal and by-product slag being continuously or periodically tapped from the bottom of the furnace. A gas containing gaseous Oxygen (e.g., air, etc.) is preheated (usually by the exhaust gas) and is injected into the furnace through tuyeres above the molten metal and slag level.

BLEEDING - For class 516

See syneresis.

BLIND STITCH - For class 112

A stitch in which the sewing thread penetrates only one nonthickness surface of a layer or component. See Figure 1.

Image for class 112

BLM - For class 438

Ball limiting metallization

BLOCH WAVELENGTH - For class 257

The effective wavelength of electrons in a semiconductor crystal, sometimes referred to as a wave packet or wave function. It can be an order of magnitude larger than the de broglie wavelength of electrons having the same energy.

BLOCK - For class 052

A module whose depth is substantial relative to its length and height and which in use forms a stable load-bearing member.

BLOCK - For class 428

A relatively large piece of material whose thickness is many times that of a web* or sheet* compared with its width. (Structural)

BLOCK - For class 725

To restrict the passage, progress, or exchange of data.

BLOCK COPOLYMER - For class 520

A. The structure is given, i.e., a long polymer backbone has attached or coupled to one or both of its terminal ends one or more polymers at least three reactant units in length or; B. The copolymer is named as a block providing that the disclosure is otherwise silent as to its structure or if the structure is likewise given, it is consistent with that described above or; C. The structure can be ascertained from the following limiting process conditions (a) Treating a nonterminated solid polymer, that is, one which is terminally active or glivingh, with an ethylenic reactant with subsequent polymerization to form additional blocks. The process may be continued to produce higher order block copolymers. For example, treating dilithiated polystyrene with butadiene to yield an ABA block copolymer; and (b) two or more nonidentical solid polymer chain ends are coupled directly or through the use of a chemical agent. For example, the coupling of hydroxy terminated solid polybutadiene with hydroxy terminated polyethylene glycol terephthalate with phosgene.

BLOCK-TYPE COPOLYMER - For class 520

The structure is given, i.e., to a long solid polymer backbone possessing terminally active sites (i.e., functional groups), or that is a gliving polymerh is attached or coupled, through chemical reaction with those functional groups or sites, an ethylenic reactant containing one or more functional groups or sites; an example is to contact hydroxy terminated polybutadiene glycol with allyl isocyanate, or two or more identical solid polymer chain ends are coupled directly or through the use of a chemical agent. For purposes here, identical means those polymer segments which contain the same carbon backbone but differ in stereo regularity (e.g., isotactic, syndiotactic, atactic) optical activity, or degree of polymerization. Thus, coupling lithium terminated polystyrene segments with molecular weights of 25,000 and 100,000, respectively, with stannic chloride is proper for this area.

BLOSSOM-END - For class 099

This expression relates to the surface area of food at the location of the natural attachment to the food of the flower or calyx of food such as a cherry or strawberry and may also include a small portion of adjacent skin; the expression is arbitrarily extended to include the tip or root of food such as a turnip or potato.

BLOWING - For class 065

Shaping or forming an undefined mass of glass in a soft state by introducing gas within a confined opening within the mass, i.e., by inflating.

BLOWING - For class 425

Forming a plastic mass or preform by introducing gas under pressure within the mass or preform.

BLOWN FATTY ACID - For class 516

Fatty acid treated to oxidize, commonly by passing (blowing) air, oxygen, ozonized air, or ozone through the material under mildly elevated temperatures. The process forms ketones from hydroxy groups and hydroxy groups at unsaturation sites. Process conditions also control the degree of polymerization and esterification reactions.

BLOWN OIL - For class 516

Oil treated to oxidize, commonly by passing (blowing) air, oxygen, ozonized air, or ozone through the material under mildly elevated temperatures. The process forms ketones from hydroxy groups and hydroxy groups at unsaturation sites.

BLUEING - For class 148

A process of forming a protective oxide coating on ferrous metal.

BMD - For class 438

Bulk micro defect

BODY - For class 462

A sheet* in the form of a strip*, leaf*, or book* or any other article to be subjected to a process or apparatus of this class.

BOE - For class 438

Buffered oxide etch

BOILER - For class 122

Used as a generic term for a liquid heater. The nature of the liquid heated is immaterial. Whether the liquid heated is conducted from the boiler as liquid or vapor depends upon the amount supplied and the degree of heat attained, and for this reason generally no distinction has been noted in the classification, similar structures being classified together regardless of the ultimate effect. In the type of boilers known as gflashersh this distinction is of importance and provision has been made therefor.

BOLT - For class 070

A securing element mounted on one part and having a portion or portions movable to cooperative engagement with a keeper on another part to prevent relative movement between said parts.

BOND - For class 425

Uniting by adhesive means or fusion (a mechanical interlock is excluded).

BONDING AREA - For class 257

The area, defined by the extent of a metallization land or the top surface of a terminal, to which a lead is or is to be bonded.

BONDING PAD - For class 257

A metallized area to which an electrical connection is to be made. It is also called a bonding island or a controlled collapse chip connection.

BONDING PAD - For class 438

A metallized area to which an external electrical connection is to be made.

BONDING WIRE - For class 257

Fine wire for making electrical connections in hybrid circuits between various bonding pads on the semiconductor device substrate and device terminals or substrate lands.

BONE BLACK - For class 502

Solid residue from chafing bones - @10%carbon, 80% Ca3(PO4), used particularly in decolorizing sugar solutions.

BOOK - For class 281

Consists of two or more sheets secured together (a) only at their margins or (b) only at a restricted field within the margins or (c) only at their margins and at a restricted field within the margins. A folded sheet has not been classified as a book. When a margin of one sheet is attached to a margin of another sheet to obtain in effect a single sheet of greater area, the resulting article is still regarded as a sheet rather than a book.

BOOK - For class 283

consists of two or more sheets secured together, in the manner recited in the class definition of Class 281.

BOOK - For class 462

Two or more sheets* secured together only at their margins or at a portion thereof, in particular, the outside limit or edge and adjoining surface of the sheets. A single folded sheet is not considered to be a book; however, a stack of two or more folded sheets becomes a book when bonded together along the fold lines.

BOOK- For class 412

A book consists of two or more sheets() secured together either: (a) only at their margins; or (b) only at a restricted field within the margins; or (c) only at their margins and at a restricted field within the margins. When a margin of one sheet is attached to a margin of another sheet(*) to obtain in effect a single sheet(*) or greater area, the resulting article is still regarded as a sheet(*) rather than a book. A folded sheet is not considered to be a book. Book and bound book are synonomous terms and in both, a covering member has not yet been applied. See this Glossary for the definition of the term completed book(*).

BOOM - For class 037

This is a device comprising an elongated beam adapted to project from an excavating device for the purpose of supporting the excavating equipment and wherein the device is normally pivoted to a support.

BOOM - For class 212

An elongated member protruding from a mast, crane body, trolley, or other supporting structure and from which the load is suspended.

BOOT - For class 713

To start up a computer or the process of starting or resetting a computer.

BORE - For class 175

The hole formed by the boring means. It is not limited to a vertically extending hole, but can extend at any angle into the earth.

BOREWALL - For class 175

The wall which forms the periphery of a hole in the earth. In the case of a lined hole the inside wall of the lining constitutes a borewall for purposes of classification.

BORING MEANS - For class 175

A combination of parts comprising an earth boring or drilling device. It may comprise merely a tool provided with a handle for manipulating the same to form a hole in the earth, or a complex combination of parts including above ground structure for supporting, feeding and driving a tool for boring a hole in the earth.

BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE - For class 977

State of matter occurring in certain materials at low temperature wherein particles behaving under Fermi-Dirac statistics, such as electrons, etc., behave like particles under Bose-Einstein statistics, such as photons, etc.; also occurs in superconducting materials.

BOSE-EINSTEIN STATISTICS - For class 977

Statistical distribution of boson particles, such as photons (light particles), etc., occurring between energy states.

BOTTOM-UP MANUFACTURING - For class 977

Manufacturing that starts with atomic or molecular particles and builds up; term is often contrasted with top-down manufacturing employing etching, deposition, evaporation, etc., associated with traditional semiconductor processes in which processing involves bulk addition or removal steps.

BOULE - For class 117

(From French; ball) A lump of material. In this class the term applies to the raw, single-crystal* product.

BOWL - For class 037

This device is a portion of a scoop which holds and carries the excavated material during transport. The scoop portion can be adapted to be used in connection with an apron, elevator, or ejector.

BOWL - For class 494

A receptacle-like member having generally-imperforate sidewalls and constituting that portion of a SEPARATOR within which the subdividing of material into two or more components takes place, or, at least, commences. Ordinarily considered as part of the member are such devices or structure as are either affixed thereto or integral therewith. The art term, rotor, is sometimes used to mean approximately the same as BOWL. (See the Class Definition, (2) Note and (3) Note, above, and see Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a discussion of the phrase ggenerally closed.h)

BOX - For class 438

Buried oxide

BOXES - For class 438

Buried oxide with etch stop

BPSG - For class 438

Borophosphosilica glass

BPTEOS - For class 438

borophosphoTEOS

BRACE ARM - For class 351

A relatively long and slender temple supporting arm or arc substantially identical to the shape of the upper contour edge of a lens.

BRACKISH - For class 210

Somewhat salty, but substantially less so than sea water.

BRAKE - For class 425

A baker"s kneading machine. In bread making gbrakingh is kneading.

BRAKE - For class 475

Mechanism to selectively or automatically stop a moving part with respect to a stationary part.

BRAKE OR CLAMP - For class 225

A means for applying friction directly or indirectly to the work, the means as disclosed being intended to slow, stop or prevent work motion. Class 51 for device for feeding and severing strips utilized for manifolding.

BRAKE: - For class 477

Mechanism operable to stop a rotatable part with respect to a stationary part. If a brake is used as a part of transmission (i.e., in a planetary transmission to change gear ratio or direction), such a brake is classified with transmission control rather than brake control.

BRAKE-SLIP - For class 701

The slippage of a wheel caused by the braking operation during deceleration of the vehicle.

BREAKDOWN - For class 257

A sudden change from high dynamic electrical resistance to a very low dynamic resistance in a reverse biased semiconductor device, e.g., a reverse biased junction between p-type and n-type semiconductor materials, wherein reverse current increases rapidly for a small increase in reverse applied voltage, and the device behaves as if it had negative electrical resistance.

BREAKDOWN - For class 438

A sudden change from high dynamic electrical resistance to a very low dynamic resistance in a reverse biased semiconductor device (e.g., a reverse biased junction between p-type and n-type semiconductor materials) wherein reverse current increases rapidly for a small increase in reverse applied voltage, and the device behaves as if it had negative electrical resistance.

BREAKDOWN POINT/VOLTAGE - For class 257

The voltage value at which breakdown occurs.

BREAKER, COLLOID SYSTEM; BREAKING, COLLOID SYSTEM - For class 516

The effective material*, energy, or means used for accomplishing the act of breaking or resolving (i.e., destroying) a colloid system, such as agent* compositions specialized and designed for or peculiar to use in colloid system breaking. See emulsion breaker.

BREAKOVER - For class 257

The start of current flow in a silicon controlled rectifier.

BREEDER MATERIAL - For class 376

See (a) Blanket Material and (b) Fertile Material.

BRIDGE - For class 212

An elongated member supported horizontally at two spaced points and which either serves as or bears a track or guide between the supporting points on which a load-supporting trolley or a traveling bridge is adapted to move.

BRIDGE - For class 351

The connecting part between the lens supporting members of spectacles or eyeglasses.

BRIDGE (-WALL) - For class 065

A hollow wall generally having an air space between refractory blocks from which it is formed and providing an opening or throat adjacent its bottom used in a tank furnace to separate a working end from a fining or melting zone.

BRINE - For class 210

A relatively concentrated salt water solution sometimes from wells or industrial sources and including sea water.

BRIQUET - For class 044

Defined as a fuel object, of a size suitable to be manipulated by a human hand, made, by consolidating, usually including pressing and shaping, smaller-sizes, loose, broken, comminuted or other divided carbonaceous powder, particles, chunks, lumps, fibers, sheets, etc.

BROWNIAN MOTION - For class 977

Stochastic motion of a particle suspended in a surrounding gas or liquid comprised of other particles, molecules, or atoms, which is in thermodynamic equilibrium.

BRUSH - For class 388

A piece of conductive material, usually carbon or graphite, which rides on the commutator of a motor and forms the electrical connection between the motor and a power source.

BSD - For class 438

Back side damage

BSE - For class 438

buried storage electrode

BSG - For class 438

Borosilica glass

BSQ - For class 438

Bias sputter quartz

BST - For class 438

Barium strontium titanate

BUCKET BRIGADE DEVICE - For class 257

A charge transfer device in which only a portion of the charge carriers (electrons or holes) at each storage site are transferred to the next storage site.

BUCKLE- For class 024

A securing means wherein either member is adapted to allow structure-to-be-secured () to pass therethrough, or wherein the members are adapted to allow structure-to-be-secured(*) to pass completely therebetween in a path generally parallel to the longitudinal axis of the members. Buckles are designed to adjustably secure belts, bands, or similar longitudinal articles and generally operate by having one end of the belt band, etc., fixed securely to one end of the buckle with another frictionally or resiliently securing the belt, band, etc., or by passing through a provided for aperture in the belt, band, etc., and generally also has two connected, relatively movable members.

BUCKMINSTERFULLERENE or BUCKYBALL - For class 977

Soccer-ball-shaped form of fullerene (C60).

BUFFER - For class 725

A device in which data are stored temporarily, in the course of transmission from one point to another and used to compensate for a difference in the flow of data or time of occurrence of events when transmitting data from one device to another. Also, the act of such temporary storage of data.

BULK DEPOSITION OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL - For class 156

The fluent delivery of a stream of separate loose pieces onto a receiving surface. The relative size of the pieces is not significant, rather it is the manner in which they are handled, as a mass or stream rather than each particle being individually manipulated.

BULK MATERIAL - For class 425

A mass or pile of stock material lacking any shape that contributes to a final shape after molding. Bulk material may have a definite shape but it must not contribute its shape to a final desired form.

BULK-CHANNEL CCD - For class 257

A charge coupled device in which charge is stored and transferred below the surface of the device.

BULK-EFFECT DEVICE - For class 257

An active solid-state device made up of a semiconductor material whose electrical characteristics and electronic properties are exhibited throughout the entire body of the material, rather than in just a localized region thereof, e.g., the surface.

BUMP CONTACT - For class 257

A term used to describe, typically, solder bumps on a chip or substrate which are found on only one side of the chip or substrate as, for example, on a flip-chip.

BURIED CHANNEL CCD - For class 257

See BULK-CHANNEL CCD.

BURNABLE POISON - For class 376

A substance with high neutron capture cross section which has a capture reaction product of low capture cross section and which is purposely put in a fission reactor to influence the long term reactivity variations.

BURNER - For class 431

Term generic to gburner assemblyh, gburner headh and gflame holderh.

BURNER ASSEMBLY - For class 431

A unitary device or fixture including a flame holder and associated feeding or supporting elements.

BURNER HEAD - For class 431

A device by which fluent fuel is passed to a combustion space where it forms a flame projecting from the device.

BURST - For class 348

Also called reference burst, the portion of the composite or noncomposite color-picture signal, comprising a few cycles of a sine wave of chrominance subcarrier frequency, that is used to establish a reference for demodulating the chrominance signal.

BUS - For class 345

A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS - For class 709

A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS - For class 710

A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS - For class 711

A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS - For class 712

A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS - For class 713

A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS - For class 714

A conductor used for transferring data, signals or power.

BUS - For class 718

A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BUS - For class 719

A conductor used for transferring data, signals, or power.

BY-PRODUCT MATERIALS - For class 376

Are nuclear reaction products (except special nuclear fuel material (see Nuclear Fuel) including gases yielded in or made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incident to the process of producing or utilizing special nuclear fuel in the nuclear reaction.

CABLE - For class 049

A flexible connector such as a rope, chain or the like.

CABLE - For class 439

An elongated, flexible assembly of two or more elongated conductors intended to transmit electricity from one end to the other, the conductors being electrically insulated from one another but physically held together in association with one another. Note. The two or more physically associated but mutually insulated conductors are usually further enclosed within an outer protective or insulating covering or sheath. Note. A stranded, wire-type conductor is considered to be a single conductor.

CABLE - For class 725

A transmission line or group of transmission lines mechanically assembled into a complex flexible form. Note: The conductors are insulated and are closely spaced and usually have a common outer cover which may be an electric portion of the cable. In communication cables, an insulated conductor or combination of electric conductors that are insulated from each other. A shield is usually provided. Further, an assembly of one or more conductors within an enveloping protective sheath, constructed to allow use of the conductors separately or in groups, such as a coaxial cable or optical cable.

CABLE- For class 187

A flaccid, elongated, flexible element which can transmit force only when under tension (e.g., rope, wire, chain).

CAIBE - For class 438

Chemically assisted ion beam etching

CALCULATING OPERATION: - For class 700

Arithmetic and or some limited logic operations performed upon or with signals representing numbers or values.

CALCULATING OPERATIONS - For class 701

Arithmetic and/or some limited logic operations performed upon or with signals representing numbers or values.

CALCULATING OPERATIONS - For class 702

Arithmetic or some limited logic operations performed upon or with signals representing numbers or values.

CALCULATING OPERATIONS - For class 705

Arithmetic or some limited logic operations performed upon or with signals representing numbers or values.

CALCULATION OPERATIONS - For class 708

Arithmetic or some limited logic operations performed upon or with signals representing numbers or values. These include arithmetic and related logic operations. A related logic operation is one that is associated with arithmetic computations.

CALL ADDRESS SIGNAL - For class 379

An electrical representation of a called terminal designation (i.e., telephone number) which controls switching apparatus to establish a connection from a calling terminal.

CAM, ECCENTRIC - For class 269

A rotatable, pivotal or rockable member having a contour, which contour is not uniformly concentric with the pivotal or rotational axis of the member, and which contour, as it moves with respect to said axis, imparts a to-and-fro movement to a follower element bearing against said contour. The movement of said follower element, as the point of mutual contact between the member and the element shifts along the contour, is thus prescribed by the configuration of said contour with respect to the axis of rotation. The contour may be a modification of a peripheral or radial surface with respect to the pivotal or rotational axis or a configured groove, ridge or slot lying in the general plane of either surface. Thus, the effective movement of a follower element, caused by pivoting or rocking the cam member, is measurable along lines normal to the member axis or parallel to the member axis. The follower element is usually mounted for sliding or pivoting movement with respect to the cam member. In some instances, the contour, referred to above, is part of the follower element. In this class, the terms gcamh and geccentrich are used interchangeably. See (3) Note under subclass 165 and (1) Note under subclass 229 for wedge adjustment and wedge actuating means.

CAMERA - For class 396

A camera is a device which, when actuated, uses light to record an image of an object which may be chemically developable to become visible. It generally includes (a) a light-tight enclosure, (b) a lens for forming an image of an object at an image plane, (c) a holder for a photographic medium at the image plane, (d) a device to control the light flux reaching the photographic medium, and (e) an opaque device selectively operable to pass light to a photographic medium for a period of time. See References to Other Classes, above (e.g., Classes 250 and 378), for information regarding picture-making devices of diverse energy spectra.

CAMERA STRUCTURE - For class 396

Camera structure is that subcombination of a camera not otherwise provided for in another class.

CAMERA, MOTION PICTURE - For class 352

A device for photographically recording periodically a series of images of an object upon a single actuation.

CAPACITANCE - For class 334

The property of a capacitor to store and hold an electric charge and which is equivalent to the ratio of the equivalent charge stored in the capacitor to the resultant change of potential.

CAPACITOR - For class 257

A component used in electrical and electronic circuits which stores a charge of electricity, usually for very brief periods of time, with the ability to rapidly charge and discharge. A capacitor is usually considered a passive component since it does not rectify, amplify, or switch and because charge carriers do not undergo energy level changes therein, although some active solid-state devices function as voltage variable capacitors.

CAPACITOR - For class 320

An electrical energy storage device consisting essentially of two electrically conductive surfaces (e.g., plates, electrodes, etc.) separated by an insulator or dielectric (e.g., air, paper, mica glass, plastic, oil, etc.), whereby an electric charge, in the form of a direct voltage between said conductive surfaces, can be either stored on said surfaces or released therefrom to a load. "Plural capacitors" include a combination or association of two or more structurally dependent, or independent, capacitor units.

CAPACITOR - For class 334

That property of a system of conductors and dielectrics used to secure an appreciable capacitance by allowing the storage of electricity when a potential difference exists between the conductors. There must be at least two or more conductors separated by a dielectric.

CAPACITOR - For class 438

A component used in electrical and electronic circuits which stores a charge of electricity, usually for very brief periods of time, with the ability to rapidly charge and discharge. A capacitor is usually considered a passive component since it does not rectify, amplify, or switch and because charge carriers do not undergo energy level changes therein, although some active solid state devices function as voltage variable capacitors.

CAPPING - For class 164

Intentionally stopping the rimming action in steel after completion of teeming.

CAPTURE ELEMENT - For class 073

That structure which physically contacts the source to separate it into sample and residue portions.

CARBAMATE - For class 516

A compound based on carbamic acid, NH 2COOH, in the form of its salts and derivatives.

CARBOCYCLIC - For class 260

Denotes the presence of one or more rings, none of which is a heterocyclic or a nitrocyclic ring, of which the ring members of at least one ring are all carbons.

CARBOCYCLIC - For class 514

This term denotes a ring or ring system where all ring members are carbons.

CARBOCYCLIC - For class 532

This term denotes a ring or ring system where all ring members are carbons.

CARBOHYDRATE - For class 426

Compound, the monomeric units of which contain at least five carbon atoms, and their reaction products wherein the carbon skeleton of carbohydrate unit is not destroyed. Alcohols and acids corresponding to carbohydrates, such as, sorbitol ascorbic acid, or mannonic acid are not considered as being carbohydrates.

CARBOHYDRATE - For class 977

Polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones which frequently have the empirical formula (CH2O)n and their derivatives, frequently termed saccharides; common forms are monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

CARBOHYDRATE A - For class 430

polyhydroxy mono-aldehyde and a polyhydroxy mono-ketone, generally having the formula C (H2O) and substances which are hydrolyzed to these. The term includes cellulose, starch, dextran, and sugar.

CARBOHYDRATE DERIVATIVE - For class 520

Denotes reaction products of carbohydrates wherein the carbon skeleton of the carbohydrate is not destroyed. Included herein are cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate, cellulose ethers, viscose, cellulose xanthate, chitin, etc.

CARBOHYDRATE; CARBOHYDRATE-DERIVATIVE - For class 516

Carbohydrates are compounds which are saccharides whose monomeric units are polyhydroxy mono-aldehydes or polyhydroxy mono-ketones, having the formula Cn(H2O)n, where n is five or six, or the corresponding cyclic hemiacetals thereof. Carbohydrate-derivatives maintain the carbon skeleton and the carbonyl function or hemi-acetal function of the saccharide. See section LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS, subsection Glossary References, for additional information concerning this definition.

CARBOHYDRATES - For class 520

Denotes polyhydroxy aldehydes (i.e., aldoses) and polyhydroxy ketones (i.e., ketoses) of the empirical formula Cx(H2O)x where x is five or more; and substances hydrolyzable to said polyhydroxy (aldehydes or ketones). Included herein for example are the following: (a) monosaccharide sugars such as pentoses (e.g., arabinose, arabinulose, etc.) hexoses (e.g., glucose, levulose, etc.) and the heptoses (e.g., mannoheptose, etc.); (b) disaccharides (e.g., lactose, maltose, sucrose, cellobiose, etc.); (c) trisaccharides (e.g., raffinose, etc.); (d) polysaccharides (e.g., starches, celluloses, dextrins, hemicelluloses, glycogen, insulin, etc.); (e) complex polysaccharides (e.g., gum arabic, pectins, etc.). Excluded herefrom are lignin, tannin, and derivatives thereof. Also excluded are the simple gtrioseh (i.e., glyceradehyde di-hydroxy acetone) or gtetroseh (i.e., erythrose, threose and keto tetroses) sugars since these sugars have less than five carbons; such materials are treated as polyhydroxy (aldehydes or ketones).

CARBON - For class 428

Inorganic material. (Nonstructural or Composition)

CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL - For class 201

Any solid material (mixture or compound) other than an inorganic carbonate which contains carbon or carbon containing compounds such as coke or wood.

CARBONYLIC - For class 260

Denotes the presence of the carbonyl group, C=O.

CARBOXAMIDO - For class 510

Denotes a substituent wherein a trivalent nitrogen atom is single bonded to a carbonyl (-C(=O)-) group.

CARBOXYL (Carboxylic Acid) - For class 510

Denotes the presence of a -C(=O)OH group.

CARBOXYL GROUP - For class 516

Structure comprised of a carbonyl group (C=O) with a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbonyl carbon.

CARBOXYLIC - For class 424

Denotes the presence of a moiety.

Image for class 424

CARBOXYLIC ACID OR DERIVATIVE - For class 520

A. A carboxylic acid denotes the carboxyl group, represented as -COOH or -C(=O)OH, bonded to: (1) a carbon atom that is not double-bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen; (2) hydrogen; or (3) [-C(O=)-]n, where n is an integer (e.g., oxalic acid, etc.). A carboxylic acid derivative is limited to: 1. nitride; 2. carboxylic acid ester; 3. carboxylic acid anhydride; 4. carboxylic acid salt; 5. carboxylic acid amide; 6. carboxylic acid imide; 7. carboxylic acid lactam; 8. carboxylic acid halide; and 9. lactone. B. A carboxylic acid anhydride denotes the basic structure -C(=O)-O-C(=O)-, the carbons of which may independently be bonded to: (1) hydrogen; (2) a carbon atom that is not double bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium; or (3) [-C(=O)-]n, where n is an integer. In either of (2) or (3), supra, the -C(=O)-O-C(=O)- group may be part of a ring. C. A carboxylic acid ester denotes the structure -C(=O)-O-C-, where the carbon atom bonded to the -O- of the -C(=O)-O- group may not be double bonded to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium), or triple bonded to nitrogen, and the carbonyl carbon of the -C(=O)-O-C- group may be bonded to (1) hydrogen; (2) a carbon atom that is not double bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen; or (3) [-C(=O)-]n, where n is an integer. D. A nitride denotes the structure -CbN bonded to carbon, which carbon may not be double bonded to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium), or triple bonded to nitrogen. E. A carboxylic acid amide denotes the structure -C(=O)-NH2, where substitution may be made for the hydrogens, and the carbonyl carbon may be bonded to (1) hydrogen; (2) a carbon atom that is not double bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen; or (3) [-C(=O)-]n, where n is an integer. F. A carboxylic acid halide denotes the structure -C(=O)-hal, where hal is halogen and the carbonyl carbon may be bonded to (1) hydrogen; (2) [-C(=O)-]n, where n is an integer; or (3) a carbon atom that is not double bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to carbon. G. The imide of a dicarboxylic acid is a heterocyclic ring having as ring members the group -C(=O)-NH-C(=O)-, where substitution may be made for hydrogen; all remaining ring members are carbon atoms. H. The lactam of a carboxylic acid is a heterocyclic ring having as ring members the group -NH-C(=O)-, where substitution may be made for hydrogen; all remaining ring members are carbon atoms. I. The lactone of a carboxylic acid is a heterocyclic ring having as ring members the group -C(=O)-O-; all remaining ring members are carbon atoms, and the carbon atoms bonded to either the carbon or oxygen or the -C(=O)O- group may not themselves be double bonded to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium). J. A carboxylic acid salt denotes the structure -C(=O)-O-X, where X is a cation and ionic bonding exists between the cation, X, and the -C(=O)O- group. The carbon of the -C(=O)O- group may be bonded to: (1) hydrogen; (2) a carbon atom that is not double bonded to sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen; or (3) [-C(=O)-]n, where n is an integer. In the above definitions of carboxylic acids and their derivations, certain derivations may technically fit into more than one derivative grouping. A lactone, for example, is a species of an ester, and a lactam is a species of an amide. Compounds that are themselves multifunctional (i.e., possess more than one functional group) are classified on the basis of the first appearing functional group in the hierarchy. A polycarboxylic reactant requires the presence of at least two carboxylic acid groups, or of at least one carboxylic acid group and at least one carboxylic acid derivative, or at least two identical carboxylic acid derivatives, or at least two different carboxylic acid derivatives.

A cyclic carboxylic anhydride having the group -C(=O)-O-C(=O)- as members of a ring is considered as a polycarboxylic acid. Compounds having both a cyclic anhydride group and a free carboxyl (-COOH) group are considered as tricarboxylic acids. An example is trimellitic anhydride, which is shown as Figure 1 at the end of the “Carboxylic Acid or Derivative” definition. A compound containing two cyclic anhydride groups is considered a tetracarboxylic acid. An example is pyromellitic dianhydride, which is shown in Figure 2 at the end of the “Carboxylic Acid or Derivative” definition.

Image for class 520Image for class 520

CARBURIZING - For class 148

A process wherein a metal substrate is treated with an externally supplied source of carbon resulting in the carburization of the metal by chemical reaction or diffusion.

CARBURIZING (Carbonizing) - For class 164

Introducing carbon into ferrometals by heating above the transformation temperature range while in contact with carbonaceous material that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous.

CARCASS - For class 452

Includes the dead body of either a land or marine animal.

CARRIAGE - For class 400

A mechanism for supporting a record-medium* or for supporting a type-head-carrier*, which mechanism is provided with means to effect relative movement between the record-medium and a type-head-carrier that is at the print-point*, the movement occurring along a line that is parallel to the print-line*. A gcarriage-feedh means effects carriage movement in the direction that causes character* symbols to be imprinted in succession, thus gcarriage feedh also effects character-space* and word-space* distances. In most typewriters used for typing a European language said direction is from left to right, but there are some typewriters capable of imprinting successive characters from right to left even though the words will be read from left to right, and there are other typewriters intended to imprint successive characters from right to left because the words will be read from right to left. In any event, the carriage-feed direction is always the direction that causes characters to be imprinted in succession. In some typewriters the record-medium is held to a platen that is mounted on a carriage, and the gplaten carriageh (together with the record-medium) is moved relative to the main frame of the typewriter. Each successively actuated type-member* is impressed at a print-point that is stationary relative to the main frame. The platen-carriage (e.g., right to left) is opposite to the direction in which successive characters are imprinted and read (e.g., left to right). (The directions mentioned apply except as noted above.) In some typewriters the record-medium is held to a platen that does not move during the imprinting of a print-line. The type-member is on a type-head* that is on a type-head-carrier that is mounted on a carriage, and the type-head carriage is moved relative to the main frame of the typewriter. Each successively actuated type-member is impressed at a print-point that is moved relative to the main frame. The gtype-head carriageh movement (e.g., left to right) is in the direction in which successive characters are imprinted and read (e.g., left to right). In both forms of typewriter noted above, the term carriage feed is applied to movement of the carriage in the direction that effects imprinting of successive characters and words*. Thus, for a platen-carriage typewriter, carriage feed is usually from right to left (but note the exception above), whereas for a type-head-carriage typewriter, carriage feed is usually from left to right. Either typewriter is also capable of carriage reversal, which is in the direction opposite to carriage feed, and is used for gcarriage returnh (e.g., to start a new print-line) or is used for carriage backspace (e.g., to move a carriage a distance equivalent of one or more character-spaces in a reverse direction).

CARRIAGE-RACK - For class 400

A bar having teeth or notches along one of its sides, which bar is affixed to a carriage*, and which teeth or notches cooperate with a pawl* or a pinion gear to enable or cause movement of the bar and the carriage to which it is affixed. There may be provision for adjustment of the bar relative to the carriage, but the adjustment is usually made at the time of manufacture of the typewriter, or may be made subsequently during a period of time when the typewriter is not being used for typing. When a carriage-rack cooperates with a pawl, it acts as a ratchet*, and for a discussion of how a pawl and ratchet operates as a carriage-feed mechanism, see the definition of pawl in this Glossary,

CARRIER - For class 226

(n) As used in this class, a member on which a material engaging part is slidingly or rotatably (including pivotally) mounted, which member entirely supports the part against gravity while allowing relative movement between the member and the part. This term is applied only to that member of a device which is immediately connected to the material-engaging part. A member can be a complex of parts which move integrally together.

CARRIER - For class 257

A mobile free electron or hole.

CARRIER - For class 329

An electrical or electromagnetic repetitious sinusoidal wave.

CARRIER - For class 332

Is an electrical or electromagnetic repetitious sinusoidal wave.

CARRIER - For class 355

(a) The element that contains the original image to be imaged onto a receiver. The carrier is commonly a photographic negative, but may be a positive, a document, a book page, etc.; and (b) a substance in electrophotos:graphic developer which conveys a toner material to a copy substrate but which does not, itself, become a part of the developed copy.

CARRIER - For class 401

A member attached to a piece of solid coating material so as to be movable therewith in a guide#.

CARRIER - For class 406

An auxiliary device for use in a fluid current conveyor comprising a container for carrying material or articles while being conveyed through the fluid current conveyor.

CARRIER - For class 416

A Load bearing structure (e.g., hub, etc.) which mounts one or more working members* and which, at least in part, partakes of the motion of the member.

CARRIER CONCENTRATION - For class 257

The number of electrical charge carriers in a given volume, usually a cubic centimeter, of semiconductor material.

CARRIER, MOTION PICTURE - For class 352

The vehicle for the individual pictures of a motion picture series, generally a flexible strip.

CASCADE AMPLIFIER - For class 330

A series of amplifiers wherein the input for each amplifier except the first (to which the electric signal source is connected) is coupled from the output of the prior amplifier.

CASE HARDENING - For class 148

A term most often applied to carburizing or nitriding processes which result in a hardened surface on the workpiece.

CASE-SHIFT - For class 400

Case-shift is the relative movement between a record-medium* and a type-face* or a type-die* that is at the print-point*, which movement is effected by pressing a case-shift key* concurrently with the pressing of a character* key. In most typewriters, selection of which character is to be imprinted in sequence is made by selection of the character keys. In a typewriter with a case-shift, a choice of upper-case* (i.e., gCAPITALh letter) or lower-case* (i.e., gsmallh letter) form of the selected letter is possible by concurrently pressing or not pressing the case-shift key. Analogous choice of other characters that appear on the various character keys is also possible with the case-shift key. In some typewriters case-shift is effected by moving into one of two positions (or in other typewriters one of three positions) any of (a) a type-bar-segment*, or (b) a platen, or (c) a type-head* that carries at least two fixedly related type-face elements; in all of these the movement occurs in a plane substantially parallel to the plane occupied by the type-face at the print-point. In some typewriters a type-head is on a type-head-carrier* and includes a type-set-assemblage* thereon, and in such typewriters case-shift is effected by moving the type-head so that the chosen type-face (i.e., upper-case or lower-case) will be impacted against the record-medium. In some typewriters, case-shift may also be used to imprint a character in a different font* or a character in a different language for specialized uses.

CASING - For class 166

A pipe which lines all or a portion of the wall of a well. The casing may be adjacent the wall of the well for only a part of its length and lie within another casing section for the remainder of its length. The casing usually is of metal and is used with cement between it and the well wall. The casing is intended to form the permanent lining of the well.

CASING - For class 175

A tube which is introduced in a preformed bore and forms a lining for the bore.

CASING - For class 313

A container or enclosure for a lamp or discharge device, or a part thereof. See Envelope above.

CASING - For class 415

A member which cooperates with a runner member and provides a flow path for the working fluid. This member may also be called a curb in the art literature.

CASTING - For class 065

Forming a glass preform by flowing molten glass in the form of a stream into or onto molds, rolls or tables. (Teeming is synonymous to casting).

CASTING - For class 164

The formation of an article by pouring or forcing molten metal into a mold or die and permitting it to solidify.

CASTING - For class 264

A process of molding or forming wherein impressions are made with fluent or molten materials as by pouring into a mold with hardening or setting of said material in said mold.

CASTING - For class 425

Forming a preform by pouring fluent stock onto or into a shaping surface. Synonym: Teeming.

CATALYST - For class 423

A substance which either increases or decreases the speed of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing a permanent change.

CATALYST - For class 502

An agent which affects or effects a chemical reaction by its presence in the reaction mass (other than by dissolving or dispersing the reactants) generally being recoverable from the products as if it did not enter into the reaction and merely provided the impetus for reaction of other materials. While it was originally thought that a catalyst did not enter the reaction and instead provided sites at which the reactants, per se, interacted, it is understood now that at least some transitory intermediates may involve the catalyst. The catalyst, however does not contribute substance to the desired final product even though it may remain inseparable from such product.

CATALYST - For class 588

A substance which either increases or decreases the speed of a chemical reaction.

CATALYZE - For class 502

Affecting, effecting, promoting, or initiating a reaction by being present-generally by presenting a contact surface and usually recoverable from the product in essentially unchanged form and operating other than by merely acting as a solvent. The strict classical concept of a catalyst is not rigidly adhered to now and the catalyst may disappear, change or be included as an incidental moiety in the final product. A catalyst may inhibit one reaction while promoting or allowing another reaction but an agent strictly preventing or retarding a reaction is a preservative for Class 252 Compositions, subclasses 380+. Examples of these retardants or inhibitors are anti-oxidant and anti-knock compositions. An agent that encourages a reaction by dispersing the reactants such as a more effective solvent is not a catalyst. A catalyst may be gaseous, liquid or solid.

CATARACT CORRECTION LENS - For class 351

A lens, usually with cylindrical correction, to optically compensate for diminution of vision or opacity of the lens of the eye.

CATEGORY - For class 725

Any of several fundamental and distinct classes to which entities or concepts belong. Also, a division within a system of classification.

CATHANODE - For class 313

An electrode designed to serve as an anode with respect to a cathode and to be heated by the discharge so that another surface of the electrode emits electrons to a second anode. See subclass 305 for discharge devices having a cathanode.

CATHODE - For class 313

An electrode which acts as the negative device. In some discharge devices, such as spark gaps, there is no difference in structure between the cathode and anode. Consequently, the use of the words gcathodeh and ganodeh have been avoided except where there is some significance in structure between the two electrodes.

CATHODE IMPEDANCE - For class 330

The impedance from the cathode of an electronic tube to ground or a reference potential.

CATHODE OR CATHODE ELECTRODE - For class 330

The negative electrode of the two electrodes of an electronic tube between which an electric discharge occurs (for negative charge carrier particles); in a vacuum tube the electrode which emits the electrons and is negatively charged with respect to the electrode which collects the electrons.

CATHODE RAY DEVICE - For class 313

A discharge device having means for forming the electric discharge into a restricted beam or ray, usually pencil-like.

CATHODE-HEATER - For class 330

A filament in proximity to an indirectly heated cathode with terminals designed to receive a source of power to heat the cathode to its electron emitting temperature.

CATIONIC SUBSTITUENT - For class 510

Denotes that portion of an organic compound which is positively charged in an aqueous solution at a neutral pH (i.e., pH=7) and is attached to the portion of the molecule of higher molecular weight by covalent bonding. Examples of common cationic substituents include primary, secondary, or tertiary amino groups, as well as quaternary ammonium substituents.

CAVITY - For class 072

(DIE CAVITY) A passageway closed at one end; a chamber or blind hole having at least one work-shape-imposing portion of closed perimeter definable in a plane normal to the direction of relative motion of a co-acting tool or work forcer, or of the disclosed flow of work. See gOrificeh and gPassagewayh.

CAVITY - For class 428

A hole or a hollow place in a body. (Structural)

CB JUNCTION - For class 257

The collector-base junction of a bipolar transistor.

CBE - For class 117

Chemical Beam Epitaxy*.

CBIC - For class 438

Complementary bipolar IC

CBKR - For class 438

Cross bridge Kelvin resistor (test structure)

CCB - For class 438

Controlled collapse bonding

CCC - For class 438

Corrugated capacitor cell

CCD - For class 438

Charge coupled device

CDE - For class 438

Chemical dry etching

CDI - For class 438

Collector diffusion isolation

CEL - For class 438

Contrast enhancement layer

CELL - For class 257

An individual integrated circuit element located on a large, or master chip of, semiconductor material.

CELL - For class 320

Short for, or used interchangeably with, a voltaic cell only in this class.

CELL - For class 428

A closed cavity (which may be empty or full) in a component*. (Structural)

CELL - For class 715

The intersection of a row and a column of DATA*.

CELL- For class 349

For the purpose of this class, a cell is the minimum combination of elements necessary to physically contain an entire liquid crystal layer given a stimulus or excitation. In a matrix addressed liquid crystal device, a single pixel is not a cell.

CELLULAR - For class 725

Of, relating to, or consisting of cells. In a radio frequency system, that which characterizes a system in which a geographical area is divided into small sections, each served by a transmitter of limited range so that any available radio frequency channel can be used in different parts of the area simultaneously.

CELLULOSIC - For class 428

A carbohydrate material derived from the structural matter of plant life, usually from the stems. The term includes lignocellulose (e.g., wood and bark) relatively pure cellulose (e.g., cotton and linen) and chemically modified forms of cellulose as cellophane, pyroxylin, viscose and rayon. While pyroxylin may be plasticized with minor amounts of camphor and/or castor oil, for purposes of classification, pyroxylin is considered cellulosic. (Nonstructural or Composition)

CEMENTATION - For class 075

A process of recovering a free metal from solution wherein a more electropositive free metal displaces a less electropositive metal from solution as a free metal while the more electropositive metal goes into solution in ionic form.

CENTRAL CHAMBER - For class 166

A generic term covering both a central conduit, as defined below, and a receptacle for bodily transport of fluid material from inside the well to the top of the well or bodily transport of material from the top of the well for discharge at a point in the well. In a well device the central chamber is considered to be the primary locus from which or to which fluid is moved. For example, the gcentral chamberh in a tester is the sample chamber receiving the test fluid, whether this be a receptacle or a tubing, while the gcentral chamberh in a liquid discharging washer is the primary place from which liquid flows, whether this be a tubing or a receptacle.

CENTRAL CONDUIT - For class 166

Any passage forming conduit which extends from the top of the well into the well and is positioned within another conduit. The central conduit may be, for example, a string of tubing positioned within another tubing or within the casing, or it may be a string of casing positioned within the well bore.

CENTRIFUGE - For class 210

A process or means in which a liquid is revolved about an axis at such a number of revolutions per unit of time that the apparent weight of constituents increases to a point where the constituents tend to concentrate in strata similar to gravity-induced separation based on relative densities.

CER - For class 438

Contact end resistor (test structure)

CERAMIC - For class 428

Clay containing, therefore silicon containing. (Nonstructural or Composition)

CERAMIC - For class 501

Inorganic compositions which are heat treated to harden them during their manufacture or subsequent use by firing, calcining, sintering, or fusion of at least a portion of the inorganic material, including glass compositions, fired clay compositions which form, e.g., porcelain or brick, and refractories. Such materials typically, but not necessarily, include earthy materials, such as metal (and especially mixed metal) silicates.

CERDIP - For class 438

ceramic DIP

CHAFF - For class 460

These are seed coverings and small stem pieces which are separated from seed and threshed grain during threshing or processing operation.

CHAFFER - For class 460

A moving device having lips, loovers or similar means that separates the chaff from threshed grain or seed.

CHAIN - For class 514

This term denotes a plurality of atoms which connect specified groups or atoms. The atoms of the chain must be nonionically attached to each other and to the specified groups or atoms. If the chain may not include any ring members it will be designated as acyclic. When the chain may include ring members the title will state that the chain may include a ring. The chain ends where it attaches to the specified groups or atoms and does not include any part of them. The chain may have substituents but the substituents are not part of the chain.

CHAIN - For class 532

This term denotes a plurality of atoms which connect specified groups or atoms. The atoms of the chain must be nonionically attached to each other and to the specified groups or atoms. If the chain may not include any ring members it will be designated as acyclic. When the chain may include ring members the title will state that the chain may include a ring. The chain ends where it attaches to the specified groups or atoms and does not include any part of them. The chain may have substituents but the substituents are not part of the chain.

CHALCEDONY - For class 117

Microcrystalline form of quartz; usually milky or grayish in color.

CHALCOGEN - For class 423

Also known as chalcogenide(s), the elements oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium.

CHALCOGEN - For class 588

Also known as chalcogenides, specifically O, S, Se, or Te.

CHALCOGEN - For class 987

Limited to oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), or tellurium (Te).

CHANGE-KEY - For class 070

That key designed for operation of an individually distinct lock operating mechanism embodying a specific combination or design.

CHANNEL - For class 257

A path for conducting current between a source and drain of a field effect transistor.

CHANNEL - For class 373

A hollow loop, or ring which will contain material to be heated, and which permits the insertion of a core of iron to improve the coupling between a primary coil and a secondary in the loop, or ring.

CHANNEL - For class 438

A path for conducting current between a source and drain of a field effect transistor.

CHANNEL - For class 725

A single path for transmitting electric signals, usually in distinction from other parallel paths. A band of frequencies. Note: The word gpathh is to be interpreted in a broad sense to include separation by frequency division or time division. The term gchannelh may signify either a one-way path, providing transmission in one direction only, or a two-way path, providing transmission in two directions.

CHANNEL LENGTH EFFECTS - For class 257

Operating characteristics of FETs which depend on the length (distance between source and drain) of the channel regions. Such effects include switching speed change and threshold voltage change with channel length change.

CHANNEL PINCH-OFF REGION - For class 257

The location in a current channel portion of a field effect transistor (FET) where the current is reduced to a minimum value due to its diameter being reduced to a minimum.

CHANNEL PINCH-OFF REGION - For class 438

The location in a current channel portion of a field effect transistor (FET) where the current is reduced to a minimum value due to its diameter being reduced to a minimum.

CHANNEL STOP - For class 257

Means for limiting channel formation in a semiconductor device by surrounding the affected area with a ring of highly doped, low resistivity semiconductor material. In a field effect transistor, it is a region of highly doped material of the same type as the lightly doped substrate used to prevent leakage paths along the chip surface from developing. Also referred to as gchanstop.h

CHANNEL STOP - For class 438

Means for limiting channel formation in a semiconductor device by surrounding the affected area with a ring of highly doped, low resistivity semiconductor material. In a field effect transistor, it is a region of highly doped material of the same type as the lightly doped substrate used to prevent leakage paths along the chip surface from developing. Also referred to as gchanstop.h

CHANNEL WIDTH EFFECTS - For class 257

Operating characteristics of FETs which depend on the width (horizontal distance perpendicular to channel length and parallel to upper surface of device) of the channel. Such effects include conductance and threshold voltage change with channel width change.

chanstop - For class 438

channel stop isolation structure

CHAPLET - For class 164

A device for holding a core in place.

CHAR - For class 201

The generic term applied to the carbonaceous residue from a thermolytic distillation of any carbonaceous material. It encompasses such terms as bone black, charcoal and coke.

CHAR - For class 202

The generic term applied to the carbonaceous residue from a thermolytic distillation of any carbonaceous material. It encompasses such terms as bone black, charcoal and coke.

CHAR - For class 502

Carbonaceous reside from pyrolysis of organic material generally of a hard burned pitch appearance.

CHARACTER - For class 400

A single symbol imprinted on a record-medium* by a type-member* and intended to be read by the human eye, or intended to be greadh by a mechanical or electrical scanner, for the purpose of conveying intelligence to the reader (i.e., human reader or mechanical greaderh). It forms one of the elements needed to form a word*. In most typewriters a character is formed by impressing a single type-member against a record-medium, usually via an inking means. However, a single character may also be formed by impressing a plurality of different type-members either simultaneously or successively in the same zone or area of the record-medium. A character may be (a) one of the letters in an alphabet, either upper-case* (i.e., gCAPITALh letter), or lower-case* (i.e., gsmallh letter), or (b) one of the numeral digits (i.e., g0h through g9h), or (c) a punctuation mark [e.g., comma (,), colon (:), etc.], or (d) one of a variety of signs and symbols incorporated into a typewriter intended for general usage [e.g., dollar sign ($), ampersand symbol (&), etc.]. The number or variety of characters that a particular typewriter may imprint is limited only by the size of the typewriter and the area allotted to the key-board* and the type-members of that typewriter.

CHARACTERISTIC - For class 329

An attribute associated with the size or shape of a wave or signal. Examples are amplitude, frequency, or phase of a sine wave and repetition rate, position, amplitude, or width of a nonsine wave.

CHARACTERISTIC - For class 332

Is an attribute associated with the size or shape of a wave or signal. Examples are amplitude, frequency, or phase of a sine wave and repetition rate, position, amplitude or width of a nonsine wave.

CHARACTERISTIC CURVE - For class 257

A graph showing the relationship between two or more changing parameters, e.g., current and voltage of an electronic device.

CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE - For class 333

The impedance which a long line or a long line element would have if it were infinitely long. A long line which is terminated in its characteristic impedance is not resonant.

CHARACTER-SPACE - For class 400

Character-space is the distance that the carriage* or the record-medium* is moved to effect the separation of one imprinted character* from a subsequently imprinted character of the same word*. In most alphabets the width of one character (i.e., the distance that it extends along the print-line*) differs from the width of another character. In many typewriters the character-space distances are in equal increments of carriage feed. Due to the fact that successively imprinted characters have different widths, the spaces between the successive characters are unequal. To compensate for different widths, some typewriters are provided with mechanism to vary the carriage feed. This mechanism causes the carriage feed to be proportional to the width of the character imprinted by a type-face*. The unequal increments of carriage feed produced by this mechanism results in equal spaces between successively imprinted characters, thereby improving the uniformity and appearance of the typing.

CHARGE - For class 149

As used herein refers to a mixture of ingredients producing a composition of this class or a definite quantity of shapeless or structureless material forming a composition of this class; or at least two compounds or compositions or any mixtures of these associated together or composited but in an unmixed condition, e.g., a primary explosive associated but not intermixed with a secondary explosive, or those compositions including only nominal structure or form.

CHARGE - For class 373

The material heated by the furnace.

CHARGE CARRIER - For class 257

A mobile conduction electron or hole in a semiconductor.

CHARGE CARRIER - For class 438

A mobile conduction electron or hole in a semiconductor.

CHARGE CARRIER PARTICLE - For class 330

A charged particle of matter involved in a flow of space current (electric discharge) and by means of which such current flows (current flow other than an electromagnetic wave propagated in open or confined space). Such charge carrier particles may be ions of a gas or charged atomic particles such as electrons.

CHARGE CONFINEMENT - For class 257

Restriction of electrical charge carriers, e.g., electrons or holes, to specified locations, e.g., by quantum wells, gate electrode potentials, etc.

CHARGE CONFINEMENT - For class 438

Restriction of electrical charge carriers (e.g., electrons or holes) to specified locations (e.g., by quantum wells, gate electrode potentials, etc.).

CHARGE GAS, GAS, OR SYSTEM FLUID - For class 096

(Terms used in Class 55 subclass titles and definitions). These terms are used synonymously and mean the inlet mixture of gas carrying therein solids or fluids, the mixture during separation, or a gaseous constituent after separation.

CHARGE INJECTION DEVICE - For class 257

A field effect device in which storage sites for packets of electric charge are induced at or below the surface of an active solid-state device by an electric field applied to the device and wherein carrier potential energy per unit charge minima are established at a given storage site and such charge packets are injected into the device substrate or into a data bus. This type device differs from a charge transfer device in that, in the latter, charge is transferred to adjacent charge storage sites in a serial manner, whereas, in a charge injection device, the charge is injected in a non-serial manner to the device substrate or to a data bus.

CHARGE INJECTION DEVICE - For class 438

A field effect device in which storage sites for packets of electric charge are induced at or below the surface of an active solid-state device by an electric field applied to the device and wherein carrier potential energy per unit charge minima are established at a given storage site and such charge packets are injected into the device substrate or into a data bus. This type device differs from a charge transfer device in that, in the latter, charge is transferred to adjacent charge storage sites in a serial manner, whereas, in a charge injection device, the charge is injected in a nonserial manner to the device substrate or to a data bus.

CHARGE TRANSFER DEVICE - For class 257

A semiconductor device in which discrete packets of electrical charge are transferred from one location to another. Examples of charge transfer devices include charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and bucket-brigade devices (BBDs).

CHARGE: - For class 123

a quantity of gworking fluidh intended to be ignited for a working stroke of the gpistonh.

CHARGE: BATTERY OR CELL - For class 320

The act of adding electrical energy (e.g., supplying current, etc.) into a battery or cell from a diverse source of electrical energy to increase the amount of useful and available chemical energy stored in the battery or cell; or, the amount of chemical energy stored in a battery or cell that is available for useful conversion to electrical energy for supplying an electric load.

CHARGE: CAPACITOR - For class 320

The act of applying an electric potential across the electrodes or plates of a capacitor from a diverse source of electrical energy to increase the amount of useful and available electrical energy stored in the capacitor, or the amount of energy stored in a capacitor that is available for release to usefully supply electrical energy to an electric load.

CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICE - For class 257

A charge transfer device in which all carriers (electrons or holes) are transferred from one storage site to the next upon application of a shifting voltage.

CHARGING - For class 373

The function of supplying a charge to a furnace.

CHARGING CIRCUIT - For class 320

The electric circuit or path that extends from a charging source to a battery, cell, or capacitor to be charged.

CHARGING SOURCE - For class 320

The immediate source from which electric energy is derived for addition into a battery, cell, or capacitor, where the polarity of the source is such as to cause current to flow in opposition to the normal polarity of the battery, cell, or capacitor, if the latter is polarized, and may be, for example: (1) a mere charging circuit; (2) means for collecting atmospheric, parasitic, or other stray electric charge or currents; (3) means for converting electrical energy having one or more particular electrical characteristics into electrical energy having a different characteristic (e.g., electrical converters such as a combination alternating current source and rectifier, where the rectifier is considered to be the "immediate source"; (4) means for converting energy, other than electrical, into electric energy (e.g., electrical generator, fuel cell, etc.).

CHARGING SOURCE CONTROL - For class 320

Any control that effects the flow of energy from a charging source, including (a) direct control of the charging source itself or (b) the flow or delivery of energy from the charging source to a load.

CHARTS - For class 351

A light reflecting or transmitting panel with symbols or pictures of varying size for testing the refraction of the eye.

CHEEK - For class 164

The intermediate part of a flask or mold that has more than two parts.

CHEMFET - For class 438

Chemically sensitive FET

CHEMICAL EVOLUTION PROCESS - For class 506

Process using in vitro selection systems that evolve to enrich mixtures of chemical compounds in those components having selected properties. The terminology gdirected molecular evolutionh is commonly employed when the process is applied to mixtures of macromolecules (e.g., RNA aptamers, etc.). Selected compounds are then amplified (gcopiedh) using biochemical methods (e.g., enzymatic reverse transcription of RNA aptamers to DNA, PCR amplification, and finally retranscription to RNA, etc.). This concept has been adapted to organic chemistry and opened a new branch of combinatorial chemistry named gdynamic combinatorial chemistryh wherein the enrichment in the (usually low-molecular weight) compounds having a selected property results from the equilibration process that carries out a preferential destruction and recycling of unselected compounds.

CHEMICAL FORCE MICROSCOPE - For class 977

Scanning probe microscope with a chemically functionalized tip.

CHEMICAL PROCESS A - For class 430

process involving a chemical reaction or the recitation of chemical composition, compound, etc., in the claims which are involved in a chemical reaction during the process.

CHEMICAL REACTION - For class 060

The transformation of the molecules of one or more substances into other kinds of molecules.

CHEMICAL REACTION - For class 117

For purposes of Class 117, chemical reaction is given a broad meaning. The following are included: metathesis; changing the water of hydration; forming intermetallic compounds from constituent elements or from alloys; forming compound semiconductor material from constituent elements; forming ions (ionization) or ionized plasma. Not included are: dissolution of a compound and solidification (e.g. crystallization) of the same compound; a change of phase (e.g., amorphous to single-crystal*); change of crystal phase or form (e.g., face centered cubic to body centered cubic).

CHEMICAL TREATING AGENT - For class 520

Denotes a chemical material which is added to the formed solid polymer and which causes or is present during a process wherein a change in a bond of the polymer is effected. Claims reciting a gchemical treating agenth are classified on the basis of the first-appearing material utilized as part of the chemical agent. No attempt has been made to classify on the basis of functionality of the chemically active material and therefore all materials in a composition are regarded equally (e.g., diluent, reactant, catalyst, etc.). Processes and products which refer to mere cross-linking, curing, or vulcanizing will be classified on the basis of the product treated.

CHILL - For class 164

A piece of metal applied to the casting to hasten the solidification in that area.

CHIP - For class 257

A single crystal substrate of semiconductor material on which one or more active or passive solid-state electronic devices are formed. A chip may contain an integrated circuit. A chip is not normally ready for use until packaged and provided with external connectors.

CHIP - For class 438

A single crystal substrate of semiconductor material on which one or more active or passive solid-state electronic devices are formed. A chip may contain an integrated circuit. A chip is not normally ready for use until packaged and provided with external connectors.

CHIP CARRIER - For class 257

A package with terminals, for solid-state electronic devices, including chips which facilitates handling of the chip during assembly of the chip to other electronic elements.

CHIP CARRIER - For class 438

A package with terminals, for solid-state electronic devices, including chips which facilitates handling of the chip during assembly of the chip to other electronic elements.

CHIP COMPONENT - For class 257

A circuit element (active or passive) for use in microelectronics. Besides integrated circuits, the term includes diodes, transistors, resistors, and capacitors.

CHL - For class 438

Current hugging logic

CHOPPER - For class 363

A device for interrupting current at regular intervals.

CHORD - For class 416

The straight line in a plane normal to the longitudinal axis of a working member* joining the leading and trailing edges of the member*. See Figure I.

CHROMATICITY TEST - For class 351

Determination of the visual sensitivity or adaptation to color.

CHROMATOGRAPHY - For class 210

A process in which a liquid is flowed along a linear path comprising a sorbent, with which the liquid competes in affinity for a constituent of the liquid. The constituent is sorbed from the moving liquid by the relatively immobile sorbent and redissolved by a later passing portion of the liquid until an equilibrium of the sorbing-dissolving step is set up causing the constituent to concentrate in a specific volume of the sorbent and to move along the path of the liquid at a slower rate than such liquid. A comprehensive treatise on chromatography is to be found in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2nd ed. Vol. 5, pp. 413-450.

CHRYSOBERYL - For class 117

Beryllium aluminate; BeO.Al2O3; cat"s eye; alexandrite; optionally with up to about 10 wt% chromium oxide and titanium oxide.

CHUTE - For class 198

A structure capable of guiding a gravity induced flow of material therethrough or thereon. While a chute is more often than not an inclined passageway in the form of a trough, it occasionally takes the form of a conduit. Inasmuch as a chute with a gate, especially a chute in the form of a conduit, presents structure closely related to that of a hopper, such structures are distinguished on the basis of whether a storage concept exists (hopper) or does not exist (chute). A receptacle positioned in such manner as to impart the property of gravity induced flow to material contained therein, and, therefore, to be a source of supply to components gdownstreamh thereof. While it is not essential that the contained material be gstoredh for a finite period of time, there should be a concept of supporting it for an interval longer than that required for mere passage therethrough. A hopper has an inlet and an outlet, although the inlet may be merely an open side (of the receptacle). The outlet, however, will have a provision whereby passage of the contents can be controlled (e.g., possibly a conveyor). The provision of chutelike structure integral with the hopper, whereby material is guided into the inlet or out of the outlet, should not be considered as constituting a separate element. (This is in line with what appears to be a basic difference between chutes and hoppers; namely, a chute guides whereas a hopper stores and may guide). gGravity-inducedh is not intended to be construed to exclude those nondriven conveyors which utilize mechanical means (e.g., a vibrator) to start to maintain flow (i.e., bridge breaking).

CID - For class 438

Charge injection device

CIPHER - For class 380

Information concealed by substitution or interchange of text characters for those in the original message.

CIRCUIT - For class 250

A closed or closable conducting path through which, or along which, electric current can travel.

CIRCUIT - For class 257

A number of devices interconnected in a one or more closed paths to perform a desired electrical or electronic function.

CIRCUIT MAKING AND/OR BREAKING - For class 320

Fully establishing and/or fully interrupting the conductivity of an electrical path between two or more points in an electrical circuit by physical movement of electrically conductive elements into and out of physical contact with each other.

CIRCUIT MAKING AND/OR BREAKING DEVICE - For class 318

A device for fully establishing and/or fully interrupting the electrical conductivity of an electrical path or circuit between two or more points in an electrical circuit by relative movement of electrically conductive elements into and/or out of physical contact with each other.

CLADDING BARRIER - For class 257

A higher band gap material which encases a lower band gap material that defines the walls of a quantum well.

CLADDING BARRIER - For class 438

A higher band gap material which encases a lower band gap material that defines the walls of a quantum well.

CLAMP - For class 072

(See gWork-Gripping Clamph and compare gBlank Holderh).

CLAMP COUPLE ELEMENT - For class 269

Structure limited to one jaw* plus the means to adjust* and/or actuate* said jaw relative to a disclosed, but not claimed, coacting jaw.

CLAMSHELL - For class 037

This device is an excavating or handling tool having two similar jaws which close upon material for excavating and open for dumping.

CLASP- For class 024

A securing mechanism or element including two coacting members or member segments having gripping surfaces which engage portions of structure-to-be-securedon opposite sides in a jawlike manner to thereby (a) prevent or hinder the movement of structure-to-be secured* relative to the surfaces in at least one direction, (b) prevent or hinder the separation of distinct portions of the structure-to-be-secured* from each other, or (c) perform a securement of structure-to-be-secured* by overedge engagement thereof. The gripping surfaces of the coacting members or member segments are intended to be always easily moved into and out of engagement with the structure-to-be-secured* by either direct manual or tool force thereon or actuation of an attached operator*. In addition, both of the coacting members or member segment, when engaging with or disengaging from the structure-to-be-secured*, do not exceed the elastic limit of or destroy any portion of the securing mechanism or element. If the mechanism or element is formed from either a single piece or plural fixedly attached pieces of rigid* material, then the structural shape of the gripping surfaces and the outward force of the compressed structure-to-be-secured* provide the gripping force required above.

CLATHRATES AND INTERCALATES (INCLUSION COMPOUNDS) - For class 532

Clathrates and intercalates (inclusion compounds), per se, are classified hierarchically and subject to the limitations set forth in the compound (element) classes based both on the encapsulant and encapsulate. For example, a clathrate of urea and hydrogen peroxide is classified in Class 564, subclass 32, urea and an organic compound in Class 564, subclass 1.5, dextran and iodine in Class 536, subclass 112, etc. Where a patent does not state that a material is either a clathrate or an intercalate, the assumption is made that the material is either a coated or encapsulated product classified in Class 428, subclasses 402+.

CLAY - For class 501

The naturally occurring earthy materials (or artificial compositions having generally equivalent chemical and physical properties) containing a substantial proportion (30 percent or more) of colloidal particles (under .002mm.), and which becomes plastic when mixed with water and which plastic material is capable of being hardened when fired and containing a major proportion of hydrated aluminum silicates which are derived by the weathering or decomposition of granite or other feldspathic rock. Note. Many natural materials are considered to be clays, e.g., kaolin, fire clays, ball clays, china clays, bentonite, fuller"s earth, bauxite, montmorillonite, halloysite, and argillaceous earths. Note. Typical clay containing ceramic compositions or articles are, e.g., common or face brick, structural blocks, porcelain bricks, pottery, china, terra cotta, tile, sewer pipe, and some coating and filling compositions.

CLAY - For class 502

A naturally occurring hydrated aluminum silicate originally derived from the earth, having physical properties due at least in part to the size and distribution of colloidal particles, and properties including plasticity. Thirty or more percent of the particles are under 0.002 mm in diameter. Note. The use of the term clay in a document is considered to meet the above definition. Note. Terms recognized as clay: attapulgite, bentonite, fuller"s earth, halloysite, illite kaolin, montmorillonite, mullite. Note. Some earthy silicon compounds that are not clay or zeolite include Asbestos, Diaspore, Diatomaceous earth, Diatomite, Feldspar, Guhr, Kieselgahr, Mica, Quartz, Sand, and Silica.

CLEAN - For class 072

To loosen, separate, or remove from the surface of metal a spot or layer of any substance generally distinguishable from the work material without intended redimensioning of said material.

CLEANING - For class 431

The dislodging of extraneous matter or incrustations.

CLEANSING - For class 173

The act of removing matter resulting from the operation of the tool on the work.

CLEANSING FLUID - For class 173

A fluid which is adapted to perform a cleansing function upon work. Such a fluid may be solely described as performing some other function, such as cooling the work, so long as it is directed in such a manner as to inherently cleanse the work.

CLIENT - For class 725

The requesting device in a communications network. In a client-server network, for example, a user interface could reside in the client workstation while the storage and retrieval functions could reside in the server database.

CLIP - For class 725

A portion of motion video material consisting of plural fields or frames of video data.

CLIP- For class 024

A securing mechanism or element including a member which (1) is intended to be connected or attached to a rigid or semirigid supporting member (e.g., wall, floor, roof) or article (e.g., pen, vehicle) having an additional and usually principle function other than normally associated with this class, and (2) has a gripping surface intended to coact with the surface of the supporting member or article to engage the opposite sides of a distinct structure-to-be-securedpositioned therebetween to prevent or hinder either (a) the movement of the structure-to-be-secured* relative to the surfaces in one direction, or (b) the separation of a structure-to-be-secured* from the supporting member or article. The gripping surface of the member is intended to be always easily moved into and out of engagement with the structure-to-be-secured* by either direct manual or tool force thereon or actuation of an attached operator*. In addition, the gripping surface, when engaging with or disengaging from the structure-to-be-secured does not exceed the elastic limit of or destroy any portion of the securing mechanism or element. If the mechanism or element is formed from either a single piece or plural fixedly attached pieces of rigid* material, then the structural shape of the gripping surfaces and the outward force of the compressed structure-to-be-secured provide the gripping force required above.

CLOSED COIL - For class 336

is a coil which is not designed to be connected to an external source or to a circuit, but which has the ends of the coil connected together so that a magnetic field can induce current therein which current flows in the closed path formed by the closed coil and generates a magnetic field in opposition to the current inducing field.

CLOSED DIE - For class 072

A tool* which comprises a work-shape-imposing orifice*, cavity*, or passageway*. (See diagrams under subclasses 276, 327, 350, and 360 for examples of gClosed Dieh).

CLOSED LOOP CONTROL - For class 388

A method of control in which the power input of a motor is adjusted by a control circuit which compares a reference signal with a feedback signal proportional to an output parameter (e.g., speed) of the motor to modify the power input of the motor so as to achieve or maintain some desired operating condition of the motor (e.g., constant running speed).

CLOSED SYSTEM - For class 425

Plural fluid containing elements in fluid tight relation when under pressure.

CLOSURE - For class 049

A closure is an obstructive structure whose presence in or before a passage bars traffic through the passage. The character of passage varies depending on the thing or things the passage is intended to accommodate. For example, a single rod across a doorway prevents passage of a person but not a small animal; a letter slot permits passage of a letter but not a large package, a window sash permits passage of light but not air, a shutter permits passage of air but restricts the passage of light.

CLOSURE - For class 053

A species of cover in which a separate cover member completes the encasement or confinement of contents within a preformed receptacle when said member is assembled within, over or around the aperture of said receptacle.

CLOSURE - For class 413

A lid, bottle cap, the top of a can.

CLOTH - For class 428

A fabric* which for purposes of this class is considered to be made of mechanically intertwined, interlooped, interwoven, or intertangled strands*, strand-portions* or strand like strips*. See Class 442, class definition. (Structural)

CLSEG - For class 438

Confined lateral SEG

CLUTCH - For class 475

Mechanism to selectively or automatically couple two relatively moving parts together for common movement or to uncouple such parts.

CLUTCH: - For class 477

Mechanism operable to couple two relatively rotatable parts together for common rotation or to uncouple such parts. The clutch* as used in the definition of this class or subclasses is a clutch* that may be used without a gear transmission* or in advance of or behind a gear transmission* in a power train. If a clutch is used as a part of transmission (i.e., in a planetary transmission to change gear ratio or direction), such a clutch is classified with transmission control rather than clutch control.

CML - For class 438

Current mode logic (i.e., ECL)

CMOS - For class 257

See COMPLEMENTARY METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR.

CMOS - For class 438

Complementary (NMOS and PMOS) FETs

CMP - For class 438

chemical-mechanical polishing/planarization

COAGULATE - For class 516

The product of coagulation; the irreversible combination of semisolid particles (e.g., fats, proteins, oils) to form a mass. Often brought about by the addition of a coagulant. See flocculate.

COAL TAR - For class 208

Mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons obtained by the distillation of bituminous coal.

COALESCE - For class 210

The merging together of small droplets or particles of a material or constituent dispersed in a liquid to form larger bodies of the material or constituent which may be more easily handled.

COALESCENCE - For class 516

The phenomenon of the merging of two or more drops of liquid (e.g., oil or water droplets in emulsions) or particles (e.g., solid particles in sols* and dispersions*) resulting in a larger drop or particle having a lower interfacial surface area and a generally less stable condition.

COATING - For class 065

See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term gcoating.h

COATING - For class 118

The term gcoatingh is used throughout the definitions in a generic sense to mean either (1) an initially fluent film or layer of material lying on or bonded to the surface of a base, or (2) an impregnating material which penetrates the base either partially or completely and all or part of which is retained therein, either in its original form or physically or chemically combined therewith.

COAX (COAXIAL CABLE) - For class 725

A two-conductor (center conductor, shield system), concentric, constant impedance transmission line used as the trunk medium in the baseband system. In broadband networks, a cable with two conductors where one completely surrounds the other. Coax cables are unbalanced transmission lines that have an outer conductor that shields the center conductor from electrostatic interference. The two conductors are spaced by an insulating dielectric that, depending on the mechanical and material configuration, affects the speed, attenuation, and impedance of transmission.

COB - For class 438

(a) chip-on-board or (b) capacitor over bit-line

COD - For class 438

Catastrophic optical damage

CODE - For class 234

A system of symbols arbitrarily used to represent directions, words, letters, or numerical values. In this class, the term gcodeh wherever employed without further limitation should be regarded as meaning Combinational-Code*.

CODE - For class 380

Information concealed by substitution of words or symbols for words of the concealed message.

CODED-INTERPOSER - For class 234

An element which is movable to and from an effective position in which position portions of said element engage tools of a plurality of tool pairs, thereby completing a drive train for the subsequent effective transmission of actuating power to the corresponding tool pairs. (Cf. Interposer).

CODED-SELECTOR-MEANS - For class 234

An element which is movable to and from an effective position in which it determines the selection of a plurality of tool pairs by other mechanism. (Note. This element differs from a coded-interposer* in that (a) it does not engage the selected tools, and (b) it has only one effective position, as distinguished from the differentially positionable coded-interposer* found in subclass 98).

CODING OR ECODING - For class 506

Strategy whereby a surrogate analyte is associated with each member of a library in order to record its structure or the reaction sequence used for its preparation. This is usually achieved by the use of tags or labels attached to particles or solid supports on which the library members are assembled.

COG - For class 438

Chip-on-glass

COHERENCE LENGTH - For class 257

The typical distance an electron can travel before it is scattered (e.g., by a phonon, a defect, or an impurity).

COHERENCE LENGTH - For class 438

The typical distance an electron can travel before it is scattered (e.g., by a phonon, a defect, or an impurity, etc.).

COHERENT LIGHT - For class 372

A single frequency of light. A light beam in which the electric vector at any point in it is related to that at any other point by a definite, continuous sinusoidal function.

COHERER - For class 257

A term which encompasses both active and passive type devices, the passive type being a resistor whose resistance decreases when subjected to a high frequency signal, and the active type being a rectifier which is made up of active solid-state particles which conduct and rectify current when connected into a cohesive element but which loses that characteristic when the particles are separated (e.g., by shaking a container in which the particles are located).

COHERER - For class 438

A term which encompasses both active and passive type devices, the passive type being a resistor whose resistance decreases when subjected to a high frequency signal, and the active type being a rectifier which is made up of active solid-state particles which conduct and rectify current when connected into a cohesive element but which loses that characteristic when the particles are separated (e.g., by shaking a container in which the particles are located, etc.).

COIL - For class 072

The product of an operation in which work is bent so that it surrounds an Axis-Of-Bend* through more than 360 degrees of revolution. As used in this class, the operation involves moving the work and progressively deflecting successive portions thereof in the same general direction which is arcuate with respect to the direction of movement of the work. Note. To produce a SPIRAL-COIL, the work is bent by deflection and wound, one convolution on a successive convolution, to form a scroll of gradually increasing diameter. Note. To produce a HELICAL-COIL, the work if deflected as described above, but an additional deflection or diversion is imposed on successive convolutions. The additional deflection is directed along the Axis-Of-Bend*. The additional component of bend is measured in terms of pitch, which term is used here in the same sense as applied to a screw or helix.

COIL - For class 336

A conductor which creates a magnetic field due to the flow of current therein. It may be formed into one or more convolutions or turns, or have only a partial turn, or be straight.

COIL AXIS - For class 336

That path along which a unit magnetic pole would experience a maximum force when a current is caused to flow in the coil conductor. For example, in a long, uniform, single layer cylindrical coil, the coil axis corresponds to the geometrical axis of the coil.

COIL SPRING - For class 267

an element in the form of a spiral and which exhibits resilient characteristic when distorted from its original shape. May be in the form of a helix, a volute spiral or flat spiral.

COKE - For class 201

Strictly this is the amorphous, solid residue of coal after the volatile material has been distilled off in a thermolytic distillation. The term is also applied in the art to the solid, carbonaceous residue from the thermolytic distillation of such materials as oil shale, petroleum and pitch.

COKE - For class 202

Strictly this is the amorphous, solid residue of coal after the volatile material has been distilled off in a thermolytic distillation. The term is also applied in the art to the solid, carbonaceous residue from the thermolytic distillation of such materials as oil shale, petroleum and pitch.

COKING - For class 208

A cracking type conversion in which solid, free carbon or coke as a product thereof. Additional liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon may also be obtained.

COLLATING-TABLE - For class 400

A platform or support used while a plurality of sheets or webs are arranged or assembled according to an orderly system. The sheets or webs may include record-medium* pieces or transfer-medium* pieces in any desired order or sequence and the assemblage of pieces comprises that which is to be typed on. The term gcollatingh as used in this class (400) is used to describe a simple structure that is used for collating, usually manually. It differs somewhat from the term collating as applied to a machine that accomplishes a similar result of arranging or assembling plural sheets or webs.

COLLECTIVE PITCH CHANGE - For class 416

Wherein the blade angles of all working members* of a single impeller are adjusted simultaneously.

COLLECTOR - For class 257

That end region of a bipolar transistor which forms one of the main current regions and which is reverse biased in operation with respect to the base region.

COLLECTOR CURRENT - For class 257

The current which flows through the terminal of the collector region of a bipolar transistor.

COLLECTOR DIFFUSION ISOLATION (CDI) - For class 257

An electrical isolation technology used for bipolar devices which employs an epitaxial layer, which forms transistor base regions, laid on a substrate of the same conductivity type (p or n) as the epitaxial layer, with an opposite conductivity type region, more heavily doped than the epitaxial base layer and located between the layer and the substrate, forming the collector and isolating the transistor from the substrate.

COLLECTOR DIFFUSION ISOLATION (CDI) - For class 438

An electrical isolation technology used for bipolar devices which employs an epitaxial layer, which forms transistor base regions, laid on a substrate of the same conductivity type (p or n) as the epitaxial layer, with an opposite conductivity type region, more heavily doped than the epitaxial base layer and located between the layer and the substrate, forming the collector and isolating the transistor from the substrate.

COLLECTOR ELECTRODE - For class 330

See the definition of point contact or junction type transistor below.

COLLOID - For class 977

Suspension of finely divided particles in a continuous medium, which may be gaseous, liquid, or solid.

COLLOID SYSTEM - For class 516

Also called colloid dispersions* or colloid suspensions. Sometimes simply colloid, but this is not preferred because this may also be used to refer to colloid-sized particles, per se. A colloid system is a multi-phase combination of matter in which one or more constituents has one or more dimensions below about five microns, however systems having particles of 20 to 50 microns have been described. Nobel prize winning research chemist, Wolfgang Ostwald (1853-1932), reportedly said "There are not sharp differences between mechanical suspensions, colloidal solutions, and molecular solutions. There is a gradual and continuous transition from the first through the second to the third." With respect to particles in suspension, in colloid systems the particles are governed by surface forces and therefore act as individual flow units, as contrasted to non-colloid mixtures which are governed by gravity or body (e.g. drag) forces. Macromolecules may form either true solutions or colloid systems and categorization properly depends upon the properties relevant to the intended use. Foams are colloid systems because they contain two phases and the liquid film has a thickness which is colloid-sized. Most common colloid systems are composed of particles of a colloid-sized dispersed phase (the subdivided or discontinuous phase) surrounded by a continuous phase. See also sol*.

COLLOIDAL - For class 210

A state of very fine division of a material dispersed throughout a liquid almost to the point of a true solution and either impossible or extremely difficult to filter or cause to settle.

COLOPHONY - For class 516

See Rosin*.

COLOR IMAGE IN OR ON AN IMAGE RECORD - For class 430

At least a portion of the image record absorbs only part of the light in the visible electromagnetic spectrum, excludes black image on white background, or vice versa, includes black image on green background.

COMBINATION - For class 070

The prearranged or predetermined secret or nonpublic succession or order of movement of blocking elements, or the peculiar arrangement or scheme of fixed or movable elements designed to secure against public operation or control.

COMBINATIONAL-CODE - For class 234

A system of symbols each comprising two or more marks or perforations which by their number and/or position arbitrarily represent bits of information. (Cf. one-hole- code*, defined below).

COMBINATIONAL-CODING-MEANS - For class 234

Means which is differentially responsive to distinguishable forces or input-impulses* to prepare corresponding predetermined distinct combinations of less than the total number of tool pairs for actuation. (Note. This is the subject matter of subclass 94 of this class).

COMBINATORIAL LIBRARY - For class 506

A set of compounds (a library) prepared by combinatorial synthesis. This set may consist of a collection of pools or sublibraries.

COMBINATORIAL SYNTHESIS - For class 506

Combinatorial synthesis is the preparation of sets of diverse entities by the combination of sets of chemical building blocks (e.g., reagents, etc.).

COMBINE - For class 460

A machine in which six major operations are performed during harvesting; cutting the standing grain (cutting unit); feeding the cut grain to the threshing unit (feeding unit); threshing and rethreshing the grain or seed from the heads; separating the grain from the straw and chaff; cleaning the threshed grain; collecting the threshed grain for convenient handling (grain handling unit).

COMBINED - For class 347

Means connected with the marking* device for adapting the device to a particular marking* purpose.

COMBUSTION - For class 110

The chemical action resulting from the direct combination of oxygen gas, generally in air, with a combustible material accompanied by the evolution of heat and light.

COMBUSTION - For class 431

The direct combination of oxygen gas and a burnable substance.

COMBUSTION CHAMBER - For class 110

The structure immediately surrounding the combustion reaction and generally above the fuel (*) or refuse (*) grate and designed to support or promote the combustion reaction.

COMBUSTION CHAMBER: - For class 123

that volume of a gcylinderh enclosed by the gheadh and the gpistonh when the piston is closest to the head.

COMFET - For class 438

Conductivity modulation FET (i.e., IGBT)

COMMERCIAL - For class 725

An advertisement provided within broadcast or point-to-point networks.

COMMON- or GATE-CONFIGURATION - For class 257

A unipolar transistor in which the gate region is common to both input and output circuits.

COMMON-BASE CONFIGURATION - For class 257

A bipolar transistor in which the base region is common to both the input and output circuit. This is also known as a grounded-base bipolar transistor circuit.

COMMON-COLLECTOR CONFIGURATION - For class 257

A bipolar transistor in which the collector region is common to both the input and output circuit. It is also known as an emitter-follower bipolar transistor circuit.

COMMON-DRAIN CONFIGURATION - For class 257

A unipolar transistor in which the drain region is common to both the input and output circuit.

COMMON-EMITTER CONFIGURATION - For class 257

A bipolar transistor in which the emitter region is common to both the input and output circuit. It is also known as a grounded-emitter bipolar transistor circuit.

COMMUNICATION - For class 342

The conveying or transferring or information; specifically a system, as a radio, television, telephone for conveying or transferring information.

COMMUNICATION - For class 343

The conveying or transferring of information; specifically a system, as radio, telephone, telegraph for conveying or transferring information. For a general statement of the classes which include communication devices, apparatus and systems,see section V below.

COMMUNICATIONS - For class 375

The transmission of information from one point to another.

COMMUTATOR - For class 388

The part of a motor armature to which the armature windings are connected. It consists of a set of conductors arranged about the rotation axis of the armature and insulated from the axis and from one another. A set of stationary contacts, called gbrushesh ride on the outer face of the conductors and thereby connect the armature windings to a power source.

COMPACTING - For class 419

Forming of particulate material into a body or shape by the application of pressure to the particulate material without heating.

COMPANDER - For class 333

An amplitude range compressor connected to an amplitude range expander with or without an intervening transmission line so that the amplitude range of the input wave is first decreased in the compressor and then increased in the expander.

COMPLEMENTARY METAL OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR (CMOS) - For class 257

Both n-type and p-type metal oxide semiconductor devices, e.g., transistors, formed on the same substrate.

COMPLETED BOOK- For class 412

A book() which has had its covering member attached.

COMPLEX COMPOUND - For class 423

A chemical combination of two or more compounds or ions; e.g., 4 KCN and Fe (Cn)2 give the complex compound K4Fe (Cn)6; 2 HF and Si F4give the complex acid H2 Si F6. An electrically charged radical or group of atoms, e.g., Cu (NH3) 2+, is a complex ion.

COMPONENT - For class 112

A distinct unitary element of a composite web or sheet which is longitudinally coextensive therewith and which, if separated from said multi-part web or sheet, would be recognized as a web or sheet by itself.

A component may consist of plural layers as in the folded component shown in Figure 2.

Image for class 112

COMPONENT - For class 257

An electronic device - active or passive - which has distinct electrical characteristics and has terminals for connection to other components to form a circuit.

COMPONENT - For class 403

An element or a characteristic of a member used in effecting a connection.

COMPONENT - For class 428

A distinct unitary element of a composite stock material* which is longitudinally coextensive therewith and which, if separated from the remainder of such stock material*, would be recognized as a web*, sheet*, rod*, strand*, tube or block by itself. A component may consist of plural layers* as in the folded component shown in Figure 1. See also (2) Note under A, above. (Structural)

Image for class 428

COMPONENT - For class 451

A distinct unitary element of a composite tool in the form of a layer* or a constituent of a layer.

COMPONENT - For class 902

A device within a data processing system* designed to process data (e.g., encrypting, modulating, transmitting, receiving, comparing, performing arithmetical calculations, etc.) after it has been entered by a user* (i.e., input) in order to formulate a response to the user (i.e., output) or to protect the data. Within the context of this collection, system components generally include a central data processor, a communication processor and network, and terminals at points distant from the central data processor and communicating with it through the communication components.

COMPONENT, REACTOR - For class 376

For the purpose of this class, relates to any of the functional segments or parts comprising, when properly associated together, a nuclear reactor, e.g., fuel, moderator, coolant (fluid or solid), control rod, reflector, shield, etc.

COMPOSITE - For class 425

A preform or product made of diverse materials, each of which is identifiable, at least in part, in the final product.

COMPOSITE - For class 428

A stock-material* comprising a plurality of components*. (Structural)

COMPOSITE COLOR SIGNAL - For class 348

A color picture signal with all blanking and synchronizing signals. Including luminance and chrominance components; vertical- and horizontal-sync pulses; vertical- and horizontal-blanking pulses; and the color burst signal, with or without accompanying audio.

COMPOSITE SHEET - For class 112

A sheet comprising a plurality of components.

COMPOSITE VIDEO SIGNAL - For class 348

A signal in television that conveys all of the intelligence present in the image together with the synchronizing information (e.g., vertical and horizontal pulses) with or without audio information.

COMPOSITE WEB - For class 112

A web comprising a plurality of components.

COMPOSITION - For class 428

A product having a plurality of constituents* or elements, none of which are in a defined spatial or ordered relationship to each other or to the surface or shape of the body in which they are contained, that is, a random mixture of elements. (Structural)

COMPOSITION - For class 588

A mixture of material(s) such as elements, compounds, etc. which materials are not present in a ratio of small whole numbers based on molar ratios, i.e., mixtures.

COMPOUND - For class 257

A homogeneous material which has definite proportions of chemically combined atoms or ions.

COMPOUND - For class 423

A substance whose molecules consist of unlike atoms, whose constituents cannot be separated by physical means, whose properties are entirely different from those of its constituent elements and which contains definite proportions of its constituent elements, depending on their atomic weights.

COMPOUND - For class 423

The elements or compounds comprising a material or produced from it by analysis.

COMPOUND - For class 516

See LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS, above.

COMPOUND - For class 588

A substance whose molecules consist of unlike atoms, whose constituents cannot be separated by physical means, whose properties are entirely different from those of its constituent elements, and which contains definite proportions of its constituent elements, depending on their atomic weights.

COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 438

A semiconductor composed of a chemical compound formed of elements from two or more different groups of the chemical periodic chart (e.g., Group III (B, Al, Ga, In) and Group V (N, P, As, Sb) for the following compounds: AlP, AlAs, AlSb, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb, or a compound of silicon and carbon (SiC)).

COMPRESSOR OR VOLUME COMPRESSOR - For class 330

A device that compresses the volume range, as in recording sound, radio-telephone transmission, etc.. In compressing the signal volume range the amplification of large signals is reduced and of small signals is increased.

COMPUTER - For class 345

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 705

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 706

A machine that inputs data, processes data,stores data and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 709

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 710

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 711

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 712

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 713

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 714

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 715

A machine that inputs DATA*, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 718

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER - For class 719

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER PROGRAM - For class 706

An algorithm and data structures constituting a set of instructions in some computer language, intended to be executed on a computer to perform a useful task.

COMPUTER: - For class 700

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER: - For class 707

A machine that inputs data, processes data, stores data, and outputs data.

COMPUTER-READABLE STORAGE MEDIA - For class 706

Physical material on which data bits are read and written by a computer; excluding paper and other non-computer written media.

CONCAVE - For class 460

A device consisting of a series of bars that are held together by rods or straps and is curved to match the cylinder. It is sometimes adjustable up and down to allow the operator to change the cylinder to concave clearance.

CONCAVE SPACING - For class 460

The radial distance between the concave and the cylinder on a combine.

CONCEALED STITCH - For class 112

A stitch in which the sewing thread completely penetrates one or more layers of material and is hidden from view on at least one side of the assembly by a fold of material overlying the stitch. See Figure 3.

Image for class 112

CONCENTRATED LIGHT SOURCE - For class 353

The source of illumination for the projector. It may be either a projection lamp or a lens and mirror system utilizing sunlight.

CONCENTRATED LIGHT SOURCE - For class 355

The source of illumination for the copier. It is usually a projection lamp but may be a lens or mirror system utilizing sunlight.

CONCENTRATION GRADIENT - For class 257

A difference in dopant concentration (p- or n-type) from one position to another in a semiconductor.

CONCENTRIC LINES - For class 330

A transmission line in which one conductor extends within a second hollow conductor.

CONDENSATE - For class 201

See Distillate in the Class Definition section.

CONDENSATE - For class 202

See distillate in the Class Definition.

CONDENSATE - For class 203

See gdistillateh in the class definition.

CONDENSATE - For class 425

Material derived by a change in physical state from a vapor to a liquid.

CONDENSATION - For class 260

Denotes combination between at least two or more molecules of the same or different carbon compounds between carbons thereof.

CONDENSED - For class 435

Bridged or fused.

CONDENSED-BILLING - For class 400

A term used in the typewriter industry for the production of a condensed or summary record of a succession of typed documents (e.g., bills or numerical data). The operation includes the typing of plural copies (e.g., an goriginal copyh and one or more gcarbon copiesh, or duplicate goriginal copiesh) simultaneously on plural record-medium* pieces. At least one of the pieces is intended to be complete as to heading, address, and other information that is to be sent to one user. At least another piece is to be retained by the typist, and is not required to be complete; that is, it may omit much of the information, but may be a composite or summary or condensed record of the information that is to be sent. The record-medium on which the condensed-billing is typed is therefore moved in line-space* distances that differ from the line-space distances of the complete record medium.

CONDENSER - For class 320

An obsolete or out-of-favor term for "capacitor." Although still used in the automotive field to refer to a capacitor used across ignition points to prevent arcing, it is interpreted as being synonymous with "capacitor" in this class, with no implied limitation to its use.

CONDENSING LENS - For class 353

A lens which parallels the light from the light source for uniform distribution over the object to be projected and makes the light impinge on the object at right angles to the plane of the object.

CONDENSING LENS - For class 355

A lens or combination of lenses used to gather light from a source and converge (condense) it onto an image plane.

CONDITION RESPONSIVE - For class 198

Apparatus having (1) means to sense a condition of the environment surrounding the conveyor and means responsive to said sensing means to cause a change in the operating condition of the conveyor, or (2) means to sense a particular condition which may or may not exist relative to the conveyor itself, such as speed, overload, motor temperature, etc., and means responsive to said sensing means to act to change the operating condition of the conveyor.

CONDITION RESPONSIVE - For class 475

Mechanism to sense a condition or change of condition in the environment of a planetary gear transmission; and, in response to such sensing, effect a control function on the transmission or on a drive train* to or from such transmission.

CONDUCTION ELECTRONS - For class 257

In a conductor or n-type semiconductor, outer shell electrons that are bound so loosely that they can move freely in the conduction band of a solid material under the influence of an electric field.

CONDUCTION BAND - For class 257

A partially filled energy band in which electrons can move freely, permitting a material to carry electric current where electrons are the current carriers.

CONDUCTION BAND - For class 438

A partially filled energy band in which electrons can move freely, permitting a material to carry electric current where electrons are the current carriers.

CONDUCTION ELECTRONS - For class 438

In a conductor or n-type semiconductor, outer shell electrons that are bound so loosely that they can move freely in the conduction band of a solid material under the influence of an electric field.

CONDUCTIVITY - For class 257

The ability of a material to conduct electric current. Its converse is resistivity.

CONDUCTIVITY WATER - For class 210

An extremely pure water characterized by high ohmic resistance due to very low rate of ionization. See POLISHING.

CONDUCTOR - For class 257

A material which offers comparatively little resistance to the flow of current.

CONDUCTOR - For class 336

A body designed to have an electric current flowing therein. For the purpose of classification, a magnetic core is distinguished from a conductor. A conductor is designed to be connected to a source of electromotive force, or to have induced therein a voltage by inductive coupling from a current carrying conductor. A conductor, when used as a coil, and connected either directly or by mutual inductance to a source of electromotive force, creates a magnetic field due to the flow of current in the conductor. See the definition of core.

CONDUCTOR - For class 338

A body which is essentially a carrier of electric current with a minimum of loss as by heating.

CONDUCTOR - For class 439

A member intended to transmit electricity from one portion or end thereof to another portion or end thereof, and to which electricity-transmitting member the electricity-conducting part of an electrical connector is intended to be electrically joined or attached. Note. A conductor may include such diverse members as an electrical cable, a wire (either stranded or solid), a grounding plate, an inductive shield, a bus bar, or an electricity-transmitting path formed of a conductive film deposited on an insulating plate or panel, etc.

CONDUCTOR SPACING - For class 257

The distance between adjacent edges (not centerline to centerline) of isolated conductive patterns in a conductor layer.

CONFIGURATION - For class 330

The arrangement of electrodes of a transistor as input and output electrodes, e.g., common base configuration, where the base is included in both the input and output circuits of a transistor amplifier.

CONFINEMENT PLASMA - For class 376

For the purpose of this class, is either the containment or restraint force or the means (structure) for producing such force placed upon the charged particles or plasma, e.g., by electric or magnetic fields, so as to restrict said particles or plasma within a given volume.

CONNECTING - For class 385

The physical or mechanical joining of optical waveguiding structures to provide a stable region of light transfer therebetween. The waveguiding structures which are joined together are characterized by terminal ends which are mechanically prepared. This includes ferrule type housings for demountable as well as permanent connections, mechanical sleeves which partially or wholly surround and secure the ends of the structures or the light transfer regions, and "assistance-type" structures which serve to align and guide the ends of waveguiding structures into an effective light transfer relationship. The waveguiding structures which can be connected (as defined herein) include optical fibers, optical fiber bundles, nonfiber-like optical waveguides, and electro-optical transmitting or receiving devices (e.g., semiconductor laser diodes).

CONNECTING ROD: - For class 123

The most common link for transmitting power from a gpistonh to a gcrankshafth.

CONNECTOR - For class 403

A retainer which serves to hold the members against separation.

CONNECTOR - For class 439

A device for forming an electricity-conducting joint between conductors of electricity, wherein the device either (1) consists solely of an electricity-conducting element having a contact surface for forming the joint or (2) comprises an assembly which includes an electricity-conducting element having a contact surface for forming the joint and further includes any structure necessary to support, carry, or encase the conductive element; and wherein the joint is of a type which may be readily made and broken, repeatedly, either (a) by engaging or disengaging the conductive element or (b) by engaging or disengaging the conductive element with a conductor.

CONNECTOR AREA - For class 257

That portion of metallized conductors used for providing external electrical connections from a component to a chip or other component.

CONNECTOR AREA - For class 438

That portion of the electrical conductors (e.g., bonding pad, die bond, etc.) used for providing external electrical connections from a component to a chip or other component.

CONSOLIDATE - For class 075

To form into a compact mass.

CONSOLIDATION - For class 419

Forming of particulate material into a unitary body without heating. This may or may not include the application of pressure to the particulate material (e.g., slip casting).

CONSTITUENT - For class 428

A discrete element* (e.g., strand*, fiber*, particle*, etc.) of a component* or product.

CONTACT - For class 257

The parts of a conductor designed to touch or be touched by other such parts of an electrical conductor to carry current to or from the conductor.

CONTACT - For class 438

The point or part of a conductor which touches another electrical conductor or electrical component to carry electrical current to or from the conductor or electrical component.

CONTACT - For class 439

An electricity-conducting component of an electrical connector, including a contact surface intended to form a readily made and broken electricity-conducting joint by directly engaging either a conductor or a corresponding surface of a cooperating joint-forming conductive component, so as to permit the passage of electricity through the joint from one component to the other.

CONTACT WINDOW - For class 257

An opening in an insulating layer to expose an underlying conductor to permit electrical contact thereto. It is also called a via hole.

CONTAINED IN - For class 506

A library gcontained inh a micro-organism, a cell, or a vector is a library in which the members are present in the respective biological entity (e.g., in a plasmid, etc.).

CONTAINER - For class 413

For purposes of this class is a closed can (e.g., soft drink, beer), full or empty.

CONTAINING - For class 532

This term is to be interpreted broadly. In a subclass which specifies halogen containing, for example, the halogen may be attached to other parts of the compound by ionic bonding or nonionic bonding. Further, the element contained in a material may be in any form. In a subclass such as-- Heavy metal containing catalyst (or material) utilized--, the metal may be in elemental or compound form.

CONTAINMENT - For class 588

To hold or enclose totally to prevent any leaching or leaking of the hazardous or toxic material into the environment, and any use of a container that is destroyed with the waste.

CONTAINS - For class 528

For purposes of this class, the term gcontainsh under a specific reactant subclass includes the term gwithh and merely requires the presence of the gcontainsh material. The required moiety, element, etc., may be in the specific reactant or in an additional reactant.

CONTAMINATE - For class 588

To make a first substance impure (hazardous or toxic) by contact with or by the addition of a second or more substances.

CONTENTS - For class 053

The goods or materials which are, or are to be, confined within the space defined by the cover of the package, An insert sheet or coupon, to be packaged with other goods is considered to be a part of a group contents. See gGROUP FORMINGh. A package resulting from a first packaging operation may become the contents of a second packaging operation.

CONTINUOUS CASTING - For class 164

Process of forming a product of indeterminate length wherein a portion of the product is removed from a forming mold or surface as a further contiguous portion is cast.

CONTINUOUS CASTING STRAND - For class 164

Semi-solidified product of a continuous casting process or apparatus comprising a generally molten center contained within a cooler solidified shell.

CONTROL - For class 072

To start, or to modify the operating condition of, any portion of a work-treating or handling device Note. gStoppingh is ordinarily regarded as an aspect of gControlh, but is separately treated in this class in accordance with the class schedule. See subclasses 1+.

CONTROL - For class 323

Includes either the maintenance of a condition at a predetermined value or the variation of a condition from one value to another.

CONTROL - For class 330

A selective adjustment of an element of an amplifier to vary the operation of the amplifier in a desired manner, or the characteristic of a part of the amplifier whereby in response directly to signal, or by means of a developed voltage or current in response to the signal, or by a voltage from some outside source, the impedance characteristics of a circuit element, or the electrical characteristics (bias or energizing voltage) of an amplifying device are automatically altered to change the operation of the amplifier in a predetermined manner. Such control may be by a nonlinear impedance element alone in a biasing or power supply circuit. The term control has not been applied in this class, when a nonlinear impedance element is in the signal path and affects the signal only, without any control from a separate path being applied to vary such impedance.

CONTROL - For class 347

Means to regulate the operation of the head*, the medium, and the other parts of the marking* device so that the device will operate in the intended manner.

CONTROL - For class 363

Includes either the maintenance of a condition at a predetermined value or the variation of a condition from one value to another.

CONTROL - For class 725

To regulate the passage, progress, or exchange of data.

CONTROL ELECTRODE - For class 313

An electrode designed to influence or control the discharge current flowing between other electrodes. It may depend for its effect on either its electro-static effect or on the current flow thereto. The most common type of control electrode is the control grid. Since, however, the grid may be used as an anode, and the anode as a grid in many types of discharge devices, the use of the expression gcontrol electrodeh has been avoided where possible and similar structures placed together irrespective of whether the disclosure indicated that the grid electrode is to be used as an anode or control electrode. Patents relating to discharge devices having one or more grid electrodes interposed between a cathode and an anode are classified in subclasses 293+ or in the subclasses referred to in the notes to these subclasses. See subclass 308 and the subclasses referred to in the notes thereto for other discharge devices having a control electrode.

CONTROL ELECTRODE - For class 330

An electrode designed to influence or control the discharge current flowing between other electrodes. It may depend for its effect on either its electrostatic effect or on the current flow thereto. The most common types of control electrodes are the signal control grid, or the gain control electrode or grid.

CONTROL ELEMENT - For class 376

For the purpose of this class, is rods, tubes, plates, etc., of a reactivity affecting material used to hold a fission reactor at a given power level or to vary the rate of reaction. Control elements can be given three names corresponding to three different functions, namely: (a) power control, regulating or fine control (affecting only a small change in reactivity); (b) safety or scram (capable or reducing the reactivity below critical and used general when some emergency condition exists, such as power level to high); and (c) shim (affecting a relatively large change in reactivity of a reactor, i.e., it is used for coarse control or reactivity).

CONTROL GRID - For class 330

A control electrode having grid construction.

CONTROL INPUT - For class 137

Stream or energy field, referred to in the subclass definition, (C) (1) and (C) (2) above, that causes the diversion or alteration of the output stream.

CONTROL ROD - For class 376

See Control Element.

CONTROL- For class 187

Means for regulating the operation of a separate and distinct force generating, transmitting, or retarding device (e.g., motor, drive-means*, brake) which moves or stops the movement of a relatively movable component of apparatus proper for this class (e.g., elevator car), and includes both (a) an information input component (e.g., sensor, information storage means, manual push button) and (b) a distinct component which effects the operation of the force generating, transmitting, or retarding device in a particular manner based on the input information.

CONTROLLABLE PITCH - For class 416

Comprises means for adjusting blade angle* during impeller* operation.

CONVECTIVE DISTILLATION - For class 203

A separatory distillation operation in which an inert vapor is passed through a heated liquid to reduce the partial vapor pressure of the component in the liquid desired to be recovered. It permits the separation of heat sensitive high boiling substances at temperatures below their decomposition temperature. Steam distillation is the most commonly used type of convective distillation.

CONVENTIONAL CHANNEL - For class 348

A portion of the spectrum assigned for the standard operation of a specific carrier and the minimum number of sidebands necessary to convey intelligence.

CONVERSION - For class 208

A treatment of the mineral oil which results in an alteration of the hydrocarbon molecule making up the mineral oil.

CONVERSION - For class 363

This class (363), includes only the following: (1) Changing alternating current to direct current (rectification); (2) Changing direct current to alternating current (inverting); (3) Systems having means for performing a combination of the conversions of (1) and (2) above so that the input and output current are of the same character, but the system includes intermediate means to convert the current to a different character (e.g., A.C. to D.C. to A.C.); (4) Changing the frequency of alternating current from one frequency to a different frequency; (5) Changing electrical energy having one number phases to a different number of phases; (6) Combination of any of the above.

CONVERSION - For class 376

For the purpose of this class, is the process of artificially bringing about a change or transformation in the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear conversion is generally caused by subjecting a material to particle bombardment, usually by neutron irradiation as happens in a fission reactor. See also Transmutation.

CONVEYOR - For class 175

A mechanical device for receiving and carrying cuttings, for example, it may consist of a simple chute for directing cuttings away from the bore entrance, a helical screw fixed to the tool shaft, or a power-driven endless carrier type device extending between any two points within the bore or from any point within the bore to any location above ground.

CONVEYOR - For class 271

Refers to gmeans for moving and placing the individual sheet with respect to a device for operation on the sheet.h Thus, in the subclasses indented under gFeedingh, the gConveyorh may be modified by means for orienting, retarding or interrupting the feed relative to the operation; and in the subclasses indented under gDeliveringh, the gConveyorh should be limited to a means for transporting the individual sheet from the operation or placing the individual sheet in a receiver for a stack of such sheets. In either case the conveyor of Class 271 is distinct from a conveyor of other classes, wherein material or articles are transported from an input location to an output location. Class 271 has also for many years included a device wherein a stack of sheets is moved as an article to a position at which sheets are removed from the stack by a separator, but has not included a device wherein a stack of sheets is formed by a delivery means, and subsequently the stack of sheets is moved as an article away from the formation position. See References With Other Classes, above, for the location of patents not proper for Class 271.

CONVOLUTE - For class 425

To twist or to coil with one part of a preform overlapping another part.

COOLANT - For class 376

A fluid (liquid, gaseous, or particulate) whose function is to absorb heat from the reactor core and to deliver this absorbed heat to a heat exchanger or other utilization means exterior to the reactor core.

COPE - For class 164

The upper or topmost section of a flask, mold, or pattern.

COPY (n.) - For class 234

A tangible object which carries or exhibits a picture, design, or record of data, for the guidance or direction of an operative or attendant of a selective cutting machine. (Cf. pattern*).

COPYING CAMERA OR PROJECTION PRINTER - For class 355

Apparatus for projecting an image of an original, by passing light through or around the original or reflecting light from the original, onto a photosensitive recording surface for the purpose of making a copy of the original. The image is usually enlarged or reduced in size with reference to the original. A copying camera or projection printer generally includes (1) a concentrated light source from either an artificial or natural emanation, (2) a condensing lens or other light paralleling element, (3) a holding or positioning device for the original, (4) a projection objective or projection lens system for directing light after it passes through or is reflected from the original to form an image, (5) a holder for the photosensitive medium which receives the image, and (6) opaque structure to keep unwanted light from reaching the photosensitive medium. The cameras or projectors in this class utilize artificial or natural light within the visible spectrum. The original to be projected is planar in nature with the plane extending transverse to the direction of projection, and may be transparent or opaque. The planar original is usually in the form of flexible film and may be caused to take a curved form in the original holder or film gate. In operation the original is positioned outside one focal plane of the projection lens system and an image is formed on a photosensitive medium outside the opposite focal plane of the projection lens system. The closer the original is to one focal plane the farther the image will be from the other focal plane, and the bigger the image will be. In the camera or projector, the relative positioning of the object is usually obtained by moving the projection lens system and adjusting its focal length rather than by changing the position of the original.

CORE - For class 164

A separable part of a mold that is used to create openings and various shaped cavities in the casting.

CORE - For class 249

See the Class Definition, C, and see References to the Current Class for a reference to the difference between a core and plunger.

CORE - For class 336

A magnetic or magnetizable body having a magnetic permeability greater than one. The proximate purpose of a core is to increase the inductance of an associated coil by increasing the number of magnetic flux interlinkages of the coil. Although the material of the core is electrically conductive such electrical conductivity is usually minimized by using magnetic material of high resistivity in the form of bundles of fine wires, stacks of thin laminations insulated from each other or a suspension of iron powder in an electrically insulating binder.

CORE - For class 425

A separable static male shaping surface providing a hollow portion in a casting. A core is differentiated from a plunger in that a plunger moves during a shaping operation.

CORE - For class 428

intermediate portion of a composite* product. In a composite web* or sheet*, a core lies between two other components*; in a rod* or strand* or filament*, a core is the inner portion covered with another layer. If a core is claimed, per se, it is to be assumed for purposes of this class that the other layer(s)* or component(s)* are included. (Structural)

CORE BOX - For class 164

A box or container in which foundry cores are made.

CORE PRINT - For class 164

A special projection on a pattern for forming impressions or core seats in the mold into which the core itself is inserted. Also refers to the projection on the core itself which fits into the core seat.

CORE, REACTOR - For class 376

See Reactor Core.

CORE-PIT - For class 099

That portion of an article of food that is located in and around the geometrical center of the food; however, the outer periphery of the core-pit is NOT necessarily equidistant for the outer periphery of the food, (e.g., a generally ellipsoidal gpith in a generally spherical peach). Further, in some varieties of food (e.g., a relatively small variety of apple) a drilling or punch-die type means which may remove a substantially right circular cylinder section, when aligned with the stem-blossom axis of the apple, will usually remove not only the seed pocket but also that portion of the apple containing matter connected to both the stem and blossom ends of the apple. Thus, the core-pit portion may include a central portion only, or a central portion plus a right-circular-cylinder section containing the central portion.

CORE-PIT - For class 099

This expression usually precedes the word gmeansh, and is intended to comprehend a gmechanical treatmenth which contacts all or a portion of the core-pit and then severs, tears away, separates, and/or removes the core-pit from the remaining portion of the food.

CORK - For class 428

The outer bark of cork oak. The cork may be in the form of slabs or may be used as a filler in finely divided form. (Nonstructural or Composition)

CORRELATION - For class 704

A statistical measurement of the interdependence or association between two variables that are quantitative or qualitative in nature. A typical calculation would be performed by multiplying a signal by either another signal (cross-correlation) or by a delayed version of itself (autocorrelation).

CORROSION (See METAL CORROSION) - For class 510

CORRUGATE - For class 425

To shape a layer into parallel rows of wavelike folds extending along its width or length and transverse to the thickness.

CORRUGATING - For class 065

Shaping a layer throughout its thickness into a row of wavelike folds.

CORUNDUM - For class 117

Natural aluminum oxide; Al2O3; sometimes with intended small amounts of cobalt (green), chromium (red; i.e., ruby), iron (yellow), magnesium, or silica; synthetic emery.

COUNTER EMF - For class 388

A voltage developed in an inductive circuit (e.g., in an armature winding) by an alternating or pulsating current. The polarity of this voltage is at every instant opposite that of the applied voltage.

COUPLING - For class 385

The interchange of light radiation among or between waveguiding structures,wherein the mechanical interconnection between the structures is of little or no importance. The radiation interchange may be accomplished through any of a number of physical phenomena, including the evanescent wave coupling phenomenon, various modal coupling phenomena, refraction, reflection, as well as through induced changes in structure parameters which govern light transmission (for example, electro-optically or electromagnetically induced refractive index changes in an "interaction" or coupling region). However, devices for input/output of a light wave to/from an optical confinement area, or devices for manipulating an optical wave within or adjacent to an optical confinement area, which employ holography, are classified in the holography area of the Class 359 schedule.

COUPLING NETWORKS - For class 333

(a) Networks including significant reactive structure for effecting the transfer of oscillatory energy from one circuit to another circuit and having attenuation and/or delay characteristics over a frequency range for attenuating and/or delaying in a predetermined manner wave energy passing therethrough, and/or providing an impedance match between the network and at least one of the circuits; (b) smoothing type wave filters having shunt capacitance, or series inductance, or both usually designed to pass direct current and to reduce the effect of any undesired alternating or pulsating current, or to pass direct current and low frequency alternating current or pulsating current and to reduce the effect of any undesired higher frequency alternating or pulsating current.

COUPLING PART - For class 439

An electrical connector comprising a contact and additional supporting structure specially adapted to mate with a specific complementary electrical connector. Note. A gspecific complementary electrical connectorh is also a gcoupling parth in this class, but may be referred to as a gmating parth in order to distinguish it from the first mentioned coupling part. Also, such a gcounterparth and the complementary contact thereof may be referred to as the gcounter-contacth. Note. A relatively short, generally stationary rodlike connector is not considered to be a gcoupling parth even though it otherwise meets the limitations of this definition, because such structure has not been so considered in the past. Similarly, a connector for interfitting with such a short rodlike connector is not considered to be a gcoupling parth. Such a connector may commonly be used on an automobile electrical energy battery. Note further that this restriction does not apply to a generally fixed socket and a cooperating short rodlike connector. Note. A bare wire (or cable) making electrical contact is not a coupling part; nor is a connector for making direct engagement with such a wire. Also, neither a threaded stud nor a ring for fitting over such a stud is considered to be a coupling part.

COVALENT BONDING - For class 257

The sharing of electrons by atoms in which each atom contributes one of a pair of electrons shared by another atom and forming a bond between those two atoms.

COVER - For class 052

Generally synonymous with groofh but used where groofh in some instances may be inapt, e.g., a covering supported by an article, a canopy, a man-hole closure, etc.

COVER - For class 053

A member, made from sheet material stock which serves to confine the contents by either a complete encasement or a partial encasement, and which fully encircles or encompasses the contents in at least one direction. A band, closure, preformed container, carton or receptacle, though said members are not gmade from sheet materialh, are each considered covers for this class. A spindle or core which extends into or through a preformed aperture in the contents is considered to be a partial cover. See subclass 581. See gBANDh, gCLOSUREh, and gRECEPTACLEh.

COVER-ADJUNCT - For class 053

Some accessory, device or abiding characteristic which is supplied to, or formed integral with, a cover to perform some function in addition to the mere enclosing of the contents. Such adjuncts include the addition to a cover of (1) a filament, strand, wire, stamp, label, handle, or display support, (2) a filler piece for the gap resulting between two or more folded flaps, (3) some auxiliary cover seam retaining device, including a staple, a clip, a sewn stitch, or a simultaneously integrally formed and set tab-and-slot retaining means, (4) a coating, printing, embossing or other marking, ornamenting or display feature, (5) some means to provide for opening the cover such as, e.g., a tear strip, (6) a cover attached reinforcement, article holder, or article remover, or (7) a window or window opening, (8) a contents contacting sealing spot, disc or gasket, (9) a superimposed disc which is applied to a hood or cap so as to depress said disc and a portion of the hood or cap within the aperture of a receptacle, (10) a cam actuated sealing or gripping means on the closure for fastening said closure, or (11) a protection strip placed over the contents of a receptacle (e.g., matches) and inserted between the side of the receptacle and the contents. However, the operations of slitting or notching of cover blanks and flaps preparatory to the shaping of the cover, or the application of adhesive to the cover to aid in seam retaining are not considered cover-adjuncts for this class. Nor is the addition of a transitory characteristic to a cover for the purpose of aiding in the packaging, e.g., the addition of moisture to a wrapper, considered to be a cover-adjunct.

CRACKING - For class 208

A conversion treatment in which the hydrocarbons of the mineral oil are broken down to a shorter carbon chain length, resulting in hydrocarbons having a lower boiling temperature, which may be carried out in the presence of a catalyst (catalytic cracking) or in the absence of any catalyst (thermal cracking).

CRACKLED - For class 065

Glassware having a surface which was intentionally cracked by water immersion and partially healed by reheating.

CRANKSHAFT: - For class 123

The most common type of goutput shafth, which is journaled to turn about a fixed axis and including an offset portion for receiving energy from the piston.

CRASH- For class 412

A loose weave binding cloth which is generally applied with adhesive to the back() of a bound book(*) as a reinforcing material prior to the application of the book(*) covering member.

CREAM - For class 510

Denotes a thick, usually opaque, emulsion having little or no tendency to flow.

CREPE - For class 008

Crepe is a general classification of fabrics characterized by a broad range of crinkled or grained surface effects.

CRITICAL - For class 376

For the purpose of this class, is the term used to describe the condition in which a chain reaction is being maintained at a constant level, i.e., it is just self-sustaining. In order for this state to exist a sufficient quantity of fissile material (critical mass) must be assembled in the proper shape and concentration.

Critical bandwidths - For class 704

Bandwidths of the hearing process, as measured by the masking effect of a white, random noise in which a person detects a pure tone.

CROSS-LINKER DYE ADDITIVE - For class 008

A cross-linker dye additive is a compound added to assist in dyeing which reacts chemically with both the dye and substrate, other than due to chelate formation.

CRUCIBLE - For class 117

A vessel for containing a molten material. The crucible may be of the same material as the molten material and may ultimately become molten.

CRUCIBLE - For class 373

A component of the furnace which holds, or otherwise contains the charge.

CRUCIBLE FURNACE - For class 075

A furnace in which the material to be heated is placed in a refractory container, the container is covered with a lid, and the covered container is heated in a furnace. The material is heated solely by heat conducted through the walls of the crucible.

CRYOSAR - For class 257

An active solid-state device which operates at cryogenic temperatures, i.e., at temperatures at or below 77 degrees Kelvin, by avalanche breakdown caused by impact ionization of device impurities.

CRYPTANALYSIS - For class 380

Determination of encryption code of encrypted message (i.e., codebreaking).

CRYPTOCRYSTALLINE - For class 117

Microscopic crystalline structure, indistinguishable to the naked eye.

CRYPTOGRAPHY - For class 380

The study of secret information storage or communication.

CRYPTOGRAPHY - For class 705

Secret information storage or communication. This includes equipment or process which (a) conceals or obscures intelligible information by transforming such information so as to make the information unintelligible to a casual or unauthorized recipient, or (b) extracts intelligible information from such a concealed representation, including breaking of unknown codes and messages.

CRYSTAL - For class 257

A solid substance whose atoms are arranged with periodic geometric regularity, called a lattice.

CRYSTAL BOUNDARY - For class 117

The interface between a crystal and its surroundings; e.g., another crystal, air.

CRYSTAL DEFECT - For class 257

Any nonuniformity in a crystal lattice. There are four categories of crystal defects: (1) point defects, (2) line defects, (3) area defects, and (4) volume defects. Point defects include any foreign atom at a regular lattice site (substitutional site) or between lattice sites (interstitial site), anti-site defects in compound semiconductors, e.g., Ga in As or As in Ga, missing lattice atoms, and host atoms located between lattice sites and adjacent to a vacant site (Frenkel defects). Line defects, also called edge dislocations, include extra planes of atoms in a lattice. Area defects include twins or twinning (a change in crystal orientation across a lattice) and grain boundaries (a transition between crystals having no particular positional orientation to one another. Volume defects include precipitates of impurity or dopant atoms caused by volume mismatch between a host lattice and precipitates.

CRYSTAL DEFECT - For class 438

Any nonuniformity in a crystal lattice. There are four categories of crystal defects: (a) point defects, (b) line defects, (c) area defects, and (d) volume defects. Point defects include any foreign atom at a regular lattice site (i.e., substitutional site) or between lattice sites (i.e., interstitial site), antisite defects in compound semiconductors (e.g., Ga in As or As in Ga), missing lattice atoms, and host atoms located between lattice sites and adjacent to a vacant site (i.e., Frenkel defects). Line defects, also called edge or screw dislocations, include extra planes of atoms in a lattice. Area defects include twins or twinning (i.e., a change in crystal orientation across a lattice) and grain boundaries (i.e., a transition between crystals having no particular positional orientation to one another). Volume defects include precipitates of impurity or dopant atoms caused by volume mismatch between a host lattice and precipitates.

CSBH - For class 438

Channeled substrate buried heterostructure

CSL - For class 117

Coherent Superlattice.

CSL - For class 438

Coherent superlattice

C-SUBSTITUENT - For class 260

Indicates that the substituent is bonded to a carbon.

CTD - For class 438

Charge transfer device

CTSL - For class 117

Coherent Tilted Superlattice.

CTSL - For class 438

Coherent tilted superlattice

CULLET - For class 065

Waste or broken glass.

CULLET - For class 425

Waste or broken plastic.

CUP - For class 029

A tube having one end closed.

CUPOLA - For class 075

A shaft furnace primarily designed to melt metal by use of a solid fuel charged with the metal. A gas containing gaseous Oxygen (e.g., air) is blown into the bottom of the furnace to burn the fuel and cause the metal to melt from the heat of combustion.

CURE - For class 425

A chemical or physical treatment to obtain a stable state of a preform or product, (e.g., by vulcanizing, drying, etc.).

CURRENT CONVERSION - For class 363

The transformation of electrical energy from alternating current to direct current or the transformation of direct current to alternating current.

CURRENT OR VOLTAGE MAGNITUDE CONTROL - For class 363

Includes controlling either the amplitude of the current or voltage, or controlling the average or effective value of the current or voltage, even though the amplitude is not controlled.

CUSHIONING MEANS: - For class 410

Fore-and-aft slide cushioning means - Load unit protection means supplementing load accommodation. The effect of inadvertently inertial forces which could cause damage to the load unit is mitigated by means so supplementing accommodation as to permit such an extent of reactive movement of the load unit or the accommodating means, or both as to be adequate to prevent damage that could occur were the load rigidly fixed to the freight carrier. When the forces guarded against and the reactive movement acts in the direction along the longitudinal axis of the freight carrier, this is recognized as fore-and- aft direction slide cushioning. The effect of only mere compression-relaxation of a resilient block is not intended to be included in the cushioning concept.

CUT - For class 072

To separate any portion of a workpiece from any other portion of the same workpiece by a step of machining (e.g., grinding, drilling, boring, milling, planing), severing (e.g., breaking, sawing, slicing, shearing), or by intrusion of a sharp-edged or pointed tool without removal of material (e.g., stabbing, splitting, intrusive punching). See gSeverh and gPierceh.

CUT-OFF - For class 141

The term as used in this class means some mechanically operative element or device (not gas pressure) which arrests flow of material.

CUTOFF - For class 257

A minimum value of voltage or current applied to an active device which stops the device from operating in a particular manner.

CUTTER - For class 407

See Tool*.

CUTTING EDGE - For class 408

A marginal portion of a tool comprising a line or point on the surface of the tool formed by the intersection of a plurality of planar surfaces, specifically adapted to perform a cutting function.

CVD - For class 117

Chemical Vapor Deposition. CVD may be employed to produce single-crystal*, polycrystal, or amorphous material. See also MOCVD.

CVD - For class 438

Chemical vapor deposition

CYANO - For class 987

Denotes a triple bond between an adjacent carbon and nitrogen atom. As used in this class, cyano is always bonded directly to a phosphorus atom through the carbon atom.

CYCLE - For class 425

A sequence of manipulative steps governed by a mechanism such as a cam, timer, program means, etc.

CYCLIC PITCH CHANGE - For class 416

Wherein the blade angle of each working member of an impeller is varied for only a predetermined limited portion of each working cycle, each working member being similarly adjusted in sequence as it, in turn, reaches the predetermined portion of the working cycle. though the impeller need comprise only a single working member.

CYCLICAL OPERATION - For class 141

This term describes a filling system in which no operator intervention is required from the time a receiver is placed in filling position at least until the receiver is filled and ready to be removed. The flow of contents material may be cut off by a movement of the receiver which occurs in the sequence of events in the machine.

CYCLO - For class 532

This term refers to a ring of a polycyclo ring system.

CYCLOALIPHATIC - For class 987

Denotes a ring composed solely of a carbon atom and includes aryl.

CYCLONE - For class 210

A device using centrifugal force to separate. The process is called cyclonic; see centrifuge.

CYLINDER - For class 091

A rigid external member which permanently surrounds the piston, the latter constituting a relatively moving wall for the expansible chamber, the other walls of which are formed by the cylinder, and the cylinder ordinarily including the abutment or reaction surface against which the motive fluid acts or the piston forming the abutment for the cylinder when the cylinder is movable and the piston fixed. However, the abutment or reaction surface for the piston need not necessarily be formed by the cylinder, but may be formed by a second relatively movable opposed piston within the cylinder. If the piston withdraws from the cylinder merely to control the motive fluid, the piston is still considered to be permanently surrounded by the cylinder.

CYLINDER - For class 092

A rigid external member which permanently surrounds the piston, the latter constituting a relatively moving wall for the expansible chamber, the other walls of which are formed by the cylinder, and the cylinder ordinarily including the abutment or reaction surface against which the motive fluid acts, or the piston forming the abutment for the cylinder when the cylinder is movable and the piston fixed. However, the abutment or reaction surface for the piston need not necessarily be formed by the cylinder but may be formed by a second relatively movable opposed piston within the cylinder.

CYLINDER - For class 418

An external member having wall or surface portions forming part of the working chamber of the rotary expansible chamber device, the member being either fixed or movable and may surround a fixed reaction member to move or be moved by the working fluid and may also include an abutment or reaction surface against which working fluid acts. However, the abutment or reaction surface for the rotary expansible chamber device need not necessarily be formed by the cylinder but may be formed by relatively movable opposed rotating members within the cylinder at least one of which is a working member.

CYLINDER - For class 460

A device consisting of bars mounted on two hubs that are supported on a shaft that run the length of the threshing unit. There are three types of cylinders; rasp-bar cylinder, spike-tooth cylinder, and angle-bar cylinder.

CYLINDER: - For class 123

a member having an internally facing surface of a shape generated by a straight line rotating a fixed distance about an axis.

CZ - For class 117

Abbreviation for Czochralski. J. Czochralski was the Polish inventor of the basic single crystal pulling method (1918) bearing his name.

Cz - For class 438

Czoshralski (melt pulling)

D.C. COUPLING - For class 330

A signal coupling network including a D.C.. conductive path. In a four terminal network such paths must be traced between terminals on the circuits to and from which the coupling is made which vary in voltage with the signal (this excludes D.C.. paths limited to ground leads or D.C.. shunt paths).

D.C. PATH OR D.C. CONDUCTIVE PATH - For class 330

A path for current in a network which can conduct D.C.. current.

DADBS - For class 438

diacetoxyditertiarybutoxysilane

DADIS - For class 438

diacetoxydiisopropoxysilane

DATA - For class 345

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing. Also see: Address Data; Instruction Data; Status Data; User Data.

DATA - For class 705

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.

DATA - For class 706

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing.

DATA - For class 707

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing. See Address Data, Instruction Data, Status Data, and User Data in this Glossary.

DATA - For class 709

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.

Address data: data that represent or identify a source or destination.

Instruction data: data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any.

Status data: data that represent conditions of data, digital data processing systems, computers, peripherals, memory, etc.

Streamed data: data consisting of a more-or-less continuous series of bits, bytes, or other small, structurally uniform units.

User data: data other than address data, instruction data, or status data.

DATA - For class 710

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.

Address data - Data that represent or identify a source or destination.

Instruction data - Data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any.

Status data - Data that represent conditions of data, computers, peripherals, memory, etc.

User data - Data other than address data, instruction data, or status data.

DATA - For class 711

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing. See ADDRESS DATA, INSTRUCTION DATA, STATUS DATA, and USER DATA in this glossary,

DATA - For class 712

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.

Address data-Data that represent or identify a source or destination.

Instruction data-Data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any.

Status data-Data that represent conditions of data, digital data processing systems, computers, peripherals, memory, etc.

User data-Data other than address data, instruction data, or status data.

DATA - For class 713

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.

Address data - Data that represent or identify a source or destination.

Instruction data - Data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any.

Status data - Data that represent conditions of data, computers, peripherals, memory, etc.

User data - Data other than address data, instruction data, or status data.

DATA - For class 714

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.

DATA - For class 715

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.

DATA - For class 718

A representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing. Address data: data that represent or identify a source or destination. Instruction data: data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any. Status data: data that represent conditions of data, digital data processing systems, computers, peripherals, memory, etc. Streamed data: data consisting of a more-or-less continuous series of bits, bytes, or other small, structurally uniform units. User data: data other than address data, instruction data, or status data.

DATA - For class 719

A representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.

Address data: data that represent or identify a source or destination.

Instruction data: data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any.

Status data: data that represent conditions of data, digital data processing systems, computers, peripherals, memory, etc.

Streamed data: data consisting of a more-or-less continuous series of bits, bytes, or other small, structurally uniform units.

User data: data other than address data, instruction data, or status data.

DATA - For class 725

Any representation of a digital or analog quantity to which meaning has been assigned. A representation of facts, concepts, or instructions, in a manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by humans or by automatic means.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 345

See PROCESSING, below.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 701

For the purpose of this class, data processing is defined as a systematic operation on data in accordance with a set of rules which results in a significant change in the data.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 702

For the purpose of this class, data processing is defined as a systematic operation on data in accordance with a set of rules which results in a significant change in the data.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 705

(For the purpose of this class) A systematic operation on data in accordance with a set of rules which results in a significant change in the data.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 706

See PROCESSING, below

DATA PROCESSING - For class 707

See Processing, below.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 709

See PROCESSING, below.

data processing - For class 710

See PROCESSING, below.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 711

See PROCESSING below.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 712

See PROCESSING, below.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 713

See PROCESSING, below.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 714

See PROCESSING, below.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 715

See PROCESSING*, below.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 718

See PROCESSING, below.

DATA PROCESSING - For class 719

See PROCESSING, below.

DATA PROCESSING (for the purpose of this class): - For class 700

A systematic operation on data in accordance with a set of rules which results in a significant change in the data.

DATA: - For class 700

Representation of information in a coded manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing.

DATABASE - For class 707

A collection of data arranged for ease of storage, retrieval, updating, searching and sorting by computerized means.

DBR - For class 438

distributed Bragg reflector

DCFL - For class 438

direct-coupled FET logic

DCG - For class 438

dichromated gelatin

DCS - For class 438

dichlorosilane

DDE - For class 438

double diffused epitaxy

DDI - For class 438

deep dielectric isolation

DE BROGLIE WAVELENGTH - For class 257

The wavelength of a particle, based on L.V. de Broglie"s theory that particles exhibit wavelike characteristics.

DE BROGLIE WAVELENGTH - For class 977

Wavelength of a particle under quantum mechanical conditions wherein the particle acts as a wave; calculated by a ratio of Planckfs constant to the particlefs momentum.

DEAD-BOLT - For class 070

An unbiased bolt normally at rest, whether or not so held, and movable only by a positively initiated external force.

DEBITEUSE - For class 065

A slotted floating, refractory block through which glass issues in the formation of a glass sheet during a drawing operation.

DECODING - For class 506

Method enabling the determination of the structure of a library member or the reaction sequence leading to its preparation, which method involves greadingh (e.g., determining the structure of, etc.) a surrogate analyte (e.g., code, tag, label, etc.) associated with said library member.

DECONVOLUTION - For class 506

Process of fractionating (normally by resynthesis or by elaborating a partial library) a pool with some level of the desired activity to give a set of smaller pools. See also iterative deconvolution.

DECRYPTING OR DECIPHERING - For class 380

A process of extracting concealed information from an intentionally obscured form and changing it into a form intelligible to a recipient with proper authorization or equipment.

DEEP DEPLETION - For class 257

The condition in which a depletion layer formed in a MOS active device due to voltage applied to the gate electrode of the device, is deeper than the maximum depth at which inversion would normally be expected to occur at room temperature in a semiconductor device at the surface closest to the gate electrode, without formation of an inversion layer.

DEEP DEPLETION - For class 438

The condition in which a depletion layer formed in a MOS active device due to voltage applied to the gate electrode of the device is deeper than the maximum depth at which inversion would normally be expected to occur at room temperature in a semiconductor device at the surface closest to the gate electrode, without formation of an inversion layer.

DEEP GROOVE ISOLATION - For class 257

Electrical isolation of adjacent devices in a single monolithic semiconductor chip by grooves extending deeply into and below the surface of the chip between the devices.

DEEP LEVEL CENTERS - For class 438

Energy levels that can act as traps located in the forbidden band of a semiconductor material that are not near the conduction or valence band edges.

DEEP-LEVEL CENTERS - For class 257

Energy levels that can act as traps located in the forbidden band of a semiconductor material that are not near the conduction or valence band edges.

DEFLECTOR - For class 072

An element of instrumentality which engages successively presented portions of moving work and forces said portions from a first path of motion into a second and different path of motion. Note. The gDeflectorh may comprise a single deflecting surface forcing all portions of work in a single direction, or a plurality of elements acting differently upon different portions of work.

DEFLECTOR - For class 239

A solid means arranged exteriorly of the egress port or last point of confinement for dispersing or redirecting the effluent. Some deflectors may be abrupt continuations of the terminal flow conducting means unitarily formed therewith.

DEFLECTOR - For class 366

(1) An element or device secured within and in fixed relation to the mixing chamber, or (2) a stationary device in a movable mixing chamber for diverting or separating portions of material and then permitting them to recombine so as to commingle, thus causing or assisting in agitation of the material.

DEFORM - For class 227

In this class is used in the sense imparted by the Class Definition and Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class in Class 72.

DEFORMING - For class 029

The physical act of or means for shaping without any substantial removal of material. This term includes forging, rolling, densifying, extruding, drawing and stretching.

DEGENERATION - For class 257

Doping of a semiconductor to such an extent that the Fermi level lies within the conduction band (N+ semiconductor) or within the valence band (P+ semiconductor). Also, in circuit applications, negative feedback between two or more active solid-state devices.

DEGENERATION - For class 438

Doping of a semiconductor to such an extent that the Fermi level lies within the conduction band (i.e., N+ semiconductor) or within the valence band (i.e., P+ semiconductor). Also, in circuit applications, negative feedback between two or more active solid-state devices.

DEGREE OF FREEDOM - For class 901

Each linear or rotary movement along or about a given axis.

DEIS - For class 438

dual electron injection structure

DELAY - For class 333

Includes phase distortion and also includes the retardation of a single pulse with respect to time.

DELAY NETWORK - For class 330

Networks including significant structure for retarding wave energy a predetermined period of time over a range of frequencies.

DELAY NETWORK - For class 333

Networks including significant structure for retarding wave energy a predetermined period of time over a range of frequencies.

DELIVERING - For class 271

Refers to the gmeans for removing the individual sheet from the operation after having been operated on or placing the individual sheet on a receiver after having been operated on.h

DELIVERY - For class 725

The act of sending something, such as motion video data, to an intended destination.

DEMODULATOR - For class 329

A device which extracts an arbitrarily varying modulating signal from an electrical or electromagnetic modulated signal of less than infrared frequency.

DEMOGRAPHICS - For class 725

The statistical characteristics of human populations, such as age or income, used especially to identify markets.

DENDRIMER - For class 977

Artificially manufactured molecule, such as a synthesized polymer, etc.

DENOMINATIONAL-STOP - For class 400

A component of the carriage* mechanism that causes stopping of the carriage in any of selected denominational column positions. In a denominational column a sequence of numerical digits is imprinted on one print-line* and further sequences of numeral digits are imprinted in successive print-lines, one print-line below the previous print-line. The distinguishing characteristic of a denominational column is that the decimal point of successive print-lines of numeral digits is in vertical array, or in the instance where the decimal point of successive numbers is not actually imprinted, the gunitsh digit of the successive numbers is in vertical array. Thus the position where the carriage will be stopped to imprint each of a succession of numbers will depend on whether the first digit of a sequence of numeral digits is to be a ghundredsh digit, or a gtensh digit, etc. A denominational-stop is usually a gcounter stoph (see the discussion under the definition of tab-rack* in this Glossary).

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY (DFT) - For class 977

Theory explaining and calculating the electronic structure of molecules and solids.

DEPLETION LAYER - For class 257

See DEPLETION REGION.

DEPLETION MODE - For class 257

The operation of a field-effect transistor having appreciable channel conductivity for zero gate- source voltage and whose channel conductivity may be increased or decreased according to the polarity of the applied gate-source voltage, by changing the gate-to-source voltage from zero to a finite value, resulting in a decrease in the magnitude of the drain current.

DEPLETION MODE - For class 438

The operation of a field effect transistor having appreciable channel conductivity for zero gate-source voltage and whose channel conductivity may be increased or decreased according to the polarity of the applied gate-source voltage, by changing the gate-to-source voltage from zero to a finite value, resulting in a decrease in the magnitude of the drain current.

DEPLETION REGION - For class 257

The region extending on both sides of a reverse biased semiconductor junction in which free carriers are removed from the vicinity of the junction. It is also called a space charge region, a barrier region, or an intrinsic semiconductor region.

DEPLETION REGION - For class 438

The region extending on both sides of a reverse biased semiconductor junction in which free carriers are removed from the vicinity of the junction. It is also called a space charge region, a barrier region, or an intrinsic semiconductor region.

DEPOLARIZATION - For class 320

The process of preserving or restoring a primary cell by partially or completely removing its increased resistance (i.e., polarization) as the potential of an electrode changes during electrolysis.

DEPOSITORY - For class 402

An article adapted to include a sheet retainer*, of this class, for the retention of apertured sheets* and intended to receive both (1) the nonthickness surface (See Fig. 1) and (2) the thickness surface (See Fig. 1) of the sheet or either (1) or (2) above.

DEPUTER - For class 065

See debiteuse.

DERIVATIVE - For class 435

For purposes of this class derivatives included with the production of a named compound are only the inorganic anion or inorganic cation salts thereof, e.g., metal, ammonium, halogen, carbonate, etc.

DESALINATION - For class 210

The process of removing inorganic salts, most usually sodium chloride, from water.

DESIGNATED CHEMICAL COMPOSITION (DCC) - For class 204

A composition in which at least one of the chemical atoms can either be deduced with certainty or be determined to belong to a limited select group of elements (as indicated in the exemplary lists of terms provided below); except that for the purposes of this class, gorganich is considered to be too broad, eventhough inherently reciting the presence of a carbon atom. An exemplary list of terms used to describe compositions to be regarded as DCC"s is as follows: alcohol, alkali or alkaline earth metal, amine, carbon black, carboxylic acid, chalcogen, drying oil, ether, fat, fatty acid or ester, halogen, hydrocarbon, latex, metal hydrate, peroxide, peroxy-, proton donor, sulfide, water, etc. An exemplary list of terms used to describe compositions not to be regarded as DCC"s is as follows: amphoteric, anionic, antioxidant, blue, cationic, cosolvent, conductor, crystalline, curing catalyst, deliquescent, dielectric, dispersant, drier, electrophoretic, emulsifier, fibrous, filler, fluorescent, free radical, gas, humectant, hydrophillic, inorganic compound, insulator, ionic, Lewis acid or base, liquid, lubricant, luminescent, metal containing, mineral, numerically described without designating a chemical atom or a limited select group of elements, organic compound, organic solvent, organometallic, particulate, phosphorescent, pigment, plastic, plasticizer, preservative, solid, solvent, stabilizer, surface active agent, surfactant, wax, Ziegler or Natta catalysts, etc. These lists are not intended to be exhaustive.

DESIGNATED ELEMENTAL NONACTIVE INGREDIENT - For class 514

Denotes an elemental material either metallic or nonmetallic and which is identified by its chemical nature, e.g., iron, silver, etc., or is identified in a generic manner, e.g., alkali metal atom, etc. The term nonactive as used herein denotes the absence of any physiological, pharmacological or biological affect attributed to the elemental material.

DESIGNATED INORGANIC NONACTIVE INGREDIENT - For class 514

Denotes an inorganic compound which is identified by at least one chemical atom, e.g., sodium-containing, etc., or is identified as a generic type of inorganic chemical compound, e.g., alkali metal-containing, etc. The term nonactive as used herein denotes the absence of any physiological, pharmacological or biological affect attributed to the inorganic material.

DESIGNATED NONREACTANT MATERIAL (DNRM) - For class 522

As used in this class, designated nonreactant material (DNRM) is a material wherein at least one of the chemical atoms can be deduced with certainty. For purposes of this class, organic material although inherently reciting the presence of a carbon atom is considered to be too broad. An exemplary list of materials to be regarded as DNRM"s is as follows: metal hydrate, chalcogen, carboxylic acid, peroxy, peroxide, latex, alkali or alkaline earth metal, transition metal, halogen, proten donor, sulfiede, drying oil, fat, fatty acid or ester, water, carbon black, etc. This list is by no means limited to the above examples. The following list is not exhaustive and merely enumerates certain materials that will not be considered as DNRM"s, e.g., organic compound, metal containing, inorganic compound, organometallic compound, solvent, wax, magnetic, hydrophobic, hydrophillic, antiplasticizer, plasticizer, filler, preservative, antioxidant, antiozonant, stablizer, lubricant, fibrous additive, particulate additive, liquid, solid, gas, dispersant, emulsifier, crystalline, plastic, flourescent, phosphorescent, liminescent, deliquescent, drier, dessicant, humectant, blue color,numerically described without providing a chemical atom, Lewis acid or base, mineral, organic solvent, cosolvent, Ziegler or Natta catalysts, alfin catalyst, free radical, amphoteric, anionic, ionic, denaturant, electrostatic, dielectric, conductor, insulator, etc. This list is to be regarded as illustrative rather than exhaustive.

DESIGNATED ORGANIC ACTIVE INGREDIENT (DOAI) DENOTES - For class 514

(1) The active ingredient is identified by at least one chemical atom, e.g., organic phosphorus compound, etc., or (2) The active ingredient is identified as a generic type of chemical atom, e.g., alcohol, ether, etc. The term active denotes the presence of a physiological, pharmacological or biological affect.

DESIGNATED ORGANIC NONACTIVE INGREDIENT DENOTES - For class 514

(1) A nonactive ingredient is identified by at least one chemical atom or (2) the nonactive ingredient is identified as a generic type of chemical compound, e.g., starch, etc. The term nonactive denotes the absence of any physiological, pharmacological or biological affect attributed to the organic material.

DESTROYING - For class 588

To convert the hazardous or toxic waste to an environmentally safe substance to include the steps used to prepare the waste for destruction as well as the actual destruction.

DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION - For class 201

See thermolytic distillation.

DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION - For class 202

See thermolytic distillation.

DETECT - For class 095

The term gdetect,h which is used in many of the control subclasses, is used in both a quantitative and a qualitative sense. This means that a definite measurement of a process variable is made (e.g., temperature, pressure, concentration, etc.) or that the presence of a particular event is determined (e.g., presence of sparking, change in liquid level determined by position of float, etc.).

DETECT - For class 096

The term gdetect,h which is used in many of the control subclasses, is used in both a quantitative and a qualitative sense. This means that a definite measurement of a process variable is made (e.g., temperature, pressure, concentration, etc.) or that the presence of a particular event is determined (e.g., presence of sparking, change in liquid level determined by position of float, etc.).

DETECTOR - For class 083

A mechanism for sensing a physical property or characteristic of, or the presence or absence or passage of, the work or the product or a movable element of a machine; which mechanism effects a signal or impulse as a result of such sensing. The signal or impulse is sent through a transmitter, (see definition of gtransmitterh below) and effects or initiates the functioning of a machine part or assembly controlled by the detector.

DETECTOR - For class 250

A material or device whose response to radiant energy is used to indicate the presence or amount of incident radiation. Also, called gSignalling Meansh.

DETECTOR - For class 378

A material or device whose response to X-ray energy is used to indicate the presence or amount of incident radiation.

DETERGENT - For class 516

A compound and/or composition characterized by the ability to remove unwanted materials from a solid surface by physicochemical means, i.e., emulsifying, dispersing, suspending, dissolving, etc.

DEVELOPING APPARATUS - For class 396

Developing apparatus is that which makes a photographic image visible.

DEVICE - For class 705

An assemblage of components at a single location or which may have its several components at geos:graphically distinct locations, i.e., a network.

DEVICE (ACTIVE) - For class 257

The physical realization of an individual electrical element in a physically independent body which cannot be further divided without destroying its stated function. Examples are transistors, pnpn structures, and tunnel diodes.

DEVICE (ACTIVE) - For class 438

The physical realization of an individual electrical element in a physically independent body which cannot be further divided without destroying its stated function. Examples are transistors, pnpn structures, and tunnel diodes.

DEVITRIFY - For class 065

The changing of glass in the amorphous state to crystalline state generally by holding a glass melt at a temperature which favors crystal growth.

DEZ - For class 438

diethylzinc

DFB - For class 438

distributed feedback (laser)

DH - For class 438

double-hetero

DHBT - For class 438

double-hetero bipolar transistor

DHF - For class 438

dilute hydrofluoric acid

DI - For class 438

dielectric isolation

DIALING - For class 379

Generating a call address signal. Although a dial is a rotary pulse generating switch, the term dialing is sometimes used generically as in the terms "tone dialing" and "resistance dialing".

DIALYSATE - For class 210

See DIALYSIS.

DIALYSIS - For class 210

A process of separating a dissolved constituent from a liquid by transport or migration from the liquid through a membrane into a second liquid. The membrane may be semipermeable or the second liquid may have greater affinity for the constituent but the net effect of the combined membrane-extracting liquid is to selectively remove a constituent from the first liquid. The process is provided for in subclasses 644+. An in-depth explanation is given in Kirk Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2nd ed. Vol. 7, pp. 1-20. Dialysate is the product of a dialysis method and the term is not always used for the same product, including retentate and diffusate.

DIAPHRAGM - For class 396

A diaphragm is a device to change the light flux passing through the aperture.

DIASPORE - For class 117

Al2O3.H2O; a natural hydrous aluminum oxide; HAlO2.

DIASTACE - For class 435

For purposes of this class classified as an amylase.

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH - For class 516

Diatomite, Kieselguhr. Siliceous material composed of the skeletal remains of small, prehistoric organisms (diatoms). About 88% silica.

DIBL - For class 438

drain induced barrier lowering

DICHROIC - For class 359

As used in one sense, the term dichroic refers to (1) the property of some materials to absorb to a greater degree one or the other of the two orthogonal component vectors which can be considered as constituting ordinary light. This results in producing light polarized to a degree depending upon the relative absorption of the two components. The term dichroic is also used to refer to (2) an optical element which will transmit light of one color and reflect other colors with little light being absorbed. These elements are usually composed of superimposed strata of dielectric materials.

DIE - For class 072

A metal-deforming tool* which, as disclosed, has a shaping or reshaping function with regard to the portion(s) of work engaged by it. Note. For the purposes of this class, a gDieh may be regarded as a tool which leaves or impresses its characteristic mark on the engaged face portion of work. The mark may be a three-dimensional imprint of the die face (see gTool Faceh), or may simply be the trace or track left by passage of the gDieh while in forcible engagement with the work, with or without accompanying deformation in other portions of the work. If the tool-engaged face of the work remains unaltered in shape or position, the tool is regarded as an anvil*; if altered in position only, the tool in question is a work-forcer*. See gAnvilh, gClosed Dieh. gToolh, and gWork- Forcerh.

DIE - For class 257

A tiny piece of semiconductor material, separated from a semiconductor slice, on which one or more active electronic components are formed. Sometimes called a chip.

DIE - For class 425

An apparatus part having a work contacting part for shaping or reshaping the work.

DIE - For class 438

A tiny piece of semiconductor material, separated from a semiconductor slice, on which one or more active electronic components are formed. Sometimes called a chip.

DIE BOND - For class 257

Attachment of a semiconductor chip to a substrate or chip carrier or package, usually with an epoxy, eutectic, or solder alloy.

DIE BOND - For class 438

Attachment of a semiconductor chip to a substrate or chip carrier or package, usually with an epoxy, eutectic, or solder alloy.

DIET - For class 438

dielectrically encapsulated trench capacitor

DIFFERENTIAL TRANSMISSION - For class 475

Mechanism having separate outputs driven simultaneously from a different member of a planetary gear transmission; the arrangement being such that a change in speed of one of the outputs, in at least one mode of operation, has a direct effect on the speed of the other output.

DIFFRACTION - For class 356

The bending of a light ray in passing the edge formed by contiguous opaque and transparent edges.

DIFFRACTION - For class 359

A phenomenon resulting from the wave nature of light, e.g., light passing through a slit of decreasing width, forms a narrower and narrower beam until the slit width approaches the wavelength of light, after which further decreasing of the slit width results in a beam having a larger and larger divergence.

DIFFRACTION - For class 372

The bending of a light ray in passing the edge formed by contiguous opaque and transparent areas.

DIFFRACTION PATTERN - For class 359

The intensity profile of a light beam after having passed by a diffracting aperture or object.

DIFFUSATE - For class 210

The material passed through in a diffusing process.

DIFFUSE - For class 210

The passing of a constituent through a membrane or septum.

DIFFUSE - For class 356

Pertaining to the scattering or random deviation of transmitted or reflected light.

DIFFUSE - For class 359

Pertaining to the scattering or random deviation of transmitted or reflected light.

DIFFUSED JUNCTION - For class 257

A junction between two different conductivity regions within a semiconductor and which is formed by diffusion of appropriate impurity atoms into the material.

DIFFUSED JUNCTION - For class 438

A junction between two different conductivity regions within a semiconductor and which is formed by diffusion of appropriate impurity atoms into the material.

DIFFUSED TRANSISTOR - For class 257

A transistor in which the emitter and collector junctions are formed by diffusion of dopant atoms into the semiconductor material.

DIFFUSION - For class 257

(1) The movement of carriers from a region of concentration to one of lower concentration; (2) a process of adding impurities to a semiconductor material to change its electrical characteristics.

DIFFUSION BARRIER - For class 257

An obstacle to the diffusion of charge carriers in an active solid-state device.

DIFFUSION BARRIER - For class 438

An obstacle to the diffusion of atoms in a metallization scheme for an active solid-state device.

DIFFUSION CURRENT - For class 257

Current caused by charge carriers diffusing from a volume of high carrier concentration to a volume of lower carrier concentration in a solid-state material.

DIFFUSION LENGTH - For class 257

In a homogeneous semiconductor material, the average distance minority carriers move during their lifetime (i.e., between generation and recombination).

DIGEST - For class 210

Process in which material is acted upon by micro-organisms to cause a chemical change. The composting of sludge is a digestion process.

DIGGERS - For class 171

Devices which are forced into a mass of earth and are then raised to lift an object disposed in said earth and/or to lift portions of the earth itself with objects embedded therein.

DIGITAL - For class 375

Of or pertaining to the class of devices or circuits in which the output varies in discrete steps (i.e., pulses or "on-off" operation).

DIGITAL - For class 388

Of or pertaining to the general class of devices or circuits in which the output varies in discrete steps (cf., ganalogh above).

DIGITAL CIRCUIT - For class 326

A circuit which operates at two or more discrete well­defined logic levels or states, in the manner of a switch, such as either gonh or goffh or ghighh or glowh (i.e., high voltage or low voltage).

DIGITAL CONTROL - For class 388

A control circuit utilizing digital, as opposed to analog, signals.

DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM - For class 345

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data processing.

DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM - For class 709

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data processing.

DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM - For class 710

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data processing.

DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM - For class 711

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data processing.

DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM - For class 712

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data processing.

DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM - For class 713

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data processing.

DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM - For class 714

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data processing.

digital data processing system - For class 718

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data processing.

DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM - For class 719

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data processing.

DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM: - For class 707

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data processing.

DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS - For class 715

An arrangement of processor(s) in combination with either memory or peripherals, or both, performing data PROCESSING*.

DIGITAL SIGNAL - For class 326

An electrical signal with discrete, well-defined logic levels or states. Digital normally means binary or two-state.

dILATANT; DILATANCY - For class 516

The property of a material wherein when subjected to shear the rate of increase of strain decreases with increasing shear. Examples are pastry doughs and highly concentrated solid colloid-sized particle suspensions.

DIMER OR TRIMER OF AN ALIPHATIC MONOCARBOXYLIC ACID - For class 520

Denotes dimeric or trimeric fatty acids prepared, e.g., by free radical, ionic, thermal polymerization, etc., of a monomeric fatty acid which can be saturated or unsaturated monocarboxylic acid having at least eight carbon atoms. So-called gpolymeric fattyh acids in the absence of other disclosure are presumed to be a mixture of dimers and trimers of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids. Included herein are reaction products of dimers or trimers wherein the dimer or trimer structure is not destroyed. Dimers or trimers of ethylenically unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acids are presumed to be unsaturated in the absence of disclosure to the contrary.

DIODE - For class 257

An electronic device which has two terminals and an asymmetrical or nonlinear voltage-current characteristic.

DIODE - For class 330

Refers to any electronic tube, solid element, semiconductor, barrier layer device or other current carrier means limited to two electrodes and without additional magnetic or electrostatic means to influence the current flow, and which has marked unidirectional current characteristics.

DIODE ISOLATION - For class 257

A technique in which a high electrical resistance between an integrated circuit element and its substrate is achieved by surrounding the element with a reverse biased pn junction.

DIODE ISOLATION - For class 438

A technique in which a high electrical resistance between an integrated circuit element and its substrate is achieved by surrounding the element with a reverse biased pn junction.

DIP - For class 438

dual-in-line package

DIP (DUAL IN-LINE PACKAGE) - For class 438

A chip carrier or package consisting of a plastic or ceramic body with two rows of vertical leads in which a semiconductor integrated circuit is assembled and sealed. The leads are typically inserted into a circuit board and secured by soldering.

DIP (DUAL-IN-LINE PACKAGE) - For class 257

A chip carrier or package consisting of a plastic or ceramic body with two rows of vertical leads in which a semiconductor integrated circuit is assembled and sealed. The leads are typically inserted into a circuit board and secured by soldering.

DIP PEN NANOLITHOGRAPHY - For class 977

Method of fabrication utilizing a scanning probe tip to draw nanostructures on surfaces.

DIPLEX FILTER - For class 725

A filter having a low pass and a high pass filter that divide the frequency spectrum into two separate frequency bands that do not overlap. The diplex filter allows the placement of duplex signals onto a cable by the use of frequency division multiplexing.

DIRECT BAND GAP SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 257

A semiconductor material in which an electron transition from the conduction to the valence band, or vice versa, does not require a change in crystal momentum for the electron. Gallium arsenide is a direct band gap semiconductor material.

DIRECT BAND GAP SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 438

A semiconductor in which an electron transition from the conduction to the valence band, or vice versa, does not require a change in crystal momentum for electrons. Gallium arsenide is an example of a direct band gap semiconductor.

DIRECT CURRENT - For class 363

Direct current includes pulsating current which is of such character as to have the characteristics of direct current (e.g., such as the output of half-wave rectifier which may be smoothed by filters to produce a substantially nonpulsating current).

DIRECT DYE - For class 008

Direct dyes, also known as substantive dyes, are generally sulfonated azo compounds very similar to acid dyes in constitution, good for dyeing cellulose fibers or protein fibers.

DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION - For class 506

Directed molecular evolution is a process for enriching a library in members having a property or activity of interest. Directed molecular evolution involves cycles of taking a library, subjecting it to a screen to select for the desired property or activity, and amplifying the ghitsh to provide the starting library for the subsequent cycle. gMutationsh may be introduced at the amplification stage in order to increase the diversity of the library. This subject matter involves aspects of creating and screening libraries.

DIRECTLY HEATED CATHODE OR FILAMENTARY CATHODE - For class 330

A filament designed to have its terminals connected to a source of current, the filament being heated by the current passing through it and effective to emit electrons, designed to serve as a cathode of an electronic tube as defined above.

DIRECTLY HEATED CATHODE: - For class 313

A filament designed to have its terminals connected to a source of current, the filament being heated by the current passing through it.

DIRECTOR - For class 343

A conductive (usually metallic) structure (e.g., a rod) which reradiates into free space impinging electromagnetic radiation (waves) coming from or going to the active antenna, the velocity of the reradiated wave having a component in the direction of velocity of the impinging wave, thereby to modify the radiation pattern of the active antenna, there being no significant potential relationship between the active antenna and the conductive structure.

DISASSEMBLY - For class 029

The physical act of or means for dissociating, disengaging, and/or taking apart of machines, devices, and things (articles).

DISAZO - For class 008

Disazo for the purpose of this class is define d as a compound containing two or more azo (-N=N-) groups.

DISCHARGE - For class 320

The act of removing available electrical energy from storage in a battery, cell, or capacitor via flow of electric current from the battery or capacitor to a load.

DISCHARGE ASSISTANT - For class 221

Any means (other than the weight of the article alone) which affirmatively segregates, separates or moves an article from a supply to a point of egress. All of the supply less one article may be moved to leave a segregated or separated article in discharge position or subject to further manipulation.

DISCHARGE CIRCUIT - For class 320

An electrical device or path which allows flow of electrical current from a battery or capacitor to an electrical load, especially that path or device that controls or regulates said flow.

DISCHARGE CONTROL DEVICE - For class 315

Any means associated with the discharge device (for example only, an electromagnet, a control grid or an auxiliary discharge electrode) intended to be used to control or influence the discharge between the principal electrodes of the discharge device.

DISCHARGE CONTROL ELECTRODE - For class 315

Any electrode which is designed to influence or control the discharge between the principal electrodes. It may be a control grid or an auxiliary discharge electrode. It may depend for its effect on either its electro-static effect or on the current flow thereto.

DISCHARGE MEANS - For class 221

Any means which either (1) affirmatively segregates, separates or moves an article from a supply to a point of egress or (2) permits separation or segregation of articles by gravitational movement thereof. A discharge means may be either a discharge assistant or a releaser.

DISCHARGE MODIFIER - For class 239

Any means which changes the characteristic of the fluid leaving the terminus as by whirling, deflecting, removing, or quieting turbulence, etc.

DISCHARGE PATH - For class 330

The path of the free electrical charge carrier particles between the electrodes of an electronic tube.

DISCHARGING - For class 373

The function of removing a charge from a furnace.

DISCRETE CIRCUIT - For class 257

A circuit which has an individual identity and which is fabricated prior to installation, or is separately packaged and is not part of an integrated circuit.

DISCRETE ELECTRICAL SIGNAL - For class 708

Discontinuous signals which can assume only a finite number of states.

DISJOIN (DISJOINING) - For class 099

These expressions are used to indicate that one portion of a naturally occurring article of food is detached or disunited from an immediately adjacent portion of the food without necessarily being spatially separated to a significant extent. For example: rolling, with some slight pressure, a hard-boiled fowl egg will disunite at least part of the bond between the outer shell* and the interior of the egg; however, unless the shell is totally removed, the membrane between the shell and the interior egg portions keeps the shell attached. Thus, at least portions of the shell have been disjoined from the inner portions although the same, or other portions of the shell, have not been spatially separated from the inner portions.

DISLOCATION - For class 257

A region in a crystal in which the atoms are not arranged in a perfect lattice-like structure. See CRYSTAL DEFECT for examples of crystal defects/dislocations.

DISLOCATION - For class 438

A line defect in a crystal, either of the edge type or screw type, in which the atoms are not arranged in a perfect latticelike structure. See CRYSTAL DEFECT for other examples of crystalline defects.

DISORDERED - For class 438

Crystalline arrangement in which the different constituent atoms of a compound semiconductor randomly occupy lattice sites.

DISPARATE ARTICLE - For class 052

An article which does not form an essential component of a building construction of plural components, but is in the nature of an adjunct having no essential load-bearing, supporting, joining or protective function.

DISPENSER - For class 141

A mechanism which affirmatively effects or permits separation of a portion of the contents material supply thereof and discharge in a definite direction or path.

DISPENSER - For class 226

(n) A device which moves material to an operative (e.g., a person who operates such device and who will use the material). (Compare with Feeder).

DISPEROID - For class 516

The suspended particles in a dispersion.

DISPERSAND - For class 516

The suspended colloid-sized particles in a dispers ant*. Often referred to as the discontinuous phase.

DISPERSANT - For class 516

The dispersing medium or continuous phase.

DISPERSE DYE - For class 008

Disperse dyes are water-insoluble, neutral dyes applied to the substrate from a fine aqueous suspension, which were originally developed for use in dyeing of cellulose acetate and polyester materials.

DISPERSION - For class 210

A mixture of a liquid with an insoluble material in very fine subdivision almost but not quite a true solution.

dispersion - For class 516

A suspension of particles in a solid, liquid, or gas to form a biphasic or polyphasic composition. Colloid-sized particles form colloid dispersions. See also colloid system.

DISPLACEMENT REACTION FOR METALS - For class 075

In the reaction A + BC = AC + B, the metal A, being more positive than the metal B, is oxidized. The displacement series or electromotive series for metals in decreasing order of their negative potentials is: (negative) Vanadium (V), Tungsten (W), Molybdenum (Mo), Gold (Au), Osmium (Os), Platinum (Pt), Iridium (Ir), Tantalum (Ta), Palladium (Pd), Ruthenium (Ru), Antimony (Sb), Bismuth(Bi), Arsenic (As), Mercury (Hg), Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu), Titanium (Ti), Tin (Sn), Lead (Pb), Germanium (Ge), Zirconium (Zr), Cerium (Ce), Nickel (Ni), Cobalt (Co), Thallium (Tl), Niobium (Nb), Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Uranium (U), Gadolinium (Gd), Indium (In), Gallium (Ga), Aluminum (Al), Rare Earth Metals, Beryllium (Be), Scandium (Sc), Yttrium (Y), Magnesium (Mg), Lithium (Li), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) (positive).

DISPLAY ATTRIBUTE - For class 715

A value or code that determines how its representative element is presented.

DISPLAY CONTROLLER - For class 345

An electrical circuit which actuates a display device* in accordance with received image data*.

DISPLAY CONTROLLER - For class 715

An electrical circuit which actuates a DISPLAY DEVICE* in accordance with received IMAGE DATA*.

DISPLAY DEVICE - For class 345

A communication device which converts image data* into a visual image*.

DISPLAY DEVICE - For class 715

A communication device which converts IMAGE DATA* into a VISUAL IMAGE*.

DISPLAY ELEMENT - For class 345

Means for producing a visual effect in a display device* comprised of a plurality (e.g., matrix) of such means.

DISPLAY SYSTEM - For class 345

A system which comprises one or more display termnals* or one or more display devices*.

DISPLAY TERMINAL - For class 345

A unit which comprises at least one display device* and user interface control means (e.g., mouse).

DISPLAYED BY - For class 506

A library gdisplayed byh a micro-organism is a library present at the surface of such a micro-organism (e.g., of a bacteria, etc.).

DISSIPATING TERMINATIONS: (FOR LONG LINES) - For class 333

Networks specialized for use with and designed for connection to the end of a long line transmission line and including a resistive component for dissipating the wave energy propagated along the line and presenting an essentially resistive impedance to the line.

DISSOLVE - For class 352

The gradual diminishing of the intensity of an image until it is no longer recognizable.

DISTANCE - For class 342

The space between two points, which may be immediately juxtaposed or widely spaced.

DISTANCE - For class 343

The space between two points, which may be immediately juxtaposed or widely spaced.

DISTANCE - For class 704

A statistical measurement for comparing elements defined by variables or vectors using scalar or vector subtraction of those elements. Examples: distance=a-b, |a-b|, (a-b).5 or two vectors may be treated as objects such that the straight line distance is measured between them.

DISTILLAND - For class 201

For the purpose of this class is the carbonaceous material which is undergoing a distillation operation.

DISTILLAND - For class 202

The material which is undergoing a distillation operation.

DISTILLAND - For class 203

For purposes of this class the liquid or liquefied material which is undergoing a distillation operation.

DISTILLATE - For class 201

The liquid product condensed from vapor during the distillation operation.

DISTILLATE - For class 202

The liquid product condensed from vapor during the distillation operation.

DISTILLATE - For class 203

The liquid product condensed from vapor during the distillation operation.

DISTINCT - For class 425

An independent entity.

DISTORTING - For class 029

The physical act of altering the form, configuration, dimensions, proportions, or contour of a part or stock within the elastic limits of the material of which it is made without any removal of material.

DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER CHARACTERISTICS - For class 330

A conductor or conductive means designed to operate at microwave or other high frequencies, so that the conductive means exhibits both distributed capacitance and distributed inductance at such frequencies.

DISTRIBUTED PARAMETER RESONATOR - For class 331

A resonator of the distributed network type, the capacitance, inductance and resistance of which cannot be isolated into separate lumped capacitors, inductors or resistors and wherein the time factor of propagation of wave energy in the network is appreciable.

DISTRIBUTED PARAMETERS - For class 330

When the impedance of a transmission device or line at the operating frequency or band of frequencies is due primarily to the parameters of the device or line itself, and in considering the inductance, capacitance and resistance of the device or line they must be considered as mixed together and spread out along the device or line rather than being considered as in separate discrete lumps or devices as in the case of simple series and parallel circuits, the transmission device or line may be said to have distributed parameters. Examples of circuits with distributed parameters include telephone, telegraph and power lines for high frequency energy.

DISTRIBUTED PARAMETERS - For class 333

When the impedance of a transmission device or line at the operating frequency or band of frequencies is due primarily to the parameters of the device or line itself, and in considering the inductance, capacitance and resistance of the device or line they must be considered as mixed together and spread out along the device or line rather than being considered as in separate discrete lumps or devices as in the case of simple series and parallel circuits, the transmission device or line ay be said to have distributed parameters. Examples of circuits with distributed parameters include telephone, telegraph and power lines for high frequency energy.

DISTRIBUTION - For class 725

A general term used, by reason of specific physical or electrical characteristics, to denote application or restriction of the modified term, or both, to that part of an electrical system used for conveying energy to the point of utilization from a source or from one or more main receiving stations.

DISTRIBUTION MEANS - For class 415

At least one member positioned in the working fluid flow path and proximate to the runner to convey, guide, distribute or direct the fluid immediately prior or subsequent to its contact with the runner. Encompassed within this term is a pipe, nozzle or vane.

DISTRIBUTOR - For class 091

Means which comprises or includes a part which is movable relative to the working member of a cyclically operable motor to control a motive fluid port or passage in such a manner as to cyclically control inlet and/or exhaust flow of motive fluid to or from the motor. The distributor need not entirely cut off the motive fluid flow, but may cyclically control the amount of flow (i.e., throttling).

DISTRIBUTOR - For class 239

A generic term to cover all means for effecting flow modification (e.g., dispersion, broadcast, projection, or scattering, etc.) of fluid, slurries or fluent material, coming within the class definition. Means altering or adjusting the quantity of fluid being delivered through the discharge port or the character of the flow as, for example, the dispersion pattern, the droplet size, the amount of turbulence or any other control for smoothing out or disturbing the discharge. This term is used as being generic to discharge modification and to flow regulation.

DIVERSE - For class 425

Differing from one another.

DIVERSE MOTOR OPERATIONS - For class 318

For the purpose of classification in the subclasses entitled gplural, diverse motor operations controlh the following limitations are applied relative to the nature of the several operations: (I). Starting, stopping, or the combination of these two operations is treated as a single motor operation control. However, since mere starting or stopping is an incident to many other motor operations (such, for example, as acceleration, reversing, braking to a stop, etc. in which actual starting or stopping may take place) such mere starting and/or stopping will not be considered a motor operation control which is included in this subclass as combinable with other motor operations, unless means are provided for effecting an automatic starting and/or stopping in response to a predetermined condition. Thus, ordinary (e.g., manual) starting or stopping combined with running-speed control is not included in the plural diverse motor operations control subclasses, whereas automatic starting and stopping in response to thermal changes combined with means for causing the motor to run in either direction (reversing) is included as plural diverse motor operations control. For example; automatic opening of motor circuit at limit of travel plus simultaneously shorting the armature for dynamic braking is classified as combined braking and automatic starting and/or stopping. Likewise, automatically opening the circuit of the motor while running at an appreciable speed coupled with a braking operation simultaneously with or shortly thereafter is considered a plural operational control. The following motor operations controls are included in the plural diverse motor operations control subclasses: (a) Reversing control; (b) Acceleration control; (c) Running-speed control; (d) Braking control; (e) Motor load control, and (f) Automatic starting and/or stopping. For definitions of the various individual controls listed above see the other sections under Definitions of Motor Operation Control of this class which pertain to the several individual motor controls. The following are not included herein as combinable motor controls: (a) Phase or Power Factor Control; (b) Temperature control of the motor, including heating or cooling thereof; (c) Signalling, testing, indicating or measuring of conditions in or about the motor; (d) Ordinary or mere starting and/or stopping of the motor; (e) Phase splitting or phase conversion to adapt a motor for operation from a source of electrical supply having a different number of phases than that for which the motor is wound; and (f) Means for lubricating the motor.

DLP - For class 438

double layer polysilicon

DLTS - For class 438

deep level transient spectroscopy

DMAH - For class 438

dimethylaluminumhydride

DMD - For class 438

(a) depletion mode device (also D-mode or D-type) or (b) deformable mirror device

DMOS - For class 438

double diffused MOS

DMOSFET - For class 257

Depletion type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. Such devices are normally in the on condition with no applied gate voltage.

DMOSFET - For class 438

Depletion-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. Such devices are normally in the on condition with no applied gate voltage.

DMS - For class 438

dilute magnetic semiconductor

DNRM - For class 523

Designated nonreactant material (as discussed in this class definition)

DOCTOR, WIPER, OR SCRAPER - For class 118

Any instrument acting on the coating or on the work for the purpose of spreading or removing surplus coating material. The instrument may be, for example, a solid scraper blade, a roller squeegee or as in the case of an gair doctorh a gaseous blast. For definitions of terms appearing in subclass titles and not mentioned in the above definitions, see the definitions to the particular subclass in which the term appears.

DOCUMENT - For class 715

An electronic FILE*.

DOES - For class 438

doublehetero optoelectronic switch

DOG - For class 070

A movable blocking element, other than a tumbler, in the form of a pawl or catch, adapted to releasably detain a movable part.

DOGHOUSE - For class 065

A boxlike wing on a glass furnace through which a batch or floaters, etc., are introduced into the furnace.

DONOR IMPURITY - For class 257

An element which when added to a semiconductor provides unbound or free electrons to the semiconductor which may serve as current carriers. Typically, donors are atoms which have more valence electrons than the atoms of the semiconductor material into which they are introduced in small quantities as an impurity or dopant. Since such donor impurities have more valence electrons than the semiconductor, a semiconductor doped with donor impurities is an n-type semiconductor.

DONOR IMPURITY - For class 438

An element which when added to a semiconductor provides unbound or free electrons to the semiconductor which may serve as current carriers. Typically, donors are atoms which have more valence electrons than the atoms of the semiconductor material into which they are introduced in small quantities as an impurity or dopant. Since such donor impurities have more valence electrons than the semiconductor, a semiconductor doped with donor impurities is an n-type semiconductor.

DONOR IMPURITY OR DONOR - For class 330

A material which when added to a semiconductor in minute quantities, as an impurity, induces electron conduction, generally causing the semiconductor to become one of gN-type conductivityh.

DOPANT - For class 117

A desired material intentionally present in an amount insufficient to satisfy the lattice unit cell, which may be present interstitially or by occupying crystal lattice positions substitutionally.

DOPANT - For class 257

An impurity added to a semiconductor material to change its electrical conductivity or other characteristics. N-type (negative) dopants, such as phosphorus, for a group IV semiconductor such as silicon typically come from group V of the periodic table. When added to silicon n-type dopants create a material that contains conduction electrons. P-type (positive) dopants, such as boron, for a group IV semiconductor such as silicon, typically come from group III and result in holes.

DOPANT - For class 438

An impurity added from an external source to a material by diffusion, coating, or implanting into a substrate, such as changing the properties thereof. In semiconductor technology, an impurity may be added to a semiconductor to modify its electrical properties or to a material to produce a semiconductor having desired electrical properties. N-type (negative) dopants (e.g., such as phosphorus for a group IV semiconductor) typically come from group V of the periodic table. When added to a semiconductor, n-type dopants create a material that contains conduction electrons. P-type (positive) dopants (e.g., such as boron for a group IV semiconductor) typically come from group III and result in conduction holes (i.e., vacancies in the electron shells).

DOPING - For class 117

The process of introducing a dopant* into a material.

DOPING OF SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 438

Adding controlled amounts of conductivity modifying material, referred to as electrically active dopant or impurity, to a semiconductor material or to a material to produce a semiconductor having desired electrical properties for this class.

DOPING PROFILE - For class 257

The point to point concentration throughout a semiconductor of an impurity atom doped into the semiconductor.

DOPING PROFILE - For class 438

The point to point concentration throughout a semiconductor of an impurity atom doped into the semiconductor.

DOUBLE-DIFFUSED MOS (DMOS) - For class 257

A metal oxide semiconductor having diffused junctions in which successive diffusions of different impurity types are made in the same well-defined region of the semiconductor.

DOUBLE-DIFFUSED MOS (DMOS) - For class 438

A metal oxide semiconductor having diffused junctions in which successive diffusions of different impurity types are made in the same well-defined region of the semiconductor.

DOUGH - For class 425

A soft semi-solid mass capable of being kneaded or of being shaped into a self-sustaining form, (e.g., clay bread dough, etc.).

DOWEL - For class 404

Rod or bar reinforcement-often relatively movable with respect to road, pavement or joint components-which reinforcement bridges, links or joins adjacent components so that load, stress or movement of one component is both inhibited by, and transmitted to, another component.

DRAFT - For class 164

The taper that is provided on otherwise verticle faces of a pattern to facilitate its removal from the sand mold.

DRAG - For class 164

The lower or bottom section of a flask, mold, or pattern. Also referred to as nowel.

DRAIN - For class 257

The electrode of a field effect transistor which receives charge carriers which pass through the transistor channel from the source electrode.

DRAIN - For class 438

The electrode of a field effect transistor which receives charge carriers which pass through the transistor channel from the source electrode.

DRAIN CURRENT - For class 257

The flow of charge carriers in the drain region of a field effect transistor.

DRAIN-SOURCE SATURATION CURRENT - For class 257

The maximum amount of current carried by the drain of a field-effect transistor when the gate- source voltage equals zero volts.

DRAM - For class 438

dynamic random-access memory

DRAW BAR - For class 164

A bar used for lifting the pattern from the sand of the mold.

DRAW RING - For class 065

A refractory device placed in a supply of molten glass to define an area for drawing.

DRAW SHIELD - For class 065

Baffle means isolating stock being drawn from the hot atmosphere existing above a supply of molten glass.

DRAWING - For class 065

Forming stock, generally sheet or tube, by utilizing the self-cohesiveness of glass in a plastic condition to effect an operation similar to a gtaffy-pullh.

DRAWSTRING- For class 024

A securing mechanism including both a string (i.e., a thin elongated flaccid member) and guiding means therefor (e.g., eyelet, hollow hem) located on a portion of the structure-to-be-secured* which surrounds an opening; wherein the string (a) encircles the opening, (b) draws the perimeter of the structure-to-be-secured* toward the center of the opening to close or tighten it when a portion of the string is pulled through its guiding means to shorten the effective length of the remaining portion of the string encircling the opening, and (c) secures the perimeter of the structure-to-be-secured* in its new position when the extracted portion of the string which was pulled through the guide means is prevented from moving (e.g., tied).

DREDGE - For class 037

This is a machine for excavating material at the bottom or the banks of a body of water.

DRESSING - For class 452

Includes the preparation of animals (land or marine) for eatable consumption.

DRIFT CURRENT - For class 257

Current produced in a solid-state electronic device by charge carriers (e.g., holes or electrons) drifting in the direction of an applied electric field.

DRILLING FLUID - For class 175

Any fluid, gaseous or liquid, which is introduced into the bore for the purpose of lubricating or cleaning any part of the boring means, or to displace or assist the tool in displacing the formation, or to flush or clean the bore of cuttings.

DRIVE - For class 173

The motion of a tool which performs a function upon work. Impact is included under the definition of this term. Also, any means to cause the drive motion of a tool such as a motor, cooperating gearing or mechanical movement elements, or an impacting device.

DRIVE - For class 175

A part of the boring means which comprises a motion generating, applying, or transmitting means which is specifically adapted to repeatedly or continuously act upon a boring tool to cause the tool to bore by cutting or penetrating into the earth. Drive is divided into the following major categories: (1) Feed. The sustained forced advance of a boring tool by means other than mere gravity, adapted to cause the tool to cut or penetrate either with or without another type of drive means; (2) Impact Drive. The actuation of a boring tool by a means adapted to deliver a series of blows upon a tool or tool shaft, said impact delivering means being adapted to move relative to said tool or tool shaft; (3) Reciprocating Drive. The actuation of a boring tool by means adapted to cause the tool to partake of to and fro axial movement, at least one direction of axial movement being caused by the drive; (4) Rotary Drive. The actuation of a boring tool by means causing the tool to continuously rotate about its own axis, and includes uniform or step by step unidirectional or oscillatory motion.

DRIVE SLIP - For class 701

The slippage of a wheel caused by the driving condition during acceleration of the vehicle.

DRIVE TRAIN - For class 475

Mechanism including a group of interconnected elements which transfers rotational power from a power source* to a load device*.

DRIVE-MEANS- For class 187

Means for supplying a motive force to an element to be moved which includes both force generating means (e.g., motor) and structural linkage (e.g., gears) needed to transmit the force from the generating means to the element.

DRIVER - For class 227

A tangible instrumentality having a surface portion which is specifically designed and intended, upon actuation of said instrumentality, to act upon a member (or work) with sufficient force, to impart translatory motion there to effect an operation of the class type.

DRIVER-CARRIAGE - For class 227

Structure to support the driver in a device of the class type.

DRIVING-STATION - For class 227

That region of a machine wherein work must be located for an intended driving operation of the class type to be performed thereon.

DROSS - For class 164

The scum that forms on the surface of molten metals.

DRUM - For class 425

A hollow cylinder, substantially circular in cross-section, which has a surface used as a shaping or working surface.

DRY - For class 426

Products which are as a complete product free or relatively free from water and under normal ambient conditions involve such characteristics, but not necessarily each and every one, as free flowing, dry to the touch, nontacky or sticky, nonadhesive, granular, powder, tablet, flake, flour, meal, particulate, pellet, finely divided, etc.

DRY TONER - For class 430

Particulate material which develops an electrostatic, magnetic, or electrical image by attraction of the particulate material to the image.

DRYING OIL - For class 516

A liquid fat which readily absorbs oxygen from air, polymerizes, becomes resinous, and which can thereby form a hard film. The property of drying is due to the presence of unsaturation in the hydrocarbon length of fatty acid oil, usually the glycerides of linoleic* and linolenic* acids. Common sources include linseed, tung, perilla, soybean, fish and dehydrated castor oils. Drying oils have high iodine number; nondrying oils, low.

DSP - For class 438

double stacked capacitor

DTL - For class 438

diode-transistor logic

DUAL GUARD-BAND ISOLATION - For class 257

A type of electrical isolation of functional elements of an integrated circuit comprised of two distinct unused areas of chip surface area adjacent to the elements desired to be electrically isolated.

DUAL GUARD-BAND ISOLATION - For class 438

A type of electrical isolation of functional elements of an integrated circuit comprised of two distinct unused areas of chip surface area adjacent to the elements desired to be electrically isolated.

DUAL-IN-LINE (DIP) - For class 257

See DIP.

DUF - For class 438

diffusion under film

DUT - For class 438

device under test

DUV - For class 438

deep ultraviolet

DYE ADDITIVE - For class 008

A dye additive or assistant is defined to be any material added to a dye to help in dyeing and is not basically a part of the dye itself.

DYEING - For class 008

Is employed in this classification in its understood and accepted meaning in the art, that is to say, it denotes imparting a substantially permanent color to organic fibrous or filamentous material or other porous material by the use of substances, or preparations possessing tincorial properties and which are not dependent for their ability to become fixed to the base solely upon the presence of an adhesive of bindive vehicle or ingredient, as distinguished from the application of an insoluble pigment suspended in a bindive vehicle, e.g., paint or any colored coating composition where the coloring agent does not actually color the base.

DYNAMIC LIBRARY - For class 506

Collection of compounds, in solution, in dynamic equilibrium (i.e., constantly changing). If the composition of the library is altered by the presence of a target which selectively binds certain library members, then shifting of the equilibrium will lead to an increase in the amount of those components which bind to the target with relatively high affinity. A dynamic library contains all the potentially possible combinations of the components undergoing dynamic random connection, whether these combinations are or are not actually present in the conditions used. It is a virtual library. A real entity is generated in the presence of the target.

DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (DRAM) - For class 257

solid-state memory in which the information decays over time and needs to be periodically refreshed.

DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (DRAM) - For class 438

Solid-state memory in which the information decays over time and needs to be periodically refreshed.

DYNAMIC SUBJECT MATTER - For class 249

Means for preforming a function in which motion of the means or a part thereof is essential to accomplishment of the function.

DYNAMIC SUBJECT MATTER - For class 425

Apparatus in which motion of a part is essential to accomplish a desired function, (e.g., shaping, cutting, etc.).

DYNAMOELECTRIC MACHINE - For class 363

A device for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy or mechanical energy into electrical energy or combinations thereof which involve electromagnetic induction. (Also see particular type).

DYNAMOTOR - For class 363

Also called a rotary converter or synchronous inverter. A rotating device for changing a D.C. voltage to another value. It is a combination electric motor and D.C. generator with two or more armature windings and a common set of field poles. One armature winding receives the direct current and rotates (thus operating as a motor), while the others generate the required voltage (and thus operate as dynamos or generators).

DZ - For class 438

denuded zone -E-

E nhancer - For class 800

Element is a cis-acting sequence that increases the utilization of (some) eukaryotic promoters and can function in either orientation and in any location (upstream or downstream) relative to the promoter.

EAR - For class 460

The article usually consists of grain bearing spike of a cereal plant such as an ear of corn.

EAROM - For class 438

electrically alterable read-only memory

EARTH - For class 037

This term is applied to the fragmental material composing part of the surface of the globe.

EARTH WORKING ELEMENT - For class 172

Synonymous with gtoolh.

EARTHENWARE - For class 425

A product made of (1) slightly porous opaque clay fired at low heat; (2) inorganic settable ingredient containing, (e.g., Portland cement type, etc.), (3) powdered metal (4) ceramics other than glass or slag; (5) alkali metal silicate containing.

EARTHENWARE, PORCELAIN - For class 501

These terms designate fine grained or fully vitreous, high fired white or translucent ceramic materials, frequently, but not always containing clay or similar plastic components. Among many terms used to designate somewhat similar materials are stoneware, earthenware, porcelain, pottery, china, whiteware, tile, crockery, sanitaryware, terra cotta, bisque, rakuware, and slip cast ware. They are not intended for use in the high temperature or corrosive environments where materials referred to as refractories are typically employed.

EB - For class 438

(a) extrinsic base or (b) electron beam

EB JUNCTION - For class 257

Emitter base junction in a bipolar transistor.

EBES - For class 438

electron beam exposure system

EBIC - For class 438

electron beam induced current

EBL - For class 438

electron beam lithography

ECL - For class 438

emitter coupled logic

ECR - For class 438

electron cyclotron resonance

EDFFG - For class 117

Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth. Also abbreviated as EDFG and EFG.

EDIBLE - For class 099

An object that is subject to consumption by an human or animal by chewing or masticating prior to swallowing.

EDP - For class 438

ethylene-diamine-pyrocatechol etchant

EDTA - For class 438

ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid

EELS - For class 438

electron energy loss spectroscopy

EEPROM - For class 438

electrically erasable programmable read-only memory

EFFLUENT - For class 210

The liquids flowing out of a process, normally the mainstream, can be either a desired product or discard.

EFG - For class 438

edge-defined film-fed growth (also EDFFG or EDFG)

EG - For class 438

extrinsic gettering

EGSi - For class 438

electronic-grade silicon

EJECTOR - For class 221

Any discharge assistant which acts directly upon an article or articles to be dispensed at any one operation to segregate or separate the same from the remainder of the supply. Followers are discharge assistants which are not included in this term since they exert force through the entire supply rather than directly on the articles to be dispensed.

EJECTOR - For class 347

The mechanism which projects the fluid* onto the medium*.

EJECTOR - For class 425

Means to release or remove a product from a shaping surface.

EL - For class 438

electroluminescent

ELECTRIC CARRIERS OF A TRANSISTOR - For class 330

Current flow in a transistor may be by negative carriers (electrons) or positive carriers (holes).

ELECTRIC DISCHARGE - For class 330

The flow of current between two spaced electrodes at different potentials or the charge carrier particles conveying the current from one spaced electrode to the other.

ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATORS - For class 322

As used herein are devices and apparatus for converting any character of nonelectric energy to electric energy.

ELECTRIC GENERATING - For class 322

As used herein involves the conversion of any character of nonelectric energy to electric energy.

ELECTRIC LAMP - For class 313

A device for converting electrical energy into visible light or ultraviolet light. Most lamps also generate infrared rays, but infrared ray generators are included only when they have structure analogous to electric lamps or electric space discharge devices. See the notes below. Electric lamps may be in the form of electric space discharge devices, for which see the next paragraph.

ELECTRIC MOTOR - For class 388

A machine which transforms electrical energy into mechanical work. Note: For a description of each of the several types of electric motor, see section IA above.

ELECTRIC MOTOR: - For class 318

A machine which transforms electric energy into mechanical energy.

ELECTRIC SIGNAL SOURCE OR SIGNAL SOURCE - For class 330

The source of electrical signal energy to be amplified or the source of electrical signal energy which controls the electric power supply applied to the amplifying device.

ELECTRIC SOURCE CIRCUIT - For class 363

The circuit designed to be connected to a source of electric energy.

ELECTRIC SPACE DISCHARGE DEVICES - For class 313

(the shorter expression gDISCHARGE DEVICESh is used in these definitions) Any device which is intended to have an electrical current flow between two spaced electrodes, at least part of the path followed by the discharge being constituted by a gas, vapor, or vacuum.

ELECTRIC SPACE DISCHARGE DEVICES - For class 315

The shorter expression gDISCHARGE DEVICESh is used in these definitions, are defined for the purpose of classification in this class as including any device which is intended to have an electrical current flow between two spaced electrodes, at least part of the path followed by the discharge being constituted by a gas, vapor, or vacuum.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT - For class 330

An electrical network providing one or more closed paths.

ELECTRICAL COMPONENT: - For class 029

A self-contained active or passive element designed for and capable of utilizing electricity to produce a specified electrical characteristic property, or output other than normal conductivity associated with any electrical structure.

ELECTRICAL NETWORK OR NETWORK - For class 330

An arrangement of electrically connected electrical elements and/or devices which are capable of carrying electric A.C. or D.C. current. Note. A network does not define the structure in space of the network elements or their arrangement in space relative to each other; it merely defines the elements or devices broadly by type as to the electrical function they perform and the electrical connections which will carry current between such elements and/or devices.

ELECTRICAL NOISE OR RANDOM WAVE GENERATOR - For class 331

A wave generator system wherein the frequency determining element consists of a material medium including electrically charged, chargeable or ionizable particles, the application of electrical energy to the medium by the driving means causing random translatory motion of the charged or ionizable particles resulting in the generation of an infinite number of waves of different frequencies which are fortuitously related, having no definite phase relationship, period, amplitude or shape.

ELECTRICAL SOURCE CIRCUIT - For class 323

The input terminals which are to be connected to a source of electrical energy.

ELECTRICAL SPACE DISCHARGE DEVICE - For class 363

An apparatus which is intended to have an electrical current flow between two spaced electrodes, at least part of the current path being constituted by a gas vapor or vacuum. gElectronic tubeh is used as the name for an electric space discharge device in this class. Included are discharge devices which operate in the open, i.e., not in an enclosed envelope.

ELECTRODE - For class 313

A filament or glower of an electric lamp or a member arranged to emit, and/or collect, and/or control the movement of electrons or ions in a discharge device.

ELECTRODE - For class 330

(1) In a vacuum tube, electronic tube or in any discharge device, the conductive elements between which the electric discharge takes place, and to which the power supply is applied; any additional conductive means placed in proximity to the electric discharge and/or other electrodes to affect electrostatically the discharge or the potentials of the electrodes with which they are in proximity. (2) In a magnetic amplifying device or in a resistive amplifying device, (including semiconductive devices) the terminals of windings which influence the operation of the magnetic device or the resistor or semiconductor terminals by means of which electric current may flow in or out of the resistor or semiconductor or by means of which a potential may be applied to the resistor or semiconductor.

ELECTRODE - For class 373

An electrical conducting element that emits, or collects electrons, or ions, or controls their movement by means of an electric field on it.

ELECTRODE - For class 429

The electron current carrying material or structure at which the current producing chemical reaction takes place

ELECTROLYSIS - For class 204

A process which is characterized by conduction of an electric current between two or more electrodes through an electrolyte and resulting in a chemical change (e.g., oxidation, reduction, etc.) (other than that brought about by the mere heating effect of the electric current) at one or more of the electrodes (e.g., electrolytic coating or etching, etc.) or at another location in contact with the electrolyte as a direct result of the electric current passing therethrough (e.g., electrolytic material treatment, etc.), such chemical change being the process objective and not merely as a means of conducting an electric current through the electrolyte (as is the case in gelectrophoresish as defined in subclass 450 of this class).

ELECTROLYTE - For class 204

A substance which is or forms a liquid, solid, or gel containing dissociated ions to conduct an electrolytic current (usually an ionic compound is dissolved in solution or melted into a fused state to provide an electrically conductive medium).

ELECTROLYTE - For class 429

A material capable of passing an ionic current.

ELECTROMAGNETIC OPERATOR - For class 334

A machine or device which is capable of exerting a force upon the control or actuator of an element or circuit to thus move or control the element or circuit, the machine or device being operated by the interaction of the magnetic effect of an electrical current and/or magnetic field. An example, of this type of machine or device is a relay, solenoid or electric motor connected to the shaft of a variable capacitor, the machines or devices responding to a flow of current and/or voltage through them to thus drive or move the shaft of the variable capacitor.

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE POLARIZATION CONVERTER - For class 342

Structure which acts directly on the electromagnetic wave energy to modify the polarization pattern of the wave, for example, to change a plane polarized wave into a circularly polarized wave.

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE POLARIZATION FILTER - For class 343

Structure which acts directly on the electromagnetic wave to filter out wave energy of an undesired polarization and to pass wave energy of a desired polarization.

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE REFRACTOR - For class 343

Structure which is shaped or positioned to delay or accelerate transmitted electromagnetic waves, passing through such structure, an amount which varies over the wave front, to alter the direction of propagation of the waves emitted from the structure with respect to the waves impinging on the structure, or to bring the wave to a focus, or to alter the wave front (such as to convert a spherical wave front to a planar wave front or vice versa).

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES - For class 522

The term gelectromagnetic wavesh as employed herein includes, for example, X-rays and gamma rays; ultraviolet, infrared, and visible light rays, and short electric and radio waves. Energy which produces merely a thermal effect or heat waves, per se, is excluded. Microwave energy is considered to produce a thermal effect unless there is a direct statement to the contrary, and is not proper for this class.

ELECTROMECHANICAL RESONATOR - For class 331

A resonator comprising an electrically driven material body wherein the mass and compliance parameters of the body determine the mechanical period of vibration of the body and wherein the driving electrical circuit for the body exhibits electrical resonance characteristics which are determined by the mechanical period of vibration of the body.

ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCER - For class 330

Means to convert the electric signal to mechanical vibrations and means further to convert the mechanical vibrations back to electric signals, such means generally serving as either time or phase delay means or means to determine the transmission frequency of the coupling network.

ELECTROMIGRATION - For class 438

Mass transport of ions (i.e., usually metal) in a material as a response to the passage of current through the material by momentum exchange between thermally activated ions and conduction electrons.

ELECTRON - For class 257

The negatively charged particle in an atom that orbits the nucleus in specific energy levels.

ELECTRON BEAM - For class 373

A narrow stream of electrons moving in the same direction under the influence of an electric, or magnetic field.

ELECTRON FLOW - For class 257

Movement of electrons from a source of negative potential to a positive potential.

ELECTRON-HOLE PAIR - For class 257

A positive charge carrier (i.e., hole) and a negative charge carrier (i.e., electron) considered together as being created or destroyed as part of one and the same event.

ELECTRON-HOLE PAIR - For class 438

A positive charge carrier (i.e., hole) and a negative charge carrier (i.e., electron) considered together as being created or destroyed as part of one and the same event.

ELECTRONIC - For class 326

Pertaining to that branch of science which deals with the motion, emission, and behavior of currents of free electrons, especially in vacuum, gas, or phototubes and special conductors or semiconductors. The term electronic is contrasted with electric, which pertains to the flow of large currents in metal conductors.

ELECTRONIC DEVICE - For class 326

A device in which conduction is principally by the movement of electrons through a vacuum, gas, or semiconductor. This definition excludes inductors, capacitors, resistors, and similar components.

ELECTRONIC PROGRAM GUIDE (EPG) - For class 725

A display interface which allows user s interaction with a program grid having intersecting row(s) and column(s) of video program information.

ELECTRONIC TUBE - For class 323

An apparatus which is intended to have an electric current flow between two spaced electrodes, at least part of the current path being constituted by a gas, vapor, or vacuum, gElectronic Tubeh is used as the name for an electric space discharge device in this class. Included are discharge devices which operate in the open, i.e., not in an enclosed envelope.

ELECTRONIC TUBE - For class 330

An electric space discharge device, that is, a device in which electricity flows from one electrode to another by means of free electrical charge carrier particles traveling in a vacuum, gas or vapor; included are electric space discharge devices (also called electronic tubes) which operate in the open, i.e., not in an enclosed envelope. The electrical charge carrier particles may be of any type, usually electrons for vacuum tubes or charged ions for gas or vapor tubes.

ELECTRONIC TUBE - For class 363

An electrical space discharge device.

ELECTRO-OPTIC - For class 372

The effect, on the properties of a beam of light, by an electrical field, interacting with the light within a volume of matter.

ELECTROPHORESIS - For class 356

The effect in which charged particles suspended in a liquid are moved under the influence of an electrostatic field.

ELECTROPOLISHING - For class 205

The electrolytic erosion of solid surfaces to produce bright or mirrorlike surfaces. The effect usually results from a selective electrolytic erosion of the high points of a base material surface to thus reduce surface irregularities.

ELECTROSLAG DEVICE - For class 373

Apparatus enabling one, or more electrodes to be immersed in a slag layer which floats on top of the melt.

ELECTROSTATOGRAPHY - For class 399

The formation and utilization of latent electrostatic charge patterns for recording or reproducing patterns in viewable form, for example: reproducing information from an original or carrier by selectively exposing a photoconductive member to an electrical or magnetic condition that produces a latent image whereby the image is developed to a visible image, then transferred and fixed from the photoconductive member to a medium.

ELEMENT - For class 205

An electrode, a workpiece, a tool, or an electrolyte.

ELEMENT - For class 338

Resistance element unless otherwise indicated.

ELEMENT - For class 351

Component part of an optical instrument unless otherwise indicated.

ELEMENT - For class 428

See definition of constituent*. (Structural)

ELO - For class 438

epitaxial lateral overgrowth

ELONGATED CONDUCTOR: - For class 029

A body whose longitudinal dimension is much greater than any of its lateral dimensions and which is designed for the stated proximate purpose of carrying an electric current or electromagnetic energy.

EMBOSSING - For class 065

Altering a surface configuration only of glass by raising a boss or protuberance thereon or causing surface portions to be depressed below the plane of the glass surface.

EMBOSSING - For class 425

Altering a surface configuration only.

EMD - For class 438

enhancement mode device (also E-mode or E-type)

EMI - For class 438

electromagnetic interference

EMISSIVE CATHODE - For class 313

A low work function electrode.

EMITTER - For class 257

The region of a bipolar junction transistor from which charge carriers flow through the emitter-base junction into the base region of the device.

EMITTER CURRENT - For class 257

The amount of current flowing from the emitter across the emitter-base junction into the base region of the device.

EMITTER ELECTRODE - For class 330

See the definition of point contact or junction type transistor in this Glossary.

E-MOSFET - For class 257

Enhancement mode metal oxide semiconductor device. See ENHANCEMENT MODE and MOSFET.

EMP - For class 438

electron microprobe

EMULSIFYING AGENT - For class 516

The effective material*, energy, or means used for accomplishing the act of making an emulsion colloid system, such as agent* compositions specialized and designed for or peculiar to use in emulsion making. Typically, this is a surfactant added to aid in the emulsification of two immiscible liquids. Characteristically resides at the interface in a stable emulsion.

EMULSION - For class 516

A colloid system of two or more immiscible liquid phases. Examples are water-in-oil (w/o), oil-in-water (o/w), water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w). Also includes immiscible oils/solvents.

EMULSION BREAKER - For class 516

The effective material*, energy, or means used for accomplishing the act of destroying an emulsion colloid system, such as agent* compositions specialized and designed for or peculiar to use in emulsion breaking.

ENCAPSULATING - For class 588

To immobilize hazardous or toxic waste materials by any means to include vitrification, combining with organoclay and mixing, adding a cement material, or enclosing in a container the hazardous or toxic waste material. The hazardous or toxic waste material is held in place and is not permitted to be leached or leaked out into the environment.

ENCLOSURE - For class 052

Means surrounding an area or volume to be occupied by persons, animals or goods.

ENCRYPTING OR ENCIPHERING - For class 380

A process of obscuring information by intentionally changing it to a form unintelligible to a casual or unauthorized observer.

ENCRYPTION - For class 725

The process of encoding data to prevent unauthorized access, especially during transmission. Encryption is usually based on a key that is essential for decoding.

END EFFECTOR - For class 901

A device connected to the distal end of the robots arm* which carries out the robots intended function.

END EFFECTOR: - For class 700

A terminal on a robot arm that carries a hand, welding gun, painting nozzle, or other tool.

END FACE - For class 092

The end face of the piston consists of the portion thereof which is opposite the abutment of reaction surface of the cylinder and which is adapted to contact the working fluid.

END SHEETS- For class 412

The sheet() of paper at the front(*) and end of a book(*) overlaying the inner sides of the boards of the covering member serving with the linings(*) to secure the book(*) to its associated covering member.

ENDLESS - For class 425

A closed loop, such as the peripheral surface of a roll, a cylinder or a drum.

ENERGY LEVELS - For class 257

The possible energy values that an atom or molecule or subatomic particle (e.g., an electron) can have.

ENGINE - For class 440

A device which converts thermal energy into mechanical energy or power to produce force or motion.

ENGINE: - For class 477

A primary source of rotational energy.

ENHANCEMENT MODE - For class 257

The operation of a field effect transistor which has a channel formed therein between its source and drain regions and which normally does not conduct current through its channel with zero voltage applied to its gate electrode. Voltage of the correct polarity will accumulate minority carriers in the channel to permit conduction of current in the channel, thus turning on the transistor.

ENHANCEMENT MODE - For class 438

The operation of a field effect transistor which has a channel formed therein between its source and drain regions and which normally does not conduct current through its channel with zero voltage applied to its gate electrode. Voltage of the correct polarity will accumulate minority carriers in the channel to permit conduction of current in the channel, thus turning on the transistor.

ENTERPRISE - For class 705

A conventional business organization, a governmental organization or a nonprofit organization.

ENTITY - For class 709

A computer or process that can be treated as a unit and, often, as a member of a particular category or type.

ENTITY - For class 718

A computer or process that can be treated as a unit and, often, as a member of a particular category or type.

eNTITY - For class 719

A computer or process that can be treated as a unit and, often, as a member of a particular category or type.

ENTRANCE - For class 052

An opening for persons or things, but not for a fluid or a mass of particles having a fluid like characteristic.

ENVELOPE - For class 313

A gas tight enclosure for an electric lamp or discharge device. It may be evacuated or filled with a gas or vapor. In general the distinction between an envelope and a mere jacket, casing or housing is that the envelope is sealed, so as to be gas tight.

ENVIRONMENT - For class 709

A set of resources made available to the user of a system which defines specifications such as the command path (where to look for files), the system prompt and, sometimes, the location of resources or working files.

ENVIRONMENT - For class 718

A set of resources made available to the user of a system which defines specifications such as the command path (where to look for files), the system prompt and, sometimes, the location of resources or working files.

ENVIRONMENT - For class 719

A set of resources made available to the user of a system which defines specifications such as the command path (where to look for files), the system prompt and, sometimes, the location of resources or working files.

ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE SUBSTANCE - For class 588

Is any material that in any of its chemical or physical interactions with the environment results in no measurable adverse effects or degradations on the environment.

ENZYME - For class 977

Protein that functions as a biochemical catalyst for a biochemical reaction.

EPB - For class 438

epoxidated polybutadiene (an EB resist)

EPD - For class 438

etch pit density

EPI - For class 438

epitaxial (single crystalline) layer

EPITAXIAL LATERAL OVERGROWTH - For class 438

Process of epitaxial deposition through an exposed opening in an insulating layer with deposition continuing epitaxially over the insulating layer laterally from the opening.

EPITAXIAL LAYER - For class 257

An added layer of crystal that takes on the same crystalline orientation as the substrate crystal.

EPITAXY - For class 117

Formation of a single-crystal* on a substrate* (which acts as a seed*) or the product of such a process. Usually, the formed crystal bears a definite crystallos:graphic relationship to the substrate*. Typically, the term applies to coating or layer formation when the width and length are substantially larger than the height and when the substrate* remains as a significant or integral part of the product in use.

EPITAXY - For class 257

The growth of a crystal of one substance on the surface of a crystal of the same or another substance so that the crystal lattice of the base substance controls the orientation of the atoms in the grown crystal.

EPITAXY - For class 438

The controlled growth of a single crystal of one material on the surface of a crystal of the material (i.e., homo) or onto another substance (i.e., hetero) so that the crystal lattice of the base material controls the orientation of the atoms in the grown single crystal layer.

EPITOPE - For class 435

A single antigenic determinant portion of the antigen which combines with the antibody site.

EPP - For class 438

ethylene-piperidine-pyrocatechol etchant

EPR - For class 438

electron paramagnetic resonance

EPROM - For class 438

erasable programmable read-only memory

EPS - For class 438

effective punchthrough stopper

EPW - For class 438

etchant mix of ethylenediamine, pyrocatechol, and water

EQUALIZER - For class 330

Networks with attenuation or attenuation and phase distortion characteristics which vary over a frequency range for use in a wave transmission system for modifying the attenuation or attenuation and phase characteristics of the wave energy as a function of frequency.

EQUALIZER - For class 333

Networks with attenuation or attenuation and phase distortion characteristics which vary over a frequency range for use in a wave transmission system for modifying the attenuation or attenuation and phase characteristics of the wave energy as a function of frequency.

ERROR - For class 710

Manifestation of a fault as an undesired event that occurs when actual behavior deviates from the behavior that is required by initial specifications.

ERROR - For class 712

Manifestation of a fault as an undesired event that occurs when actual behavior deviates from the behavior that is required by initial specifications.

ERROR - For class 713

Manifestation of a fault as an undesired event that occurs when actual behavior deviates from the behavior that is required by initial specifications.

ERROR - For class 714

Manifestation of a fault as an undesired event that occurs when actual behavior deviates from the behavior that is required by initial specification. This includes a change in information content of pulse or pulse coded data to a state or value other than the normal state or value of a properly operating device or system.

ESAKI DIODE - For class 257

A heavily doped pn junction diode where conduction occurs through the junction potential barrier due to a quantum mechanical effect even though the carriers which tunnel through the potential barrier do not have enough energy to overcome the potential barrier. Esaki tunneling involves a tunneling barrier formed by a macroscopic depletion layer between n-type and p-type regions. It does not involve a resonant tunneling barrier using controlled quantum confinement, a layer located between junctions, nor a thin superlattice layer.

ESAKI DIODE - For class 438

A heavily doped pn-junction diode where conduction occurs through the junction potential barrier due to a quantum mechanical effect even though the carriers which tunnel through the potential barrier do not have enough energy to overcome the potential barrier. Esaki tunneling involves a tunneling barrier formed by a macroscopic depletion layer between n-type and p-type regions. It does not involve a resonant tunneling barrier using controlled quantum confinement, a layer located between junctions, nor a thin superlattice layer.

ESCA - For class 438

electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

ESD - For class 438

electrostatic discharge

ESR - For class 438

(a) equivalent series resistance or (b) electron spin resonance

ESSENTIAL OIL - For class 516

Volatile component of plants which imparts the characteristic odor to flowers, leaves, stems, or twigs, or wood, or derivable from plant constituents. Various methods are used to derive including distillation, pressing, solvent extraction, and fat extraction. Distinguished from fatty oils by usually being terpenes*, fairly volatile, non-greasy, and non-saponifiable (except those with esters). Most essential oils are mixtures, an exception being oil of wintergreen which is essentially pure methyl salicylate.

ESTER - For class 428

A compound which is identical to that obtained by the replacing of a hydroxy hydrogen of an alcohol or a phenol with an acid radical. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ESTER LINKAGE - For class 428

The chemical grouping obtained by replacing the hydroxy hydrogen of an alcohol or a phenol with an acid radical. (Nonstructural or Composition)

ESTER-TYPE WAX - For class 204

A gwaxh which is essentially an ester in chemical structure, (e.g., montan wax, carnauba wax, etc.).

ESTER-TYPE WAXES - For class 507

Means waxes which are essentially esters in chemical structure, e.g., beeswax, montan wax, carnauba wax, spermaceti, etc.

ESTER-TYPE WAXES - For class 507

Waxes which are essentially esters in chemical structure (e.g., beeswax, montan wax, carnauba wax, spermaceti, etc.).

ETHER - For class 514

Denotes an organic compound having oxygen bonded directly to two carbon atoms, which carbons cannot be double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen.

ETHER - For class 520

Denotes an organic compound characterized by the presence of an oxygen atom bonded directly to two carbon atoms, where the carbon atoms may not be double bonded to chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium), or triple bonded to nitrogen. An example is dimethyl ether, CH3-O-CH3.

ETHYLENIC - For class 987

Denotes a double bond or triple between adjacent acyclic carbon atoms.

ETHYLENICALLY UNSATURATED - For class 520

Requires the presence of two carbon atoms bonded to each other by a double or triple bond, provided that the double bond is not part of a benzene ring. Indane (Fig. 1) is not within the scope of olefinically unsaturated; coumarone (Fig. 2) and indene (Fig. 3) are within said scope.

Image for class 520Image for class 520Image for class 520

EVAPORATION - For class 201

The process of changing a solid or liquid into a vapor. This is the generic term for both sublimation and vaporization. It differs from gdistillationh in that distillation includes the additional step of condensing vapor produced to a liquid.

EVAPORATION - For class 202

The process of changing a solid or liquid into a vapor. This is the generic term for both sublimation and vaporization. It differs from gdistillationh in that distillation includes the additional step of condensing vapor produced to a liquid.

EVAPORATION - For class 203

The process of changing a solid or liquid into a vapor. This is the generic term for both sublumination and vaporization. It differs from gdistillationh in that distillation includes the additional step of condensing vapor produced to a liquid.

EXCESS CARRIERS - For class 257

Charge carriers present in a semiconductor in excess of those present in thermal equilibrium.

EXCITATION - For class 704

Stimulation of the vocal tract by vibratory action of the vocal cords or by a turbulent air flow. In a digital system, the vocal tract is typically modelled with a filter and excitation of the filter is performed using time representations of pitch (voiced excitation) and noise (unvoiced excitation).

EXCITATION- For class 349

For the purpose of this class, excitation is a force or energy which selects the state of the liquid crystal material.

Exon - For class 800

A continuous coding segment of a eukaryotic gene. Many eukaryotic genes are "split" and have exons interspersed with nonsense DNA called introns. Thus, it is a part of the gene which encodes protein.

EXPANDER OR VOLUME EXPANDER - For class 330

A device that expands the volume range, as in recording sound, radio-telephone transmission, etc. In expanding the signal volume range, the amplification of large signals is increased, and the amplification of small signals is reduced. Expanders are used generally to restore a signal after compression.

EXPENDABLE- SHEATH- - For class 401

A holder# for a piece of solid coating material which is adapted or required to have a portion thereof, adjacent the tool*, removed so as to expose the coating material as it is attrited in use. See HOLDER.

EXPLOSIVE - For class 102

The term is used to include a detonating, deflagrating, or thermic composition of the type defined in the class definition of Class 149, Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges.

EXPLOSIVE COMPOSITIONS - For class 149

Are classified (a) as HIGH EXPLOSIVE, which, for the purpose of this class, is one whose rate of reaction is substantially instantaneous or detonating in character, and is either (1) an extremely sensitive or highly reactive or detonating chemical compound which is known as a PRIMARY EXPLOSIVE and is used to initiate the secondary or other explosive component of the charge; or (2) is a composition of a combination of two or more primary explosives and as such is known as a SECONDARY or other DERIVED EXPLOSIVE. Such an explosive reacts with detonating force or brisance which is sufficient to shatter the surrounding medium; (b) as LOW EXPLOSIVE, which for the purpose of this class, is controlled to some time interval, less than instantaneous, and as compared to that of high explosive, is slow or deflagrating (burning) in character. It has the property or power to displace the surrounding medium. Although it may be used for certain blasting purposes it is used principally as PROPELLANT to set in motion bullets, missiles or similar devices regardless of size.

EXPLOSIVE OR THERMIC COMPONENT - For class 149

As used in this class covers (1) explosive or thermic compositions, per se, (2) the oxidant portion, (3) the fuel portion of such compositions. See also (4) Note class definition.

EXPOSURE - For class 396

Exposure is the act of allowing light to reach the photographic medium.

EXPOSURE - For class 430

Application of radiation to form or perfect an image.

EXPOSURE CONTROL CIRCUIT - For class 396

An exposure control circuit is an electronic circuit to control the exposure.

EXPOSURE OBJECTIVE - For class 396

An exposure objective is an objective that focuses light from the object onto a photographic medium.

EXPOSURE SYSTEM - For class 396

An exposure system is one that has means to regulate or adjust an amount of light reaching the photographic medium.

EXPOSURE TIME - For class 396

Exposure time is the length of time an exposure occurs.

EXPOSURE TIME VALUE (Tv) - For class 396

Exposure time value is a logarithmic number indicative of exposure time.

EXPOSURE VALUE (Ev) - For class 396

Exposure value is the sum of the aperture value and exposure time value.

EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION - For class 202

A separatory distillation in which a generally less volatile substance, often referred to as a solvent, is added to the distillation column to preferentially remove some components of the vapor by dissolving it. The added substance and the dissolved component are removed below the point at which the less volatile substance is added to the distillation column.

EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION - For class 203

A separatory distillation in which a generally less volatile substance, often referred to as a solvent, is added to the distillation column to preferentially remove some component of the vapor by dissolving it. The added substance and the dissolved component are removed below the point at which the less volatile substance is added to the distillation column.

EXTRACTORS - For class 171

Devices which comprise means to engage a portion of a buried or partially buried object and to temporarily fasten itself to said object in order to hold onto the object while it is lifted out of the ground.

EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 257

A semiconductor whose charge carrier concentration and, therefore, electrical properties depend on impurity, atoms introduced therein.

EXTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 438

A semiconductor whose charge carrier concentration and, therefore, electrical properties depend on impurity atoms introduced therein.

EXTRUDANT - For class 264

A shaped body of material formed by forcing a supply of said material through a confining orifice whereby the cross-sectional area of the extruded portion corresponds to the dimensions of the orifice.

EXTRUDANT - For class 425

A shaped body of material formed by forcing the material through a confining, shaping orifice.

EYE CONTACT LENSES - For class 351

Opthalmic lenses that fit over the cornea of the eye and which float on the tear of the eye or are held in place by the eyelids.

EYEGLASSES - For class 351

Spectacles, pince-nez or other mountings with lenses to correct defects of vision of the human eye.

FABRIC - For class 428

A web*, sheet* or film disclosed as used in the manufacture of household furnishings (e.g., draperies, upholstery, etc) shoes, etc., roofing, clothing, tires, etc. and is claimed as a textile*, cloth* or fabric. See Class 442, class definition. (Structural)

FACE BONDED - For class 257

A chip mounting technique wherein semiconductor chips are provided with small mounting pads, turned face down, and bonded directly to conductors on a substrate.

FACE BONDED - For class 438

A chip mounting technique wherein semiconductor chips are provided with small mounting pads, turned face down, and bonded directly to conductors on a substrate.

FACER OR FACING (SEE MODULE) - For class 052

An element or structure which (1) forms an exposed surface section of a barrier or (2) the panel held by a frame, a framing element or an elongated sustainer, e.g., the movable closure part of a door or window. In the latter respect it differs from a module in that it is not used in repetition to form an extended surface.

FAILURE - For class 710

Manifestation of an error as a nonperformance of an expected system service as required by the initial specifications.

FAILURE - For class 712

Manifestation of an error as a nonperformance of an expected system service as required by the initial specifications.

FAILURE - For class 713

Manifestation of an error as a nonperformance of an expected system service as required by the initial specifications.

FAMOS - For class 438

floating-gate avalanche-injection MOS

FANNED LEADS - For class 257

Leads placed through a package wall at closer intervals than normal and radiated (fanned) out on the exterior of the package until a desired center-to-center lead spacing is achieved.

FAR FIELD - For class 342

The space beyond the near field of an antenna in which radiation is essentially confined to a fixed pattern falls off inversely with the square of the distance.

FASIC - For class 438

folded bit-line adaptive sidewall isol. capacitor cell

FAST (FISSION) REACTOR - For class 376

A nuclear reactor in which most of the fissions are caused by neutrons moving with substantially the high speeds they possess at the time of their birth in fission. Such reactors contain little or no moderator.

FAST NEUTRONS - For class 376

See Thermal Neutrons.

FASTENER - For class 403

A retainer which serves to hold the members or one or more components against separation.

FAT - For class 516

Naturally occurring glycerides. Natural fats are the natural oils which oils which are solid at room temperature.

FAT and FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 106

The glyceryl triester (triglyceride) of the same or different higher fatty acids (e.g., oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, linolenic, etc.) or mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat (e.g., lard, tallow, castor oil, etc.).

FAT, FATTY OIL - For class 204

A glyceride of a higher fatty acid, including naturally occurring mixtures thereof.

FATS and FATTY OILS - For class 507

The glycerides of higher fatty acids, including naturally occurring mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat.

FATS, FATTY OILS - For class 507

Means the glycerides of higher fatty acids, including naturally occurring mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat.

FATTY ACID - For class 514

Denotes an aliphatic monocarboxylic acid having an unbroken chain of at least seven carbon atoms bonded to the carboxyl group.

FATTY ACID - For class 516

Organic* compounds comprising a hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid at one end. The term usually implies an unbroken hydrocarbon chain of seven or more carbon atoms. Saturated, unsaturated, and polyunsaturated occur naturally. The most common fatty acids in natural fats or oils are palmitic, stearic, oleic, lauric, and myristic.

FATTY ACID - For class 520

Denotes an aliphatic monocarboxylic acid having an unbroken chain of at least seven acyclic carbon atoms bonded to the carboxyl group. Fatty acid glycerol ester denotes a mono-, di-, or tri-ester of a fatty acid with glycerol. The so-called drying or semidrying oils are naturally occurring fatty acid glycerol esters (i.e., glycerides). The drying or semidrying property relates to the degree of ethylenic unsaturation. Naturally occurring fatty acid glycerides (i.e., fats and fatty oils) include but are not limited to linseed oil, perilla oil, olive oil, oititica oil, soybean oil, fish oil, castor oil, tallow, and other natural glycerides: alfalfa, apricot kernel, beechnut, bontio, Brazil nut, candlenut, cedar nut, chaulmoogra, cherry kernel, coconut, corn, cottonseed, croton seed, grapefruit seed, grapeseed, hempseed, isano, ivory wood seed, jute seed, mustard seed, oat, orange seed, plum kernel, poppyseed, poyok, rice, rye, safflower, sesame, stillingia, sunflower, teaseed, thistle seed, tobacco seed, tomato seed, walnut, wheat, wild rose seed. Naturally occurring fats and fatty oils are treated in this Class 520 Series as fatty acid glycerol esters. A fatty acid derived from naturally occurring glyceride denotes the carboxylic acids normally obtained by saponification of the naturally occurring glycerides (i.e., oleic, linoleic, linolenic, licanic, eleostearic, ricinoleic, arachidic, stearic, palmitic, lauric, erucic, palmitoleic, capric, caprylic, myristic and clupanodonic acids). Carboxylic acids specifically enumerated above will be treated as fatty acids derived from naturally occurring glycerides only where there is specific disclosure that the acid is derived from a naturally occurring glyceride source. Tall oil denotes the mixture of fatty acids, rosin, and unsaponifiable material obtained by treatment of Kraft (or sulfite) process black liquor. In this Class 520 Series, tall oil is usually treated as if it were a mixture of fatty acids derived from naturally occurring glycerides unless otherwise specifically stated; see appropriate subclass definitions for exceptions. Fatty acid derived from tall oil denotes the fatty acid portion of tall oil In this series, derivatives or modifications of the fatty acid glycerol ester, fatty acid derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or fatty acids derived from tall oil are excluded, except as specifically provided for in the following list: salts of the fatty acid moiety, blown oils, refined oils and acids, stand oils, boiled oils, bodied oils, hydrogenated oils or acids, dehydrogenated oils or acids, dehydrated castor oil or dehydrated castor oil fatty acids. Synthetically produced fatty acids having the same structure as fatty acids derived from naturally occurring glycerides are included herein. Dimerized or trimerized or gpolymerich fatty acids are excluded as gfatty acidsh for purposes of this Class 520 Series; similarly, adducts of fatty acids or fatty acid glycerol esters with alpha, beta ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acids are excluded as gfatty acidsh.

FATTY ALCOHOL - For class 507

An alcohol containing an unbroken chain of at least seven carbon atoms bonded to a hydroxy group.

FATTY ALCOHOL - For class 507

Means an alcohol containing an unbroken chain of at least 7 carbon atoms bonded to a hydroxy group.

FATTY STILL RESIDUES - For class 204

Bottoms, tars, or pitches resulting from the distillation of fats, fatty oils, and ester-type waxes, (e.g., stearine pitch, etc.).

FATTY STILL RESIDUES - For class 507

By this term it is intended to include the bottoms, tars, or pitches resulting from distillation of fats, oils, and waxes.

FATTY STILL RESIDUES - For class 507

Intended to include the bottoms, tars, or pitches resulting from distillation of fats, oils, and waxes.

FAULT - For class 710

A flaw in a functional unit (hardware or software).

FAULT - For class 712

A flaw in a functional unit (hardware or software).

FAULT - For class 713

A flaw in a functional unit (hardware or software).

FAULT - For class 714

A flaw in a functional unit (hardware or software).

FCT - For class 438

field controlled thyristor

FEC - For class 438

floating electrode capacitor

FED - For class 438

field emission device

FEED - For class 053

Feed or delivery, as distinct from infeed, is transfer, conveyance, movement or translation of assembly components to or from what is established as a work position; at which position further motion of the components with respect to each other - generally a straight line movement along the major axis of either or both components - is called infeed. Thus, for example, motion of a closure element from a hopper or magazine to a superimposed position over the aperture of a receptacle is referred to as feed or delivery while the final juxtapositioning of the closure and receptacles previously aligned and oriented is considered infeed.

FEED - For class 208

The mineral oil which is subjected to treating processes provided for in this class, which in most cases, is a mixture of hydrocarbons.

FEED - For class 210

The liquid to be treated, prior to processing.

FEED - For class 226

(v) To move material to an operation*. (n) The act of moving material to an operation*.

FEED (of pattern, card, web, etc.) - For class 234

The progressive advancement of an object through a tool field and/or a field of pattern-sensers*, as distinguished from the mere presentation of an object to a machine.

FEEDBACK - For class 388

The return of energy from the output of a motor to the input for the purpose of controlling the input so as to achieve or maintain a desired output condition.

FEEDER - For class 226

(n) A device which moves material to an operation*. (Compare with Dispenser).

FEEDER - For class 401

Means to guide fluent coating material from a reservoir to or through a coating tool or to a work surface.

FEEDER - For class 460

The component of a grain thresher that transports the crop from the cutter or crop pickup apparatus to the threshing system. Apparatuses prior to approximately 1950 included bundle handling and a band cutter.

FEEDING - For class 271

Refers to the gmeans for moving individual sheet from a stackh and involves use of a gseparator or a conveyor.h

FEED-ROLL - For class 226

A roll* which is disclosed as driven so as to impart motion to the material whereby the material is moved to an operation.

FEED-ROLLER - For class 400

A rotatable element having a cylindrical or cylindroidal periphery that contacts a surface of a sheet or web of record-medium* material or transfer-medium* material and enables or causes movement of the sheet or web. Usually a feed-roller cooperates with a second element and the sheet or web lies between the feed-roller and the second element, the opposite surfaces of the sheet or web being closely adjacent to the corresponding surfaces of the feed-roller and the second element and in nonsliding contact therewith. When the second element is a platen* the feed-roller serves as a gpressure rollerh to urge the sheet or web toward the platen, and the platen is rotated to cause feed movement of the sheet or web. When the second element is another feed-roller either or both of the feed-rollers may be driven for rotation, the rollers being rotated in opposite rotational directions to cause feed movement, and the two feed-rollers cooperate to form a feed-roller couple.

FEMALE MOLD - For class 425

A receptacle having structure for imparting a desired configuration to a removable product formed therein from stock material.

FERMENT - For class 426

Any enzyme or any living organism that is capable of causing or modifying a fermentation.

FERMENTATE - For class 424

Denotes the final chemical compound, or compounds, that are produced by a fermentation process and includes compounds which are of known as well as unknown structure.

FERMENTATION - For class 435

The use of a microorganism or enzyme to carry a molecular transformation.

FERMI-DIRAC STATISTICS - For class 977

Statistical distribution of fermionic particles, such as electrons between energy states, etc.

FERRIMAGNETISM - For class 428

Ferrimagnetic materials exhibit exchange interaction between neighboring atoms leading to adjacent moments; however, the magnetic moments are unequal and opposite in direction. The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic materials are strongly temperature dependent and are characterized by their Curie temperature. Examples of ferrimagnetic materials are rare earth-transition metal amorphous alloys, such as GdFeCo, TbFeCo, and select granular transition-metal alloys.

FERRITE SPINELS - For class 117

MFe2O4, where M = divalent metal (or mixtures thereof) and having the cubic lattice structure.

FERROMAGNETISM - For class 428

Ferromagnetic materials exhibit exchange interaction between neighboring atoms leading to adjacent moments. Ferromagnetism is temperature dependent and field strength dependent. Typical ferromagnetic materials include transition metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co and their alloys.

FERTILE MATERIAL - For class 376

An element (isotope) capable of being readily transformed or converted into a fissionable substance by capture of a neutron, examples include, U238 and Th232.

FET - For class 117

Field Effect Transistor.

FET - For class 257

Acronym for field effect transistor.

FET - For class 438

field effect transistor

FIB - For class 438

focused ion beam

FIBER - For class 065

See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term gfiber.h

FIBER - For class 112

A relatively short, slender, flexible element of macroscopic size and finite length and having a width and thickness of the same order magnitude. A fiber is generally of staple length to facilitate being spun, twisted, or otherwise secured together into a composite strand but may be of shorter length requiring bonding, felting, or matting to form a strand or layer. It may be of animal (e.g., wool, rabbit hair); vegetable (e.g., cotton, jute, hemp); or mineral (e.g., asbestos, glass, metal) origin; and may be either natural, modified, or synthetic.

FIBER - For class 264

A discrete particle, generally bulk or mass handled because of its small size, wherein the particle has a length considerably greater than its breadth or cross-sectional diameter.

FIBER - For class 428

A relatively short, slender, flexible element of macroscopic size and finite length and having a width and thickness of the same order of magnitude. A fiber is generally of staple length to facilitate its being spun, twisted or otherwise secured together into a composite strand but may be of shorter length requiring bonding, felting or matting to form a strand or layer. It may be of animal (e.g., wool, rabbit hair), vegetable (e.g., cotton, jute, hemp), or mineral (e.g., asbestos, glass, metal) origin and may be either natural, modified or synthetic. See also Filament. (Structural)

FIBER - For class 451

A relatively short, slender, flexible element of macroscopic size and finite length and having a width and thickness of the same order of magnitude. A fiber is generally of staple length to facilitate its being spun, twisted, or otherwise secured together into a composite strand but may be shorter length requiring bonding, felting, or matting to form a strand or layer. It may be of animal (e.g., wool, rabbit hair), vegetable (e.g., cotton, jute, hemp), or mineral (e.g., asbestos, glass, metal) origin and may be either natural, modified, or synthetic.

FIBER - For class 501

A slender, elongated structure of relatively small, uniform diameter having a much greater length, which may have a relatively short finite length or an indeterminate length.

FIBER (OPTICAL CABLE) - For class 725

Fiber: any filament or fiber, made of dielectric materials, that guides light, whether or not it is used to transmit signals. Optical cable: a fiber, multiple fibers, or fiber bundle in a structure fabricated to meet optical, mechanical, and environmental specifications which is used for the transmission of signals.

FIDUCIAL - For class 356

A reference direction formed as by a light ray, level, compass, or scale from which another direction is measured or compared.

FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR - For class 257

A unipolar transistor in which current carriers are injected at a source terminal and pass to a drain terminal through a channel of semiconductor material whose conductivity depends largely on an electric field applied to the semiconductor from a control electrode. There are two main types of FET, a junction FET and an insulated-gate FET. In the junction FET, the gate is isolated from the channel by a pn junction. In an insulated-gate FET, the gate is isolated from the channel by an insulating layer, so that the gate and channel form a capacitor with the insulating layer as the capacitor dielectric.

FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (FET) - For class 438

A unipolar transistor in which current carriers are injected at a source terminal and pass to a drain terminal through a channel of semiconductor material whose conductivity depends largely on an electric field applied to the semiconductor from a control electrode. There are two main types of FETs, a junction FET and an insulated-gate FET. In the junction FET, the gate is isolated from the channel by a pn-junction. In an insulated-gate FET, the gate is isolated from the channel by an insulating layer so that the gate and channel form a capacitor with the insulating layer as the capacitor dielectric.

FIELD OXIDE - For class 257

A thin (on a macroscopic scale) film made up of an oxide of a material which overlies a device substrate to reduce parasitic capacitive coupling between conductors overlying the oxide and the substrate or devices below the oxide layer (e.g., in the substrate).

FIELD OXIDE - For class 438

A thin (on a macroscopic scale) film made of an oxide of a material which overlies a device substrate to reduce parasitic capacitive coupling between conductors overlying the oxide and the substrate or devices below the oxide layer (e.g., in the substrate). See bird"s beak.

FIELD WINDING - For class 388

A coil of insulated wire which produces a magnetic field in the space occupied by the motor armature.

FILAMENT - For class 065

See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term gfilament.h

FILAMENT - For class 313

A wire, ribbon or rod conducting member. It may be made of metal or nonmetal. In this class filaments, per se, are classified in subclasses 341+ irrespective of whether the filament is to be used in a lamp or discharge device, and irrespective of whether the filament is to be heated by passing a current through the filament (directly heated cathode) or is to be heated by the discharge in a discharge device (see thermionic cathode).

FILAMENT - For class 330

A wire, ribbon, or rod conductive member.

FILAMENT - For class 373

A slender thread of material.

FILAMENT - For class 428

A fine threadlike body or structure whose width and thickness are of the same order of magnitude. See also fiber. (Structural)

FILE - For class 707

A named collection of data.

FILE - For class 715

A block of stored INFORMATION*.

FILLER - For class 228

A metallic material to be applied to the work in order to join meeting face* together and become an integral part of the product*.

FILLING - For class 053

The step of placing a contents within a cover. It is not necessary that the contents occupy the entire space encased; i.e., the cover may be only partially filled by a filling operation.

FILLING HEAD - For class 141

The portion of a dispenser or source part of the system which comprises the flow outlet or flow confining terminus and other flow confining structure which may be in advance (up-stream) of it back to the supply.

FILM STRIP - For class 353

An indeterminate length of film having a plurality of images thereon.

FILM STRIP - For class 355

An indeterminate length of film having either a plurality of images thereon or enough space for a plurality of images.

FILTER - For class 095

An article or mass of material made of closely spaced or intimately arranged intermeshed or unconnected fibers, elements, strands, or particles that collectively act as a barrier to physically retain at least one constituent of a fluid mixture on its surfaces or in the spaces between the fibers, elements, strands, or particles while permitting passage of the remaining constituents. A filter has no gchemicalh affinity for a constituent of a fluid mixture. The retention of the constituent by the filter depends upon a mechanical entrapment of solid or liquid particles because of their relatively large size compared with the interstices or spaces between individual fibers, elements, strands, or particles. The retained particles can be removed by brushing, wiping, shaking, or similar mechanical action.

FILTER - For class 096

An article or mass of material made of closely spaced or intimately arranged intermeshed or unconnected fibers, elements, strands, or particles that collectively act as a barrier to physically retain at least one constituent of a fluid mixture on its surfaces or in the spaces between the fibers, elements, strands, or particles while permitting passage of the remaining constituents. A filter has no gchemicalh affinity for a constituent of a fluid mixture. The retention of the constituent by the filter depends upon a mechanical entrapment of solid or liquid particles because of their relatively large size compared with the interstices or spaces between individual fibers, elements, strands, or particles. The retained particles can be removed by brushing, wiping, shaking, or similar mechanical action.

FILTER - For class 210

Method of and apparatus for removing solid particles from a liquid by passing the same through a medium with openings smaller than the particles. Microfiltration is filtration down to coolidal and polymeric molecular size. Ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration are more likely transport or diffusion across a membrane process but are called filtration down to molecular and ionic size. See subclasses 650 and 652.

FILTER - For class 330

A frequency selective means.

FILTER - For class 362

A type of transparent or translucent selected wavelength modifier which absorbs light of at least one wavelength (i.e., color) and transmits light of another wavelength.

FILTER ELEMENT - For class 210

Filter medium combined with supporting structure or having a specified shape.

FILTER MEDIUM - For class 210

Solid separating material or member for separating a constituent from the prefilt due to openings between material particles or in the member.

FILTRATE - For class 210

Liquid which has been clarified by passing it through a filter medium.

FILTRATION - For class 210

The separation of solids from a liquid or a liquid from liquids by a solid separating medium due to openings in the medium or between discrete particles.

FINAL CONTROL DEVICE - For class 323

That element or group of elements which ultimately produces the controlled output of a system. This excludes any condition sensors or control signal processing circuitry.

FINING - For class 065

See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term gfining.h

FINISHING - For class 404

Treatment or working of material to either (1) modify the internal orientation of constituents of a mass of material (usually a mixture of road aggregate) or (2) provide a desired surface characteristic for such massed material. The terms gfinishingh has been loosely used in patent literature to cover many different processes and devices so long as the desired result is achieved. For this reason the term has not been used in subclass titles.

FIPOS - For class 438

full isolation by porous oxidized silicon

FIRE TUBES - For class 122

Include both small and large tubes through which the products of combustion pass unless the term gflueh is used with them, in which case gfire tubesh would refer to the small tubes, and gfluesh to the large tubes for the products of combustion.

FIRE-POLISHING - For class 065

Heating of the outer surface of hard glass to a temperature where that surface only melts and surface tension causes smoothing thereof, the heating usually being by fire or flame contact of the glass surface.

FISSILE MATERIAL - For class 376

See Fissionable Material.

FISSION - For class 376

The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two (or, very rarely, more) fragments (fission products) of more or less equal mass accompanied by the emission of neutrons and the release of energy. It can be spontaneous or it can be caused by the impact or a neutron, a fast charged particle or a photon. See Fissionable Material. Cf. Spallation.

FISSIONABLE MATERIAL - For class 376

Any element or isotope the nucleus of which can be caused by nuclear bombardment to undergo nuclear fission and to produce a fission chain reaction U233, U235, and Pu239, are examples. Unless a patent refers to a distinction, gfissionableh and gfissileh are considered synonymous for the purpose of this class.

FLACCID - For class 403

Structure, which when subjected to a distortion force less than or equal to earth"s gravitational force, is incapable (in at least one of its orientations) of maintaining its previous formational shape or being self supporting over any appreciable dimension.

FLACCID- For class 024

Structure which, when subjected to a distortion force less than or equal to earth"s gravitational force, is incapable (in at least one of its orientations) of maintaining its previous formational shape or being self-supporting over any appreciable dimension.

FLAIL - For class 460

An implement consisting of a free-swinging stick tied to the end of another stick or a plurality of swinging knives or blades which are mounted on a rotating shaft, used to thresh grains.

FLAKE - For class 428

A small thin mass having a width or length greater than its thickness. The term flake is considered to denote structure and is classified accordingly. (Structural)

FLAME HOLDER - For class 431

Generic term for the part of a combustion device confining the flame or supporting the base of a flame. It includes burner heads, the flame supporting portion of wicks, the pots of pot type burners, etc.

FLARE - For class 425

Reshaping a tubular portion by spreading a portion outwardly.

FLASH - For class 164

A thin film of metal formed on a casting where the metal has flowed between mating parts of the mold.

FLASH BACK - For class 431

The spread of flame from a combustion area into a feed passage of a burner head.

FLASH DEVICE - For class 396

A flash device is a means to produce one or more bursts of light to provide scene illumination for exposure.

FLASH VAPORIZATION - For class 203

The process in which the distilland is heated under pressure high enough to prevent ebullition (usually above atmospheric pressure) and the heated distilland is then introduced into a zone of lesser pressure resulting in the volatilization of at least a position of the distilland.

FLASHING - For class 052

Thin sheet of material covering or extending into a joint to deflect liquid from the joint.

FLASHING - For class 065

Applying a thin layer of opaque or colored glass to the surface of clear glass, or vice versa.

FLASK - For class 164

A box, usually of metal or wood, used to hold sand in which a mold is formed.

FLAT PACK - For class 257

An integrated circuit package with leads extending from it in the same plane as that of the package. It has a low profile.

FLEXIBLE TRACK - For class 305

An annular band made either of a single piece of flexible material or of a plurality of individual treads or sections movably connected together.

FLINT - For class 431

A body of material that produces igniting sparks when struck. It is generally made of an alloy of iron and cerium.

FLIP-CHIP - For class 257

A term which describes the situation wherein a semiconductor device which has all terminations on one side thereof in the form of bump contacts, has a passivated surface and has been flipped over and attached to a matching substrate.

FLIP-CHIP - For class 438

A term which describes the situation wherein a semiconductor device which has all terminations on one side thereof in the form of bump contacts, has a passivated surface, and has been flipped over and attached to a matching substrate.

FLOATERS - For class 065

Refractory blocks floating on molten glass in a tank furnace to prevent gall or scum from entering the working end.

FLOATING DIFFUSION - For class 257

A region of a semiconductor device in which impurity atoms have been doped and which is electrically floating, that is, has no direct electrical connection.

FLOATING DIFFUSION - For class 438

A region of a semiconductor device in which impurity atoms have been doped and which is electrically floating, that is, has no direct electrical connection.

FLOATING GATE - For class 257

A gate electrode that is electrically floating, that is, has no direct electrical connection.

FLOATING GATE - For class 438

A gate electrode that is electrically floating, that is, has no direct electrical connection.

FLOC - For class 210

Flocculated clumps of suspended or dispersed small particles resulting from accretion and used as sites for further accretion of suspended matter. See subclass 715.

FLOCCULATE; FLOCCULATING AGENTf FLOCCULANT - For class 516

Flocculate is the aggregation or combination of suspended colloid-sized particles to form small clumps or short clusters of elongated strands. Flocculating agent* is the effective material*, energy, or means used for accomplishing the act of flocculating an colloid system, such as agent* compositions specialized and designed for or peculiar to use in flocculation. Typical flocculating agents*: alum, ferric chloride, lime and polyelectrolytic polymer such as polyacrylamide. See coagulate*.

FLOCCULATION - For class 210

A clumping together of finely divided particles of material dispersed in a liquid to a state where filtration or settling of the material is possible. See subclasses 702+.

FLOTATION - For class 423

A process for the concentration of selective separation of components of ores by grinding the ores with a frothing agent, floating them on water and agitating the mixture with compressed air, causing the wet gangue (earthy portion of the ore) to settle and permitting the concentrated ore to be skimmed off.

FLOTOX - For class 438

floating gate tunnel oxide

FLOW LINE: - For class 166

A tubular member adapted to transmit well fluid* away from the well.

FLOW REGULATOR - For class 239

Means for altering or adjusting the quantity of effluent.

FLOW-REGULATOR - For class 401

Means (e.g., valve), including a part which is movable, to open, close, or restrict a passage for coating material or for gas, and thus to control movement of coating material in the implement. A removable closure, however, will not be considered to be a flow-regulator.

FLUENT MATERIAL - For class 249

Fluent material is (1) any material, which at the normal temperature range of an apparatus, lacks ability to retain a shape but instead readily conforms in shape to the configuration of a surface upon or within which it is placed or (2) any material which is handled as a mass of no predetermined shape and in the normal operation of a shaping device takes a form which in no way corresponds in general structure or dimensions to that of the original mass.

FLUENT MATERIAL - For class 250

A liquid, gas or mass of granular solid material that does not of itself maintain its own spatial form but flows. Whether or not a granular material should be considered fluent or not is determined in each case by how it is handled. Generally if the handling means has walls to hold up the material, the material is fluent. Thus, for example, coal is necessarily fluent in a pail or bin but not necessarily fluent in a pile.

FLUENT MATERIAL - For class 425

A material which lacks ability to retain a shape at working temperatures, but instead readily conforms in shape to the configuration of a surface upon or within which it is placed.

FLUID - For class 166

A material capable of flowing. A naturally occurring fluid in the earth. It includes gases, liquids, plastics, and solids which can be handled in the manner of a liquid.

FLUID - For class 210

Material that flows, generally gas or liquid but sometimes including mixtures of these with particulate solids such as slurry, sludge, gels, etc. Some materials are thixatropic, i.e., fluid when agitated but jellylike when at rest. Pumpable sludge is considered a liquid for treatment in this class.

FLUID - For class 239

Includes any material which is handled like a fluid (i.e., may be caused to flow) and meets the definition of those materials accepted by this class in the class definition.

FLUID - For class 347

The flowable substance which is projected from the ejector* mechanism or which is used to enhance the transport or generation of charged particles.

FLUID CONVEYOR INLET - For class 406

The point at which the load is first guided or supported and is acted upon by the fluid current. The inlet must also be subsequent to any structure (e.g., terminal, receptacle) for statically supporting the load at the entrance to the conveyor.

FLUID CONVEYOR OUTLET - For class 406

The point at which the load is either no longer guided or supported, or is no longer acted upon by the fluid current. The outlet must also be prior to any structure (e.g., terminal, receptacle) for statically supporting the load at the exit from the conveyor.

FLUID CURRENT CONVEYOR - For class 406

Structure which guides or supports the load from the fluid conveyor inlet* to the fluid conveyor outlet* and wherein the fluid current acts upon the load from the inlet* to the outlet*.

FLUID MIXTURE - For class 095

The phrase gfluid mixtureh is used throughout the definitions to mean (a) a gas and solid or liquid particles entrained therein, (b) a liquid and gas entrained therein, or (c) a plurality of gases.

FLUID MIXTURE - For class 096

The phrase gfluid mixtureh is used throughout the definitions to mean (a) a gas and solid or liquid particles entrained therein, (b) a liquid and gas entrained therein, or (c) a plurality of gases.

FLUID(S) - For class 277

A liquid, gas, or particulate matter (e.g., dust, etc.) suspended in a liquid or gas.

FLUIDIZED BED - For class 075

A bed of solid particles with gas flowing upward through the particles with sufficient velocity to keep the particles suspended and in motion in the gas without blowing them bodily out of the top of the bed. The suspended particles act much like a fluid.

FLUIDIZED BED - For class 423

A mass of solid particles maintained in a state of constant turbulent motion in a gas stream, resulting in a suspension of finely divided particles in a stream of gas thus increasing the surface area and therefor surface activity of the particles.

FLUIDIZED BED (FISSION) REACTOR - For class 376

A reactor in which the fuel in the form of particles is maintained in a fluidized state by a fluid medium. (The fuel and the fluid are general moving in opposite directions). See subclass 355. (Includes also support of fuel in pellet form in a liquid bath by an upwardly flowing liquid).

FLUORESCENT OR PHOSPHORESCENT MATERIAL - For class 313

A material which absorbs radiant energy of one wave length (e.g., light) and is excited thereby to cause it to emit radiant energy of another wave length (e.g., light of another wave length), or a material which is excitable by the impact of electrons, ions, or analogous energy (e.g., gamma rays) thereon to emit light energy without becoming incandescent.

FLUOROUS SYNTHESIS - For class 506

Approach for solution-phase synthesis which takes advantage of the ability of highly fluorinated groups to partition out of aqueous and most organic solutions into a third phase comprising a fluorinated solvent. The fluorinated side chain can act as a soluble support for synthesis.

FLUX - For class 164

(1) A substance that, by chemical action, promotes fusion of a solid material. (2) A material capable of forming with gangue or other earthy matter, a liquid melt having the fusibility and chemical characteristics suitable to a specific furnace process. Also, protective flux to retard undesirable reactions.

FLUX - For class 228

A nonmetallic material to be applied to the work in order to: (1) shield the work from atmospheric oxygen or other harmful gases, (2) chemically remove oxides or other films, or (3) otherwise augment bonding.

FLYING - For class 083

Moving with the work material. The term gflyingh means that the part so described has, at the time of cutting, a motion component in the direction of the work as it moves to and through the cutting station.

FLYING TOOL - For class 072

A tool*, other than a roller, having a tool face which, as disclosed, engages and acts upon bodily moving work while itself moving substantially in the same direction and at the same speed as such work.

FOAM - For class 516

A colloid system characterized as a gas suspended in a liquid; wherein the gas is the dispersand* (discontinuous) phase and the liquid is the dispersant* (continuous) phase.

FOCUSING - For class 396

Focusing is the act of obtaining a sharp image of a subject by adjusting a lens system.

FOG - For class 516

A colloid system characterized as a suspension of colloid-sized liquid droplets in a gas; wherein the liquid is the dispersand* (discontinuous) phase and the gas is the dispersant* (continuous) phase. See aerosol*.

FOLLOWER - For class 401

A member movable in a guide# and adapted to contact a piece of solid coating material therein to advance it to and through the opening in response to an applied force.

FONT - For class 400

A complete assortment of type in the same style and size to imprint character* symbols having a substantially uniform appearance. Examples of font include elite and pica (both refer to size of type), italic (i.e., having slope to the right), and cursive (i.e., having flowing lines connecting individual characters in a style resembling handwriting), these being only a few of the fonts used in various typewriters.

FOOD - For class 099

A man-made or naturally-occurring discrete article consumable by animals or humans for nourishment.

FOOTPRINT - For class 257

Also called a land pattern. It is a combination of lands used to mount a surface mount component. Metal pads on a substrate surface are arranged in the same pattern as the leads or pads on the component itself.

FORBIDDEN ENERGY BAND - For class 438

The energy band of a material which is located between a solid material"s conduction and valence bands. It is defined by the amount of energy that is needed to release an electron from its valence band to its conduction band. Electrons cannot exist in this gap. They are either below it, and bound to an atom, or above it, and able to move freely.

FORBIDDEN ENERGY BAND/REGION/GAP - For class 257

The energy band of a material which is located between a solid material"s conduction and valence bands. It is defined by the amount of energy that is needed to release an electron from its valence band to its conduction band. Electrons cannot exist in this gap. They are either below it, and bound to an atom, or above it, and able to move freely.

FORCE: - For class 073

The strength or energy exerted upon or brought to bear or the cause of motion or change in motion or a state of rest.

FORCE: - For class 073

The strength or energy exerted upon or brought to bear or the cause of motion or change in motion or a state of rest.

FORMAT - For class 348

The particular method for combining the time variable video signal with a synchronizing signal to allow reconstruction of an image from the originating video signal.

FORWARD BIAS - For class 257

An external voltage applied in the conducting direction of a pn junction. A positive potential is connected to the p-type material and a negative potential to the n-type semiconductor material.

FORWARD BREAKOVER POTENTIAL - For class 257

The value of positive terminal voltage at which a regenerative device (e.g., a silicon controlled rectifier), with its gate circuit open, becomes conductive.

FORWARD CURRENT - For class 257

The current which flows across a semiconductor junction when a forward bias is applied across the junction.

FOULING - For class 210

The act of depositing on the membrane surface something which will impede its proper functioning. Sometimes also termed gblindingh.

FOUR-LAYER DIODE - For class 257

A semiconductor diode with three junctions and only two terminals connected to the outer layers forming the junctions. This includes two terminal pnpn thyristors.

FOUR-PHASE CCD - For class 257

A charge coupled device having four electrode sets and four gate voltages.

FOUR-SIDE LEAD LAYOUT - For class 257

The situation wherein there are leads through all four sides of an integrated circuit package.

FOX - For class 438

field oxide

FPD - For class 438

field programmable device

FPGA - For class 438

field programmable gate array

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION - For class 202

A separatory distillation operation in which distillate is collected over specific temperature intervals.

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION - For class 203

A separatory distillation operation in which distillate is collected over specific temperature intervals.

FRACTIONATION - For class 208

The separation of one portion of the hydrocarbons of a mineral oil from another, regardless of the steps employed for affecting such separation. The separated fractions usually differ from each other in some chemical or physical property as for instance in boiling range (in the case of distillation) or solubility in a solvent (as in extraction).

FRAME - For class 351

Mechanical parts, not including lenses, which serve to surround or support or which serve to interconnect elements of the frame.

FRAME - For class 352

The space or area on a motion picture carrier normally occupied by one picture of a motion picture series.

FRAME - For class 396

A frame is the space or area on a photographic medium normally occupied by one picture.

FRAME TRANSFER CCD - For class 257

A charge coupled device area imager array with a separate image area, storage area, and read-out register area, the storage area being located between the image area and the readout area. This is distinguished from an interline-transfer CCD in which the sensing and storage/readout function areas are located next to each other.

FRAME TRANSFER CCD - For class 438

A charge coupled device area imager array with a separate image area, storage area, and read-out register area, the storage area being located between the image area and the readout area. This is distinguished from an interline- transfer CCD in which the sensing and storage/readout function areas are located next to each other.

FREE ELECTRON - For class 257

An electron not bound to a particular atom, but free to circulate among the atoms of a solid material.

FREE EDGE- For class 412

The edge or edges of the bound book() which are not involved with the fastening together of the sheets(*), etc., into the book(*). The free edge is opposite the back(*) e.g., where the binding, stitching(*), sewing, etc. is located; the other edges are known as the head, i.e., the top edge and foot or bottom edge also known as the tail.

FREE RUNNING OSCILLATOR - For class 331

An oscillator wherein the driving system continuously supplies the losses of the frequency determining means so as to produce sustained oscillations.

FREE SPACE - For class 342

Space where the movement of energy in any direction is substantially unimpeded, such as the atmosphere, the ocean or the earth.

FREE SPACE - For class 343

Space where the movement of energy in any direction is substantially unimpeded, such as interplanetary space, the atmosphere, the ocean and other large bodies of water or the earth.

FREQUENCY - For class 334

The number of complete alternations or cycles made by an alternating signal per unit of time. The frequency unit most used is cycles per second.

FREQUENCY ADJUSTING MEANS - For class 331

Means for setting or controlling the generated frequency of the oscillator by varying a frequency determining element of the oscillator.

FREQUENCY BAND - For class 334

A plurality of different frequency channels which are grouped together into a particular bunch or group of channels all designated or used for the same purpose. An example of this is the broadcast band which consists of a plurality of frequency channels whose center frequencies are separated by a specified amount, each frequency being used for the same purpose, namely the transmission of speech. A second example of a band of frequencies is the use of certain channels of frequencies for the transmission of television. Here the common purpose of the plural channels of frequencies making up the band is the transmission of a video signal plus an audio signal.

FREQUENCY CONVERSION - For class 363

The transformation of electrical energy having a first frequency to electrical energy having a second frequency.

FREQUENCY DETERMINING ELEMENT - For class 331

A passive network or device of the resonant or time constant type, which network or device forms the element of the oscillator which sets or determines the frequency or periodicity of the generated oscillations.

FREQUENCY DOMAIN - For class 348

A way of looking at the frequency of waveform components.

FREQUENCY RESPONSIVE MEANS - For class 330

Circuit means which acts on the signal to affect some frequency component of the signal differently from any other frequency components of the signal, for example, a tuned circuit or filter circuit which eliminates a frequency component, or an equalizer which emphasizes the signal amplitude of some frequency or frequency range of the signal with respect to others (e.g., tone control). See also, Frequency Selective Means, below.

FREQUENCY RESPONSIVE NETWORK - For class 333

As the frequency of the applied energy changes over a band, the impedance of the network varies as a function of the frequency. Frequency responsive networks and devices are designed to obtain desired characteristics where a band of frequencies or different frequencies are involved.

FREQUENCY SELECTIVE MEANS - For class 330

Network means composed of some reactive elements which permit the passage of certain frequency components or a frequency component and block others. See also, Frequency Responsive Means.

FREQUENCY STABILIZATION - For class 331

The correction for, prevention of, or compensation for an undesired drift or change in the frequency of the generated waves of the oscillator from a desired value.

FRIT - For class 501

A glass composition in a powdered or granulated state prepared by fusing the glass and quenching it in a cold liquid. Frits form an important part of the batches used in compounding glazes and enamels.

FRONT- For class 412

The first page or first sheet() of a book(*).

FTIR - For class 438

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

FUEL - For class 060

A single substance or a mixture of substances which react with another substance (called the oxidizer) to form at least one new substance in which at least a portion of the fuel forms at least a portion of the more positive (electron donor) portion of the new substance. e.g. H2 + Cl2¨ 2HCl Hydrogen is considered the fuel. CH4 2O2¨ CO2 + 2H2O Methane is the fuel and oxygen in the oxidizer. BE + F2¨ BeF2 Beryllium is the fuel and fluorine in the oxidizer.

FUEL - For class 110

A combustible material having good combustible properties such as a relatively low ignition temperature, a long burning time, and a minimum of impurities which hinder combustion and used primarily to produce heat.

FUEL CELL - For class 320

An electrochemical generator that uses the reaction of oxygen and a hydrocarbon fuel, or derivative thereof (e.g., hydrogen, etc.), to convert chemical energy into electricity. It is distinguishable from a voltaic cell because of its use of a hydrocarbon for fuel, and because it can operate continuously without a voltaic cell"s inherent chemical degradation of electrodes, as long as fuel and oxygen are available or supplied.

FUEL CELL - For class 429

A device used to produce an electrical current wherein one of the reactants is fed to the cell.

FUEL COMPONENT: - For class 149

For the purpose of this class is a material intended for reacting, or to be used in combination, with an oxidant component and includes such finely divided materials as metals (including alloys and intermetallic compounds), metalloids, metal-metalloid compounds, hydrides of metals or metalloids, carbon, sulfur, vegetable material, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons and nitrogen containing organic compounds generally. (Certain substances as gels, paraffins, sulfur, etc., need not be finely divided.)

FUEL, FUEL ELEMENT, or FUEL COMPONENT - For class 376

See Nuclear Fuel.

FUGITIVE MATERIAL - For class 419

A material which is incorporated in the powder admixture which is wholly destroyed or separated from the other materials in a subsequent step prior to or during the consolidation or sintering operation.

FUGITIVE TINTING - For class 008

Denotes the application of a temporary or easily removable coloration to a material for identification or like purpose.

FULL-BANK - For class 234

An assemblage of elements (e.g., tools or pattern-sensers*), which covers all significant points of an area to be operated on, usually in one cycle.

FULLERENE - For class 977

Any of various cage-like, hollow molecules composed of hexagonal and pentagonal groups of atoms, and especially those formed from carbon, that constitute the third form of carbon after diamond and graphite; alternatively, a class of cage-like carbon compounds composed of fused, pentagonal, or hexagonal sp2 carbon rings.

FULLERIDE - For class 977

Fullerene doped with alkali metal.

FULLY IONIZED - For class 376

For the purpose of this class, is state in which atoms are entirely stripped of their orbital electrons for atoms of low mass number, this occurs at kinetic temperatures in the region of 1 Kev or more. In other words, matter is in a state of complete ionization; it consists of a gas composed of positively charged nuclei and an equivalent number of negative electrons with no neutral particles. See also Plasma.

FUME - For class 516

Particles of solids or liquids suspended in a gas, e.g., smoke from combustion. Also the vapors evolved from concentrated sulfuric or nitric acids, or from solvents.

FUMED SILICA - For class 516

The colloid-sized form of silica formed by the vapor phase hydrolysis of silanes or halosilanes in a Hydrogen-oxygen flame. Generally characterized by high purity, amorphous crystallinity, and colloid-sized particle.

FUNCTION - For class 400

In general, an operation performed on or by a typewriter during use of the typewriter for typing. As used by the typewriter industry, however, the term gfunctionh is limited to an operation other than (a) impressing a type-member* against a record-medium* to imprint a character* (which thereby concurrently effects a character-space*), or (b) effecting a word-space*. Examples of typewriter operations considered by the industry to be functions are: backspace, carriage return, case-shift*, tabular stopping, line-space* (i.e., for record-medium feed), ribbon feed, and similar typewriter movements.

FUNNEL - For class 141

A fluid handling device of increasingly restricted capacity in the direction of flow and having its free end arranged to enter into the inlet of a receiver, being ordinarily designed to collect an unconfined flow and channel it into a narrower flow path or one which is out of line with the previous path or flow direction. The material may be retained in the funnel body by valve means, and the funnel may comprise the only claimed supply means of the filling system or an intermediate or final receiver, and may be supported by either the preceding or succeeding flow confining means, or by a means external to the flow system.

FURNACE - For class 373

A chamber, enclosure, or other holding means for heating materials therein.

FUROX - For class 438

fully recessed oxide isolation

FUSED OR BRIDGED RING SYSTEM - For class 514

Denotes a ring system having at least two rings which (a) share with each other two adjacent ring atoms, or (b) share with each other three or more ring atoms and wherein each ring having shared atoms is either a heterocyclic ring or a carbocyclic ring.

FUSED OR BRIDGED RING SYSTEM - For class 520

Denotes a ring system having at least two rings which (a) share with each other two adjacent ring atoms, or (b) share with each other three or more ring atoms and wherein each ring having shared atoms is either a heterocyclic ring or a carbocyclic ring.

FUSION - For class 376

For the purpose of this class, is a nuclear reaction in which light nuclei combine to form a nucleus of a heavier mass number. See also Thermonuclear Fusion Reaction.

FUSION BONDING - For class 065

Welding by bringing glass, while molten or softened by heating, into intimate contact with another part with subsequent cooling to solid phase whereby uniting is effected.

FUZZY LOGIC - For class 701

A form of AI in which variables can have degrees of truthfulness or falsehood represented by a range of values between 1 (true) and 0 (false). The outcome of an operation using fuzzy logic can be expressed as a probability rather than as a certainty (e.g., inexact reasoning).

GAGGER - For class 164

A piece of metal used to support sand in deep pockets of sand molds.

GAIN - For class 257

The ratio of the magnitude of the electrical output of a device to the magnitude of its electrical input.

GAIN - For class 330

The ratio of the amplifier output power, voltage, or current to the amplifier input power, voltage or current.

GAIN CONTROL ELECTRODE - For class 330

An electrode designed, together with the electron tube in which it is incorporated, to receive a D.C.. control voltage (other than the signal but which is usually derived from the signal), whereby changes in the control voltage change the gain of the tube.

GALLIUM ARSENIDE - For class 257

A semiconducting chemical compound which is often used in active solid-state devices.

GAMMA RAY - For class 378

In this class the term "gamma ray" is considered to be synonymous with the term "X-ray". Gamma rays are usually considered to be produced by some natural phenomenon such as the decay of an atomic nucleus whereas X-rays are usually considered to be produced by an electronic tube or other manufactured device.

GANG MOLD - For class 425

A single mold having plural shaping compartments in which plural articles are formed by one operation.

GARNET, SYNTHETIC - For class 117

Term applied to crystals having the same complicated cubic structure as mineral garnets or beryl, but usually without the silicon; e.g., yttrium-iron, Y3Fe5O12. Other variations include substituting part of the yttrium and/or iron with valence-equivalent metals.

GAS - For class 095

Matter of very low density and viscosity, relatively great expansion and contraction with changes in pressure and temperature, that is readily diffusive, with a tendency to expand indefinitely, with molecules in free movement. The term ggash includes gvaporh (q.v.).

GAS - For class 096

Matter of very low density and viscosity, relatively great expansion and contraction, with changes in pressure and temperature, that is readily diffusive, with a tendency to expand indefinitely, with molecules in free movement. The term ggash includes gvaporh (q.v.).

GAS - For class 216

Matter of very low density and viscosity, and relatively great expansion and contraction with changes in pressure and temperature, that is readily diffusive, with a tendency to expand indefinitely, with molecules or atoms in free movement. The term gas includes vapor.

GAS OR VAPOR DISCHARGE DEVICE - For class 315

Any type of electric space discharge which, as claimed, depends upon ionization of a gas or vapor for its operation. Discharge devices which have their discharge electrodes in an unconfined (non-enclosed) atmosphere as well as those having their discharge electrodes in a confined (enclosed) atmosphere are included in this definition.

GAS OR VAPOR GENERATING MATERIAL - For class 313

Solid or liquid material which is placed within the envelope and generates a gas or vapor by virtue of a chemical change, by volatilization, or by giving off an absorbed gas or vapor. It may do this during normal operation or it may be caused to do so by treatment preliminary to placing the device in operation.

GAS OR VAPOR TUBE - For class 330

An electric discharge device which depends, for its operation, at least in part, upon ionization of a gas or vapor.

GASEOUS FLUID MIXTURE - For class 095

The phrase ggaseous fluid mixtureh is used throughout the definitions to mean (a) a gas and solid or liquid particles entrained therein or (b) a plurality of gases.

GASEOUS FLUID MIXTURE - For class 096

The phrase ggaseous fluid mixtureh is used throughout the definitions to mean (a) a gas and solid or liquid particles entrained therein or (b) a plurality of gases.

GASEOUS SPACE DISCHARGE DEVICE - For class 331

A space discharge device having at least two electrodes in a gaseous or vapor medium, conduction between the electrodes taking place by ionization of the medium.

GASEOUS SUSPENSION - For class 075

The suspension of solid in gas. This may be in a fluidized bed (q.v.) or in any other system (such as a conduit) where solids are suspended in a gas.

GATE - For class 164

The end of the runner where the molten metal enters the mold.

GATE - For class 257

The control electrode or region of a field effect transistor, located between the source and drain electrodes, and regions thereof.

GATE - For class 352

A portion of a motion picture device which positions the motion picture carrier in the plane of focus of the optical system of the motion picture device.

GATE - For class 438

The control electrode or control region that exerts an effect on a semiconductive region directly associated therewith, such that the conductivity characteristic of the semiconductor region is altered in a temporary manner, often resulting in an on-off type switching action. The control electrode or control region of a field effect transistor is located between the source and drain electrodes, and regions thereof.

GATE ARRAY - For class 257

A repeating geometric arrangement of groups of active solid-state devices, each group being connectable into a logic circuit, in one integrated, monolithic semiconductor chip.

GATE ARRAY - For class 438

A repeating geometric arrangement of groups of active solid-state devices, each group being connectable into a logic circuit, in one integrated, monolithic semiconductor chip.

GATE CHARGE - For class 257

The electrical charge on a gate electrode.

GATE CONTROLLED DIODE - For class 257

A three terminal semiconductor diode with the ability to be turned on or off by a pulse applied to its gate electrode.

GATE CONTROLLED DIODE - For class 438

A three terminal semiconductor diode with the ability to be turned on or off by a pulse applied to its gate electrode.

GATE TRIGGER CURRENT - For class 257

The amount of current needed to commence gate current flow in a four layer semiconductor device (e.g., a thyristor).

GATE TRIGGER VOLTAGE - For class 257

The amount of voltage needed to begin gate current flow in a four layer semiconductor device (e.g., a silicon controlled rectifier).

GATHERER - For class 065

Means used to remove discrete charges of molten glass from a supply.

GDMS - For class 438

glow discharge mass spectroscopy

GEAR TRANSMISSION: - For class 477

Mechanism including at least one gearing power path*, said mechanism being capable of changing the speed ratio* or rotational direction between a mechanical output of an engine* and a load*.

GEARING POWER PATH: - For class 477

Mechanism including relatively rotatable bodies having engaging surfaces or which are drivingly connected by a belt or chain whereby a rotatable body will impart to or receive rotary motion or power from another rotary body by rolling contact.

GEL - For class 210

A colloidal dispersion of a solid in a liquid with a jellylike texture. Use of a gel in chromatography is in subclass 635, and separating the constituents of a gel are in subclass 702.

GEL - For class 510

Denotes a colloidal solution of liquid in solid having a thick consistency with little or no tendency to flow.

GEL - For class 516

A solid or semisolid colloid system formed of a continuous or semicontinuous solid phase and a liquid phase (either discontinuous or continuous or mixed), often identified by its outward gelatinous appearance, and which exhibits properties of a solid such as plasticity, elasticity, or rigidity. Gels are typically characterized by a physical property of the system, such as the yield point (defined as the shearing force required to result in the flow of said gel), which is a measure of the gel strength. A variety of compositions can form gels, including but not limited to; solubilized polymers, cross-linked polymers, concentrated surfactant solutions having crystalline-like properties (e.g., liquid crystal phases), organically modified and unmodified hydrous metal oxides (e.g., silica, silicates, alumina, iron, etc.), and organically modified and unmodified hydrous mixed metal oxides (e.g., clays, bentonites, synthetic aluminosilicates). See Thixotropic*.

GENE THERAPY - For class 977

Treatment of a disease or disorder via insertion of a foreign gene into a cell or cells in order to change the genetic content thereof.

GENERAL PURPOSE DIGITAL COMPUTER - For class 706

Digital computer having a single central processing unit, primarily storage, at least one input device, and a display media.

GENERAL TREATING CLASS - For class 426

Class that includes the treatment of an edible, per se.

GENRE - For class 725

A category of video composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content.

GEOGRAPHIC - For class 725

Belonging to or characteristic of a particular region.

GERMANIUM - For class 257

A semiconductor material used in active solid-state devices.

GETTERING - For class 117

A process or operation that reduces or removes impurities or defects from a region either by complete removal (e.g., volatilization) or by transporting them to another region.

GETTERING - For class 438

The elimination or reduction of unwanted constituents (i.e., impurities) or defects from a substrate.

GETTERS - For class 313

Materials which, when used in closed containers, reduce the gas or vapor content of the container. A getter may react with the gas or vapor in the container to form a solid nonvaporizable material, or to adsorb or absorb the gas or vapor, or may reduce the amount of the gas or vapor in the container in any other way. The material may be a getter for one gas or vapor and may not have any effect upon another gas or vapor.

GGG - For class 117

Gadolinium Gallium Garnet. Composite oxide compound Gd3Ga5O12. Useful as substrate in magnetic bubble domain memory and as man-made gemstones.

GILD - For class 438

gas immersion laser doping

GLASS - For class 065

An inorganic product (a) the constituents of which generally include a gglass formerh (e.g., As2O3, B2O3 GeO2, P2O5, SiO2, V2O5) which has an essential characteristic of creating or maintaining, singly, or in a mixture, that type of structural disorder characteristic of a glassy condition, other oxides which approach glass forming properties (e.g., A12O3, BeO, PbO, Sb2O3 TiO2, ZnO and ZrO2) as well as oxides that are practically devoid of glass forming tendencies (e.g., BaO, CaO, K2O, Li2O, MgO, Na2O and SrO), however, pure and modified silica, silicon and slag are also included; (b) formed by fusion and cooled to a rigid condition generally without crystallization; (c) having no definite melting point (whereby the mass has the characteristic of passing through a plastic state before reaching a liquid state when heated); (d) incapable in the solid state of permanent deformation; and (e) which fractures when subject to deformation tension.

GLASS - For class 216

Must have all of the attributes described in 1-5 below: (1) An inorganic product the constituents of which generally include a glass former (e.g., As2O3, B2O3, GeO2, P2O5, SiO2, V2O5) which has an essential characteristic of creating or maintaining, singularly, or in a mixture that type of structural disorder characteristic of a glassy condition, other oxides which approach glass forming properties (e.g., Al2O3, BeO, PbO, Sb2O3, TiO2, ZnO, and ZrO2), as well as oxides that are practically devoid of glass forming tendencies (e.g. BaO, CaO, K2O, Li2O, MgO, Na2O, and SrO). Pure and modified silica, silicon, and slag are also included. (2) Formed by fusion and cooled to a rigid condition generally without crystallization. (3) Having no definite melting point, whereby the mass has the characteristic of passing through a plastic state before reaching a liquid state when heated. (4) Incapable in the solid state of permanent deformation. (5) Fractures when subject to deformation tension.

GLASS - For class 428

An amorphous, hard, brittle, often transparent material comprising a fused mixture of the silicates of the alkali and alkaline earth, or heavy metals. Glass is not considered to be included in the term gmetal compoundh for purposes of this class, unless specifically included in a title or definition. (Nonstructural or Composition)

GLASS - For class 501

Inorganic compositions which solidify from the molten state without crystallizing, to have that molecular disorder characteristic of the glass state, which have no definite melting point, are incapable in the solid state of permanent deformation, which fracture when subjected to deformation tension and include as components at least one gglass formerh material. Note. Typical glass formers are, e.g., oxides of silicon, beryllium, boron, germanium, phosphorus, vanadium, lead, tin, zinc, zirconium, and titanium, as well as such nonoxide compounds as GeS, metal fluorides, or iodides, and some metallic selenides, tellurides, arsenides, and phosphides. These compositions may also include other oxides devoid of glass forming tendencies, e.g., oxides of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and magnesium. Note. Many ceramic compositions containing primarily slag, the by product of metal refining and smelting are considered to be glasses. Note. Neither transparency to light nor the absence of color are necessary for a composition to be considered as a glass for the purpose of this class. Note. Water glass, clear synthetic resin compounds, and isinglass are not considered to be glass for the purpose of classification in Class 501. Note. Organic, noncrystalline solid materials, such as synthetic resins which may be referred to as organic glasses, are not considered to be glass for the purpose of classification in Class 501.

GLASS - For class 520

An amorphous, hard, brittle, often transparent material comprising a fused mixture of the silicates of the alkali alkaline earth, or heavy metals.

GLASS TREATING - For class 065

Effecting a change in a physical or chemical property of glass, generally involving specific heating followed by controlled cooling.

GLASS WORKING - For class 065

Molding, shaping, severing of uniting of glass while in a plastic state.

GLOW DISCHARGE - For class 372

A type of discharge in which a uniform glow is created through the entire volume of a gaseous active media rather than a channel or spark discharge through a restricted portion of the active media.

GLOW DISCHARGE - For class 373

The phenomenon of electrical conduction in gasses shown by a slight luminosity, without great hissing, or noise, and without appreciable heating, or volatilization of the electrode, when the electrostatic pressure exceeds a certain value.

GLOWER - For class 313

Any body made of a material which when heated by the passage of an electric current therethrough emits light rays. The term glower includes filaments and also includes other bodies which are not of filamentary dimensions such as, rods and bars made of second class conductors.

GLYCERIDE - For class 516

An ester of glycerol and fatty acid(s) in which one or more of the hydroxyl groups of the glycerol have been replaced by any combination of acid radicals. Mono-glyceride has one fatty acid ester, di-glyceride two, and triglyceride has three. Naturally occurring fats and oils are mainly triglycerides of fatty acids, most commonly are palmitic, stearic, and oleic.

GLYCEROL - For class 516

1,2,3-propanetriol.

GOB - For class 065

A discrete portion of molten glass (a) delivered by a feeder or (b) gathered on a punty or blow pipe.

GRAETZEL CELL - For class 977

Photovoltaic cell that uses nanoscale titanium dioxide and organic dye to obtain electrical current from incident light.

GRAFT COPOLYMER - For class 520

The structure is given, i.e., a long solid polymer backbone (substrate) is attached to a pendant (nonterminal) polymer or copolymer (superstrate) having at least three reactant units in length or; The copolymer is so named as a graft providing that the disclosure is otherwise silent as to the structure or, if structure is likewise recited, it is consistent with that required in A. above, or the structure can be ascertained from the following limiting process conditions: (a) the disclosure states there is a reaction between a solid polymerized unsaturated reactant and an unpolymerized unsaturated reactant in the presence of a catalyst or; (b) the disclosure does not state whether or not any reaction has occurred between the solid polymerized unsaturated reactant and the unpolymerized unsaturated reactant, but relates that a product is obtained which is inseparable by a variety of physical techniques such as, extraction, precipitation, ion exchange, etc. In the absence of one or more of these requirements the reaction is considered to produce a polymeric blend.

GRAFT-TYPE COPOLYMER - For class 520

The structure is given, i.e., a long solid polymer backbone (substrate) possessing nonterminal active sites or functional groups is attached (grafted) through a chemical reaction of these functional groups or sites to an ethylenic reactant containing one or more functional groups or active sites. The reaction product may or may not possess unsaturated pendant groups depending on the mode of chemical reaction. The following examples will illustrate this point:

Image for class 520Image for class 520

The structure can be ascertained when:

There is disclosed a reaction between the solid polymerized unsaturated reactant and the unpolymerized unsaturated reactant which reaction uses specific art-recognized terms, e.g., “esterification, acylation, sulfonylation, cyanoethylation, addition to, reaction or condensation with, halogenation, nitration, sulfonation, alkylation, amination, etc.”. Examples of these reactions would be:

Image for class 520Image for class 520

There is disclosed an interaction between two or more solid polymers through their respective nonterminal functional groups or through the use of an intermediate reactant or chemical agent, e.g., causing salt, ester, amide, urea formation. Examples of these reactions would be (a) Contacting polypropylene and polyethylene with benzoyl peroxide. (b) Contacting polyvinylamine and polyallylamine with glyoxal. (c) Contacting chloromethylated polystyrene with polyvinylamine. (d) Contacting polyacrylic acid with polyvinylamine.

In the absence of one or more of these requirements the reaction is considered to produce a polymeric blend. See the Glossary for the definition of the terms “specified intermediate condensation product” (SICP) and “specified polymer-forming intermediates” (SPFI).

GRAIN - For class 099

This term is interpreted to include those seeds to which the term is ordinarily applied, e.g., wheat, oats, cottonseed, corn, coffee beans, barley, etc., and to exclude larger vegetables such as beets, nuts, potatoes, etc.

GRAIN - For class 144

Fibers of wood* that extend along the length of a tree*.

GRAIN - For class 460

This term is interpreted to include those seeds to which the term is ordinarily applied, e.g., wheat, oats, cotton seeds, corn, coffee, bean, barley, etc., and to exclude larger vegetables such as beets, nuts, potatoes, etc.

GRAIN OR POWDER - For class 149

In the armament arts refers to a charge exhibiting certain definite structural characteristics, but as used in this class the mere reference to ggrainh or gpowderh without recitation of definite structure, or with reference merely to nominal shape, will be construed as being virtually synonymous with the term ggranuleh and with finely divided gparticulateh or gpowderedh material.

GRAPHENE - For class 977

Two-dimensional sheet form of fullerene.

GRAPHITE - For class 428

Inorganic material as is carbon. (Nonstructural or Composition)

GRAPHOEPITAXY - For class 438

The growth of a single crystalline layer across the surface of a nonsingle crystalline substrate by commencing growth at a seeding portion/region thereof.

GRATE - For class 460

A separating device to separate the grain from the straw after threshing.

GRAVITY, BY - For class 210

A separation process depending on differences in density to separate freely movable constituents such as cream rising to the top of the milk. Draining or allowing a liquid to drip from solids held by a screen or grid is not gravity separation.

green acids - For class 516

The oil insoluble sulfonic acid products of sulfonation of petroleum*. Also called sludge acids. C.f. mahogany* acids.

GRID - For class 330

Is used in the conventional sense referring to the intended use and structure of the element in an electronic tube, particularly in a vacuum tube.

GRID ELECTRODE - For class 313

An electrode having one or more apertures therein, usually formed of open-work material, such as wire mesh, perforated sheet material, or of wires or bars as of coiled wire, or other foraminous structure, and sometimes used as the control electrode in a discharge device. As pointed out in the definition of gcontrol electrodeh above, the terms ggrid electrodeh and gcontrol electrodeh are not synonymous in this class.

GRID OR GRID ELECTRODE - For class 330

An electrode having one or more apertures therein, usually formed of open-work material such as wire mesh, etc.., and usually used as the signal or control electrode, or auxiliary electrode of an electron tube.

GRIN-SCH - For class 438

graded index separate confinement heterostructure

GRIPPER - For class 226

(n) As used in this class, a movable device comprising a plurality of substantially opposed surface elements (commonly termed jaws) relatively movable toward and away from a common line or plane (to engage corresponding opposed areas on material) and hold such material frictionally to the elements, whereby additional movement imparted to the elements in a material advancing direction will also be imparted to the material.

GROUND - For class 037

This term is applied to the solid surface of the earth or the floor of a body of water, especially a sea, river, or lake.

GROUP FORMING - For class 053

The accumulating or gathering of an associated collection of articles, of the same or of different characteristics, by means of a plurality of feeding operations, for placement as a contents in a single cover. An insert sheet or coupon to be packaged with other goods is considered to be an article of different characteristics from the goods. On the other hand, an inner cover, or a section of plural section cover is not considered to be a part of the contents of an outer cover. See gCONTENTSh.

GTO - For class 438

gate turn-off

GUIDE - For class 083

Passive means to direct the movement of something (e.g., work, product, machine part) in a desired path. (Note: although a guide may be movable for the purpose of adjustment, yet it accomplishes its directing function by presenting an obstacle to movement in an undesired direction, rather than by causing the directed thing or part to move with it).

GUIDE - For class 401

That part of an implement which defines a path of travel for a piece of solid coating material to and through an opening in the implement to a use position of the tool* end of the piece.

GUIDE ROLL - For class 474

A device rotatable about an axis and having a belt*-contacting face radially spaced from the axis of rotation for intended engagement with the belt to aid in directing the belt along an intended path of travel. A guide roll, as distinguished from a pulley*, is not intended to provide driving power to, or extract power from, a belt.

GULL-WING - For class 257

The name given to lead configurations of some surface mounted devices. Gull wings extend from the side of a component package and have an L-shaped bend at component ends, which extend down to the substrate surface and away from the component.

GUM - For class 428

See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac below. (Nonstructural or Composition)

GUNN DIODE - For class 257

A diode in which electrons under the influence of sufficiently high electric fields are transferred between energy valleys of different momentum in the conduction band of the active semiconductor device material or holes under the influence of sufficiently high electric fields are transferred between energy valleys of different momentum in the valence band of the active semiconductor device material. A Gunn diode does not normally have a pn junction and cannot be used as a rectifier.

GUNN DIODE - For class 438

A diode in which electrons under the influence of sufficiently high electric fields are transferred between energy valleys of different momentum in the conduction band of the active semiconductor device material or holes under the influence of sufficiently high electric fields are transferred between energy valleys of different momentum in the valence band of the active semiconductor device material. A Gunn diode does not normally have a pn junction and cannot be used as a rectifier.

GUNN EFFECT - For class 257

An inter valley transfer effect wherein electrons under the influence of sufficiently high electric fields are transferred between energy valleys of different momentum in the conduction band of the active semiconductor device material, or holes under the influence of sufficiently high electric fields are transferred between energy valleys of different momentum in the valence band of the active semiconductor device material.

GUNN EFFECT - For class 438

An intervalley transfer effect wherein electrons under the influence of sufficiently high electric fields are transferred between energy valleys of different momentum in the conduction band of the active semiconductor device material, or holes under the influence of sufficiently high electric fields are transferred between energy valleys of different momentum in the valence band of the active semiconductor device material.

HALL EFFECT DEVICE - For class 257

An active solid-state device in which a current is flowing and is in a magnetic field perpendicular to the current, and in which a voltage is produced that is perpendicular to both the current flow direction and the magnetic field direction.

HALL EFFECT DEVICE - For class 438

An active solid-state device in which a current is flowing and is in a magnetic field perpendicular to the current, and in which a voltage is produced that is perpendicular to both the current flow direction and the magnetic field direction.

HALOGEN- For class 075

An element of the group Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I), and Astatine (At).

HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON - For class 514

Denotes a compound containing only carbon, hydrogen, and halogen, or only carbon and halogen.

HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON - For class 520

Denotes a compound containing only carbon, hydrogen, and halogen, or only carbon and halogen.

HALOGENS - For class 257

F, Cl, Br, I, At.

HALOGENS - For class 423

Also known as halogenides, the nonmetallic elements of the seventh group of the periodic system and consisting of F, C1, Br, I, At.

HALOGENS - For class 588

The elements (F, Cl,Br, I, or At).

HAMMER HEAD - For class 173

The striking element of an impacting device.

HAND (MANIPULATE) - For class 269

The term ghandh (or gmanipulateh) is used in the sense of gby contact with a living beingh and includes hand, foot, head, etc. Specific recital of foot, pedal, etc. is limited to such recital.

HAND-ACTUATED; HAND-OPERATED() - For class 024

The term hand-actuated or hand-operated is used in the sense of like contact with a living being and solely applies to the use of the hand in operating a fastener (i.e., moving portions of the fastener relative to each other) of the Class 24 type.

HANDLE - For class 081

The generic term for either a handle-member or a handle-lever where no distinction between the two members is necessary.

HANDLE-LEVER (OR GRIP-LEVER) - For class 081

A hand-gripped element connected to a handle-member and to a movable jaw as by pivot, link or motion-converting means, which hand-gripped element actuates the movable jaw.

HANDLE-MEMBER - For class 081

A member which is gripped by the hand of the operator to which member one of the jaws is fixedly attached at least during the actuation of the jaws.

HAPTEN - For class 436

A substance that can react selectively with antibodies of the appropriate specificity but stimulates the production of these antibodies in an animal only when it is coupled to a carrier.

HARMFUL CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE - For class 588

Harmful chemical substances are chemical waste substances which are too hazardous or toxic to be discarded in an ordinary municipal landfill.

HARMONIC OR SINE WAVE OSCILLATOR - For class 331

A free running oscillator for generating sinusoidal or nearly sinusoidal waves. They usually utilize a resonator of the lumped LC or the distributed parameter type as the frequency determining element.

HAZARDOUS WASTE - For class 435

Material that when present in the environment produces for man and other living organisms a dangerous, risky, or perilous environmental situation in so for as the physiological well being of the organism is concerned (e.g., all caustic chemicals, irritants, cancer causing agents, and other tumor producing materials).

HAZARDOUS WASTE - For class 588

Materials that when present in the environment produce for man and other living organisms an acute and/or cumulative effect that is a dangerous, risky, or perilous environmental situation in so far as the physiological well being of the organism is concerned (e.g., caustic chemicals, irritants, cancer causing agents, and other tumor producing materials).

HBT - For class 438

heterojunction bipolar transistor

HDC - For class 438

high dielectric constant

HDI - For class 438

high density interconnects

HDMI - For class 438

high density multilayer interconnects

HEAD (Marker) - For class 347

The section of the marking device which produces the visibly distinguishable or latent symbol or mark on the medium in accordance with an information signal.

HEAD: - For class 123

the portion of a cylinder which closes off one end thereof.

HEADEND - For class 725

In broadband networks, the central location that has access to signals traveling in both inbound and outbound directions. The logical root of the broadband coaxial cable system.

HEADER - For class 053

The means to either (1) hold and position, (2) hold and secure, or (3) juxtaposition and secure a separate closure element during infeed.

HEADER - For class 257

A slab-like or flat plug-in base for a package that is designed to be used with a cover or lid.

HEARTH - For class 373

The part of the furnace upon which the charge is placed and melted down, or refined.

HEAT - For class 374

Kinetic energy of macroscopically non-observable random modes of motion of atoms and molecules.

HEAT SINK - For class 257

Devices used to absorb or transfer heat away from heat sensitive devices or device components.

HEATED CATHODE - For class 313

Either a directly heated cathode or an indirectly heated cathode.

HEAVY METAL - For class 260

Denotes any metal having a specific gravity greater than 4 and, as employed herein, includes arsenic and antimony.

HEAVY METAL - For class 424

Denotes any metal having a specific gravity greater than 4 and as employed herein includes arsenic and antimony.

HEAVY METAL - For class 532

This term denotes any metal having a specific gravity greater than four and includes arsenic.

HEAVY METAL - For class 588

A metal other than the following (light) metals, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), Francium (Fr), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), and Aluminum (Al).

HEAVY METAL- For class 075

A metal other than a light metal (q.v.).

HEAVY METALS - For class 257

Metals other than light metals - see LIGHT METALS.

HELICAL COIL SPRING - For class 267

an element in the form of a serial lying on the surface of a cylinder and which exhibits resilient characteristics when distorted from its original shape.

HEMT - For class 438

high electron mobility transistor (Hetero MESFET)

HERBICIDE - For class 504

The term denotes a compound or composition which adversely affects the growth or the life span of a plant.

HET - For class 438

hot electron transistor (bipolar)

HETERO - For class 435

Containing only O, N, S, Se, or Te in addition to carbon in a ring.

HETERO ATOM - For class 008

The hetero atoms are nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium.

HETERO RING - For class 008

A hetero ring is a ring which contains only carbon and hetero atoms.

HETERO RING - For class 514

Denotes the presence of one or more carbon atoms covalently bonded in a closed ring with at least one atom of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium and having no other atoms in the ring.

HETERO RING - For class 532

This term denotes a ring having carbon and at least one atom from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, selenium and tellurium as ring members; and contains no other element as a ring member.

To qualify as a hetero ring, nonionic bonding must exist between all ring members. Inner salt compounds such as betaines, sulfobetaines, etc., wherein two ring members are attached to each other by ionic bonding, are not regarded as hetero rings.

HETEROCYCLIC - For class 260

Denotes the presence of a ring whose members are composed of at least one carbon and one or more atoms of the elements taken from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium.

HETEROCYCLIC - For class 424

Denotes the presence of one or more carbon atoms covalently bonded in a closed ring with at least one atom of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium and having no other atoms in the ring.

HETEROCYCLIC - For class 430

Organic compound containing a ring composed of carbon and at least one element from the group consisting of nitrogen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and oxygen.

HETEROCYCLIC - For class 510

Denotes an organic compound wherein one or more carbon atoms are covalently bonded in a ring system with at least one hetero atom of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, selenium, or tellurium and having no other atoms in the ring.

HETEROCYCLIC - For class 520

Denotes an organic compound wherein one or more carbon atoms are covalently bonded in a ring system with at least one hetero atom of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, selenium, or tellurium and there are no other different atoms in the ring.

HETERODYNE FREQUENCY - For class 331

Beat frequency (which see).

HETEROJUNCTION /HETEROINTERFACE - For class 257

An interface between two dissimilar semiconductor materials. For example, one material may by InAs and the other may be InAlAs, or one material may be GaAs and the other material may be GaAlAs.

HETEROJUNCTION/HETEROINTERFACE - For class 438

An interface between two dissimilar semiconductor materials. For example, one material may by InAs and the other may be InAlAs, or one material may be GaAs and the other material may be GaAlAs.

HETEROSTRUCTURE - For class 257

See HETEROJUNCTION.

Hi-C - For class 438

high capacitance

HIC - For class 438

hybrid integrated circuit

HIGH ELECTRON (HOLE) MOBILITY TRANSISTOR (HEMT) - For class 257

A heterojunction field effect transistor with impurity ions located on the side of the hetero junction with lower affinity for the charge carriers (holes or electrons) injected at the source that pass to the drain via a channel adjacent the hetero junction.

HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTOR (HEMT) - For class 438

A heterojunction field effect transistor with impurity ions located on the side of the heterojunction with lower affinity for the charge carriers (holes or electrons) injected at the source that pass to the drain via a channel adjacent the heterojunction.

HIGHER FATTY ACID - For class 106

Aliphatic monocarboxylic acid containing an unbroken chain of at least seven carbon atoms bonded to a carboxyl group (e.g., lauric, palmitic, stearic, oleic, ricinoleic, linoleic, behenolic, etc.). Where there are several unbroken chains of carbon atoms bonded to the -C(=O)O- group, one of the chains must contain at least seven carbon atoms.

HIGHER FATTY ACID - For class 106

Aliphatic monocarboxylic acid containing an unbroken chain of at least seven carbon atoms bonded to a carboxyl group (e.g., lauric, palmitic, stearic, oleic, ricinoleic, linoleic, behenolic, etc.). Where there are several unbroken chains of carbon atoms bonded to the -C(=O)O- group, one of the chains must contain at least seven carbon atoms.

HIGHER FATTY ACID - For class 106

Aliphatic monocarboxylic acid containing an unbroken chain of at least seven carbon atoms bonded to a carboxyl group (e.g., lauric, palmitic, stearic, oleic, ricinoleic, linoleic, behenolic, etc.). Where there are several unbroken chains of carbon atoms bonded to the -C(=O)O- group, one of the chains must contain at least seven carbon atoms.

HIGHER FATTY ACID - For class 204

A monocarboxylic acid containing an unbroken chain of at least seven carbon atoms bonded to a carboxyl group, (e.g., stearic acid, etc.).

HIGHER FATTY ACID - For class 507

A monocarboxylic acid containing an unbroken chain of at least seven carbon atoms bonded to a carboxyl group (e.g., lauric, palmitic, stearic, oleic, ricinoleic, linoleic, and behenolic, etc.). Where there are several unbroken chains of carbon atoms bonded to the carboxyl group, one of the chains must contain at least seven carbon atoms.

HIGHER FATTY ACID - For class 507

Means a monocarboxylic acid containing an unbroken chain of at least 7 carbon atoms bonded to a carboxyl group, e.g., lauric, palmitic, stearic, oleic, ricinoleic, linoleic, and behenolic, etc. Where there are several unbroken chains of carbon atoms bonded to the carboxyl group, one of the chains must contain at least 7 carbon atoms.

HIGHER FATTY ACID - For class 510

Denotes a monocarboxylic acid having an acyclic chain of at least seven uninterrupted carbons attached directly to the carboxyl carbon by covalent bonding.

HIGH-VACUUM TUBE - For class 315

A vacuum tube evacuated to such a degree that its electrical characteristics are essentially unaffected by gaseous ionization.

HIMOS - For class 438

(see COMFET)

HINGE AXIS - For class 016

Any axis about which a hinged member* rotates during operation of the hinge.

HINGE PIN - For class 016

An elongated rodlike element about which a hinged member* swings (e.g., gpintleh).

HINGED MEMBER - For class 016

Any device or portion thereof (e.g., closure, seat back, etc.) which is adapted to be swingably connected by a hinge to another device or portion thereof (e.g., frame, box, sill, etc.).

HIPOX - For class 438

high pressure oxidation

HLB - For class 516

Hydrophile Lipophile Balance. The most commonly used HLB system was developed by W.C. Griffin (1949). The system employs certain empirical formulas to calculate the HLB number between 0 and 20; high numbers correspond to hydrophilic surfactants with high water solubility and functionally good solubilizing agents*, detergents, and o/w stabilizers; low numbers correspond to hydrophobic (or lipophilic) surfactants with low water solubility, which solubilize water into oils and stabilize w/o emulsions.

HMDS - For class 438

hexamethyldisilizane

HNA - For class 438

hetchant mix of hydrofluoric, nitric, and acetic acids

HOLDER - For class 401

That part of an implement which retains a piece of solid coating material, or which retains a unit consisting of a piece and an expendable sheath, in such a manner as to expose the tool* end of the piece and to be manipulable therewith as a single entity (e.g., sleeve, wrapper). The holder and the piece, or the holder and the unit, may be relatively adjustable manually, but not by advancing means (as defined in subclass 55).

HOLDER MOUNTED FOR MOVEMENT - For class 269

A device in which a work holder is structurally related with respect to a member on which it is supported so that the work holder may be moved to a limited extent or in a definite path(s) with respect to its supporting member. The entire holder, i.e., the structure which contacts and thus actually supports the work, must be capable of movement while work is held. In the case of a work underlying support (as in subclasses 289-314), such underlying support is considered mounted for movement even though the clamps or fastening means needed to keep work from sliding off are not claimed.

HOLDER SUPPORT, MOUNT, OR BASE - For class 269

A work holder support is the structure for positioning work contacting elements, including the associated adjusting and/or operating means for said work contacting elements, with respect to a reference member (table, floor, wall, rack, bench, etc.). Such support structure may be integral or articulated with a work contacting assembly and is provided with means for maintaining position of said assembly with respect to the reference member. The position maintained may be adjustable with respect to a particular reference member by (a) relative shifting of parts or links constituting the work holder support or by (b) relative shifting of the articulated joint structure between the work contacting assembly and the work holder support. The position may also be varied by (c) temporary fastening means selectively securing the work holder support to different reference members or different portions of the same reference member. A work holder support means such as (a) or (b) above is generally disclosed as positionable either (1) preparatory to engaging work or (2) while the work is being held. Since in many instances the structure for (1) will serve for (2) and vise versa, no attempt has been made to distinguish classificationwise on this basis. Both (1) and (2) are treated, unless specifically noted otherwise, as (2) and provided for under Holder Mounted for Movement*. A work holder support means such as (c) above is not considered as a Holder Mounted for Movement* and if claimed, per se, will be found in Class 248, Supports.

HOLDING CURRENT - For class 257

The minimum current needed to maintain a generative type active solid-state device (e.g., a thyristor) in an gonh or conducting condition.

HOLDING ELECTRODES - For class 313

See the definition of auxiliary starting electrode above.

HOLE - For class 257

An empty energy level in the valence band of a semiconductor crystal which exhibits properties of a real particle and can act as a mobile positive charge carrier.

HOLE - For class 438

An empty energy level in the valence band of a semiconductor crystal which exhibits properties of a real particle and can act as a mobile positive-charge carrier.

HOLE FLOW - For class 257

The current in a semiconductor material due to the movement of holes therein.

HOLLOW WORK - For class 072

Material or article of indeterminate length having exterior and interior surfaces extending in the length dimension; each surface, as viewed in a cross section normal to the length dimension, showing an unbroken periphery; the interior surface of which is intended to be treated by a metal-deforming tool of limited length.

HOLOGRAPHY - For class 359

The optical recording of an object wave formed by the resulting interference pattern of two (or more) mutually coherent, component light beams. Generally, a coherent beam is first split into two component beams, one of which irradiates an object, the second of which irradiates a recording medium. The diffraction or scattering of the first wave by the object forms an object wave which proceeds to and interferes with a second coherent beam (i.e., reference beam) at the medium. The resulting pattern is a two-dimensional (thin) or three-dimensional (thick) hologram of the object wave, depending on the thickness of the recording medium.

HOMOGENEOUS (FISSION) REACTOR - For class 376

A reactor in which the fuel and moderator are intimately mixed or dispersed (e.g., the fuel may be a uranium salt dissolved in heavy water) as a solution or slurry.

HOMOGENEOUS FUEL - For class 376

See Homogeneous Fission Reactor.

HOMOGENIZE - For class 065

See Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for a subclass reference to the term ghomogenize.h

HOMOJUNCTION - For class 257

An interface between regions of opposite polarity in the same semiconductor material.

HOMOJUNCTION - For class 438

An interface between regions of opposite polarity in the same semiconductor material.

HOMOPOLAR OR UNIFORM-FIELD MOTORS - For class 318

A noncommutating motor having a magnetic field producing means combined with one or more electric conductors mounted to move relative to and in proximity to the field producing means, the field producing means being so constructed or energized that the magnetic field produced thereby is, at any instant of time, of the same polarity or direction throughout its extent with reference to the path of travel of the movable electric conductor or conductors.

HOPPER - For class 221

A container, bin or receptacle for retaining a quantity of articles in a jumbled mass.

HOT CARRIER DIODE - For class 257

A diode in which electrons (or holes) have energies greater than those that are in thermal equilibrium with the material of at least one of the regions forming the diode. Schottky barrier diodes typically have ghot carriersh (hot electrons) injected into the metal from the semiconductor.

HOT CARRIER DIODE - For class 438

A diode in which electrons (or holes) have energies greater than those that are in thermal equilibrium with the material of at least one of the regions forming the diode. Schottky barrier diodes typically have ghot carriersh (hot electrons) injected into the metal from the semiconductor.

HOT ELECTRONS - For class 257

See HOT CARRIER DIODE.

HOT-TOP - For class 164

An insulated portion of a mold that retains metal molten in that area so that it can feed into the mold and alleviate shrinkage voids.

HPSC - For class 438

half-Vccsheath plate capacitor

HTO - For class 438

high temperature oxide

HTSC - For class 438

high temperature superconductor

HULL or HULLING - For class 099

These expressions are treated as being species of skin* disjoining*; however, an exception is recognized, as follows: Grain-hulling equates a covering of dirt or similar impurities, with the naturally occurring outer covering of grain*.

HUSK - For class 460

The material consisting of the dry outer covering of the ear of corn.

HYBRID CIRCUIT - For class 257

A small printed circuit having miniature components, which may include passive components (resistors, capacitors, and inductors, deposited on a printed circuit board. A ghybrid circuith is NOT an integrated circuit, and is not classifiable in this class.

HYBRID CIRCUIT - For class 438

A small printed circuit having miniature components which may include passive components (resistors, capacitors, and inductors) deposited on a printed circuit board.

HYBRID TYPE NETWORK - For class 333

A network for coupling one wave transmission line to two or more wave transmission lines in such manner that there is a conjugate relation between at least two of these coupled transmission lines to prevent any interchange of energy between the conjugately related lines.

HYDROCARBON - For class 044

Used in this class, it means an organic compound which consists exclusively of carbon and hydrogen.

HYDROMETALLURGY - For class 075

A somewhat inexact term for processes involving solution in water or other liquid in which metalliferous material or metal is treated to prepare free metal, to purify, or to refine free metal, or to prepare intermediate materials more suitable for use in preparing free metal (e.g., extracting, leaching, beneficiating, etc.).

HYDROPHILIC - For class 210

Water attractive or wettable.

HYDROPHOBIC - For class 210

Water-repellent or nonwettable.

HYDROSOL - For class 516

A colloid system of a dispersand* (discontinuous phase), in an aqueous liquid dispersant* (continuous phase). Examples are metal oxides such as silica or rare earth oxides dispersed in an aqueous phase. See sol*.

HYPERFILTRATION - For class 210

Filtration to the ultimate degree to molecular or ionic size, but most likely membrane transport or diffusion phenomenon. See FILTER and subclass 652.

HYPERGOLE - For class 060

A substance (fuel or oxidizer) which ignites spontaneously on contact with the other member of a hypergolic mixture. For example: aniline is hypergolic with nitric acid.

HYPERLINK - For class 715

An embedded link including code directing process flow to an alternate or additional DOCUMENT* or location in a document.

I ntron - For class 800

DNA sequences in eukaryotes that lie within genes, but do not code for protein. In most instances, introns have no apparent function. Their presence "splits" the coding region of the gene into segments called exons. In the synthesis of messenger RNA, introns are copied into RNA, but they are removed by splicing, which restores the continuity of the coding sequence.

I2L - For class 438

integrated injection logic

IB - For class 438

(a) intrinsic base or (b) ion beam

IBD - For class 438

ion beam deposition

IC - For class 438

integrated circuit

ICP - For class 438

inductively coupled plasma

IDENTIFIED - For class 430

A substance, layer, or product is considered identified when it is claimed in terms of its chemical constitution instead of merely its function. The terms gorganich and ginorganich are not considered identified, but any other positive chemical identification is considered sufficient even if generic, e.g., heterocyclic, synthetic resin, hydrocarbon, etc. Negative definition, per se, e.g., nonaqueous, etc., is not considered identification, but if combined with sufficient other material, e.g., nonaqueous alcohol. The term acid or base or their equivalents are considered identification. The identification of any ingredient of a layer is sufficient to make the layer identified.

IDENTIFIER - For class 902

A data bearing record intended to identify either an account or the record"s bearer, whereby authorization for a transaction* can be obtained.

IDENTIFYING - For class 506

Determining the exact nature (e.g., chemical structure or sequence listing, etc.) of a particular library member or of a particular subset of library members.

IG - For class 438

intrinsic gettering

IGBT - For class 438

insulated gate bipolar transistor (e.g., COMFET, HIMOS)

IGFET - For class 438

insulated gate field effect transistor

IID - For class 438

impurity induced disordering

IJP - For class 438

ink jet printhead

ILB - For class 438

inner lead bonding

ILD - For class 438

interlayer dielectric

ILLUMINATING MEANS - For class 362

Basic subject matter of the class or subcombinations thereof.

IMAGE - For class 353

The optical counterpart of an object produced by a lens or other optical system. In an image projection system an image of an object is formed on a screen or other viewing surface. A photographic camera forms an image of an object on a photosensitive film. After the film is developed, a picture of the original object appears on the film. A picture of this type is generally employed as the object in image projectors.

IMAGE - For class 355

The representation of an object (original or carrier) produced by the transmission or reflection of light incident upon the original or carrier.

IMAGE - For class 399

The representation of an object (e.g.,original, carrier) produced by the transmission or reflection of light incident upon the original.

IMAGE - For class 430

The likeness or reproduction of (a) an object, or (b) an instrumented or discernible phenomenon.

IMAGE - For class 715

See VISUAL IMAGE below.

IMAGE ANALYSIS- For class 382

For the purpose of this class, image analysis* is defined as a systematic operation or series of operations performed on data representative of an observed image with the aim of measuring a characteristic of the image, detecting variations and structure in the image, or transforming the image in a way that facilitates its interpretation.

IMAGE DATA - For class 345

The information provided to form the visual image*.

IMAGE DATA - For class 715

DATA* representing a VISUAL IMAGE*.

IMAGE FORMER - For class 359

An optical device capable of producing an image from light rays proceeding from an object.

IMAGE RECORD - For class 430

A record, made using an imaging process, where the image is located, e.g., the image may be in or on a radiation conductor containing element or may be in or on receptor element, etc.

IMAGE SENSOR - For class 348

A generic name for both cathode-ray tube and solid-state imaging devices which converts an optical image of an object into an electrical signal representative of the object image.

IMAGE, LATENT - For class 355

The invisible image produced by the action of light alone or with other electrostatic charge producing means on, or in, a photoreceptor. A latent image may be made visible by development.

IMAGE, LATENT - For class 399

The invisible image produced by the action of light alone or with other electrostatic charge-producing means on, or in, a photoreceptor. A latent image may be made visible by development.

IMAGE-BEARING MEMBER - For class 399

A substrate for holding an electrostatic charge pattern or a toner image.

IMAGING - For class 399

Forming an image that is a reproduction of an original.

IMAGING - For class 430

The application of radiation to form an image.

IMAGING SYSTEM- For class 382

For the purpose of this class, an imaging system is any means which acquires an image. For example, it includes video cameras, CCD arrays, scanners, etc.

IMHOFF - For class 210

A two-story septic tank of special design to allow digestion of sludge in lower chamber with settling in upper chamber and passage of settled sludge from upper to lower chamber. Process is anaerobic and provided for in subclasses 602+.

IMMA - For class 438

ion microprobe mass analysis

IMMEDIATE-PRECURSOR - For class 117

The precursor immediately next to the growing single-crystal* and from which the single-crystal* forms or grows. Contrast with precursor*.

IMMOBILIZE - For class 588

To contain the hazardous or toxic waste by any means that keeps the hazardous or toxic waste in a matrix or container such as cement, organoclay, glass, or in an actual physical container.

IMMUNOADSORBENT - For class 436

An insoluble material that is used for the purification of antibodies by adsorbing them from a serum; a gel for trapping antibodies, or an inert solid to which either antigens or haptens have been covalently linked are two examples.

IMMUNOASSAY - For class 436

An assay that utilizes antigen antibody reactions for the determination of chemical substances.

IMMUNOELECTROPHORESIS - For class 436

A technique for identifying antigens in complex mixtures by first separating the antigens in one dimension by means of gel electrophoresis, and then allowing them to react with antibodies by means of two dimensional double diffusion through the gel; a pattern of precipitin arcs is thereby produced. Abbr IE.

IMMUNOGLOBULIN - For class 436

1. A protein of animal origin that has a known antibody activity. 2. A protein that is closely related to an antibody by its chemical structure and by its antigenic specificity.

IMPACT, MECHANICAL SHOCK, OR VIBRATION-PRODUCING MOTOR - For class 318

An electric motor having means for moving one of the motor parts into impact or percussive contact with one or more other parts of either the motor structure or a part which is structurally combined with the motor structure, or a motor whose prime or essential function is to transmit mechanical shock or vibrations to a device or mechanism secured to the motor or upon which the motor may be mounted, (e.g., rotary motor with the rotor unbalanced to produce vibrations which are transmitted to its support.

IMPACTING - For class 173

A type of drive function which includes striking a mass of material (e.g., tool) with another mass of material (e.g., hammer head).

IMPACTING DEVICE - For class 173

A means including a mass of material (i.e., hammer head) which is specifically intended to deliver a blow to a tool. The mass of material need not necessarily strike the tool directly, but may deliver the blow through an intervening element (e.g., anvil).

IMPALING OR SNAGGING - For class 171

The act of removing or unearthing an object at least partially imbedded in the ground by an extractor which penetrates through the surface of the object or which passes through or around a reentrant or restricted portion of the object to form a temporary connection between said object and the extractor.

IMPATT - For class 438

impact ionization avalanche transist time (diode)

IMPEDANCE - For class 323

Includes an inductance, a capacitance, or a resistance or any combination thereof and excluding any source of electric energy. Inductances are usually grouped with transformers in the subclasses that follow.

IMPEDANCE - For class 363

Includes an inductance, or a capitance, or a resistance, or any combination thereof, and excludes any source of electrical energy.

IMPEDANCE MATCHING NETWORK - For class 330

Coupling networks which include one or more impedance elements construed or proportioned to substantially eliminate the reflected wave energy between the network and at least one of the connected circuits caused by impedance differences.

IMPEDANCE MATCHING NETWORK - For class 333

Coupling networks which include one or more impedance elements construed or proportioned to substantially eliminate the reflected wave energy between the network and at least one of the connected circuits caused by impedance differences.

IMPEDANCE OR IMPEDANCE DEVICE - For class 318

A means having inductance, capacity, resistance or any combination thereof and excluding any source of electric energy.

IMPELLER - For class 416

A device comprising at least one working member* which functions to react with a working fluid* such that action movement of the member causes reaction movement of the fluid or action movement of the fluid causes reaction movement of the working member. In its simplest form, a single impeller is considered to comprise a working member or members and any parts rigidly connected therewith whereby the impeller is supported for movement. In the case of an impeller having a working member which has relative movement with respect to another impeller part or another working member, the definition of impeller is considered to include those mechanical elements which permit or cause relative motion of the working members and at least partly partake of the motion of the working member and are closely associated therewith to form a unitary device having a unitary impelling function. In view of the many embodiments an impeller may have, it is not possible to more definitely define the concept, but in most cases it will be apparent which elements forms part of the impeller and which elements, on the other hand, comprise support* means for the impeller of means for transmitting power to or from the impeller. In those subclasses in which the precise limits of the impeller, per se, are apt to be troublesome, an effort is made to define the impeller concept in more detail insofar as it concerns the concept of the particular subclass.

IMPLEMENT - For class 015

Defined in this class as a work contacting cleaning or coating agency subcombination which as disclosed, could be either (1) manipulated manually as a tool, (2) moved by a machine, as defined above and constituting a part thereof, or (3) held in place by support means for direct manual application of the work thereto. (Note: A hand held nozzle is not an implement as defined above and is classified elsewhere as a machine subcombination).

IMPLEMENT - For class 172

A combination of parts comprising an earth working device. It may mean merely an earth working portion or a complex combination of parts including a tractor. Usually it indicates a complete device which as an entity may be readily attached to a tractor in the field.

IMPLEMENT - For class 249

A work containing agency which as disclosed, could be either (1) manipulated manually as a utensil, (2) a subcombination of a machine or press couple, or (3) held in place by support means for direct manual or machine application of work thereto.

IMPRESSION - For class 462

A discontinuity in a surface resulting from applying pressure, usually mechanical, against a surface to mark it such as to produce indicia thereon.

IMPURITY - For class 257

A foreign material present in a semiconductor crystal, such as boron or arsenic in silicon, which is added to the semiconductor to produce either p-type or n-type semiconductor material, or to otherwise result in material whose electrical characteristics depend on the impurity dopant atoms.

IMPURITY - For class 438

A foreign material present in a semiconductor crystal, such as boron or arsenic in silicon, which is added to the semiconductor to produce either p-type or n-type semiconductor material, or to otherwise result in material whose electrical characteristics depend on the impurity dopant atoms.

IN SILICO LIBRARY - For class 506

A library which has no physical existence, being constructed solely in electronic form or on paper. An in silico library is one type of virtual library. The building blocks required for such a library may not exist, and the chemical steps for creating such a library may not have been tested. These libraries are used in the design and evaluation of possible libraries.

IN SITU - For class 249

The utilization of a mold at the job site wherein upon removal of mold parts the product remains in its permanent location.

IN SITU - For class 425

Remaining in the same place.

INACCESSIBLE HOLE - For class 175

A hole or cavity in the earth which is not large enough to permit both a human operator and a boring means to be located therein. A specific disclosure that the hole or cavity is a well or borehole and that the supporting or carrying means for the boring means substantially fills said hole or cavity will be considered an inaccessible hole.

INCANDESCENT LAMP - For class 313

Lamps which are provided with a filament or glower adapted to be heated to incandescence by the passage of an electric current therethrough.

INCINERATE - For class 588

To burn to highly oxidized ashes. The oxidation is chemically near completion.

INCINERATION - For class 110

The combustion of refuse (*) for primary purpose of disposing of that refuse rather than for producing heat.

INCLUDING HYDROGENATED - For class 514

Denotes that a ring system which by definition has ring unsaturation possesses a degree of saturation which may be different than the ring system definition would normally indicate.

INCLUDING HYDROGENATED - For class 532

This term, as a parenthetical expression, is used following the name of a heterocyclic ring or ring system which is unsaturated, e.g., oxazoles, etc. For example, if a subclass is entitled g1, 3-Oxazoles (including hydrogenated)h, the parenthetical expression g(including hydrogenated)h means that the subclass is generic to fully unsaturated 1,3-oxazoles and to 1,3-oxazoles wherein one or two of the ring double bonds have been replaced by a single bond; i.e., the subclass is generic to oxazoles, oxazolines and oxazolidines. When the name of such a heterocyclic ring is used in indents where no degree of ring saturation or unsaturation is specified, the name of the heterocyclic ring will again be construed as generic to all possible degrees of ring saturation and unsaturation. If, for example, a subclass entitled gNitrogen bonded directly to ring carbon of the oxazole ring were indented under g1, 3-Oxazoles (including hydrogenatedh the nitrogen subclass be construed as embracing nitrogen bonded directly to the ring carbon of an oxazole, of an oxazoline, or of an oxazolidine. When used following the name of a heterocyclic ring system, such as quinoline, the parenthetical expression indicates that the subclass is generic to compounds having the fully unsaturated form of the ring system, as well as to compounds wherein any number of ring double bonds of the ring system have been replaced by single bonds. The statement made above, re indents, is also applicable to heterocyclic ring systems.

INCLUSION COMPOUNDS - For class 532

See CLATHRATES AND INTERCALATES (INCLUSION COMPOUNDS).

INCLUSIONS - For class 164

Particles of dirt, slag or other impurities occurring in metals that were mechanically entrapped during solidification.

INDEFINITE LENGTH WORK - For class 156

A piece of material handled at points intermediate its ends whereby the length is immaterial to the manner of handling.

INDEFINITE LENGTH WORK - For class 264

A self sustaining body, which because of its relatively large length is handled at a point intermediate of its ends, and includes single or one piece bodies formed in a continuous manner.

INDEFINITE LENGTH WORK - For class 425

A self-sustaining body having a longitudinal dimension which is effectively infinite.

INDETERMINATE LENGTH - For class 226

An extent of material having the characteristic that the longitudinal dimension of the material is effectively infinite insofar as can be determined from the claimed structure for advancing such material. The term applies to an extent of material in which the distance between the ends is irrelevant to the manner of, or structure for, handling and/or moving such material. Thus, except for the lead-end threaders of subclass 91, the leading or trailing end of the material is not utilized by the claimed means for moving the material, nor recognized in a claimed method of moving. The term as used in this class also applies to material which is formed in a closed loop, (i.e., the leading end and the trailing end of definite length material have been joined together). However, the lead end may be used in stopping the material to effect intermittent advance as in subclasses 125+, and a trailing end (effected by a break or depletion of material) may be sensed to stop operation of the advancer.

INDICATOR - For class 334

An element or device which is particularly adapted to point out or show, usually visually, the position and/or condition to which a given element or elements are adjusted as, for example, a scale and pointer, one of which is held stationary while the other is connected to a rotatable or movable shaft such as the shaft of a variable capacitor. A second example would be the use of a meter to indicate the amount of current and/or voltage flowing in a given circuit.

INDICIUM - For class 234

A mark or configuration exhibited or carried by an object (such as a pattern* or token) intended for use in the control of a machine.

INDIRECT BAND GAP SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 257

A semiconductor material in which a change in semiconductor crystal momentum for an electron is required when it moves from the conduction band to the valence band and vice versa. Silicon is an indirect band gap semiconductor.

INDIRECT BAND GAP SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 438

A semiconductor material in which a change in semiconductor crystal momentum for an electron is required when it moves from the conduction band to the valence band and vice versa. Silicon and aluminum arsenide are examples of indirect band gap semiconductors.

INDIRECTLY HEATED CATHODE (equiptential cathode) - For class 330

A cathode designed to be heated to its emitting temperature by a separate heating element.

INDIRECTLY-HEATED CATHODE (Equipotential cathode) - For class 313

A cathode designed to be heated to its emitting temperature by a separate heating element.

INDUCED NUCLEAR REACTION - For class 376

See section I, (1) Note.

INDUCTANCE - For class 334

That property of an electrical circuit, or of two or more neighboring circuits, by which a varying current produces or induces an electromotive force in the circuit or neighboring circuits. If an electromotive force is induced in the neighboring circuit or circuits, the term mutual inductance is used.

INDUCTION HEATING - For class 373

The method of producing heat in a charge by placing it in a electromagnetic relationship with an inducing winding, the charge forming the secondary.

INDUCTION MOTORS - For class 318

An asynchronous alternating current motor which operates during running speed conditions as a result of electromagnetic induction and which has at least two electrical conductors which are mounted or positioned in electromagnetic relationship with each other and for movement relative to each other, and in which alternating current energy delivered to one of the conductors (gprimaryh or ginducingh member) induces in the other of said conductors (gsecondaryh or ginducedh member) an alternating current and the mechanical energy is obtained as a result of the electromagnetic inductive action between the magnetic field generated by the alternating current in the one conductor and the magnetic field generated by the induced current in the other conductor. The secondary or induced winding is usually short circuited or shunted by means of an impedance. An example of an induction motor is the squirrel cage motor, that is, a motor where the secondary winding consists of a plurality of short-circuited bars. See the definition of a grepulsion motorh.

INDUCTIVE COUPLING - For class 336

The coupling between separate coils or windings due to the electromagnetic induction between the coils or windings.

INDUCTOR - For class 334

An impedance device comprising a coil means, with or without core means, for introducing inductance into an electric circuit. Both transformers and inductive reactors are included within the meaning of ginductorh.

INDUCTOR - For class 336

An impedance device comprising a coil means with or without core means for introducing inductance into an electric circuit and wherein the inherent capacitive reactance thereof does not resonate with the inductance of the coil within the frequency range of the electric current adapted to flow therethrough. Both transformers and inductive reactors are included within the meaning of "inductor". Excluded are inductor devices that are designed to do more than introduce inductance into a circuit. Examples are: inductor devices particularly designed to produce a magnetic field which radiates energy which is not returned to the device, or devices designed to produce external mechanical work by electromagnetic action.

INERT GASES - For class 423

The noble gases of the zero group of the periodic system, consisting of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, which have no valency and combine only with great difficulty, if at all, with other elements.

INERT MATERIAL - For class 210

Stuff that does not cause or promote any change in liquid or component being treated. May act as filler, support, or carrier for active material. See subclass 679.

INFEED - For class 408

The relative movement of the tool and work along the tool-axis* during the cutting operation. (Compare work-infeed* and tool-infeed*).

IN-FOCUS - For class 396

An in-focus condition occurs when an object image attains its sharpness.

INFORMATION - For class 345

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 706

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 707

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 709

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 710

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 711

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 712

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 713

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 714

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 715

Meaning that a human being assigns to DATA* by means of the conventions applied to that data.

iNFORMATION - For class 718

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 719

Meaning that a human being assigns to data by means of the conventions applied to that data.

INFORMATION - For class 726

Data with meaning concerning a particular act or circumstance in general. Note: May include or consist of graphics or text or numerical or non-numerical values.

INFORMATION OR INFORMATION SIGNAL - For class 369

A time varying physical quantity representing desired intelligence, often an audible sound or an electrical signal.

INGOT - For class 164

An open-mold casting that is intended for remelting and recasting or reworking to form finished products. Also referred to as billet.

INGOT - For class 373

The casting obtained when molten metal is poured into a mold with the expectation that it be further processed.

INGOT MOLD - For class 164

A heavy mold, usually of cast iron, into which molten metal is teemed, as in the casting of ingots.

INGREDIENT - For class 426

Component part (usually a major one) of mixture that goes to make a food. (Compare additive above which in some instance may be an ingredient).

INITIAL WRAP - For class 053

The wrapping of a cover around a contents to form a package is invariably done in two stages, viz.: first, the shaping of the cover about a single end or surface of the contents, and second, a further shaping of the cover by bending or folding the previously unfolded portions thereof so that the latter portions are in contact with the contents end or surface opposite to the end or surface about which the cover was previously shaped. The intermediate state of the cover at the end of the first stage is referred to as the Initial Wrap. The initial wrapping operation begins with the contact between the first end or surface of the contents with the cover and proceeds in two ways, either by (a) an unidirectional relative movement (which is not necessarily continuous) between the folding instrumentalities and the cover material-contents unit or (b) by a first relative movement between the folding instrumentalities and the cover material-contents unit, and one or more succeeding relative movements therebetween, at least the first of which is in a direction different from the first movement, and which serves to complete the shaping of the cover along the first end or surface of the contents without bending or folding the remaining unfolded portions of the cover into contact with the opposite end or surface of the contents.

INJECTING - For class 060

Forcing into the reaction zone one or more streams of material which enter into the action which produces thrust. Extruding a solid or semi-solid into the reaction zone, spraying a stream of finely divided particles into the reaction zone and jetting a liquid or gas into the reaction zone are illustrative but nonlimiting examples of the scope of the term.

INJECTION NOZZLE - For class 239

A terminal outlet member disclosed as connected to and as discharging into a relatively large pressure chamber (e.g., an internal combustion engine or combustion turbine combustion space).

INK - For class 400

A substance (usually fluid, may be viscous or solid) that is applied to the surface of a record-medium* in the configuration of a typed character* symbol to make the character visible to a reader of the typed text. An important property of ink is its ability to form a gpermanenth symbol, that is, a symbol that is not easily erased (or erased only with great difficulty), and it is this property that aids the production of an original copy of the typed text. (See the definition of transfer-medium* in this Glossary, section III, for a discussion of the difference between original copy and carbon copy.) A fluid ink may be applied directly to a type-face*, from which type-face the ink is directly imprinted onto a record-medium. A viscous ink may be applied to the record-medium via an ink-impregnated ribbon*, and the ink therein will gflowh by capillary action from unused portions of the ribbon into the used portions of the ribbon. A solid ink may be applied via a so-called gcarbon-inkh ribbon, which is often a single-use or one-use ribbon because all or most of the coating of the ribbon is imprinted onto the record-medium when a type-face is impacted thereagainst. A ghecto-graphich ink is a particular form of ink that is soluble and is used to form a gmasterh plate used in a gspirit duplicatingh copying process.

INORGANIC - For class 216

Pertaining to compounds that do not generally contain carbon and to elements in their free form. It relates to any of the compounds not encompassed under the term Organic defined below in this Glossary.

INORGANIC COMPOUND - For class 516

Any compound that is not organic*.

INPUT CIRCUIT - For class 323

Is the same as electrical source circuit.

INPUT CIRCUIT OR COUPLING - For class 330

The circuit or network of an amplifier extending from the source of electrical signal to the input electrodes of the amplifier, which may include the source of electrical signal.

INPUT MEMBER - For class 475

Mechanism which receives rotational power from a power source*, and transfers such rotational power to a planetary gear transmission.

INPUT SHAFT: - For class 477

Mechanism that receives rotational motion from an engine* and transfers such motion to a gear transmission* or to a clutch*.

INPUT-IMPULSE - For class 234

A force or stimulus applied to a machine from an external source (such as the hand of an operative, or the output mechanism of a calculator, etc.) or which originates from the sensing of a pattern* presented to the machine, and which is capable of controlling tool selection and/or auxiliary-operations*. (Cf. input-means*).

INPUT-MEANS - For class 234

An instrumentality which is effective to exert control over the operation of tool-selecting mechanism and/or mechanism to perform an auxiliary-operation*, in response to the application of an input-impulse* to such input-means, (e.g., a keyboard, a dial, a pattern-sensing unit, etc.)

INPUT-OUTPUT COUPLING - For class 385

The introduction of electromagnetic light radiation into an optical waveguiding structure from a source which is external to the structure, or the extraction of electromagnetic light radiation from an optical waveguiding structure to a detecting device at its exterior. This term ("input-output coupling") is specifically defined to include only the coupling of light from a source (e.g., a laser) into an optical waveguide or the coupling of light from an optical waveguide to a detector (e.g., a photodiode), and thus excludes the coupling of light between optical waveguides.

INS - For class 438

intrinsic nondoped semiconductor

INSPECTION - For class 250

A term implying a source of radiant energy, and/or means to irradiate an object by said source and a detector responsive to radiation from the object to provide a signal representing some characteristic of the object.

INSPECTION OR EXAMINATION - For class 378

A term implying a source of X-ray energy, and/or means to irradiate an object by said source and a detector responsive to X-radiation from the object to provide an indication representing some characteristic of the object.

INSTRUCTION DATA - For class 345

Data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any. (also see: Data)

INSTRUCTION DATA - For class 707

Data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any. (Also see Data)

INSTRUCTION DATA - For class 711

Data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any.

INSTRUCTION DATA - For class 714

Data that represent an operation and identify its operands, if any.

INSULATED-GATE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (IGFET) - For class 257

A unipolar transistor with source, gate, and drain regions and electrodes, in which conduction takes place in a channel controlled by action of the voltage applied to the gate electrode of the device, in which the gate electrode is separated from the channel by an insulator layer.

INSULATED-GATE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (IGFET) - For class 438

A unipolar transistor with source, gate, and drain regions and electrodes, in which conduction takes place in a channel controlled by action of the voltage applied to the gate electrode of the device, in which the gate electrode is separated from the channel by an insulator layer.

INSULATOR - For class 257

A material which has a high resistance to the flow of electric current. It has such low electrical conductivity that the flow of current therethrough can usually be neglected.

INSULATOR - For class 338

A body of such low conductivity that the flow of current therethrough can usually be neglected.

INSULATOR - For class 438

A material which has a high resistance to the flow of electric current. It has such low electrical conductivity that the flow of current therethrough can usually be neglected.

INTEGRATED APPARATUS - For class 506

Apparatus specifically designed for performing at least two different operations (e.g., synthesis and screening, etc.).

INTEGRATED CIRCUIT - For class 257

See MONOLITHIC DEVICE (e.g., IC) as contrasted to HYBRID CIRCUIT.

INTERCALATES - For class 532

See CLATHRATES AND INTERCALATES (INCLUSION COMPOUNDS).

INTERELECTRODE CAPACITANCE - For class 330

The capacitive reactance for signal flow between any two electrodes of a vacuum tube, transistor or similar device inherent in their relationship to each other electrostatically and which for certain frequencies and voltages forms a path for the signal current usually detrimental to the operation of the circuit.

INTERELECTRODE IMPEDANCE - For class 330

An impedance between electrodes of a vacuum tube, transistor, or similar device inherent in its structure, and manner and frequency of operation. This term is generic to inter-electrode capacitance above; and includes also input conductance caused by the transit time of electrons, etc.

INTERFACE - For class 709

A connection between two elements so that they can work with one another.

INTERFACE - For class 718

A connection between two elements so that they can work with one another.

INTERFACE - For class 719

A connection between two elements so that they can work with one another.

INTERFACIAL BOND - For class 425

Cohesion among common boundaries of particles material without a mechanical interlock.

INTERFERENCE - For class 359

The interaction of two light waves which, as a result of their relative phases, produce a cancellation or reinforcement of wave energy.

INTERFERENCE - For class 372

The interaction of two light waves which, as a result of their relative phases, produce a cancellation or reinforcement of wave energy.

INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY (IF) - For class 725

A frequency to which a signal wave is shifted locally as an intermediate step in transmission or reception.

INTERMEDIATE NEUTRONS - For class 376

See Thermal Neutrons.

INTERMEDIATE-ARTICLE - For class 428

A fully shaped article, all three dimensions of which are definite, even though one or more of these dimensions may be negligible. The article is not suitable for functional use in the claimed condition, but must be subjected to one or more further significant shaping steps to do more than merely occupy space. The following operations have been regarded as not involving a further significant shaping: (a) Assembling or uniting the article with other parts. (b) Distorting the article during an assembly operation to cause the article to conform to discrepancies in the size or shape of a coacting part. (c) Bonding or distorting those portions of the article which are to function as means for fastening the article to a coacting part, as, for example, the bending of ears or tabs. (Structural)

INTERNAL BATTERY - For class 204

A device or means which generates an electrical current by chemical action within a zone of desired electrolysis without the need for an external source of electrical current.

INTERPOSER - For class 234

An element which is movable to and from two or more positions, in one or more of which positions it is effective to condition a tool pair for actuation by its engagement with a tool of said pair and by thus completing a drive train for transmission of actuating force to the tool pair (either by the transmission of energy to an active tool element, or by blocking an inactive tool element in effective position).

INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE - For class 351

The distance between the centers of rotation of a pair of human eyes.

INTERSTAGE CIRCUIT OR COUPLING - For class 330

The electrical circuit or network by means of which the output signal from the output electrodes of the amplifying device of one stage of a cascaded amplifier is conveyed to the input electrodes of the amplifying device of the following stage of the cascade amplifier.

INTRINSIC CONCENTRATION - For class 257

The number of minority carriers in a semiconductor due to thermal generation of electron-hole pairs.

INTRINSIC CONCENTRATION - For class 438

The number of minority carriers in a semiconductor due to thermal generation of electron-hole pairs.

INTRINSIC CONDUCTIVITY - For class 330

Refers to a semiconductor material which for a certain range of conditions has its free electron carriers and free hole carriers in approximate balance, so that the semiconductor material is neither N- nor P-type. Sufficient change in temperature or sufficient radiant energy impinging upon such a body will upset this equilibrium.

INTRINSIC SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 257

A pure semiconductor, i.e., one with no impurity atoms introduced therein.

INVERSION - For class 257

A condition in a semiconductor material in which the concentration of minority carriers exceeds the concentration of majority carriers.

INVERSION - For class 438

A condition in a semiconductor material in which the concentration of minority carriers exceeds the concentration of majority carriers.

INVERSION LAYER/CHANNEL - For class 257

A region in a semiconductor material in which the concentration of minority carriers exceeds the concentration of majority carriers.

INVERSION LAYER/CHANNEL - For class 438

A region in a semiconductor material in which the concentration of minority carriers exceeds the concentration of majority carriers.

INVESTMENT PATTERN - For class 164

A pattern of a material having a low melting point for use in processes employing special techniques such as precision casting where pattern withdrawal would be difficult.

ION - For class 250

An atom or molecule with at least one more or less electrons than protons. Electrons, per se, are not considered ions.

ION EXCHANGE - For class 423

A process in which ions are chemically transferred from a material to a liquid or solid separatory substance or exchanger which, because of its chemical structure of loosely bound ions, has an affinity for certain ions and gives up some of its own ions to the material. The exchange occurs between ions of like charge; the exchanger substance can usually be regenerated by passing another material through it to elute the previously sorbed ions and replace them with the original kind of loosely bound ions. These ion exchange substances are usually resins or zeolites or chelates.

IONIC CATHODE - For class 313

A virtual cathode formed by a discharge in a gas or vapor between two electrodes, the discharge serving to supply electrons to a third electrode. See subclass 588 for discharge devices having an ionic cathode.

IONIZATION - For class 250

The process of adding to or removing from an electrically neutral atom or molecule one or more of its electrons. Note: Ionization, as sometimes used to denote the process of increasing the energy level of an atom or molecule to some state short of the above, is not encompassed by this definition. Such processes in this class are considered partial or incomplete ionization.

IONIZED - For class 376

See (a) Fully Ionized and (b) Plasma.

IR - For class 438

infrared

IRON GROUP - For class 075

An element of the group Iron (Fe), Cobalt (Co), and Nickel (Ni).

IRON GROUP METALS - For class 257

Fe, Co, Ni.

IRON GROUP METALS - For class 423

Those metals in the central part of the third period of the periodic system consisting of Fe, Co and Ni, all of which form colored salts and 2 or more series of compounds.

ISFET - For class 438

ion sensitive FET (i.e., CHEMFET)

ISOELECTRONIC - For class 438

A condition in which two constituents have the same number of valence electrons.

ISOLATED TRIGLYCERIDIC FAT OR OIL - For class 426

Fat or oil (as defined below) that is free of any of the plant or animal tissue from which it is derived.

ISOLATION - For class 257

Prevention of the flow of electric current between electronic component parts of a solid-state electronic device.

ISOLATION - For class 438

The separation or surrounding of active semiconductor regions or components with electrically insulative regions to prevent the flow of electrical current between the active semiconductor regions or between electronic component parts of a solid-state electronic device.

ISOPLANAR CMOS - For class 257

A semiconductor device in which relatively thick regions of silicon dioxide, recessed into the semiconductor surface, are used to electrically isolate device areas and prevent parasitic device formation. More commonly called LOCOS CMOS.

ISOPLANAR CMOS - For class 438

A semiconductor device in which relatively thick regions of silicon dioxide, recessed into the semiconductor surface, are used to electrically isolate device areas and prevent parasitic device formation. More commonly called LOCOS CMOS.

ISOPLANAR ISOLATION - For class 257

A type of electric isolation in which relatively thick regions of silicon dioxide, recessed into the semiconductor surface, are used to electrically isolate device areas and prevent parasitic device formation. More commonly called LOCOS ISOLATION.

ISOPLANAR ISOLATION - For class 438

A type of electric isolation in which relatively thick regions of silicon dioxide, recessed into the semiconductor surface, are used to electrically isolate device areas and prevent parasitic device formation. More commonly called LOCOS ISOLATION.

ITERATIVE DECONVOLUTION - For class 506

Method for the identification of active library members which involves epeating the deconvolution strategy a certain number of times. Usually the initial library is divided into nonoverlapping subsets. The subsets are tested or screened separately, and the one with the greatest activity is identified. This subset is re-synthesized as a collection of simpler subsets which are tested for activity. The process is repeated until a unique library-member with a high level of activity is identified.

ITO - For class 438

indium tin oxide (a TCO)

IVEC - For class 438

isolation vertical capacitor cell

JACKET - For class 313

Same as casing above.

JACKET - For class 412

A protective structure, e.g., dust cover, assembled to but not fastened to a completed book(*).

JAW - For class 081

An element carrying at least one work engaging surface, two or more of such elements engaging and holding the workpiece.

JAW - For class 269

(a) One of the plural portions of a work holder couple which engages or grips a workpiece. Generally, the jaw is taken to include the work contacting surface and that part of the holder which (1) is contiguous to said surface as well as that portion which (2) if moveable, moves bodily in congruent fashion with said surface. (See subclass 271 for the definition of a jaw attachment or insert).

(b) A work holder portion with an underlying work contacting surface, for which see subclass 289, especially (2) Note, is not considered to be a jaw, unless claimed in combination as one of plural coacting work gripping elements. However, a work holder portion with an overlying work contacting surface, which portion ordinarily is incapable of functioning as a work holder in the absence of a coacting underlying support means, will be considered as a jaw even if there is no claimed reference to said coacting underlying portion. (See subclasses 37-45 for plural holders which separately hold at least two workpieces relative to each other; each such holder is considered to be more than a jaw).

(c) As an exception to (a) which states that a “jaw” must be one of a couple; a work engaging member, which as claimed (1) includes plural, abutting, nonparallel, flat work engaging surfaces; (2) each such flat surface, coacting with a different one of plural work engaging elements as one of a plurality of work engaging elements as one of a plurality of work holding couples, is considered to be a common jaw member cooperating with a plurality of jaws. (See subclass 104 for patents to a holder with plural jaws coacting with a common angle-corner jaw to hold the same workpiece). (See subclass 154 for patents to a holder with plural jaws coacting with a common flat jaw surface to hold work or workpieces).

(d) Unlike (c) above, a work engaging member which as claimed includes either (1) plural, nonabutting, work engaging surfaces or (2) plural, abutting, curved, work engaging surfaces, and which surfaces (1) or (2) each coact with a different one of plural work engaging elements, is not considered to be a “common” jaw member. Hence, such a configured work engaging member in combination with coacting plural elements does not constitute plural jaw pairs either for subclass 104 or subclass 152. (See subclasses 257-284 for specific jaw features, per se.)

The following figure is illustrative of plural, nonabutting, work engaging surfaces B1 and B2 referred to in (d)(1) above.

Image for class 269

The following figure is illustrative of plural abutting, curved, work engaging surfaces E1, E2 and E3 referred to in (d)(2) above.

Image for class 269

(e) Each of three mutually adjustable* and/or actuable* work contacting elements effective to hold work (as in subclass 156) is also considered to be a jaw.

In both rotational and rectilinear movement, the movement may be in steps, backwards, or forwards.

JFET - For class 438

junction field effect transistor (junction gate)

J-LEAD - For class 257

A rolled-under, J-shaped configuration of some surface mounted component leads.

JOFET - For class 438

Josephson junction field effect transistor

JOINT - For class 403

A connection between two or more members which utilizes an intrinsic property of at least one of the members or wherein the members are related to each other in a particular manner.

JOINT - For class 404

(1) Structure linking or uniting adjacent components, or (2) a gap between adjacent components or (3) a parting member or spacer between adjacent components.

JOINT MECHANISM - For class 081

First means connecting the jaws movably to each other, second means for connecting at least one of the jaws movably to the handles, and third means connecting the handles movably to each other; said first, second and third means (either singly or in combination with each other) converting handle manipulation into relative jaw motion. The joint mechanism may consist, for example, of a common first, second and third means as for example in Patent No. 2,325,035; or a common second and third means as for example in a pair of cross-handled pliers.

JOSEPHSON JUNCTION - For class 505

A weak connection between superconductors through which the Josephson effect is realized.

JOSEPHSON EFFECT - For class 505

The passage of paired electrons (Cooper pairs) through a weak connection (Josephson junction) between superconductors as in the tunnel passage of paired electrons through a thin dielectric layer separating two superconductors.

JTE - For class 438

junction termination extension

JUNCTION - For class 257

A joining of two different semiconductors or of a semiconductor and a metal at an interface. Types of junctions include HETEROJUNCTIONS, SCHOTTKY BARRIER JUNCTIONS, and PN JUNCTIONS.

JUNCTION BARRIER - For class 257

The opposition to the diffusion of majority carriers across a pn junction due to the charge of the fixed donor and acceptor ions.

JUNCTION BARRIER - For class 438

The opposition to the diffusion of majority carriers across a pn junction due to the charge of the fixed donor and acceptor ions.

JUNCTION CAPACITANCE - For class 257

The capacitance across a pn junction. It depends on the width of the depletion layer, which increases with increased reverse bias voltage across the junction.

JUNCTION CAPACITANCE - For class 438

The capacitance across a pn junction. It depends on the width of the depletion layer, which increases with increased reverse bias voltage across the junction.

JUNCTION GATE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (JFET) - For class 257

See FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR.

JUNCTION IN A TRANSISTOR OR SEMI-CONDUCTOR - For class 330

The boundary of P-type and N-type semiconductor material.

JUNCTION ISOLATION - For class 257

Electrical isolation of devices on a monolithic integrated circuit chip using a reverse biased junction diode to establish a depletion layer that forms the electrical isolation between devices.

JUNCTION ISOLATION - For class 438

Electrical isolation of devices on a monolithic integrated circuit chip using a reverse biased junction diode to establish a depletion layer that forms the electrical isolation between devices.

JUNCTION RESISTANCE - For class 257

The electrical resistance across a semiconductor PN junction.

JUNCTION RESISTANCE - For class 438

The electrical resistance across a semiconductor PN junction.

JUNCTION TRANSISTOR - For class 330

A transistor comprising two P-N Junctions back-to-back wherein a region of P- or N-type semiconductor material is common to both junctions (thus determining an NPN or a PNP junction transistor, respectively); an emitter electrode connected to one of the conductivity regions not common to the two junctions, normally forwardly biased (positive terminal of bias means to emitter for PNP type and negative terminal for NPN type); a collector electrode connected to the other conductivity region but common to the two junctions, reversely biased (negative terminal of bias means for the PNP type and positive terminal for the NPN type; and a base electrode connected to the region common to both junctions. See definition of Point Contact Transistor, which operates similarly in many respects.

JUNCTION, SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 117

The region of transition between semiconduction regions of different electrical properties, usually between p-type and n-type materials, and usually a junction exhibits asymmetric conductivity.

JUSTIFICATION - For class 234

The computation or assignment of interword-spaces and/or type-widths, or symbols representative of such spaces or type-widths, in connection with the composition of a line of type or the production of an instrumentality (perforated tape, etc.) for the control of a type-setting machine, for the purpose of predetermining the exact length of a completed line of type.

KEEPER - For class 070

A part to receive the movable portion of a bolt usually a socket, pocket, opening, ledge, abutment, seat, shoulder, etc.

KEEPER - For class 402

An element or mechanism which cooperates with a sheet retainer to releasably secure a sheet* thereon.

KETONE - For class 520

Denotes an organic compound having the general structure n (n is 1 or more) and wherein the carbon atoms bonded to the n group are not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium. Ketone as used throughout includes ketene, i.e., CH2=C=O

KETONE (INCLUDING KETENE) - For class 514

Denotes an organic compound having the general structure -C-[C(=O)]n -C- (n is 1 or more) and wherein the carbon atoms bonded to the-[C(=O)]n group are not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium. Ketone as used throughout includes ketene.

KEY - For class 070

A specially contrived implement for controlling or operating a lock and (1) having portions designed to pass fixed obstructions or to arrange movable impediments to allow operation of a securing device, or (2) embodying an unconventional design of predetermined secret or nonpublic origin.

KEY - For class 380

A formula, word or signal used to define the code in encryption or decryption of the information. Such a signal is often a digital signal having a predetermined or pseudorandom content.

KEY - For class 400

An element on a typewriter, located on a key-board*, which element is pressed to cause either (a) the actuation of a type-member* to imprint a character* that corresponds to the selected key, or (b) the actuation of a selected function* of the typewriter. In a manual typewriter a key is usually pressed by a finger of a user, and the movement of the selected key is transmitted via a system of levers and links into movement of a corresponding type-member actuator or function actuator. In some typewriters and external power source assists the actuation. In other typewriters keys are pressed successively in response to signals to the typewriter by a human or mechanical operator. The key referred to in (a) above (i.e., a character key) also causes a character-space* movement of the carriage* as well as actuation of the type-member.

KEY - For class 705

A formula, word or signal used to define a code in encryption or decryption of the information. Such a signal is often a digital signal having a predetermined or pseudorandom content

KEY-BOARD - For class 400

That portion of a typewriter which is located so as to face and be adjacent to the user of a typewriter, and containing the key* elements that are to be pressed in succession to produce a text that is being typed, or pressed as needed to actuate a particular function* of the typewriter.

KEYSTONING - For class 348

A distorted scanning pattern, with a top wider than the bottom or vice versa, produced when the electron beam in the television camera tube is at angle with the principal axis of the tube.

KLYSTRON - For class 331

A beam tube including at least two apertured cavity resonators, the beam of charged particles passing through the apertures of the resonators in succession, and a collector electrode being provided to intercept the beam after passing through the resonators. The first resonator causes bunching of the particles passing therethrough, the bunched particles then travel in a field-free region where further bunching occurs and then the bunched particles enter the second resonator giving up their energy to excite it into oscillations.

KMER - For class 438

Kodak metal etch resist

KNEADING - For class 425

Working a material by intermittent squeezing and relieving a semi-solid material such as dough, rubber, etc. Synonym: BRAKING

KPR - For class 438

Kodak photo resist

KTFR - For class 438

Kodak thin film resist

LABEL - For class 435

A member of a signal producing system which is usually bound to or incorporated in the ligand. Measurement of the label activity is an indication of the amount of unknown in the sample.

LAC - For class 428

See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac below. (Nonstructural or Composition)

LACED-FASTENER- For class 024

A securing mechanism including both a string (i.e., a thin elongated flaccid* member) and guiding means (e.g., path defining eyelets) therefor located on two spaced edges of the structure-to-be-secured*; wherein the string (a) links together the guiding means on opposite sides of and traverses the gap between the edges, (b) draws the edges toward each other when a portion of the string is pulled past its guiding means to shorten the effective length of the remaining portion of the string traversing the gap, and (c) secures the edges in fixed relationship to each other when the extracted portion of the string is prevented from moving (e.g., tied).

LAGB - For class 438

low-angle grain boundary

LAMINA - For class 156

One of the component parts or layers of an adhesively bonded sandwich. Also an element which by disclosure is to be bonded to a separate element.

LAMPS - For class 315

Are defined for the purpose of classification in this class as including a device designed for converting electrical energy into ray energy, regardless of whether the ray energy is within the visible or invisible part of the spectrum, but excluding (1) generators of X-rays, and (2) generators designed primarily to generate infrared rays. Lamps may be in the form of electric space discharge devices, for which see the next paragraph.

LAND - For class 257

The conductive areas, normally metal patterns, on a semiconductor integrated circuit, which form part of the contacts and interconnections between components on the integrated circuit.

LAND - For class 438

The conductive areas, normally metal patterns, on a semiconductor integrated circuit, which form part of the contacts and interconnections between components on the integrated circuit. See bonding pad, die bond.

LAND PATTERN - For class 257

A combination of lands on an integrated circuit.

LANDING- For class 187

An in situ floor within a structure (e.g., building) located adjacent to an elevator shaft* and to or from which a load (e.g., passenger, cargo) transfers during the charging or discharging of the load-underlying support surface of an elevator.

LANGMUIR-BLODGETT FILM - For class 977

Film of surfactant molecules on a liquid surface forming regular stacks (a multilayer) or can be only one molecule thick (a monolayer); may also be formed on solid surfaces.

LANGUAGE - For class 704

A systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meanings.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANOLIN - For class 106

Cholesterol esters of higher fatty acids.

LANTHANIDE ELEMENTS - For class 257

La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho,Er, Tm, Yb, Lu.

LANTHANIDE- For class 075

A metal of the group Lanthanum (La), Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), Neodymium (Nd), Promethium (Pm), Samarium (Sm), Europium (Eu), Gadolinium (Gd), Terbium (Tb), Dysprosium (Dy), Holmium (Ho), Erbium (Er), Thulium (Th), Ytterbium (Yb), and Lutetium (Lu).

LANTHANIDE- For class 420

An element of atomic number 57 to 71 inclusive.

LASER - For class 372

A device for generating a very narrow, intense beam of coherent light. The name is derived from the initial letters of "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation". In the emission of ordinary light the molecules or atoms of the source emit their radiation independently of each other, and consequently there is no definite phase relationship among the vibrations in the resultant beam. The light is incoherent. The laser, by means of an optical resonator, forces the atoms of the material within the resonator to radiate in phase. The emitted radiation is stimulated by the excitation of atoms to a higher energy level by means of energy supplied to the device.

LAST - For class 425

A form for shaping a shoe.

LATCHING/LATCHED/LATCHUP - For class 257

The state or condition of a regenerative feedback device, e.g., a thyristor, in which the device remains ON when the initializing signal is removed.

LATCH-OR LATCHING-BOLT - For class 070

One normally yieldably biased or urged by some form of constantly present potential force to seek one position and operable to another position against such force, but automatically returnable to its original position unless restrained.

LATERAL - For class 172

A direction which is transverse of the line of draft of a tool over the earth unless some other meaning is clearly indicated by the context.

LATERAL - For class 226

As used in this class, the term refers to that direction simultaneously perpendicular to the longitudinal* direction of movement of a web* and parallel to the surface of the web.

LATID - For class 438

large angle tilt implant drain

LATTICE CONSTANT - For class 117

Usually the edge length of a unit cell.

LAW OF A MACHINE - For class 425

Control of sequential operations of machine parts by electrical or mechanical program means with operator control reduced to mere starting or stopping of operation of the machine.

LAYER - For class 112

A single thickness of material or materials in the form of a panel, web, or sheet, or a plurality of any of these in side-by-side coplanar relation, or particulate material arranged in continuity to constitute a distinct stratum.

A layer may include a plurality of components as in Figure 4.

Image for class 112

LAYER - For class 404

Stratum, course, lamina, coating or sheet which is sufficiently recognizable as such regardless of the constituent material involved. Interface blending of otherwise distinct layers still leaves plural layers.

LAYER - For class 428

A single thickness of material(s) in the form of web* or sheet*, or a plurality of any of these in side-by-side coplanar relation; or particulate material arranged in continuity to constitute a distinct stratum. A layer may include a plurality of components* as in Figure 2. See also (2) Note under A, above. (Structural)

Image for class 428

LAYER - For class 451

A single thickness of material(s) in the form of a sheet(s) in side-by-side, coplanar relation; or particulate material arranged in continuity to constitute a distinct stratum.

LAYER- For class 349

For the purpose of this class, a layer is a periodic discontinuous material or materials within a single plane having a single function, or a continuous material having one or more functions.

LAYER- For class 414

A series of equal (i.e., coplanar) articles having their bases located in a plane which extends across a stack* in a horizontal direction relative to the support surface of the stack*.

LB - For class 438

(a) Langmuir-Blodgett or (b) laser beam

LC RESONATOR - For class 331

A resonant circuit comprising separate inductance and capacitance elements, i.e., lumped inductor and capacitor elements.

LCCC - For class 257

An abbreviation for a leadless ceramic chip carrier which is a hermetically-sealable ceramic package in which an integrated chip can be placed to create a surface mounted component. It has pads around its perimeter for connection to a substrate.

LCCD - For class 438

leadless ceramic chip carrier

LCD - For class 438

liquid crystal display

LDCC - For class 438

leaded ceramic chip carrier

LDD - For class 438

lightly doped drain

LEACHING - For class 423

The process of extracting or dissolving a soluble component from a mixture by contacting the mixture with a solvent, resulting in dissolution or solution of the solubles and leaving an insoluble material. (Note. Solution of a substance in a normally solid, molten material is not considered to be gleachingh as defined above.)

LEACHING - For class 588

The processes of extracting or dissolving a soluble component from a mixture by contacting the mixture with a solvent, resulting in dissolution or solution of the solubles and leaving an insoluble material. Note. Solution of a substance in a normally solid, molten material is not considered to be leaching as defined above.

LEAD - For class 257

The conductor brought out from a component.

LEAD FRAME - For class 257

A metal frame which provides support for an integrated circuit chip or die as well as electrical leads to interconnect the integrated circuit on the die or chip to other electrical components or contacts.

LEAD-IN - For class 313

The conductor used to transmit electric current or potential from the exterior of the envelope or casing into the interior of the envelope or casing. Where the envelope is made of glass it usually consists of a conductor which passes through the wall of the envelope and which is sealed to the glass by a glass-to-metal seal.

LEAF - For class 016

A rod or platelike portion by which the hinge is adapted to be secured to a hinged member*.

LEAF - For class 281

A sheet other than a strip.

LEAF - For class 283

A sheet other than a strip.

LEAF - For class 462

A sheet* other than a strip*.

LEAF SPRING - For class 267

an element comprising a plate or bar or a plurality of superposed plates or bars and which exhibits resilient characteristics when a portion is deflected transversely of length of the element

LEAKAGE CURRENT - For class 257

Unwanted current flow.

LEC - For class 117

Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (CZ*) method.

LEC - For class 438

liquid encapsulated Czoshralski

LECHER LINES - For class 330

A parallel transmission line with means to tune the parallel line.

LECITHIN - For class 106

A mixture of the diglycerides of stearic, palmitic, and oleic acids, linked to the choline ester of phosphoric acid. Lecithin has the following structure, as shown below, wherein the R’s are the same or different, and are acyclic hydrocarbon radicals of at least seven carbon atoms chain length.

Image for class 106

LECITHIN - For class 106

A mixture of the diglycerides of stearic, palmitic, and oleic acids, linked to the choline ester of phosphoric acid. Lecithin has the following structure [wherein the R"s are the same or different, and are acyclic hydrocarbon radicals of at least seven carbon atoms chain length]:

Image for class 106

LECITHIN - For class 106

A mixture of the diglycerides of stearic, palmitic, and oleic acids, linked to the choline ester of phosphoric acid. Lecithin has the following structure [wherein the R’s are the same or different, and are acyclic hydrocarbon radicals of at least seven carbon atoms chain length]:

Image for class 106

LECITHIN - For class 106

A mixture of the diglycerides of stearic, palmitic, and oleic acids, linked to the choline ester of phosphoric acid. Lecithin has the following structure [wherein the R’s are the same or different, and are acyclic hydrocarbon radicals of at least seven carbon atoms chain length]:

Image for class 106

LED - For class 438

light emitting diode

LEED - For class 438

low-energy electron diffraction

LEK - For class 438

liquid encapsulated Kyropoulus

LENS - For class 351

Ophthalmic lens or transparent material in goggles unless otherwise indicated.

LENS REPAIR DEVICES - For class 351

Structure embracing the broken portion of a lens by a metal or plastic strip so that the lens can be restored to the mounting.

LEVEL- For class 414

An article within a single article wide stack* or a tier* having its base located entirely within a plane which extends in a horizontal direction relative to the support surface of the stack* or tier*.

LEVELING AGENT- For class 516

Term of the textile industry referring to a wetting agent* used to aid in the uniform dispersal of a dye in a dye bath and generally have wetting properties.

LEVER - For class 049

An elongated rigid arm which is pivoted at least one point along its length.

LIBRARY - For class 506

A library is a created collection of a plurality of compounds, micro-organisms, or other substances. The collection is useful as a test vehicle for determining which of its members or its subsets of members possess activities or properties of interest. A library might, for example, exist as (a) a solution, (b) a physical admixture, (c) an ordered or unordered array, or (d) a plurality of members present on a support and affixed thereto (e.g., by chemical bonding, physical attractive forces, coating, etc.).

LIFETIME - For class 257

The average time interval between the introduction of and recombination of minority charge carriers in a semiconductor.

LIFT-OFF - For class 438

Process for the removal of unwanted deposited material from a substrate (and thus patterning the same) by the dissolution of an intermediate layer and the commitant physical separation of the overlying deposited material.

LIGAND - For class 435

Any organic compound for which a receptor naturally exists or can be prepared; a linking or binding molecule.

LIGHT - For class 372

In this class, light includes not only optical wavelengths, i.e., that part of the spectrum extending from the near infrared, through the visible, to the ultraviolet, but also includes those portions of the spectrum which extends from the near infrared through the long wavelength, far infrared, and from the ultraviolet to X-rays and gamma rays at the shortest wavelengths.

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) - For class 257

Junction diodes which give off light when energized.

LIGHT FLUX - For class 396

Light flux is the rate of light flow across a surface.

LIGHT METAL - For class 532

This term denotes any metal having a specific gravity less than four.

LIGHT METAL- For class 075

A metal of the group Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), Francium (Fr), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Radium (Ra), Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), and Aluminum (Al).

LIGHT METALS - For class 257

Alkali metals, alkaline-earth metals, Be, Al, Mg.

LIGHT PARALLELING STRUCTURE - For class 353

Optical elements for directing the light from the concentrated light source so that it impinges on the object perpendicular to the plane of the object and uniformly illuminates the object to be projected.

LIGHT POLARIZING LENSES - For class 351

Lenses comprising a polarizing element which reduces light losses due to reflection.

LIGHT SOURCE - For class 355

The source of illumination for the copier. It includes filters, reflectors, screens and other light modifiers used to affect the spectral distribution, spatial distribution and intensity of the illumination.

LIGHT SOURCE - For class 362

An element (e.g., filament) or material (e.g., neon) which converts energy into visible radiant energy and/or the essential container of such an element or material, i.e., a light source envelope including the envelope base (e.g., light bulb, fluorescent tube). Unless otherwise specified, a light source is assumed to be a point source. For purposes of classification within this class, nominal recitations such as "light unit," "lamp," "headlight," etc., are assumed to denote only a light source.

LIGHT SOURCE - For class 399

The source of illumination for the copier. The light source includes filters, reflectors, screens, and other light modifiers used to affect the spectral distribution, spatial distribution, and intensity of the illumination.

LIGHT TRANSMITTING ROD - For class 385

Any optically transparent elongated structure used to transmit light from one end to the other end by other than modal transmission (e.g., in a random fashion).

LIGHT, VISIBLE LIGHT - For class 356

Visible light is radiation, which stimulates the optical receptors of the eye, and has a wavelength from 3850 to 7600 Angstrom units. The term light in these definitions refers to radiation in the above mentioned range, and when qualified by the terms ultraviolet and infrared refers to the corresponding radiation ranges adjacent the visible range.

LIGHT, VISIBLE LIGHT - For class 359

Visible light is radiation which stimulates the optical receptors of the eye and has a wavelength from 3850 to 7600 Angstrom units. The term light is used to refer to wavelengths in the above mentioned range and, often, also to refer to the ranges immediately adjacent, i.e., the ultra violet and infrared ranges which are nonvisible.

LIGHT, VISIBLE LIGHT - For class 372

Visible light is radiation which stimulates the optical receptors of the eye, and having a wavelength from 3850 to 7600 Angstrom units. The term light is used to refer to wavelengths in the above-mentioned range and, often, also to refer to the ranges immediately adjacent, i.e., the ultraviolet and infrared ranges which are nonvisible.

LIGNIN - For class 510

Denotes a material usually derived during paper pulp manufacture by separation of the cellulose from wood. Lignin is considered to be the binder for cellulose in wood. Lignin includes crude mixtures of lignose, lignone, and lignin. Lignin, per se, is a complex structure having some aromatic rings and phenolic groups.

LIGNIN - For class 520

Denotes a material usually derived during paper pulp manufacture by separation of the cellulose from wood. Lignin is considered to be the binder for cellulose in wood. Lignin includes crude mixtures of lignose, lignone and lignin. Lignin per se is a complex structure having some aromatic rings and phenolic groups.

LIGNIN DERIVATIVE - For class 520

Denotes materials not otherwise provided for, derived from lignin or from sulfite or soda paper pulping processes, e.g., sodium lignosulfonate, waste sulfite liquor, black liquor, etc.

LINE CIRCUIT - For class 363

The main power path between the source and the load.

LINE DEFECT - For class 257

A planar crystal defect (e.g., an extra plane of atoms in a crystal). It is also called an edge dislocation.

LINEAR MOVEMENT MOTORS - For class 318

A motor having means for causing the working element to move in a substantially linear or uni-directional path. The path may be straight, curved, tortuous, or even closed upon itself, provided the movable element is not pivoted for rotation about an axis. The motor may have means for reversing the direction of movement of the movable element. Where the reversing means includes means for periodically or repeatedly reversing the motor at predetermined intervals, the motor system is considered to be an oscillating or reciprocating motor system. See the Glossary definition of Oscillating Or Reciprocating Motor.

LINER - For class 166

A column of casing having screen forming perforations which does not extend to the top of the well and which is usually the lowest column of casing in the well. The liner is placed in position by lowering it from the top of the well through the casing sections already placed in well. The perforations may be formed before the liner is run into the well or after. The liner is sometimes surrounded by a perforated section of casing, the liner then becoming a secondary lining section of the well.

LINE-SPACE - For class 400

The distance caused by relative movement between a record-medium* and a print-point* of a type-member* against the record-medium, which movement effects separation of one print-line* of typed text from a subsequently imprinted line of typed text on the same page* of text. It is effected by incremental relative movement that occurs in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which a print-line is formed. In most typewriters the type- member is impressed in substantially the same area of the typewriter and the record-medium is effectively held to a platen* which moves incrementally between successive print-lines, but in some typewriters the type-member and its actuating mechanism moves in a corresponding direction in incremental movements between successive print-lines. Thus, in most typewriters, line-space movement is a specific form of record-medium movement, but line-space movement is a determinate, incremental movement in selected units of distance or in multiples or fractions thereof. If a unit of distance is considered as one line-space, the multiples would include two or three line-spaces and the fractions would include one-half, one and one-half, or two and one-half line-spaces, all these distances being selected by the user of a typewriter according to the needs of the user. The most significant aspect of line-space movement is that it is related to a preceding or succeeding print-line on the record-medium as distinguished from record-medium movement which is not related to a print-line, but rather is an indeterminate movement.

LINGUISTICS - For class 704

The study of human speech including the units, nature, structure, and modification of language.

LINING- For class 412

The material used for or process of reinforcing the back() of a bound book(*) by gluing a strip of the material to the back(*) of the book.

LINK - For class 049

A type of lever which is pivoted at two or more points along its length, usually at its extremities.

LINOLEIC ACID - For class 516

A diunsaturated fatty acid, the glyceride of which is present in drying oils such as linseed oil. CH3(CH2) 4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH.

LINOLENIC ACID - For class 516

A triunsaturated fatty acid, the glyceride of which is present in drying oils such as linseed oil. CH3CH 2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH.

LIPID - For class 977

Water-insoluble organic substances naturally found in cells that are extractable by nonpolar solvents such as chloroform, ether, or benzene. Lipids generally serve four general functions: (1) as structural components of membranes; (2) as intracellular storage depots of metabolic fuel; (3) as a transport form of metabolic fuel; and (4) as protective components of cell walls of many organisms. Some examples of natural lipids are long-chain fatty acids, fatty acid esters, acylglycerols, phosphoglycerides, steroids, waxes, terpenes, and fat-soluble vitamins.

LIPOSOME - For class 977

Particle with a lipid-containing outer wall that has an interior space that may contain various molecule types.

LIQUID - For class 210

A flowable material comprising at least one component that is a true liquid under the conditions of treatment. A slurry, wet sludge, pumpable sediment, emulsion, froth, all are considered liquid for treatment in this class.

LIQUID - For class 510

Denotes a shapeless, fluid composition of high incompressibility. Included herein are pumpable or flowable slurries or suspensions.

LIQUID SORBENT - For class 095

A liquid capable of retaining part of a fluid mixture with which it is contacted. The action in most cases is that of selective retention (i.e., the sorbent removes only that part of the fluid mixture for which it has the greatest affinity).

LIQUID SORBENT - For class 096

A liquid capable of retaining part of a fluid mixture with which it is contacted. The action in most cases is that of selective retention (i.e., the sorbent removes only that part of the fluid mixture for which it has the greatest affinity).

LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION - For class 423

The process of transferring a substance (fluid or solid) from one liquid phase in which it is dispersed or dissolved to a second liquid phase which is immiscible with the first liquid.

LIQUID-PHASE SYNTHESIS - For class 506

This terminology covers both solution-phase syntheses (i.e., reactions involving only one liquid phase) as well as syntheses in multiple liquid-phase systems (i.e., involving more than one liquid phase). The latter is concerned with syntheses performed on a liquid macromolecular compound such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), on dendrimers, or wherein a fluorocarbon phase is present in the system (fluorous synthesis).

LOAD - For class 330

The electric device or circuit which utilizes the output signal derived from the amplifier after the input signal has controlled the electric power supply by means of the amplifying device to yield a signal which is a replica of the input signal but usually of greater amplitude.

LOAD - For class 388

That device, or system, which is the recipient of the mechanical work output of an electric motor.

LOAD CIRCUIT - For class 322

Includes the system into which the electric energy from the electric generator is supplied, and may include a load device recited broadly or by name only (such as a welding load) in some cases. See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, above.

LOAD CIRCUIT - For class 323

The output terminals which are to be connected to a device which is to be supplied with electrical energy.

LOAD DEVICE - For class 315

The device to which the system supplies electrical energy and which, as claimed, constitutes the final or ultimate device for utilizing the electrical energy of the system.

LOAD DEVICE - For class 475

Mechanism which receives rotational power from an output member* to put such rotational power to useful work.

LOAD LASHING RETAINER - For class 410

Retainer which includes flaccid material accommodating means, the virtue of the flaccidity being in its infinite deflective capacity so that the means can (inter alia) (a) closely conform to exterior configurations of load units, (b) extend in guided changes in direction from the locus of securement to the freight carrier to that of the retentive engagement with the load unit, and (c) most particularly, under subjection to force multiplying means, be so tightly engaged with the load unit, and over such critical configurations of the load unit surface that the engagement of this nature constitutes load unit retention. A load lashing retainer may consist of a combination of rigid material and flaccid material elements provided that the flaccid material element (or member) is significant in the combination. Significance is present when the flaccid material element member is used (a) to attach the load lashing retainer to the freight carrier or retentively to connect with the load unit, or (b) to extend between the freight carrier attachment member and load unit securement member (one or both of which members are rigid) to impart to the load lashing retainer made up of these members unique advantages of flaccidity described in the preceding paragraph. Not all flaccid load unit accommodating relationships are, in fact, retentive. Tight encirclement of the load (i.e., wraparound lashing) tautened engagement with the load under the effect of force multiplying means, and a tiedown (defined hereinbelow) do, however, invariably accomplish load lashing retention.

LOAD, LOAD DEVICE, OR LOAD CIRCUIT - For class 320

Any electrical device for usefully converting or consuming electrical energy other than those devices which are merely accessory, auxiliary, or appurtenant to the source and/or the circuit which supplies electric energy. [An accessory or auxiliary device is a device used to affect operation, control, or care of a source and/or supply circuit and may, for example, comprise a device employed: (i) to test, indicate, or measure a condition of or in a source or supply circuit, or (ii) to regulate or control the flow of electric energy from or through the source or supply circuit.]

LOAD: - For class 477

Mechanism that receives rotational motion from a gear transmission* or clutch* to do useful work.

LOAD-BEARING - For class 052

A construction or component which is sufficiently strong and rigid to act as the primary support for other constructions or components against gravity or to resist transverse loading (see sustainer).

LOADED ANTENNA - For class 343

An active antenna having an elongated portion of appreciable electrical length and having additional inductance or capacity directly in series or shunt with the elongated portion so as to modify the standing wave pattern existing along the portion or to change the effective electrical length of the portion.

LOADED LINES - For class 333

A long line to which lumped impedance elements, usually capacitors or inductors, are added at regularly spaced points along the length thereof, or to which an added impedance is applied in a continuous manner, as for example, by wrapping a strip of magnetic material about the line or device to increase the inductance of the line or device.

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) - For class 370

A relatively short distance data communication network linking computers and other devices utilizing some type of standard control.

LOCAL OSCILLATOR - For class 725

An oscillator in a superheterodyne circuit whose output is mixed with the received signal to produce a sum or difference frequency equal to the intermediate frequency of the receiver.

LOCAL OXIDE CMOS (LOCMOS) - For class 257

Local oxide complementary metal oxide semiconductor structure which features oxide isolation which is recessed into the semiconductor surface.

LOCKING MEANS- For class 024

A component having the sole function of restricting the movement between and holding in a particular position or orientation (e.g., not moving or reorienting) either (1) one portion of the fastener relative to another portion of the fastener, or (2) one fastener relative to another fastener.

LOCOS - For class 257

(Local Oxidation of Silicon) Patterns of oxide isolation which are recessed into the semiconductor surface. Sometimes also called isoplanar, ROX (Recessed Oxide Isolation), or planox.

LOCOS - For class 438

local oxidation of silicon

LOG - For class 144

A longitudinal section cut from a tree*, generally cut normal thereto at both ends.

LOGIC - For class 326

The science dealing with the basic principles and applications of truth tables, Boolean algebra, etc.

LONG LINE - For class 330

A wave transmission device or line having distributed parameters and especially designed to propagate electrical wave energy where the wave length of the transmitted energy is relatively short when compared with the length of the transmission line or device. The impedance of a long line is practically fixed by the constants of the line itself. The length of the transmission line or device may be a multiple or a fraction of a wave length, e.g., 1/4, 1/2, etc., or otherwise have its length proportioned to the wave length of the energy with which it is to be used.

LONG LINE - For class 333

A wave transmission device or line having distributed parameters and especially designed to propagate electrical wave energy where the wave length of the transmitted energy is relatively short when compared with the length of the transmission line or device. The impedance of a long line is practically fixed by the constants of the line itself. The length of the transmission line or device may be a multiple or a fraction of a wave length, e.g., 1/4, 1/2, etc., or otherwise have its length proportioned to the wave length of the energy with which it is to be used.

LONG LINE ELEMENT - For class 330

A circuit element having distributed parameters, such as a resonator, or a wave guide. A long line element may be a part of a long line wave transmission device or used in a network with other circuit elements of the lumped parameter type, for example, as in the case of delay networks, impedance matching networks, wave filters.

LONG LINE ELEMENT - For class 333

A circuit element having distributed parameters, such as a resonator, or a wave guide. A long line element may be a part of a long line wave transmission device or used in a network with other circuit elements of the lumped parameter type, for example, as in the case of delay networks, impedance matching networks, wave filters.

LONGITUDINAL - For class 172

A direction which is parallel to the line of draft of a tool over the earth unless some other meaning is clearly indicated.

LONGITUDINAL - For class 226

As used in this class, the term refers to the direction along the length of the indeterminate-length* material.

LOOP - For class 352

A slack portion of a motion picture film strip useful to isolate tensionally derived speed variations.

LOOP PATH - For class 330

In an amplifier having signal feedback, the path of the signal from the input point where the signal feedback is applied forward through the amplifier to the point in the circuit from which the signal feedback is derived through the signal feedback path to the aforesaid input point.

LOPED - For class 438

lift-off using edge detection

LOW WORK FUNCTION ELECTRODE (cold cathode, cathodes containing or coated with electron emissive material) - For class 313

A cathode containing or coated with a material which readily emits electrons, i.e., a material which has a low work function. Examples of such materials are the alkali metals and their oxides, alkaline earth metals and their oxides, thorium, magnesium. The expression glow work function electrodeh includes thermionic electrodes which contain or are coated with electron emissive material, photosensitive cathodes, secondary emissive cathodes as well as cathodes which emit electrons without being heated.

LOWER-CASE - For class 400

A gsmallh letter, similar in appearance to this text, as opposed to upper-case*. The names lower-case and upper-case are derived from the printing art during the period when type-faces* were handpicked and handset, the type being picked from a tray in which the capital or upper-case type were held in compartments physically located above the compartments for the small or lower-case type.

LPCVD - For class 438

low-pressure chemical vapor deposition

LPE - For class 438

liquid phase epitaxy

LRP - For class 438

limited reaction processing

LSI - For class 438

large scale integration

LSSL - For class 438

lateral surface superlattice

LST - For class 438

logic service terminal

LTCC - For class 438

low temperature co-fired ceramic

LTG - For class 438

low temperature growth

LTO - For class 438

low temperature oxidation

LUMBER - For class 144

Building material cut from a tree*, generally cut from a log*, generally without bark*.

LUMINESCENCE - For class 257

Emission of light by directly converting some other type of energy. Types include thermoluminescence, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and electroluminescence. It includes fluorescence and phosphorescence. Active solid-state luminescent devices are semiconductors which operate via injection luminescence. Active devices include pn junctions (including heterojunctions), Schottky barrier junctions, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures, and high speed traveling domains, e.g., Gunn domain and acoustoelectric wave generated domains; whereas passive solid-state electroluminescent devices (phosphors) are insulators which operate in an intrinsic luminescence phenomena, i.e., where an applied electric field generates free carriers (there being no free carriers in an insulator to be accelerated by an applied field unless the field also generates them) to initiate the light emission mechanism.

LUMINESCENCE - For class 438

The emission of visible or invisible radiation unaccompanied by high temperature by any substance as a result of absorption of exciting energy in the form of photons, charged particles, or chemical change. It is a general term which includes fluorescence and phosphorescence. Types include hemiluminescence, bioluminescence, photoluminescence, electroluminescence, photoluminescence, and triboluminescence. Active solid-state luminescent devices are semiconductors which operate via injection luminescence. Active devices include pn junctions (including heterojunctions), Schottky barrier junctions, metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures, and high speed traveling domains (e.g., Gunn domain and acoustoelectric wave generated domains). Passive solid-state electroluminescent devices (phosphors) are insulators which operate in an intrinsic luminescence phenomena (i.e., where an applied electric field generates free carriers) to initiate the light emission mechanism, there being no free carriers in an insulator to be accelerated by an applied field unless the field also generates them.

LUMPED PARAMETERS OR IMPEDANCES - For class 333

When the impedance of a transmission line or device at the operating frequency may be considered as equivalent to devices concentrated at one point, and the parameters of the system including the line or device is not substantially independent of the load devices connected thereto, the transmission line or device may be said to have lumped parameters. Lumped impedances is also used to include devices such as capacitors, inductors, and resistors which have their impedance concentrated at the terminals thereof.

MACHINE - For class 015

Defined in this class as an organization including a mechanism, which contains within itself its own guide for operation, to move either (1) a cleaning agency, or a coating agency of a type recognized in this class, relative to the work surface or (2) a means to constrain the work and said agency to some type of definite relative motion in response to manual or other actuation. (Note: A guide on a stripping brush aids in directing the brush but does not constrain it to any definite path other than that determined by the work itself).

MACHINE - For class 184

The term gmachineh includes any device having bearing parts.

MACHINE - For class 249

Usually a power driven (e.g., motor) organization including a mechanism, which contains within itself its own guide for operation which once commenced the operator lacks control thereover except for starting and stopping the same.

MACHINE - For class 355

A complete unit in itself for imaging an original or carrier onto a receiver. It may also include means for developing, transferring and fixing the image, as well as means for handling the record carrier on which the image is fixed.

MACHINE - For class 399

A complete unit, in itself, for imaging an original or carrier onto a receiver. It may also include means for developing, transferring, and fixing the image, as well as means for handling the record carrier on which the image is fixed.

MACHINE - For class 407

An assembly of components adapted to support work and a tool* and bring them together to perform a shaping operation by piercing the work with the tool and removing a chip therefrom. Specifically, a machine for use with the cutter of this class will be a gmilling, gear cutting, or planingh machine or a lathe.

MACHINE-FRAME - For class 408

Structure relative to which a tool moves during operation, which structure is of particular utility due to its physical configuration for supporting the weight of a tool or for counteracting the thrust of the tool, wherein the tool to be supported or the force of which is to be counteracted is adapted to perform an operation of this class type.

MACHINING - For class 029

The physical act of or means for shaping by removing material by means of a cutting edge. This term includes milling, cutting, turning, boring, drilling, abrading, broaching, filing, sawing, punching, blanking, and planing.

MACROSCOPIC - For class 510

Denotes a shape discernible by the naked eye.

MAGNETIC - For class 400

A property of nature resulting in attraction or orientation of a ferrous material relative to a body having such a property. Examples of such a body include the earth, a loadstone, and a coil of wire in an electrical circuit, all of which have, or can generate, a magnetic field. Magnetism is used to produce a force, as in a magnetic solenoid, or to transmit a force, as in a magnetic clutch. Magnetic also describes a property inherent in an auxiliary-record-program* containing ferrous particles capable of being oriented or reoriented relative to the auxiliary record, the orientation of the particles being sensed to effect a typing operation in response to the sensing.

MAGNETIC - For class 428

A material exhibiting the inherent property of magnetism, which is dependent on the electronic configuration of the atom, crystalline and molecular structure, and coupling between electrons arising from the orbital and spin magnetic moments of the nucleus and electrons. A material is considered magnetic for the purposes of this class if it exhibits a nonzero magnetic moment, such as in paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and ferrimagnetism.

MAGNETIC BODY - For class 336

Same as "CORE" above.

MAGNETIC FORCE MICROSCOPE - For class 977

Scanning probe microscope in which a magnetic force causes the tip to move.

MAGNETIC MIRRORS - For class 376

See Mirror Field.

MAGNETICALLY CONTROLLED SPACE DISCHARGE DEVICE - For class 331

An active element comprising means for producing a space discharge of charged particles and having further means for subjecting the space discharge to the direct control of a magnetic field and an electric field.

MAGNETOSTRICTIVE MOTOR - For class 318

A motor having a magnetizable member or which has its dimensions changed as a result of changing currents in the electromagnetic field producing means which effects the magnetizable member, the physical distortion or change in dimensions producing the mechanical energy.

MAGNETRON - For class 331

A magnetically controlled space discharge device comprising a linear cathode, an anode, usually cylindrical, coaxial therewith, the magnetic field being parallel to longitudinal axis of the cathode, while the electric field is transverse thereto.

MAGNITUDE OR LEVEL CONTROL - For class 323

Includes controlling either the amplitude of the current or voltage or controlling the average or effective value of the current or voltage, even through the amplitude is not controlled.

MAHOGANY ACIDS; MAHOGANY SOAP - For class 516

The oil soluble sulfonic acid products of sulfonation of petroleum oils. Cf. green* acids. Mahogany soaps are the saponified acids.

MAINSTREAM - For class 210

The main body of liquid being treated as constrasted with separated constituents. The mainstream may comprise several divided streams, some of which undergo treatment and which are a substantial part of the overall feed but a relatively small stream diverted for a dosing technique in which agents are added in a concentrated amount and the diverted stream is diluted with the main body is not considered to be the mainstream, per se. A recirculated portion of the stream is not considered to be the mainstream.

MAJORITY CARRIER - For class 257

The predominant charge carrier in a semiconductor. Electrons are majority carriers in n-type semiconductors. Holes are majority carriers in p-type semiconductors.

MAJORITY CARRIER - For class 438

The predominant charge carrier in a semiconductor. Electrons are majority carriers in n-type semiconductors. Holes are majority carriers in p-type semiconductors.

MAJORITY CARRIERS - For class 330

See the definition of N- or P-type conductivity below.

MAJORITY CURRENT - For class 257

Current caused by the flow of majority carriers.

MALLEABLEIZING - For class 148

A process applied to cast irons whereby the combined carbon in the as-cast microstructure is graphitized to form temper carbon. When combined with decarburization of the surface, the resulting product is termed white-heart malleable iron.

MANDREL - For class 425

A shaping form over or around which material is shaped or a preform is resized.

MANIFOLDING - For class 462

The process of simultaneously producing indicia on an under-body* such as a flexible sheet+ or strip* by impression* of such indicia on an upper-body*.

MANIPULATE - For class 269

see gHANDh

MANIPULATING - For class 173

Moving the tool drive from one place to another to perform a function upon work. This movement is separate from or in addition to the advance movement of the tool.

MANIPULATING HANDLE - For class 173

A means specifically intended to be grasped by the hand or hands of an operator to move the tool drive, of which it forms a part, to different positions with respect to the work, and to be continually grasped by the operator as the tool advances in performing a function upon work.

MANUFACTURE - For class 141

In order to draw a line with the manufacturing classes which may include filling, the term is used here as meaning an operation on material, or apparatus for operating on material, to effect a permanent or irreversible change in the physical character of the material, e.g. cutting, crushing, shaping and boring, or to arrange the parts of an article of manufacture into their desired relation, i.e., assembling.

MANUFACTURING - For class 029

The physical act of or means for creating, constructing, fabricating, machining, working, shaping, assembling, disassembling, and repairing of machines, devices, and things (articles).

MARGIN - For class 400

The distance from an edge of the record-medium* to the closest character* symbol of a print-line* to that edge. The term is most usually used when a plurality of print-lines are typed and the first imprinted characters of each of the print-lines are all equally spaced from the edge. When typing any language that is read from left to right, the left margin is the distance from the left edge to these first characters and will usually be parallel to that edge, whereas the right margin is the distance of the right edge to the last characters of the successive print-lines. However, because the number of characters in a print-line is subject to chance, the right margin will usually not be equally spaced from the right edge unless gjustificationh is performed. For a discussion of justification, see (1) Note to the definition of subclass 1 below.

MARGIN-STOP - For class 400

A member that is used to stop the movement of a carriage* when the carriage reaches the margin* of the record-medium*. The margin-stop of a platen* carriage (see the definition of carriage in this Glossary) is usually mounted on the platen carriage for movement therewith and cooperates with a stop fixed to the frame of the typewriter, whereas the margin-stop of a gtypehead-carriageh (see the definition of carriage in this Glossary) is usually mounted on the frame of the typewriter and cooperates with a stop mounted on the type-head carriage for movement therewith, but in either typewriter one margin-stop may be set for various margin distances for the left margin and another margin-stop may be set for various margin distances for the right margin.

MARK - For class 347

A discrete area on the medium which contains the plurality of portions*. Unless otherwise indicated, gmarkh and gsymbolh are used synonymously in the subclass definitions of this class.

MARKING - For class 347

The specific manner by which the mark* is formed; e.g., ink jet, impact, thermal, electric (e.g., toner applied to a latent image), or radiation.

MARKUP LANGUAGE - For class 715

Any language that provides ways to indicate attributes in TEXT*.

MARTEMPERING - For class 148

A process which involves preliminary quenching of austenized metal to a temperature just above the Ms temperature and holding until the temperature is equalized throughout the metal, followed by air cooling through the martensite transformation range and subsequent reheating to produce tempered martensite of the desired strength level.

MARVERING - For class 065

Rolling a gather of glass on a flat plate whereby it is shaped and cooled.

Masking - For class 704

1. The interference with the perception of one sound (the signal) with another sound (the masker). 2. The number of decibels by which a masking sound will raise (or change) a listener"s threshold of audibility of other sounds.

MASS - For class 428

A body of material of indefinite or indeterminate shape. (Structural)

MASTER - For class 060

An expansible chamber device which provides a contracting volume to expel fluid from the chamber or to place the fluid therein under pressure. All valve means or chamber means associated with the expansible chamber device are included under this definition.

MASTER - For class 355

(a) The negative or positive original from which reproductions are made; (b) a microform copy which is used for the production of copies; or (c) a copy from which additional reproductions are made.

MASTER - For class 399

(a) The negative or positive original from which reproductions are made, (b) a microform copy used for the production of copies, or (c) a copy from which additional reproductions are made.

MASTER CYLINDER - For class 060

An art term applied to a unitary assembly of a master and its associated holder of a reserve supply of make-up fluid.

MASTER-KEY - For class 070

One designed for control of all of a plurality or series of lock operating mechanisms, each of which has its individually distinct operating means or implement.

MASTERSLICE ARRAY/MASTERCHIP - For class 257

A substrate that contains active and passive electronic components in a predetermined pattern which may be connected into different logic or analog circuits.

MASTERSLICE ARRAY/MASTERCHIP - For class 438

A substrate that contains active and passive electronic components in a predetermined pattern which may be connected into different logic or analog circuits.

MATCH PLATE PATTERN - For class 164

A pattern plate with several patterns secured thereto or a plate having matching pattern portions mounted on opposite sides.

MATERIAL - For class 100

The solid substance subjected to compressive force or about which a binder is applied.

MATERIAL - For class 226

The work, stock, web, strand or other interconnected stuff which is being advanced.

MATERIAL - For class 366

A mass of fluid, viscous, particulate, or plastic substance which is to be agitated.

MATERIAL - For class 401

A liquid or solid substance which is intended to be applied to a work surface as a coating.

MATERIAL - For class 516

Material is given its broadest meaning and includes mixtures (petroleum, alloys, cement, etc.) and substances*.

MATERIAL GUIDE - For class 141

Means other than funnels to direct material from supply to receiver without forming a flow-confining connection between them. Examples of material guides in this class are: (1) A nonflow support for contents material associated with a receiver support over which the material can be pushed or moved manually into the receiver; (2) A flow directing detachable extension of a receiver inlet which may be either tubular or channel-shaped in cross-section. If tubular and tapering, it must either engage the receiver externally or be located entirely within the receiver. Cf funnel, above; or (3) An extension of a supply container which is hand held, the extension being designed to engage the receiver and direct the flow thereto.

MATING PART - For class 439

A coupling part for electrically connecting with a specific coupling part. Actually a coupling part and a mating part are structurally the same, the distinct terminology is used in this class as an aid to expression.

MATING-MEMBER - For class 227

A gmating-memberh. A. discrete element which has as its sole disclosed function that of aiding in maintaining a driven member in its penetrated relationship with the work, or has such a peculiar shape as to be obviously intended to perform this sole function; this sole function being accomplished by permanent interassociation or interlocking of the member and the gmating-memberh. (Note-A gmating-memberh for the purposes of this class is considered a workpiece.)

MATRIX - For class 149

As used in this class refers to a shapeless mass resulting by solidifying at least one component from either its liquid or molten state in more or less a continuous phase and wherein there is dispersed throughout at least a second component in particulate form and in substantially a discontinuous phase.

MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN STATISTICS - For class 977

Statistical distribution of classical (nonquantum) particles, such as molecules in a gas, etc., between energy states.

MBE - For class 117

Molecular Beam Epitaxy*.

MBE - For class 438

molecular beam epitaxy

MBM JUNCTION - For class 257

Active solid-state devices having metal-barrier-metal layer junctions.

MBM JUNCTION - For class 438

Active solid-state devices having metal-barrier-metal layer junctions.

mc - For class 438

microcrystalline

MCM - For class 438

multichip module

MCT - For class 438

(a) MOS controlled thyristor or (b) HgCdTe

MCz - For class 438

magnetic Czoshralski

MEASURING-TESTING - For class 356

Measuring usually involves a more precise and quantitative determination of the characteristic or property in question. Testing may be a mere indication of the presence or absence of the characteristic or property, and may involve only a mere inspection or viewing of the phenomenon or specimen. It should be recognized that the two terms overlap to some extent in meaning.

MECHANICAL-INTERLOCK BOND - For class 425

A joint made by random lapping of discrete pieces, (e.g., as in a bale of paper, etc.).

MEDIA - For class 435

Material which supports or sustains growth of microorganisms which material may contain substances which will not support or may inhibit the growth of selected microorganisms.

MEDIA/MEDIA TYPES - For class 715

A way of presenting information, including TEXT, audio, video or image.

MEDIUM - For class 347

A substrate on which the visibly distinguishable or latent symbol or mark is formed.

MEETING FACE - For class 228

That portion of a work part* intended to abut and be fusion bonded to another similar portion of the same or another work part.

Mel - For class 704

A subjective measure of pitch based upon a signal of 1000 Hz. being defined as "1000 mels" where a perceived frequency twice as high is defined as 2000 mels and half as high as 500 mels.

MELT - For class 164

Metal that has been melted in preparation for casting.

MEM - For class 438

micro-electromechanical

MEMBER - For class 227

An object, or the end portion of indeterminate length material, comprising at least one pointed and/or generally elongated rod-like or tubular projection disclosed as being intended to penetrate* work* when the member, or the work, is engaged and bodily moved by a driver* substantially in the directing of said projection(s).

MEMBER - For class 403

One of a plurality of structures which are connected. See (1) Note.

MEMBER(S) - For class 277

These are component(s) that make up the seal.

MEMBRANE - For class 210

A skinlike thin film which acts as a barrier or container wall; the usual form of a permeable or semipermeable septum. A semipermeable membrane is a skinlike, relatively thin film which serves to define a barrier or container wall to at least one of the constituents of a solution or colloidal suspension and allows at least one other constituent to pass through by a mechanism which may include but goes beyond mere straining and which mechanism is in part due to differences in behavior of the constituents of the solution or suspension with respect to the material of the membrane. The constituents vary in their ability to diffuse through or to wet the membrane. Membranelike includes mambrane, per se, and material which, while not strictly in a self-supporting skinlike structure, functions in an analogous manner and includes a layer of fine particulate matter or an emulsion as set out in subclass 643. A process which depends only on the relative size of pores and molecules or ions of a constituent is a filtering or straining process and is classified under separation, subclass 767.

MEMORY - For class 345

A functional unit to which data can be stored and from which data can be retrieved.

MEMORY - For class 706

A functional unit to which data can be stored and which data can be retrieved.

MEMORY - For class 707

A functional unit to which data can be stored and from which data can be retrieved.

MEMORY - For class 709

A functional unit to which data can be stored and from which data can be retrieved.

MEMORY - For class 710

A functional unit to which data can be stored and from which data can be retrieved.

MEMORY - For class 711

A functional unit to which data can be stored and from which data can be retrieved.

MEMORY - For class 712

A functional unit to which data can be stored and from which data can be retrieved.

MEMORY - For class 713

A functional unit to which data can be stored and from which data can be retrieved.

MEMORY - For class 714

A functional unit to which data can be stored and from which data can be retrieved.

MEMORY - For class 718

A functional unit to which data can be stored and from which data can be retrieved.

MEMORY - For class 719

A functional unit to which data can be stored and from which data can be retrieved.

MEMS (MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS) - For class 977

Systems including components from 1-100 microns in size with a movable member and an electrical input and/or output to the movable member; refers to scanning probes and other devices interfacing with the nanoscale; differentiated from nanotechnology not just in size but also via top-down versus bottom-up manufacturing approach.

MENSURATION - For class 356

Measurement of lengths, areas, or volumes.

MER - For class 516

The part of a monomer which is present in the reaction product of a reaction involving what is commonly referred to as a monomer (e.g., dimer, trimer, tetramer, oligomer).

MESFET - For class 438

metal semiconductor FET (Schottky gate)

MESSAGE - For class 342

A signal used to convey intelligence, such as telephone signals (e.g., speech). gMessageh is used in a more limited sense than gsignalh for the purpose of classification in this class, in that gsignalh includes the transmission of control impulses for operating mechanisms other than mere signal reproducers.

MESSAGE - For class 343

A signal used to convey intelligence, such as telegraph signals or telephone signals (e.g., speech). Message is used in more limited sense than signal for the purpose of classification in this class in that signal includes the transmission of control impulses for operation mechanism other than mere signal reproducers.

MESSAGE - For class 725

In telecommunications, a combination of characters and symbols transferred from one point to another.

METAL - For class 060

The term includes a free metallic element (e.g., lithium), an alloy of two or more metals (e.g., 25% Na 75% K), and intermetallic compound (e.g., A1Ni) or a mere mixture of particles of two or more metals.

METAL - For class 072

The material subjected to an operation of the class type; an elemental metal or alloy of mixture thereof in self-shape-sustaining state (i.e., not molten, gaseous, or powdered); metal as the term is employed in Class 29, Metal Working, and Class 148, Metal Treatment.

METAL - For class 117

Element other than non-metal* (see non-metal*).

METAL - For class 216

As found in the periodic table of the elements, is any element not named in the following listing, all group VIII, VIIB, VIB elements except polonium, nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, silicon, and boron.

METAL - For class 228

Material which may be subjected to an operation of the class type; an elemental metal or alloy of mixture of metals in self-shape-sustaining state (i.e., not molten, gaseous, or powdered).

METAL - For class 428

A material having a continuous phase of any element of the periodic table except hydrogen, a noble gas, a halogen, a chalcogen (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium), nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon and boron. Elemental silicon is considered to be a metal, but a silicon compound is not considered to be a metal compound on the basis of silicon content. The term gmetal compoundh in a subclass title does not include glass or asbestos, unless specifically included by title or definition. The metal may be a pure metal or an alloy as defined in Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclass 122, (1) Note. An intermetallic compound of two or more metals, e.g., a metal silicide, aluminide, etc., is considered to be an alloy. (Nonstructural or Composition)

METAL - For class 502

An element that is not designated a nonmetal as listed infra. Nonmetals are H, B, C, Si, N, P, O, S, Se, Te, Halogens (F, Cl, Br, I, At,) and noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn). The various types or groups of metals are as set out at the beginning of the schedule.

METAL CORROSION - For class 510

For purposes of this class, the term denotes impairment or deterioration of a metal surface, such as erosion, embrittlement, tarnishing, or discoloration, usually by chemical action.

METAL- For class 075

Element other than nonmetal (q.v.).

METAL- For class 420

Element other than nonmetal (q.v.)

METAL, NON-SEMICONDUCTOR - For class 117

See NON-SEMICONDUCTOR METAL.

METAL-GATE FET - For class 257

A field effect transistor having a gate conductor made of metal, rather than polycrystalline semiconductor material.

METALLIC - For class 428

Composed entirely of metal* or having adjacent metal components. Since autogenous bonding of two metallic parts is thought to involve inherently either a diffusion or alloying between constituents of the two parts, this diffusion or alloy layer, even though of appreciable thickness, does not prevent the undiffused or unalloyed regions from being considered. (Structural)

METALLIC COMPOSITION - For class 075

A composition which contains a continuous phase of metal and no continuous phase of nonmetal.

METALLIC COMPOSITION - For class 420

A composition which contains a continuous phase of metal and no continuous phase of nonmetal.

METALLIZATION - For class 257

A single or multilayer film pattern of electrically conductive material deposited on a substrate to interconnect electronic components, or the metal film on the bonding area of a substrate which becomes part of the bond and performs both an electrical and a mechanical function.

METALLIZATION - For class 438

Process of coating (a) metal or (b) other material which is identified as having the conductive characteristic of a metal onto a semiconductor or a substrate containing semiconductor regions to form electrodes, contacts, interconnects, bonding pads, or heat sinks and also including formation of conductive material by doping of nonconductive material.

METAL-OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (MOSFET) - For class 257

See INSULATED GATE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR.

METAL-OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR (MOSFET) - For class 438

See Insulated-gate Field Effect Transistor.

METALS - For class 257

Elements other than non-metals. See NON-METALS.

METALS - For class 520

Are limited to elements of atomic numbers 3, 4, 11-13, 19-33, 37-51, 55-84, 87, and higher. Note. The Group IA metals are Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr. Note. The Group IIA metals are Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra. Note. The Group IIIA metals are Ai, Ga, In, Ti. Note. The Group IVA metals are Ge, Sn, Pb. Note. The Group VA metals are As, Sb, Bi. Note. The Group VIA metal is Po. Note. The Group IB metals are Cu, Ag, Au. Note. The Group IIB metals are Zn, Cd, Hg. Note. The Group IIIB metals are Sc, Y, La, Ac. Note. The Group IVB metals are Ti, Zr, Hf. Note. The Group VB metals are V, Nb, Ta. Note. The Group VIB metals are Cr, Mo, W. Note. The Group VIIB metals are Mn, Tc, Re. Note. The Group VIII metals are Fe, Ru, Os, Co, Rh, Ir, Nb, Pd, Pt. Note. gTransition metalh is limited to elements of atomic numbers 21-29, 39-47, 57-79, 89, and higher and does not include Zn, Cd, and Hg.

METALS AND NONMETALS - For class 532

Hydrogen, boron, carbon, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorous, oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, the noble gases and the halogens, including astatine, are considered to be nonmetals. All other elements, including arsenic, are considered metals.

METHINE GROUP - For class 008

Methine group refers to -CH=.

METHYLOL OR METHYLOL DERIVATIVE - For class 520

Methylol or methylol derivative is limited to

(a) A compound containing a

Image for class 520

(b) A compound containing a T-(-O-A)n

(c) A compound containing a

Image for class 520

Y" and Y” are H or hydrocarbon groups; Z is H or a carbon atom. T - is an atom other than C or H. A - is a hydrogen or a carbon atom and which carbon atom is bonded to only H, carbon, or single bonded oxygen atoms. X - is H, part of an ether group, or an inorganic salt. n - is two or more, B is one or more.

MF3R - For class 438

modified fully-framed fully-recessed isolation

MGSi - For class 438

metallurgical-grade silicon

MICROFILTER - For class 210

See FILTER.

MICRON - For class 210

A linear measurement equal to one millionth of a meter, one thousandth of a mm, 39 millionths of an inch.

MICRO-ORGANISM - For class 210

Living plants or animals of a size normally visible only through a microscope and includes bacteria, yeast, fungi, and virus. For purposes of this class, algae are not considered micro-organisms. The scope of this term is coextensive with the organisms of Class 435, Molecular Biology and Microbiology.

MICROORGANISM - For class 435

For purposes of this class, bacteria, actinomycetales, cyanobacteria (unicellular algae), fungi, protozoa, animal cells or plant cells or virus.

MICRO-ORGANISMS - For class 506

Bacteria; actinomycetales; single-celled fungi (e.g., yeast, etc.); virus, human, animal, or plant cells; tissues; protozoa; or unicellular algae.

MICROPROCESSOR - For class 388

A circuit which can be programmed with stored instructions to perform a variety of functions, which functions may include, for example, one or more modes of motor control.

MICROWAVE - For class 725

Pertaining to the portion of the radio frequency spectrum above 1 GHz.

MIM - For class 438

metal-insulator-metal

MIM DIODE - For class 257

A junction diode with a thin insulating layer of material sandwiched between two metallic surface layers which operates as a tunneling (direct or Fowler-Nordheim type) diode.

MIM DIODE - For class 438

A junction diode with a thin insulating layer of material sandwiched between two metallic surface layers which operates as a tunneling (direct or Fowler-Nordheim type) diode.

MINERAL OIL - For class 208

Included in this term are natural petroleum, asphalt, tars, pitches and waxes which are primarily mixtures of hydrocarbons. Included also are Fischer-Tropsch crudes, that is, the liquid hydrocarbonaceous mixture resulting from the hydrogenation of a carbon oxide, wood tars and wood tar oils which are similar to coal tar in that they include an unidentified mixture, including hydrocarbons. Solid carbonaceous materials such as coal, lignite, peat, etc., (as distinguished from solid asphalts or asphalt bearing shales or sands) are not included.

MINERAL PLASTIC - For class 425

A naturally occurring mineral which can be formed into a stone-like product by grinding, wetting, shaping and burning.

MINERAL-OIL - For class 516

Included by this term are (1) materials exploited from the Earth which are liquid, primarily petroleum oil or relatively crude fractions thereof, which are primarily mixtures of hydrocarbons, (2) liquid or semi-solid derivatives of solid materials exploited from the Earth, including asphalts (from petroleum, shale, or sand sources), tars (including coal tar), pitches, or waxes, which are primarily mixtures of hydrocarbons, (3) materials which are Fischer-Tropsch crudes, that is, the liquid hydrocarbonaceous mixture resulting from the hydrogenation of a carbon oxide, (4) wood tars or wood tar oils, which are similar to coal tar in that they include an unidentified mixture including hydrocarbons. Note: excluded are (1) substantially purified hydrocarbon compounds, (2) solid carbonaceous materials such as coal, lignite, or peat (as distinguished from semi-solid petroleum-derived asphalts or asphalt derived from shales or sands). See section LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS, subsection Glossary References, for additional information concerning this definition.

MINORITY CARRIER - For class 257

The less predominant charge carrier in a semiconductor. In a p-type semiconductor, minority carriers are electrons, whereas in n-type semiconductor material, minority carriers are holes.

MINORITY CARRIER - For class 438

The less predominant charge carrier in a semiconductor. In a p-type semiconductor, minority carriers are electrons, whereas in n-type semiconductor material, minority carriers are holes.

MINORITY CARRIERS - For class 330

See the definition of N- or P-type conductivity below.

MINORITY CURRENT - For class 257

The current caused by flowing minority carriers.

MIRROR FIELD - For class 376

For confinement of plasma, a system has been devised whereby a longitudinal magnetic field is applied to the plasma, but instead of being uniform, the field strength is increased at spaced points. The region of enhanced magnetic field is referred to as a mirror field or magnetic mirror. Substantially all of the charged particles moving from the region of lower to that of the higher field strength, will be reflected back into the former region. This field thus acts as a sort of potential well which inhibits escape of many of the charged particles (and consequent loss of energy).

MIS - For class 257

Acronym for metal-insulator-semiconductor. Typically active solid-state devices with MIS technology have a silicon dioxide layer formed on a single crystal silicon substrate. A polysilicon conductor layer is formed on the oxide.

MIS - For class 438

Acronym for metal-insulator-semiconductor. Typically active solid-state devices with MIS technology have a silicon dioxide layer formed on a single crystal silicon substrate. A polysilicon conductor layer is formed on the oxide.

MISFET - For class 438

metal insulator semiconductor IGFET

MISSILE - For class 102

Any object thrown, dropped, projected, or propelled for the purpose of making it damage a target.

MIXING CHAMBER - For class 366

A space bounded on at least three sides by well structure within which agitation takes place. The chamber may be in the form of a trough, a conduit, or a container of any shape. A supply reservoir or a conveyor for feeding material to a mixing chamber and which includes means for agitating the material prior to its entry into the mixing chamber will not be considered a mixing chamber.

MLC - For class 438

multilayer ceramic

MLEC - For class 438

magnetic LEC

MLO - For class 438

multilayer oxide

MLR - For class 438