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LOUDSPEAKERS, MICROPHONES, GRAMOPHONE PICK-UPS OR LIKE ACOUSTIC ELECTROMECHANICAL TRANSDUCERS; DEAF-AID SETS; PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEMS (generating mechanical vibrations in general B06B; transducers for measuring particular variables G01; transducers in clocks G04; producing sounds with frequency not determined by supply frequency G10K; transducers in recording or reproducing heads G11B; transducers in motors H02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Loudspeakers, microphones, acoustic transducers therefor producing acoustic waves or variations of electric current or voltage, or gramophone pick-ups arrangements actuated by variations of electric current or voltage for cutting grooves in records;

circuits for the above-mentioned loudspeakers, microphones, acoustic transducers, gramophone pick-ups or arrangements;

monitoring or testing of the above-mentioned loudspeakers, microphones, acoustic transducers, gramophone pick-ups, arrangements or circuits therefor.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Regarding producing sound, this subclass covers producing sound with a frequency determined by the supply frequency, whereas G10K covers producing sounds with frequency not determined by supply frequency G10K.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Generating mechanical vibrations in general
Transducers for measuring particular variables
Transducers in recording or reproducing heads
Special rules of classification within this subclass

Classification of invention information and additional information is obligatory.

Further detail not provided for in any of the main groups is provided for in the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2201/00, H04R 2307/00 and H04R 2400/00 below. Classification is obligatory.

Indexing Code symbols of the type H04R 2201/00 - H04R 2231/00 represent further breakdown of an ECLA group and should be used to classify invention-type information only.

Indexing Code symbols of the type H04R 2307/00 and H04R 2400/00 - H04R 2499/00 represent information orthogonal to one or to more than one ECLA group and should be used to classify information relevant for the invention, although it need not be invention information.

With the exception of H04R 2400/00, H04R 2410/00 and H04R 2440/00, Indexing Code groups of the type H04R 2201/00, H04R 2307/00 and H04R 2400/00 should not be used for classification. H04R 2201/02, H04R 2201/10 and H04R 2201/40 should also not be used for classification.

Further detail not provided for in any of the main groups is provided for in the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04S 2400/00 and T04S499/00 below. Classification is obligatory.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Transducer
a device that converts an electrical signal to an acoustic signal with a frequency which is determined by the supply frequency, or vice versa
Loudspeaker
transducer mounted in a casing for producing sound
Microphone
transducer mounted in a casing for collecting sound
Details of transducers [N: , loudspeakers or microphones]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of transducers, loudspeakers or microphones.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mountings specially adapted for telephone equipment
Diaphragms for acoustic transducers
Details of transducers characterised by the nature of the transducer
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mounting radio sets or communication systems in helmets
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code group H04R 2201/003 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Casing
housing, cabinet, enclosure
Deaf aid
hearing aid, auditory prosthesis
Stereophonic system
two- or more channel system, e.g. quadraphonic, ambisonic or similar systems
[N: using digitally weighted transducing elements]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US5909496 (loudspeaker transducer), US6427014 (microphone transducer).

Casings; Cabinets; [N: Supports therefor;] Mountings therein (H04R 1/28 takes precedence [N: ; attachments for microphones H04R 1/08; mounting of transducers in earpieces H04R 1/1075])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Casings, cabinets for transducers, their manufacture, their support, or mountings for transducers therein.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mounting of transducers in earpieces
Transducer mountings or enclosures modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances, e.g. resonator, damping means
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2201/02 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Structural association of microphone with electric circuitry therefor (in deaf-aid sets H04R 25/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2002154790.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Structural association of microphone with electric circuitry therefor in deaf-aid sets
Arranging circuit leads; Relieving strain on circuit leads
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Connection or contacting arrangements specially adapted to transducers, loudspeakers or headphones.

For example: US2004179711, EP1742503.

Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2420/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Mouthpieces; [N: Microphones]; Attachments therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Microphones, mouthpieces or attachments therefor, e.g. spiders or microphone booms, or protective screens therefor, e.g. all weather or wind screens.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Throat mountings for microphones
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Supports and stands in general
[N: Protective screens, e.g. all weather or wind screens]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2004179711, EP1742503.

Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group.

Earpieces; Attachments therefor [N: Earphones; Monophonic headphones (H04R 1/28 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Earphones or monophonic headphones;

Attachments therefor, e.g. ear hooks;

Details of headphones both of monophonic and stereophonic type, e.g. earpieces, e.g. intra-aural or supra-aural, or mechanical or electronic switches or control elements peculiar thereto, or accumulators or arrangements for charging peculiar thereto;

Assembly or manufacture thereof, e.g. ear pads;

Mechanical or electrical reduction of external noise.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transducer mountings or enclosures modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances, e.g. resonator, damping means
Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying in this group or in its subgroups, aspects relating to stereophonic headphones are to be classified in H04R 5/033 as well.

[N: Earpieces of the intra-aural type]
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2460/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Accumulators or arrangements for charging]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2004190743, DE202004013507U.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Secondary cells per se
Charging in general
[N: Cables or cables storage, e.g. cable reels (cord reels per se H02G 11/02; arrangements for storing and repeatedly paying-out and re-storing lengths of conductors or cables B65H 75/34; extensible conductors or cables, e.g. self-coiling cords H01B 7/06 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2004218770, US2001043711.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for storing and repeatedly paying-out and re-storing lengths of conductors or cables
Extensible conductors or cables, e.g. self-coiling cords
Insulated conductors or cables characterised by their form with arrangements for facilitating mounting or securing
Cord reels per se
Protection of telephone cord; Guiding telephone cord; Winding-up telephone cord
[N: Mechanical or electronic switches, or control elements (switches in general H01H)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2002003889, US5729605.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Switches in general
[N: Earpiece supports, e.g. ear hooks (for stereophonic headphones H04R 5/0335)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2002110249 (ear hook), WO2005086524 (ear hook).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Earpiece supports for stereophonic headphones
[N: Manufacture or assembly]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2009086991.

[N: Constructional aspects of the interconnection between earpiece and earpiece support (earpiece support for monophonic headphones H04R 1/105; earpiece support for stereophonic headphones H04R 5/0335 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2003235321 (ear hook), EP1811806 (headband), WO2007079479 (headband).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Earpiece support for monophonic headphones
Earpiece support for stereophonic headphones
[N: Mountings of transducers in earphones or headphones]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US3984885.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mounting transducers in general
[N: Reduction of ambient noise (active noise reduction per se G10K 11/175; protective devices for the ear, e.g. providing acoustic protection A61F 11/06 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6661901, EP1940197, WO2008138349.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Protective devices for the ear, e.g. providing acoustic protection
Active noise reduction per se
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2460/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Details not provided for in groups H04R 1/1008 to H04R 1/1083 ]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Earpieces of the supra-aural or circum-aural type
Earpieces of the intra-aural type
Accumulators or arrangements for charging
Cables or cables storage, e.g. cable reels
Mechanical or electronic switches, or control elements
Earpiece supports, e.g. ear hooks
Manufacture or assembly
Reduction of ambient noise
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2201/00, H04R 2420/00 and H04R 2460/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Transducer mountings or enclosures modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances, e.g. resonator, damping means ([N: Combinations of transducers with horns, i.e. front-loaded horns H04R 1/30])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transducer enclosure modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances to achieve a desired frequency or phase response, e.g. enclosures:

  • of the bass reflex type,
  • of the bandpass type,
  • using passive membranes,
  • using acoustic labyrinths or transmission lines,
  • using back-loaded horns.

Virtual enlargement by e.g. zeolytes.

Transducer mountings or enclosures modified to reduce undesired resonances, i.e. standing waves within enclosure, or of vibrations, i.e. of the enclosure itself, by e.g.:

  • damping materials in the enclosure,
  • enclosure stiffening structures,
  • Helmholtz resonators,
  • special mountings of transducers.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transducer mounting in telephone equipment improving the acoustic characteristics by means of constructional features of the housing, e.g. ribs, walls, resonating chambers or cavities.
Combinations of transducers with horns, i.e. front loaded horns
Special rules of classification within this group

Applications of the mountings or enclosures for loudspeaker transducers is to be classified in the appropriate subgroup with title "[N: for loudspeaker transducers]";

Modifications to the transducers itself (e.g. a Helmholtz resonator attached to a through-hole in the magnetic circuit) in order to modify the frequency response are NOT to be classified here. The modifications are to be classified in the appropriate place for the type of transducer in combination with H04R 1/22(B)(C) or the corresponding Indexing Code. These modifications are not considered to be "transducer mountings or enclosures modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances";

Mountings for loudspeakers or microphones are NOT to be classified here, but in H04R 1/026 or H04R 1/08, as these are not considered to relate to "transducer mountings or enclosures modified by provision of mechanical or acoustic impedances"

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2201/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: for loudspeaker transducers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP2073569 (porous material for virtual volume increase, to improve bass response); US4657108 (porous carbon material for virtual volume increase, to improve bass response, membrane to prevent moisture from reaching the porous carbon material; membrane acoustically transparent), FR2858165 (movable side wall for varying volume to adapt frequency response).

Special rules of classification within this group

The use of porous materials in loudspeaker enclosures for equivalent volume increase is classified under H04R 1/2803). For mid- and high-frequencies the porous material works as a damping material too. Thus classification in H04R 1/288 or Indexing Code may be required if this aspect is addressed as well.

[N: Vents, i.e. ports, e.g. shape thereof or tuning thereof with damping material (number or position of ports H04R 1/2815; vents in bandpass type enclosures H04R 1/2846 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example (for H04R 1/2826): JP4159898, EP0612194, US4933982.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Number or position of ports in enclosures of the bass reflex type
Vents in bandpass type enclosures
[N: Enclosures using a passive diaphragm]
Special rules of classification within this group

Passive diaphragms or their suspension (invention) and being used in a bandpass type enclosure is classified in H04R 1/283(L), but H04R 1/2838(L) is to be given as well;

Passive diaphragms or their suspension themselves are to be classified as diaphragms for transducers, i.e. in H04R 7/00 or H04R 31/003 (or Indexing Code) where appropriate, but H04R 1/283(L) is to be given as well.

[N: of the bandpass type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example (for H04R 1/2842): US4875546, WO2005051037, US4875546, WO2007034344.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Bandpass type enclosures (invention) and using a passive membrane should be classified in H04R 1/2838(L), but H04R 1/283(L) is to be given as well.

Bandpass type enclosures (invention) and using an acoustic labyrinth of transmission line should be classified in H04R 1/2838(L), but H04R 1/2853(L) is to be given as well.

[N: Vents, i.e. ports, e.g. shape thereof or tuning thereof with damping material (number or position of ports H04R 1/2838; vents in bass reflex type enclosures H04R 1/2823 )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Vents in bass reflex type enclosures
Number or position of ports in enclosures of the bandpass type
[N: using an acoustic labyrinth or a transmission line]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example (for H04R 1/2857): US2008130932, GB2298758, GB2399473, US2009252363

Special rules of classification within this group

Acoustic labyrinths or transmission lines (invention) and being used in a bandpass type enclosure is classified in H04R 1/2853(L), but H04R 1/2838(L) is to be given as well.

[N: Reduction of undesired resonances, i.e. standing waves within enclosure, or of undesired vibrations, i.e. of the enclosure itself]
Special rules of classification within this group

Reduction of undesired resonances by means of Helmholtz resonators should be classified in this group

[N: by means of damping material, e.g. as cladding (damping material for tuning desired resonances H04R 1/2807, e.g. in vents H04R 1/2823, H04R 1/2846 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example (for H04R 1/288): EP1569496 (damping material part of cabinet material), WO9963786 (damping as cladding).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
The use of damping material to tune vents
The use of damping material to tune transmission lines
[N: Reduction of undesired resonances, i.e. standing waves within enclosure, or of vibrations, i.e. of the enclosure itself by means of the enclosure structure, i.e. strengthening or shape of the enclosure (by means of Helmholtz resonators H04R 1/2869)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example (for H04R 1/2888): US4690244, GB2301727.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Reduction of undesired resonances by means of Helmholtz resonators
[N: Mountings or supports for transducers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example (for H04R 1/2896): DE202004017450U (rubber transducer mounting), US2005152570.

Combinations of transducers with horns, e.g. with mechanical matching means [N: , i.e. front-loaded horns] (horns in general G10K; [N: transducer enclosures or mountings using a back-loaded horn H04R 1/2861; application of horns as guiding means to obtain a predetermined directivity characteristic H04R 1/345 ])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Combinations of transducers with front-loaded horns; Enclosures using front-loaded horns, the acoustic horns predominantly being characterised by the mechanical matching, even though a directivity effect is also present

For example: US4390078, DE102004023531.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Horn in general
Transducer enclosures or mountings using a back-loaded horn
Application of horns as guiding means to obtain a predetermined directivity characteristic
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2400/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

for obtaining desired directional characteristic only [N: (specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/40 )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Arrangements in hearing aids for obtaining desired directional characteristic
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2410/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

by using a single transducer with sound reflecting, diffracting, directing or guiding means [N: (specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/402 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Sound reflecting, diffracting, directing or guiding means, e.g. horns to obtain a desired directivity characteristic, acoustic lenses or phase plugs

For example: EP2073569 (porous material for virtual volume increase, to improve bass response), US4657108 (porous carbon material for virtual volume increase, to improve bass response; membrane to prevent moisture from reaching the porous carbon material; membrane acoustically transparent), FR2858165 (movable side wall for varying volume to adapt frequency response).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Arrangements specially adapted for hearing aids
[N: for loudspeakers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0140465 (horn used to obtain predetermined directivity), US2003188920 (plurality of plates functioning as an acoustic lens).

Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by Indexing Code group H04R 2201/34 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: for obtaining a phase-shift between the front and back acoustic wave]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO2004107803.

by combining a number of identical transducers [N: (specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/405)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combining a number of identical transducers for stereophonic purpose

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Combining a number of identical transducers specially adapted for hearing aids
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2201/40 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: for microphones]
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2410/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Circuits for transducers [N: , loudspeakers or microphones]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Damping circuits arrangements for transducers, e.g. motional feedback circuits.

Circuits for combining the signals of two or more microphones.

Protection circuits for transducers.

Circuits for preventing acoustic reaction.

Circuits for distributing a signal to a plurality of loudspeakers.

Circuits for correcting the frequency response of transducers.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for producing a reverberation or echo sound
Amplifiers
Circuits for stereophonic arrangements
Stereophonic systems
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2410/00, H04R 2420/00 and H04R 2430/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Circuits for combining the signals of two or more microphones]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, not having a directional significance, are being received

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Circuits for combining the signals of two or more microphones specially adapted for hearing aids
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2410/00 and H04R 2430/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

for preventing acoustic reaction [N: , i.e. acoustic oscillatory feedback (specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/453)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Electronic prevention acoustic reaction specially adapted for hearing aids
for distributing signals to two or more loudspeakers [N: (specially adapted for hearing aids H04R 25/407)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this main group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Circuits for combining the signals of two or more loudspeakers to obtain a desired directivity characteristic specially adapted for hearing aids
Public address systems
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group(s) H04R 2203/00 and T04R430/05 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Stereophonic arrangements (stereophonic pick-ups H04R 9/16, H04R 11/12, H04R 17/08, H04R 19/10 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spatial or constructional arrangements of loudspeakers or loudspeaker transducers for stereophonic reproduction, e.g.

  • aspects relating to docking-station type assemblies to obtain an acoustical effect,
  • positioning of loudspeakers for spatial sound reproduction,
  • plurality of transducers corresponding to a plurality of sound channels in each earpiece of headphones or in a single enclosure, or
  • single (sub)woofer with two or more satellite loudspeakers for higher frequency band reproduction driven via the (sub)woofer.

Spatial or constructional arrangements of microphones or microphone transducers for stereophonic sound capture, e.g. sound field microphones, dummy heads.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Stereophonic system
two- or more channel system, e.g. quadraphonic, ambisonic or similar systems
Spatial or constructional arrangements of loudspeakers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spatial or constructional arrangements of loudspeakers or loudspeaker transducers for stereophonic reproduction, e.g.

  • aspects relating to docking-station type assemblies to obtain an acoustical effect,
  • positioning of loudspeakers for spatial sound reproduction,
  • plurality of transducers corresponding to a plurality of sound channels in each earpiece of headphones or in a single enclosure, or
  • single (sub)woofer with two or more satellite loudspeakers for higher frequency band reproduction driven via the (sub)woofer.
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code subgroups of H04R 2205/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Spatial or constructional arrangements of microphones, e.g. in dummy heads
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US5583942 (dummy head), EP1737268 (sound field microphone).

Headphones for stereophonic communication [N: (details thereof, e.g. relating to batteries, cables or control elements H04R 1/10)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example. US2001021257.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details thereof, e.g. relating to batteries, cables or control elements
Sound field enhancement in stereophonic headphones
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2201/10, H04R 2420/00 and H04R 2460/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Circuit arrangements, [N: e.g. for selective connection of amplifier inputs/outputs to loudspeakers, for loudspeaker detection, or for adaptation of settings to personal preferences or hearing impairments (combinations of amplifiers H03F 3/68 ; stereophonic systems H04S)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combinations of amplifiers
Stereophonic systems
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code groups H04R 2205/00, H04R 2420/00 and H04R 2430/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Diaphragms for electromechanical transducers (in general F16J 3/00); Cones (for musical instruments G10) [N: (cones, diaphragms or the like, for emitting or receiving sound in general G10K 13/00 ; Mounting thereof])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Diaphragms for electromechanical transducers.

Mountings thereof, e.g. outer suspension.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of diaphragms or surrounds for transducers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Diaphragms in general
Cones, diaphragms or the like, for emitting or receiving sound in general
Diaphragms or cones for electromechanical transducers characterised by the construction
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2207/00, H04R 2307/00 and H04R 2231/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Plane diaphragms
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2440/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: using the distributed mode principle, i.e. whereby the acoustic radiation is emanated from uniformly distributed free bending wave vibration induced in a stiff panel and not from pistonic motion]
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2440/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: dome-shaped]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1096830.

corrugated, pleated or ribbed
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: DE202007016414 (air motion transformer).

Securing diaphragm or cone resiliently to support by flexible material, springs, cords, or strands
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code subgroups of T04R307/200 and H04R 2231/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Tensioning by means acting directly on free portions of diaphragm or cone
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0330423.

Damping by means acting directly on free portion of diaphragm or cone (air damping H04R 1/28 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1515583, EP1703768.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Air damping
Transducers of moving-coil, moving-strip or moving-wire type
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2201/00 and H04R 2440/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Details
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General constructional aspects of the transducers;

Cooling aspects;

Constructional aspects of the magnetic circuit, e.g. to reduce eddy currents or stray flux;

Aspects of the voice coil, i.e. mounting, construction or centring thereof.

Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2209/00 and H04R 2400/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Construction, mounting, or centering of coil
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2209/00 and H04R 2400/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Transducers for] loudspeakers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transducers for loudspeakers of the pistonic type, e.g. compression drivers, or of the distributed mode type;

Inertial transducers, i.e. transducers for loudspeakers wherein the voice coil is directly mounted to vibrating diaphragm and the magnetic circuit is floating but suspended with respect to the diaphragm and voice coil.

Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2209/00 and by H04R 2400/13 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: using the principle of inertia]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Transducers for loudspeakers wherein the voice coil is directly mounted to vibrating diaphragm and the magnetic circuit is floating but suspended with respect to the diaphragm and voice coil.

For example: EP0553525, WO9709858.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transducers of moving-armature or moving-core type
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2400/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Transducers of moving-armature or moving-core type (acoustic diaphragm of magnetisable material directly coacting with electromagnet H04R 13/00 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Loudspeaker transducers using the principle of inertia
Acoustic diaphragm of magnetisable material directly co-acting with electromagnet
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Plane diaphragms using the distributed mode principle
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2440/01.

Acoustic transducers using travelling bending waves to generate or detect sound.

loudspeakers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: GB803283, US2006083400 (hearing aid), WO0225989 (Fig.2; bone conduction).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Telephone receivers of the moving-armature or moving-core type
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2400/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Transducers having an acoustic diaphragm of magnetisable material directly co-acting with electromagnet
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2400/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Magnetostrictive transducers (magnetostrictive elements in general H01L 41/00 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Magnetostrictive elements in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2201/003, H04R 2217/00 and H04R 2400/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Piezo-electric transducers; Electrostrictive transducers (piezo-electric or electrostrictive elements in general H01L 41/00; details of piezo-electric or electrostrictive motors, generators or positioners [N: H01L 41/00 ])
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Piezo-electric or electrostrictive elements in general
Details of piezo-electric or electrostrictive motors, generators or positioners
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2201/00, H04R 2217/00, H04R 2400/00 and H04R 2440/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Microphones
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Piezo-electric or electrostrictive devices with mechanical input and electrical output
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code group H04R 2410/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Electrostatic transducers
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code groups H04R 2400/00 and H04R 2410/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Variable-resistance transducers (gaseous resistance transducers H04R 23/00; magneto-resistive transducers H04R 23/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gaseous resistance transducers
Magneto resistive transducers
Transducers other than those covered by groups H04R 9/00 to H04R 21/00 [N: (diaphragms for transducers of the distributed-mode type H04R 7/045)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transducers of moving-coil, moving-strip or moving-wire type
Transducers of moving-armature or moving-core type
Transducers having an acoustic diaphragm of magnetisable material directly co-acting with electromagnet
Magnetostrictive transducers
Piezo-electric transducers; Electrostrictive transducers
Electrostatic transducers
Variable-resistance transducers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Diaphragms for transducers of the distributed-mode type
Deaf-aid sets [N: providing an auditory perception; Electric tinnitus maskers providing an auditory perception] (constructions of transducers per se H04R 9/00 to H04R 23/00; [N: non-electric hearing aids A61F 11/008; replacing direct auditory perception by another kind of perception A61F 11/04; electrical stimulation of auditory nerves to promote the auditory function A61N 1/36032]; structural combination with spectacle frames G02C 11/06; processing of speech signals G10L 21/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric hearing aids acting indirectly, e.g. acoustically, or directly on the ear drum, mastoid, ossicles or cochlea and providing an auditory perception

Electric tinnitus maskers providing an auditory perception

Electrical or mechanical aspects thereof, e.g.

signal processing, e.g. beamforming, prevention of acoustic reaction or noise reduction,

electronic fitting, i.e. initial adaptation, e.g. by a hearing aid acoustitian, or subsequent adaptation of hearing aid parameters, e.g. in dependence of listening situation

testing or monitoring

wired or wireless external connection or remote control

manufacture or assembly, e.g. mounting of transducers or of the batteries

ear tips, ear moulds or there manufacture

WARNING:

Groups H04R 25/30 to H04R 25/75 do not correspond to former or current IPC groups.

Concordance ECLA : IPC for these groups is as follows:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electrical stimulation of auditory nerves to promote the auditory function, e.g. cochlear implants
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Non-electric hearing aids
Replacing direct auditory perception by another kind of perception
Structural combination of hearing aids with spectacle frames
Constructions of transducers per se
Amplifying systems for the deaf
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification should be directed to groups, H04R 25/02, H04R 25/04 and H04R 25/50 and its subgroups, if and only if the technical subject in consideration cannot be classified elsewhere under this main group.

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2225/00, H04R 2410/00, H04R 2430/00 and H04R 2460/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Deaf aid
hearing aid, auditory prosthesis
Monitoring
encompasses indication
comprising pocket amplifiers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US5721783.

[N: Monitoring or testing of hearing aids, e.g. functioning, settings, battery power (testing arrangements for electro-acoustic transducers in general H04R 29/00; battery testing in general G01R 31/36 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Testing arrangements for cochlear implants
Battery testing in general
Testing arrangements for electro-acoustic transducers in general
Indicators for indicating switching condition

For example: US4049930.

Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code subgroup of H04R 2460/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Self-monitoring or self-testing]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1467595.

Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code subgroup of H04R 2225/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Frequency, e.g. frequency shift or compression]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6173062.

[N: Amplitude, e.g. amplitude shift or compression]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6049617.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Compression/ expansion
Frequency-dependent volume compression or expansion in general, e.g. multiple-band systems
[N:using constructional means]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Obtaining a desired directivity characteristic using constructional means in general
[N: by combining a plurality of transducers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanical aspects, e.g. orientation, relative placement, of acoustic transducers in hearing aids to obtain a desired directional characteristic.

For example: US6424721 (microphone placement), US2004184630.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for obtaining a desired directional characteristic by combining a number of identical acoustic transducers
Special rules of classification within this group

The mere fact that more than one microphone is used to obtain a desired directivity need not be classified, especially if H04R 25/407 has to be given anyway (cf. the first 2 EXAMPLES given for H04R 25/407).

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2410/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Circuits for combining signals of a plurality of transducers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6424721 (circuitry), WO0076268, EP0982971.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Direction-finders for determining the direction from which infrasonic, sonic, ultrasonic, not having a directional significance, are being received
Circuits for combining signals of a plurality of acoustic transducers in general
Beamforming for speech processing (beamforming);
S10L21/02P6
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code groups H04R 2410/00 and H04R 2430/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Electronic input selection or mixing based on input signal analysis, e.g. mixing or selection between microphone and telecoil or between microphones with different directivity characteristics (H04R 25/407 takes precedence)][N: WARNINGNot complete pending a reorganization, see also H04R 25/00 ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0772375 (selection), US4491980 (mixing).

[N: Prevention of acoustic reaction electronically]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Prevention of acoustic reaction in general
[N: using constructional means for obtaining a desired frequency response (H04R 25/652 takes precedence; in general H04R 1/22 )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ear tips; Ear moulds
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional means for obtaining a desired frequency response in general
[N: customised settings for obtaining desired overall acoustical characteristics]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General analog or digital signal processing in hearing aid not provided for in H04R 25/00 or its subgroups.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional means for obtaining a desired frequency response in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification should be directed to this group and its subgroups, if and only if the technical subject in consideration cannot be classified elsewhere under this main group.

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code subgroups of H04R 2225/00, H04R 2430/00, H04R 2460/00 and H04S 2420/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: using an external connection, either wireless or wired]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

External connection for the purpose of data exchange between hearing aids, e.g. binaural hearing aids, or between hearing aid and external device, e.g. telecoil, remote control, or for charging of batteries in hearing aids

Examples

US6265100 (e.g. Figs.1 and 2; wirelessly charging accumulators)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transmission systems in which the medium consists of the human body
Special rules of classification within this group

If battery charging is wireless only H04R 25/55 is to be given, if however it is wired H04R 25/556 is to be added as well.

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of H04R 2225/00 and H04R 2460/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Binaural]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Binaural control, e.g. control of one hearing aid in dependence of the other; Data exchange between hearing aids to enable binaural control, e.g. type of data, timing, ...

Special rules of classification within this group

The mere fact that binaural control of data exchange is wired or wireless needs not be classified.

[N: using a wireless connection, e.g. between microphone and amplifier, or using T-coils]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric hearing aids using wireless connection for the transmission audio representative data, e.g. T-coils, FM receivers

For example: US5721783.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Near field transmission in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Binaural hearing aids (invention) are not to be classified in this group but in H04R 25/552.

[N: External connectors, e.g. plugs or modules]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US5188540 (ITE), US2006034474 (BTE).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Local control of medical devices, e.g. graphical user interfaces, dedicated hardware interfaces
G06F19/00M3L
Connectors in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Connection between the BTE housing and the earmould via an earhook is not to be classified here but in H04R 25/60 in combination with H04R 2225/63.

[N: Remote control, e.g. of amplification, frequency (remote control of amplifications, tone, or bandwidth H03G 1/02; remote control, e.g. for Hi-Fi systems or audio/video combinations H04B 1/202 ; remote control in general G05F)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Telemetry systems for implants such as pace makers or cochlear implants
A61N1/372CA61N 1/37211
Input or output devices integrated in time-pieces
G04G1/02
Indicators for indicating switching condition
Remote control of amplification, tone, or bandwidth
[N: Mounting, assembling and interconnection of hearing aid parts, e.g. inside tips, housing or to ossicles; Apparatus or processes therefor]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2008192970 (mounting of earhook to BTE housing).

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification should be directed to this group and its subgroups, if and only if the technical subject in consideration cannot be classified elsewhere under this main group.

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code subgroup of H04R 2225/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Arrangements for mounting batteries (batteries in general H01M 2/02 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrical supply for implants, e.g. pace makers or cochlear implants
Battery holders in general
Cabinets, cases, fixing devices, adapters, racks for miniature batteries or batteries for portable equipment
Constructional aspects of miniature batteries or batteries for portable equipment
Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
[N: acting directly on the eardrum, the ossicles or the skull, e.g. mastoid, tooth, maxillary or mandibular bone, or mechanically stimulating the cochlea, e.g. at the oval window]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Earphones or headphones using bone-conduction transducers
[N: Apparatus or processes specially adapted for mounting, assembling or interconnecting hearing aid parts inside the tips, moulds or housing]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2001038703, WO0108444.

[N: Housing parts, e.g. shells, tips or moulds, or their manufacture]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2002027996 (CIC, housing and ear tip), US4739512 (ITE, housing and ear mould), WO2007147406 (BTE: housing and ear tip).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional arrangements, e.g. casings, for implants
Storage case for drying purposes
Housing specially adapted for small components
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2225/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Ear tips; Ear moulds]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2002027996 (CIC, housing and ear tip), US4739512 (ITE, housing and ear mould), WO2007147406 (BTE: housing and ear tip).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring physical dimensions, e.g. size of the entire body or parts thereof
Earplugs for protection
Computer-aided design
Three dimensional (3D) modelling, e.g. data description of 3D objects
Earpieces of the intra-aural type
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2460/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Non-customized, universal ear tips, i.e. ear tips which are not specifically adapted to the size or shape of the ear or ear canal]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2007195981 (BTE), US5654530 (ITE), WO0108443 (CIC).

[N: Manufacture of housing parts]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO0047016.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Moulding of plastics
Shaping of plastics in general
Shaping of artificial members, prostheses
L29C535/02
[N: Adaptation of deaf aid to hearing loss, e.g. initial electronic fitting]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Audiometering
Ear tip or ear moulds for hearing aids
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code subgroup of H04R 2225/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Electric tinnitus maskers providing an auditory perception (evaluating tinnitus A61B 5/128; masking sound in general G10K 11/175)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Evaluating tinnitus
Devices or methods to cause a change in the state of consciousness
Masking sound in general
Public address systems (circuits for preventing acoustic reaction H04R 3/02; circuits for distributing signals to loudspeakers H04R 3/12; [N: monitoring or testing arrangements for public address systems H04R 29/007 ]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Audio distribution systems for buildings, e.g. stations or religious facilities, for venues, e.g. in stadiums or in concerts halls, or for domestic use, i.e. multiroom.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Circuits for preventing acoustic reaction
Monitoring or testing arrangements for public address systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Audible signalling systems and audible personal calling systems
Audible advertising
Combined visual and audible advertising or displaying, e.g. for public address
Installations of electric cables or lines in or on buildings or equivalent structures
Amplifiers
Circuits for distributing signals to loudspeakers in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroups of Indexing Code group H04R 2227/00 and H04R 2430/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Amplifying systems for the deaf
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Inductive loop or similar systems to enable communication with the hard of hearing.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cochlear implants
Teaching or communicating with deaf persons
Electric hearing aids
Monitoring arrangements; Testing arrangements [N: (for hearing aids H04R 25/30; detection of loudspeaker connection H04R 5/04; sound-field adaptation dependent on speaker detection H04S 7/308)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring or testing arrangements for transducers, loudspeakers, microphones or public address systems; Visual indication of acoustic signal levels.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detection of loudspeaker connection
Monitoring or testing of hearing aids
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Testing of electronic circuits in household appliances or professional audio/video equipment
Sound-field adaptation dependent on speaker detection
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the subgroup of Indexing Code groups H04R 2420/00 and H04R 2430/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Monitoring
encompasses indication
[N: for loudspeakers (H04R 29/007 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO03061333.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Testing or monitoring arrangements for public address systems
[N: Loudspeaker arrays]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2005008165.

[N: of the moving-coil type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2006126857.

[N: for mircophones (H04R 29/007 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2003039367.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Testing or monitoring arrangements for public address systems
[N: Microphone arrays]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: DE19649595.

[N: Microphone matching]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6272229.

[N: for public address systems (public address systems per se H04R 27/00 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2005254662.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Testing and monitoring for signalling and alarm systems
Public address systems per se
[N: Visual indication of individual signal levels (visual indication of stereophonic sound image H04S 7/40 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Indicating measured values
Arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms
Visual indication of stereophonic sound image
Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of transducers or diaphragms therefor [N: (manufacture of microstructural arrangements of deformable or non-deformable structures in general B81C 1/00182 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus or processes specially adapted for the manufacture of acoustic transducers, including MEMS acoustic transducersdiaphragms therefor;

means for securing diaphragm or cone resiliently to support by flexible material, springs, cords, or strands for diaphragms.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Manufacture of microstructural arrangements of deformable or non-deformable structures in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code groups H04R 2201/003, H04R 2231/00 and subgroups, and H04R 2307/00 and subgroups. Classification is obligatory.

[N: for diaphragms or their outer suspension]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Moulding of plastics
Shaping of plastics in general
Manufacture of micromechanical membranes and diaphragms
Electroplating
Anodizing of metals
Diaphragms for electromechanical transducers characterised by the construction
Securing diaphragm or cone resiliently to support by flexible material, springs, cords, or strands
Special rules of classification within this group

Further detail is covered by the Indexing Code subgroup of H04R 2307/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

[N: Interconnection of transducer parts (of diaphragm and outer suspension by moulding H04R 31/003)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1480491, WO9908474.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adhesives
Assembly of magnetic circuit for electrodynamic transducers
Mems transducers or their use (of the electrostatic type H04R 19/005)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mems transducers of the electrostatic type
Transducers or their casings adapted for mounting in or to a wall or ceiling
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection
Room acoustics, i.e. forms of, or arrangements in, rooms for influencing or directing sound E04B 1/99
Sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection of floors or ceilings
Sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection of flooring
Transducers incorporated in garment, rucksacks or the like
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Garments adapted to accommodate electronic equipment
Structural combinations of loudspeakers with built-in power amplifiers, e.g. in the same acoustic enclosure (H04R 2499/10 takes precedence; Single (sub)woofer with two or more satellite loudspeakers for mid- and high-frequency band reproduction driven via the (sub)woofer H04R 2205/026 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US4625328 (amplifier mounted to transducer), US4991221 (amplifier mounted to loudspeaker enclosure), EP1732354 (the active loudspeaker is placed in a separate enclosure used in a television).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
General applications
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Single (sub)woofer with two or more satellite loudspeakers for mid- and high-frequency band reproduction driven via the (sub)woofer
Manufacturing aspects of enclosures for transducers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2005133298, US2011007921.

Directing or guiding sound by means of a phase plug
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example:US5933508 (phase plug of a compression driver), US2006153412 (phase plug used with a transducer).

Combination of monophonic or stereophonic headphones with audio players, e.g. integrated in the headphone
Manufacture of mono- or stereophonic headphone components
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2009086991.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Manufacture of diaphragms for acoustic transducers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Manufacture or assembly of earphones or headphones
Manufacture of diaphragms for acoustic transducers
Manufacturing aspects of the magnetic circuit of loudspeaker or microphone transducers
Monophonic and stereophonic headphones with microphone for two-way hands free communication
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0637187 (monophonic), US6466681 (stereophonic).

Arrangements to adapt hands free headphones for use on both ears
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2003002704 (monophonic), US5210792 (monophonic), US6069964 (stereophonic).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transceivers carried on the body, e.g. in helmets
Substation equipment including speech amplifiers providing hands-free use or loudspeaker mode
Mouthpieces and attachments therefor in general
Throat mountings for microphones
Beamforming aspects for stereophonic sound reproduction with loudspeaker arrays
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2004151325.

Aspects relating to docking-station type assemblies to obtain an acoustical effect, e.g. the type of connection to external loudspeakers or housings, frequency improvement
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2006274910 (electric connection), US2006233414 (electric connection), JP2005136895 (acoustic connection).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
External expansion units, e.g. docking stations
Cabinets for information storage devices; Cases; Stands; Disposition of apparatus therein or thereon
Disposition of constructional parts in the apparatus for information storage devices, e.g. of power supply, of modules
Side-by-side or stacked arrangements for casings, cabinets or drawers for electric apparatus
Plurality of transducers corresponding to a plurality of sound channels in each earpiece of headphones or in a single enclosure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0848572 (multiple channel microphones in earpiece), WO0225990 (multiple channels in earpiece of headphones), DE20311717U (multiple channels in single loudspeaker box), GB2392043 (multiple channels in single loudspeaker box).

The positioning of loudspeaker enclosures for spatial sound reproduction
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6459799, US2003068051.

Single (sub)woofer with two or more satellite loudspeakers for higher frequency band reproduction driven via the (sub)woofer
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6466675.

Adaptation of stereophonic signal reproduction to hearing impaired
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: DE10300755, WO2005125275.

Diaphragm extensions, not necessarily integrally formed, e.g. skirts, rims, flanges
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US4550797, US6792127, JP9107598.

Manufacturing aspects of the magnetic circuit of loudspeaker or microphone transducers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1416763.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Magnetic materials, cores, yokes and magnets in general, and their manufacture
Transducers having separately controllable opposing diaphragms, e.g. for ring-tone and voice (H04R 2400/03 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transducers capable of generating both sound as well as tactile vibration e.g. as used in cellular phones
Electrical or mechanical reduction of yoke vibration
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6724909 (mechanical reduction), US4176249 (electrical reduction).

Short circuited voice coils driven by induction
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0339855.

Non-planar magnetostrictive, piezo-electric or electrostrictive benders
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO0147041.

Parametric transducers where sound is generated or captured by the acoustic demodulation of amplitude modulated ultrasonic waves
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO0133902.

Aspects of accumulators, e.g. rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, in hearing aids
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2008136369 (rechargeable battery), DE10115429 (fuel cell), WO8908370 (thermo-element).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrical supply for implants
Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
Fuel cells
Secondary cells (accumulators)
Aspects relating to adaptation of the battery voltage, e.g. its regulation, increase or decrease
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: DE19702151, WO2006038943.

Aspects relating to automatic logging of sound environment parameters and the performance of the hearing aid during use, e.g. histogram logging, or of user selected programs or settings in the hearing aid, e.g. usage logging
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO2007045276.

Detection or adaptation of hearing aid parameters or programs to listening situation, e.g. pub, forest
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2003144838.

Signal processing in hearing aids to enhance the speech intelligibility
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1241921.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Modification of at least one characteristic of speech waves, aids for the handicapped
S10L21/00H
Speech enhancement by suppressing those spectral or other characteristics of the signal where presumably noise is concentrated
S10L21/02M4
Reducing the effects of electromagnetic noise on the functioning of hearing aids, by e.g. shielding, signal processing adaptation, selective (de)activation of electronic parts in hearing aid
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US5740261 (passive shielding), EP1651006 (active shielding), US6587568 (compensation for em-noise in signal processing).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
MEMS packages for protecting against electromagnetic or electrostatic interferences
Screening of apparatus or components against electric or magnetic fields
Aspects of antennas and their circuitry in hearing aids
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1389035, GB2410400.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adaptation of aerials for carrying or wearing by persons or animals
Aerials using equipment having another main function to serve additionally as an aerial
Loop aerials
Hearing aid for unilateral hearing impairment using Contralateral Routing Of Signals [CROS]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US3787643, US5680466.

Communication between hearing aids and external devices via a network for data exchange
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO2004110099, WO0154458.

Arrangements for selective connection between one or more amplifiers and one or more receivers within one hearing aid
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6590448 (multiple amplifiers to one single receiver), EP1921746 (multiple amplifiers to one single receivers), EP1921746 (multiple amplifiers to multiple receivers, with same or different characteristics).

Aspect relating to mechanical or electronic switches or control elements in hearing aids (H04R 2225/43 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US5265168.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electronic input selection or mixing based on input signal analysis, e.g. mixing or selection between microphone and telecoil or between microphones with different directivity characteristics (H04R 25/407 takes precedence)
Signal processing in hearing aids to enhance the speech intelligibility
Aspects relating to ear hooks or their connection to the hearing aid housing or ear mould
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6496587.

Implantable hearing aids or parts thereof not covered by H04R 25/606
Design aspects, e.g. CAD, of hearing aid tips, moulds or housings
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2004165740.

Aspects of electrical fitting of hearing aids related to problems arising from the emotional state of a user, e.g. nervousness or unwillingness during fitting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2007071262.

Aspects of electrical fitting of hearing aids related to problems arising from growth of the hearing aid user, e.g. with children
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP2073570.

Adaptation of signal processing in PA systems in dependence of presence of noise
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1808853.

Digital public address systems using e.g. LAN or internet
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO03096741, US5406634.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Home automation networks
Audio distribution systems for home, i.e. multiroom use
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US5255322 (multiroom).

Electronic adaptation of audio signals to reverberation of the listening space for public address
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: DE19830620.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring reverberation time [N: Room acoustic measurements]
Arrangements for producing a reverberation or echo sound
For stereophonic systems
Signal processing in public address systems to enhance the speech intelligibility
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2006098826.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Speech enhancement wherein speech is corrupted by noise
Modification of at least one characteristic of speech waves, aids for the handicapped
S10L21/00H
Speech enhancement by suppressing those spectral or other characteristics of the signal where presumably noise is concentrated
S10L21/02M4
Moulding aspects of diaphragm or surround
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US4140203.

Manufacturing aspects of the outer suspension of loudspeaker or microphone diaphragms or of their connecting aspects to said diaphragms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1333699.

Diaphragms comprising cellulose like materials, e.g. wood, paper or linen
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US4646874.

Diaphragms comprising ceramic-like materials, e.g. pure ceramic, glass, boride, nitride, carbide, mica or carbon materials
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0224087 (ceramic), US5241140 (carbon).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Anodizing of metals
Diaphragms comprising polymeric materials
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0508596.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Moulding of plastics
Shaping of plastics in general
Manufacture of diaphragms or surrounds by moulding
T04R31/001
Diaphragms comprising metallic materials
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2005226459.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Diaphragms comprising fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0508596.

Damping aspects of the outer suspension of loudspeaker diaphragms by addition of additional damping means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: GB1493296, US2002027998.

Material aspects of the outer suspension of loudspeaker diaphragms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0492914.

Shape aspects of the outer suspension of loudspeaker diaphragms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO03009640.

Damping aspects of the outer suspension of loudspeaker diaphragms by addition of additional damping means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: GB1493296, US2002027998.

Material aspects of the outer suspension of loudspeaker diaphragms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0492914.

Shape aspects of the outer suspension of loudspeaker diaphragms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO03009640.

Loudspeakers
Special rules of classification within this group

Only for those cases where the classification does not allow specification the type of transducer and the type is important, e.g. frequency control circuit (H04R 3/04 and subgroups) may require different circuit for microphones or for loudspeakers

H04R 2410/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

H04R 2400/00 and H04R 2440/00 listed below. Classification is obligatory.

Transducers used as a loudspeaker to generate sound as well as a microphone to detect sound
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2002137478.

Transducers capable of generating both sound as well as tactile vibration e.g. as used in cellular phones
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Generating mechanical vibrations with vibrating magnet, armature or coil system;
Tactile signalling systems
Moving coil loudspeaker transducers
Moving armature loudspeaker transducers
Suspension between moving magnetic core and housing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0970758, US4550428.

Aspects regarding the frame of loudspeaker transducers
Use or details of compression drivers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US5933508.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electronic input selection in hearing aids based on input signal analysis
T04R225/047
Noise reduction using microphones having different directional characteristics
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1152637, DE4436272

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electronic input selection in hearing aids based on input signal analysis
T04R225/047
Reduction of intrinsic noise in microphones
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Examples

US2010065932 (e.g. paragraphs [0007]-[0009]; noise caused by parasitic capacitances in MEMS microphones)

Noise reduction with a separate noise microphone
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Speech enhancement, two inputs, one containing the noisy speech, the other one only the noise
S10L21/02P4
Mechanical or electrical reduction of wind noise generated by wind passing a microphone
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1484940 (mechanical reduction), EP0661904 (electrical reduction).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Speech enhancement by suppressing those spectral or other characteristics of the signal where presumably noise is concentrated
S10L21/02M4
Microphones
Special rules of classification within this group

Only for those cases where the classification does not allow specification the type of transducer and the type is important, e.g. frequency control circuit (H04R 3/04 and subgroups) may require different circuit for microphones or for loudspeakers.

Input selection or mixing for amplifiers or loudspeakers (for hearing aids H04R 25/43)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US5784476 (selection), US6782106 (mixing).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Audio mixers
Connection circuits to selectively connect loudspeakers or headphones to amplifiers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP0866638.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Public address systems
Detection of connection of loudspeakers or headphones to amplifiers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for preventing incorrect coupling by indicating incorrect coupling; by indicating correct or full engagement
Applications of wireless loudspeakers or wireless microphones
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2004175013 (microphone), DE10251164 (loudspeaker), US6487296 (loudspeaker).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wireless connection for hearing aids
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for transmitting signals characterised by the use of a wireless electrical link.
Portable transmitters
Near-field transmission systems using a receiver structurally associated with a loudspeaker or an earphone
Near-field transmission systems using a portable transmitter associated with a microphone
Indoor or near-field type systems for optical communication
H04B 10/114 [IPC 2013.01]
Hands-free substation equipment including a wireless connection or interface
Special rules of classification within this group

The mere fact that a wireless connection is used for data transfer should not be classified.

Applications of special connectors, e.g. USB, XLR, in loudspeakers, microphones or headphones
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
External connectors, e.g. plugs, modules for hearing aids
Special rules of classification within this group

The mere fact that a wireless connection is used for data transfer should not be classified.

Aspects of volume control, not necessarily automatic, in sound systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2004213421, DE4202609.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control of amplification per se
Automatic control of amplifiers dependent upon ambient noise level or sound level
Synergistic effects of band splitting and subband processing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1471765, US4953216, DE19632734.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Digital filter banks
Crossover filters for loudspeakers
Special rules of classification within this group

The mere band splitting or presence of a filter bank (e.g. FFT or FIR) should not be classified.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Deaf aid
hearing aid, auditory prosthesis
Stereophonic system
two- or more channel system, e.g. quadraphonic, ambisonic or similar systems
Array processing for suppression of unwanted side-lobes in directivity characteristics, e.g. a blocking matrix
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1524879 (microphone array), EP1571885 (loudspeaker array).

Processing of the output signals of the acoustic transducers of an array for obtaining a desired directivity characteristic (H04R 2203/12 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Beamforming aspects for stereophonic sound reproduction with loudspeaker arrays
Array processing for suppression of unwanted side-lobes in directivity characteristics, e.g. a blocking matrix
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1524879 (microphone array), EP1571885 (loudspeaker array)

Acoustic transducers using travelling bending waves to generate or detect sound
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Plane diaphragms using the distributed mode principle
Aspects relating to the positioning and way or means of mounting of exciters to resonant bending wave panels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO0013464.

Loudspeakers using bending wave resonance and pistonic motion to generate sound
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1408717, WO9709849.

Hearing devices using active noise cancellation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6661901 (earphone and hearing aid).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Active noise cancellation in general
Aspects of the reduction of energy consumption in hearing devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1284587, WO0207480, EP1465454.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Battery saving arrangements in cordless telephones
H04M1/378
Electronic compensation of the occlusion effect
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2006120545.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Non-occlusive ear tips, i.e. leaving the ear canal open, for both custom and non-custom tips
T04R225/71
Aspects relating to vents, e.g. shape, orientation, acoustic properties in ear tips of hearing aids to prevent occlusion
T04R225/73
Use of position data from wide area or local area positioning systems in hearing aids, e.g. program or information selection)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO2004109232.

Non-occlusive ear tips, i.e. leaving the ear canal open, for both custom and non-custom tips (H04R 2460/11 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO9831193.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Aspects relating to vents, e.g. shape, orientation, acoustic properties in ear tips of hearing aids to prevent occlusion
Aspects relating to vents, e.g. shape, orientation, acoustic properties in ear tips of hearing devices to prevent occlusion
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2003059075, US6549635.

Determination of the acoustic seal of ear moulds and ear tips
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: WO0250499.

Hearing device specific tools used for storing or handling (parts of) hearing devices, e.g. for placement in the ear, replacement of cerumen barriers, repair, cleaning hearing devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US2008128007 (hearing aid cleaning), US4840249 (Fig.4; replacement of cerumen barriers), DE1172315 (hearing aid storage), DE202008005845U (headphone storage).

General technical reviews, overviews, tutorials
Transducers incorporated or for use in hand-held devices, e.g. mobile phones, PDA's, camera's
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mountings specially adapted for telephone equipment
Improving the acoustic characteristics by means of constructional features of the housing (of telephone equipment), e.g. ribs, walls, resonating chambers or cavities
Supports for telephone transmitters and receivers
Substation equipment with increased funcionallity, e.g. for playing back music files
Acoustic transducers or sound field adaptation in vehicles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6389147, EP1482763.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mounting of acoustic transducers in vehicles
Automatic control of amplifiers dependent upon ambient noise level or sound level
Transducers incorporated in visual displaying devices, e.g. televisions, computer displays, laptops
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details related to the integrated loudspeakers in data processing equipment
G06F1/16P2L
Loudspeakers in televisions
Enhancing the perception of the sound image or of the spatial distribution using head related transfer functions [HRTF’s] or equivalents thereof, e.g. interaural time difference [ITD] or interaural level difference [ILD]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: US6466913, US6243476, DE102004035046.

Application of the precedence or Haas effect, i.e. the effect of first wavefront, in order to improve sound-source localisation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: EP1439732, EP1771039.

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013